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A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific municipal charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies their administrative structure and powers. As of December 12, 2015, there are 145 cities.[1]

Cities are entitled to at least one representative in the Philippine House of Representatives if its population reaches 250,000. They are allowed to use a common seal. As corporate entities, cities have the power to take, purchase, receive, hold, lease, convey, and dispose of real and personal property for its general interests, condemn private property for public use (eminent domain), contract and be contracted with, sue and exercise all the powers conferred to it by Congress. Only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, and with this city charter Congress confers on a city certain powers that regular municipalities or even other cities may not have.

Despite the differences in the powers accorded to each city, all cities regardless of status are given a bigger share of the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) compared to regular municipalities, as well as being generally more autonomous than regular municipalities.

Government

A city's local government is headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. The vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council), which serves as the city's legislative body. Upon receiving their charters, cities also receive a full complement of executive departments to better serve their constituents. Some departments are established on a case-by-case basis, depending on the needs of the city.

Offices and officials common to all cities

Office Head Mandatory / Optional
City Government Mayor Mandatory
Sangguniang Panlungsod Vice Mayor as presiding officer Mandatory
Office of the Secretary to the Sanggunian Secretary to the Sanggunian Mandatory
Treasury Office Treasurer Mandatory
Assessor's Office Assessor Mandatory
Accounting and Internal Audit Services Accountant Mandatory
Budget Office Budget Officer Mandatory
Planning and Development Office Planning and Development Coordinator Mandatory
Engineering Office Engineer Mandatory
Health Office Health Officer Mandatory
Office of Civil Registry Civil Registrar Mandatory
Office of the Administrator Administrator Mandatory
Office of Legal Services Legal Officer Mandatory
Office on Social Welfare and Development Services Social Welfare and Development Officer Mandatory
Office on General Services General Services Officer Mandatory
Office for Veterinary Services Veterinarian Mandatory
Office on Architectural Planning and Design Architect Optional
Office on Public Information Information Officer Optional
Office for the Development of Cooperatives Cooperative Officer Optional
Office on Population Development Population Officer Optional
Office on Environment and Natural Resources Environment and Natural Resources Office Optional
Office of Agricultural Services Agriculturist Optional

Source: Local Government Code of 1991.[2]

Subdivisions

Cities, like municipalities, are composed of barangays, which can range from urban neighborhoods (such as Brgy. 9, Santa Angela in Laoag), to rural communities (such as Brgy. Iwahig in Puerto Princesa). Barangays are sometimes grouped into officially defined administrative (geographical) districts. Examples of such are the cities of Manila (16 districts), Davao (11 districts), Iloilo (seven districts), and Samal (three districts: Babak, Kaputian and Peñaplata). Some cities such as Caloocan, Manila and Pasay even have an intermediate level between the district and barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic districts and zones are not political units; there are no elected city government officials in these city-specific administrative levels. Rather they only serve to make city planning, statistics-gathering other administrative tasks easier and more convenient.

Classification

Income classification

Cities are classified according to average annual income based on the previous four calendar years. Effective July 28, 2008 the thresholds for the income classes for cities are:[3]

Class Average annual income
(₱ million)
First 400 or more
Second 320 or more but less than 400
Third 240 or more but less than 320
Fourth 160 or more but less than 240
Fifth 80 or more but less than 160
Sixth Below 80

Legal classification

The Local Government Code of 1991 (Republic Act No. 7160) classifies all cities into one of three legal categories:[2]

There are currently 33 highly urbanized cities in the Philippines, 16 of which are located in Metro Manila.
All but five of the remaining cities are considered component cities.

Independent cities

There are 38 independent cities in the Philippines, all of which are classified as either "highly urbanized" or "independent component" cities. From a legal, administrative and fiscal standpoint, once a city is classified as such:

Currently, the only independent cities that can still participate in the election of provincial officials (governor, vice governor, Sangguniang Panlalawigan members) are the following:

Registered voters of the cities of Cotabato, Ormoc, Santiago, as well as all other highly urbanized cities, including those to be converted or created in the future, are not eligible to participate in provincial elections.

In addition to the eligibility of some independent cities to vote in provincial elections, a few other situations become sources of confusion regarding the complete autonomy of independent cities from provinces:

A component city, while enjoying relative autonomy compared to a regular municipality on some matters, are still considered part of a province. However, there are still sources of confusion:

Creation of cities

Congress is the lone legislative entity that can incorporate cities. Provincial and municipal councils can pass resolutions indicating a desire to have a certain area (usually an already-existing municipality or a cluster of barangays) declared a city after the requirements for becoming a city are met. As per Republic Act No. 9009, these requirements include:[4]

Members of Congress (usually the involving representative of the congressional district to which the proposed city belongs) then draft the legislation that will convert or create the city. After the bill passes through both the House of Representatives and the Senate and becomes an Act of Congress, the President signs the Act into law. If the Act goes unsigned after 30 days it still becomes law despite the absence of the President's signature.

The creation of cities before 1983 was solely at the discretion of the national legislature; there were no requirements for achieving 'city' status other than an approved city charter. No income, population or land area requirements had to be met in order to incorporate cities before Batas Pambansa Bilang 337 (Local Government Code of 1983) became law. This is what made it possible for several current cities such as Tangub or Canlaon to be conferred such a status despite their small population and locally generated income, which do not meet current standards. The relatively low income standard between 1992 and 2001 (which was ₱20 million)[2] also allowed several municipalities, such as Sipalay and Muñoz, to become cities despite not being able to meet the current ₱100 million local income standard.

Before 1987, many cities were created without any plebiscites conducted for the residents to ratify the city charter, most notable of which were cities that were incorporated during the early American colonial period (Manila and Baguio), and during the Commonwealth Era (1935–1946) such as Cavite City, Dansalan (now Marawi), Iloilo City, Bacolod, San Pablo and Zamboanga City. Only since 1987 has it been mandated under the Constitution that any change to the legal status of any local government unit requires the ratification by the residents that would be affected by such changes. Therefore, all cities created after 1987 – after meeting the requirements for cityhood as laid out in the Local Government Code of 1991 and Republic Act No. 9009 of 2001 – only acquired their corporate status after the majority of their voting residents approved their respective charters.

Motivations for cityhood

Although some early cities were given charters because of their advantageous (Baguio, Tagaytay) or strategic (Angeles and Olongapo, Cotabato, Zamboanga) locations or in order to especially establish new government centers in otherwise sparsely populated areas (Palayan, Trece Martires, Quezon City), most Philippine cities were originally incorporated to provide a form of localized civil government to an area that is primarily urban, which, due to its compact nature and different demography and local economy, cannot be necessarily handled more efficiently by more rural-oriented provincial and municipal governments. However, not all cities are purely areas of dense urban settlement. To date there are still cities with huge expanses of rural or wilderness areas and considerable non-urban populations, such as Calbayog, Davao, Puerto Princesa and Zamboanga as they were deliberately incorporated with increased future resource needs and urban expansion, as well as strategic considerations, in mind.

With the enactment of the 1991 Local Government Code, municipalities and cities have both become more empowered to deal with local issues. Regular municipalities now share many of the same powers and responsibilities as chartered cities, but its citizens and/or leaders may feel that it might be to their best interest to get a larger share of internal revenue allotment (IRA) and acquire additional powers by becoming a city, especially if the population has greatly increased and local economy has become more robust. On the other hand, due to the higher property taxes that would be imposed after cityhood, many citizens have become wary of their town's conversion into a city, even if the municipality had already achieved a high degree of urbanization and has an annual income that already exceeds that of many existing lower-income cities. This has been among the cases made against the cityhood bids of many high-income and populous municipalities surrounding Metro Manila, most notably Bacoor and Dasmariñas (which finally became cities in June 2012 and November 2009 respectively), which for many years have been more qualified to become cities than others.

In response to the rapid increase in the number of municipalities being converted into cities since the enactment of the Local Government Code in 1991, Senator Aquilino Pimentel authored what became Republic Act No. 9009 in June 2001 which sought to establish a more appropriate benchmark by which municipalities that wished to become cities were to be measured.[5] The income requirement was increased sharply from ₱20 million to ₱100 million in a bid to curb the spate of conversions into cities of municipalities that were perceived to have not become urbanized or economically developed enough to be able to properly function as a city.

Despite the passage of RA 9009, 16 municipalities not meeting the required locally generated income were converted into cities in 2007 by seeking exemption from the income requirement. This led to vocal opposition from the League of Cities of the Philippines against the cityhood of these municipalities, with the League arguing that by letting these municipalities become cities, Congress will set "a dangerous precedent" that would not prevent others from seeking the same "special treatment".[5] More importantly, the LCP argued that with the recent surge in the conversion of towns that did not meet the requirements set by RA 9009 for becoming cities, the allocation received by existing cities would only drastically decrease because more cities will have to share the amount allotted by the national government, which is equal to 23% of the IRA, which in turn is 40% of all the revenues collected by the Bureau of Internal Revenue.[6] The resulting legal battles resulted in the nullification of the city charters of the 16 municipalities by the Supreme Court in August 2010. (See #"League of 16" and legal battles)

Changing city status

Throughout the years there have been instances of changes to the city's status with regard to eligibility for provincial elections, as a result of the passage of laws, both of general effectivity and specific to a city.

Before 1979

Prior to 1979, all cities were just considered chartered cities, without any official category differentiating them aside from income levels. Though chartered cities were considered autonomous from the provinces from which they were created, the eligibility of their residents to vote for provincial officials was determined by their respective charters.[7]

Regarding participation in provincial affairs, there were three types of city charters:

1) those which explicitly allowed their respective residents to elect provincial officials,
2) those which explicitly prohibited participation in provincial elections,
3) and those which are silent regarding voter participation in provincial elections.

The 1951 Supreme Court decision on Teves, et al. v. Commission on Elections finally resolved the ambiguity surrounding the third category of cities, by confirming that the residents of cities with such charters (such as Dumaguete and Davao City) are ineligible to participate in provincial elections.[7]

Altering the right of city residents to participate in provincial elections was a power solely determined by the national legislature. Before 1979, this power was exercised in seven cases, affecting a total of six cities:

1979–1983

Batas Pambansa Bilang 51, approved on December 22, 1979, introduced two legal categories of cities: highly urbanized cities (HUCs) and component cities.[20] COMELEC Resolution No. 1421, which was issued to implement the provisions of BP 51 prior to the January 30, 1980 local elections, stated that a total of 20 cities were not allowed to participate in the election of provincial officials:[21] seven of these were "highly urbanized," while the remaining 13 were "component" cities.

1983–1987

Batas Pambansa Bilang 337 (Local Government Code of 1983), approved on February 10, 1983, further refined the criteria by which cities can be classified as highly urbanized cities.[22] Under BP 337 a city that had at least 150,000 inhabitants and an income of at least ₱30 million was to be declared highly urbanized by the Minister of Local Government within thirty days of the city having met the requirement.[22] The cities of Angeles (1986), Bacolod (September 27, 1984), Butuan (February 7, 1985), Cagayan de Oro (November 22, 1983), Iloilo (1983) Iligan (November 22, 1983), Olongapo (December 7, 1983), and Zamboanga (November 22, 1983) became HUCs in this manner. The residents in most of these cities lost their right to participate in provincial elections for the first time. The two exceptions are: Iloilo City, which had already been deprived of the right to vote for provincial officials in 1959 by virtue of Section 2 of RA 2259,[19] and Zamboanga City, which had been autonomously governed since its creation by virtue of Section 47 of its city charter (Commonwealth Act No. 39).[23]

By virtue of Section 30 of Batas Pambansa Bilang 881 (Omnibus Election Code of the Philippines), approved on December 3, 1985, provided that: "unless their respective charters provide otherwise, the electorate of component cities shall be entitled to vote in the election for provincial officials of the province of which it is a part."[24] This provision therefore overrides the 1951 Supreme Court decision on Teves, et al. v. Commission on Elections by providing voters in component cities whose charters are silent on the matter of electing provincial officials the right to again participate in provincial elections. BP 881 therefore again enfranchised voters in the cities of Bais and Canlaon (Negros Oriental), and Ozamiz (Misamis Occidental). Despite the charter of the city of Cotabato being silent on the matter of electing provincial officials, the city was not legislated to be part of any of the successor provinces of the old undivided Cotabato province. Voters of the city therefore were still not eligible to vote in the provincial elections of either Maguindanao or North Cotabato and therefore remained independent from any province.

1987–1991

The period between ratification of the new Constitution (February 1987) and the effectivity of the Local Government Code of 1991 (January 1992) was one of transition. During this time, BP 51, BP 337 and BP 881 were still in force: the only legal classes of cities during this period were still "highly urbanized" and "component" cities.

Altering the right of city residents to participate in provincial elections was once again exercised by the newly restored Congress in this period. A total of three cities were affected: Republic Acts No. 6641 (in 1987),[25] 6726 (in 1989)[26] and 6843 (in 1990),[27] once again allowed the residents of Mandaue, Oroquieta and San Carlos to vote for provincial officials of Cebu, Misamis Occidental and Pangasinan respectively. Since BP 51—which only considered cities as being either "highly urbanized" or "component"—was still in force at the time, the changes were not considered as switching between legal categories,[28] but rather a simple change within the "component city" classification that did not require a plebiscite. Note that the "independent component city" legal classification was only introduced through the Local Government Code in 1992.

Under the same criteria set in BP 337 (Local Government Code of 1983), a total of three cities became highly urbanized: General Santos (September 5, 1988), Lucena (July 1, 1991) and Mandaue (February 15, 1991). Lucena and Mandaue were special cases, in that because their re-classification into HUC status took place after the ratification of the Constitution (February 11, 1987) but before the effectivity of the Local Government Code of 1991 (January 1, 1992), their residents were allowed to continue to participate in the election of provincial officials as per their respective charters (as amended), by virtue of Sec. 452-c of the LGC.[2] Residents of General Santos were already excluded from voting for provincial officials of South Cotabato since achieving cityhood in 1968; they were therefore unaffected by this exemption.

1992–present

The Local Government Code of 1991 came into effect on January 1, 1992, and has remained in force ever since, though some amendments have been made.[2] New requirements for creating cities, and upgrading cities to highly urbanized status, were instituted under this Act. The LGC of 1991 was also the first time the independent component city (ICC) category was introduced. These cities are those non-highly urbanized cities whose charters explicitly prohibited city residents to vote in provincial elections. They were finally made completely independent of the province from fiscal, administrative and legal standpoints.

Upgrading

Independent municipality to highly urbanized city

The municipalities of Metro Manila, having been severed from the provinces of Bulacan and Rizal and made independent units in 1975, were converted to highly urbanized cities, beginning in 1995 with Mandaluyong. The most recent, Navotas, became an HUC in 2007. Only Pateros, which does not currently meet the population requirement of 200,000 inhabitants, remains the only independent municipality in Metro Manila.

Component city to independent component city

All that is needed is a congressional amendment to a component city's charter, prohibiting city residents to vote for provincial officials. So far no city has been upgraded this way.

Component/independent component city to highly urbanized city

Since 1992, once a city reaches a population of 200,000 persons as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority and an income of ₱50 million (based on 1991 constant prices) as certified by the city treasurer, the city government can submit a request to the President to have their city declared as highly urbanized within 30 days. Upon the President's declaration, a plebiscite will be held within a specific timeframe to ratify this conversion. There are no limits as to the number of times a component city can attempt to become a highly urbanized city, should previous tries be unsuccessful.[29]

Downgrading

Highly urbanized city to component city

Reclassifying an HUC as a component city likely involves not only amending the concerned city's charter, but also the Local Government Code,[44] as currently there is no provision in the LGC that allows this, nor are there any precedents. Some Cebu City politicians have previously indicated that they wish to bring back the city under the province's control, in order to bring in more votes against the Sugbuak, the proposed partition of Cebu Province.[44]

Independent component city to component city

A congressional amendment to the city charter enabling city residents to vote for provincial officials is required, followed by a plebiscite. Santiago's status as an independent component city was briefly in question after the enactment of Republic Act No. 8528 on February 14, 1998 which sought to make it a regular component city.[45] The Supreme Court on September 16, 1999 however ruled in favor of the city's mayor who contended that such a change in the status of the city required a plebiscite just like any other merger, division, abolition or alteration in boundaries of any political unit. And due to the lack of a plebiscite to affirm such a change, RA 8528 was therefore unconstitutional.[28]

League of Cities of the Philippines (LCP)

The League of Cities of the Philippines (LCP) is a non-profit organization and is not a government agency. It has a membership of 143 cities and was founded in 1988. The organization was formed to help coordinate efforts to improve governance and local autonomy and to tackle issues such as preserving the environment and improving public works.

List of cities

As of December 12, 2015, there are 145 cities in the Philippines. General Trias in Cavite is the newest city, after its charter was ratified on December 12, 2015.[1]

Map of the Philippines showing the locations of the 145 cities.
Alaminos
Angeles
Antipolo
Bacolod
Bacoor
Bago
Baguio
Bais
Balanga
Batac
Batangas City
Bayawan
Baybay
Bayugan
Biñan
Bislig
Bogo
Borongan
Butuan
Cabadbaran
Cabanatuan
Cabuyao
Cadiz
Cagayan de Oro
Calamba
Calapan
Calbayog
Caloocan
Candon
Canlaon
Carcar
Catbalogan
Cauayan
Cavite City
Cebu City
Cotabato City
Dagupan
Danao
Dapitan
Dasmariñas
Davao City
Digos
Dipolog
Dumaguete
El Salvador
Escalante
Gapan
General Santos
General Trias
Gingoog
Guihulngan
Himamaylan
Ilagan
Iligan
Iloilo City
Imus
Iriga
Isabela
Kabankalan
Kidapawan
Koronadal
La Carlota
Lamitan
Laoag
Lapu-Lapu
Las Piñas
Legazpi
Ligao
Lipa
Lucena
Maasin
Mabalacat
Makati
Malabon
Malaybalay
Malolos
Mandaluyong
Mandaue
Manila
Marawi
Marikina
Masbate City
Mati
Meycauayan
Muñoz
Muntinlupa
Naga
Naga
Navotas
Olongapo
Ormoc
Oroquieta
Ozamiz
Pagadian
Palayan
Panabo
Parañaque
Pasay
Pasig
Passi
Puerto Princesa
Quezon City
Roxas
Sagay
Samal
San Carlos (Negros Occidental)
San Carlos (Pangasinan)
San Fernando (La Union)
San Fernando (Pampanga)
San Jose
San Jose del Monte
San Juan
San Pablo
San Pedro
Santa Rosa
Santiago
Silay
Sipalay
Sorsogon City
Surigao City
Tabaco
Tabuk
Tacloban
Tacurong
Tagaytay
Tagbilaran
Taguig
Tagum
Talisay (Cebu)
Talisay (Negros Occidental)
Tanauan
Tandag
Tangub
Tanjay
Tarlac City
Tayabas
Toledo
Trece Martires
Tuguegarao
Urdaneta
Valencia
Valenzuela
Victorias
Vigan
Zamboanga City
Location of the 145 cities of the Philippines (as of June 2016)

Largest cities

Ten most populous cities in the Philippines
Rank City Population
(2015)[46]
Image Description
1 Quezon City 2,936,116 PIC TEMP GEO 100827 0 (149).JPG Former capital of the country (1948–1976). Largest city in Metro Manila in population and land area. Hosts the House of Representatives of the Philippines at the Batasang Pambansa Complex and the metropolis' largest source of water, the La Mesa Reservoir.
2 Manila 1,780,148 Manila by night.jpg Capital of the country (1571–1948 and 1976–present). Historically centered on the walled city of Intramuros, by the mouth of the Pasig River. Host to the seat of the chief executive, the Malacañang Palace. By far the most densely populated city in the country, as well as the whole world.
3 Davao City 1,632,588 DavaoSkyline.jpg The largest city in Mindanao by population. Historically centered near where the Davao River exits into the Davao Gulf, the city also encompasses expanses of wilderness, including part of the Mount Apo Natural Park, making it the largest city in the Philippines by land area. Regional center of the Region XI, and core of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country, Metro Davao.
4 Caloocan 1,583,978
BonifacioMonumentjf9914 05.JPG
Historic city where Andrés Bonifacio and the Katipunan held many of its meetings in secrecy. Much of its territory was ceded to form Quezon City, resulting in the formation of two non-contiguous sections under the city's jurisdiction. The city mainly encompasses residential areas, with significant industrial and commercial sections.
5 Cebu City 922,611
Cebu City.jpg
Popularly nicknamed "The Queen City of the South". Site of the first Spanish settlement in the country. Capital of the province of Cebu and regional center of Region VII. Most populous city in the Visayas and core of the country's second-largest metropolitan area, Metro Cebu.
6 Zamboanga City 861,799 ZAMBOANGA CITY Asia's Latin City City Hall and Plaza Rizal (Ayunamiento y Plaza Rizal).jpg Nicknamed "City of Flowers" and marketed by its city government as "Asia's Latin City" for its substantial Spanish-derived Creole-speaking population. Former capital of the Moro Province and of the undivided province of Zamboanga. Former regional center of the Zamboanga Peninsula administrative region, but remains the largest city in western Mindanao.
7 Taguig 804,915[i] Fort Bonifacio 6.JPG Lying on the western shore of Laguna de Bay, the city encompasses significant industrial, commercial and residential areas, including the disputed area of Fort Bonifacio, a former American military base that has been in development as the country's new premier business district. Was part of Rizal Province until 1975, when it was incorporated into Metro Manila.
8 Antipolo 776,386 Ortigas Skyline sunset.jpg Nicknamed "City in the Sky" for its location on the hills immediately east of Metro Manila. Well-known pilgrimage and tourist center, being host to a Marian shrine and the Hinulugang Taktak National Park. Most populous component city in the country, and comprises more than a quarter of the total population of the province of Rizal and the capital of that province.
9 Pasig 755,300 Ortigas Tonight.jpg Hosts most of the Ortigas Center, one of Metro Manila's prime business districts. Located where Laguna de Bay empties into the Pasig River. Part of the province of Rizal until 1975, when it was incorporated into Metro Manila. Formerly hosted the capitol and other government buildings of that province.
10 Cagayan de Oro 675,950 CdeO Flyover.jpg Nicknamed the "City of Golden Friendship" and formerly known as Cagayan de Misamis. Located at the mouth of the swift-flowing Cagayan de Oro River, which has become a tourist draw.[47] Regional center of Northern Mindanao and capital of the province of Misamis Oriental.
Table notes
  1. ^ Population figure for Taguig excludes disputed barangays with Makati City.

Metropolitan areas

City facts

Defunct/dissolved cities

"League of 16" and legal battles

The Court held that the foregoing Cityhood Laws, all enacted after RA 9009's effectivity, "explicitly exempt respondent municipalities from the increased income requirement from ₱20 million to ₱100 million in Sec. 450 of the Local Government Code (LGC), as amended by RA 9009. Such exemption clearly violates Section 10, Article X of the Constitution and is thus patently unconstitutional. To be valid, such exemption must be written in the Local Government Code and not in any other law, including the Cityhood Laws."[61][62]

Rejected cityhood

Note: This section only lists attempts that reached the stage where a Republic Act was enacted for the purpose of achieving cityhood.

Former names

Note: This section only lists name changes made upon or since cityhood.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "General Trias in Cavite now a city". Rappler. 13 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Republic Act No. 7160 - An Act Providing for a Local Government Code of 1991". The LawPhil Project. Metro Manila, Philippines. 10 October 1991. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 
  3. ^ "Department Order No. 23-08" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  4. ^ "Republic Act No. 9009 - An Act Amending Sec. 450 of Republic Act No. 7160, Otherwise Known as the Local Government Code of 1991, by Increasing the Average Annual Income Requirement for a Municipality or Cluster of Barangays to be Converted into a Component City". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 24 February 2001. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "A Call for Reason and Respect for Law". LCP Policy Blog. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  6. ^ "League of Cities wants veto on city hood of 12 towns". The Manila Times. 9 February 2007. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c "G.R. No. L-5150; Teves, et al. vs. Commission on Elections". The LawPhil Project. Metro Manila, Philippines. 8 November 1951. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 
  8. ^ National Assembly of the Philippines (22 August 1940). "Commonwealth Act No. 604 - An Act to Amend Certain Sections of the Charter of the City of Iloilo". The Corpus Juris. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  9. ^ "Republic Act No. 170 - An Act Creating the City of Dagupan". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 20 June 1947. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  10. ^ "Republic Act No. 448 - An Act to Amend the Charter of the City of Cabanatuan". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 10 June 1950. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  11. ^ "Republic Act No. 526 - An Act Creating the City of Cabanatuan". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 16 June 1950. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  12. ^ "Republic Act No. 1445 - An Act Amending Certain Sections of Republic Act Numbered Five Hundred Twenty-Six, Otherwise Known as the Charter of the City of Cabanatuan". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 14 June 1956. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  13. ^ National Assembly of the Philippines (19 August 1940). "Commonwealth Act No. 592 - An Act to Create the City of Dansalan". Chan Robles Law Library. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
  14. ^ Congress of the Philippines (16 June 1956). "Republic Act No. 1552 – An Act to Amend the Charter of the City of Dansalan so as to Change Its name to Marawi and Make Elective Its Mayor, Vice Mayor and Councilors, and for other purposes". Chan Robles Law Library. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
  15. ^ "Commonwealth Act No. 58 - An Act Creating the City of Cebu". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 20 October 1934. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  16. ^ "Republic Act No. 3857 - An Act to Revise the Charter of the City of Cebu". The LawPhil Project. 10 June 1964. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  17. ^ Congress of the Philippines (15 July 1948). "Republic Act No. 327 - An Act Creating the City of Dumaguete". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  18. ^ Congress of the Philippines (21 June 1969). "Republic Act No. 5797 - An Act to Revise the Charter of the City of Dumaguete". The Corpus Juris. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  19. ^ a b Congress of the Philippines (19 June 1959). "Republic Act No. 2259 - An Act making elective the offices of Mayor, Vice Mayor and Councilors in chartered cities, regulating the election in such cities and fixing the salaries and tenure of such offices". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  20. ^ a b c d e "Batas Pambansa Blg. 51 - An Act Providing for the Elective or Appointive Positions in Various Local Governments and for Other Purposes". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 22 December 1979. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Supreme Court of the Philippines (28 January 1980). "G.R. No. L-52304 - RAMON B. CENIZA, FEDERICO C. CABILAO, JR., NELSON J. ROSAL and ALEJANDRO R. ALINSUG, petitioners, vs. COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, COMMISSION ON AUDIT, and NATIONAL TREASURER, respondents." The LawPhil Project. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  22. ^ a b "Batas Pambansa Blg. 337 - An Act Enacting a Local Government Code (Repealed by Republic Act No. 7160)". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 10 February 1983. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  23. ^ "Commonwealth Act No. 39 - An Act Creating the City of Zamboanga". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 12 October 1936. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  24. ^ Batasang Pambansa ng Pilipinas (3 December 1985). "Batas Pambansa Blg. 881 - Omnibus Election Code of the Philippines". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
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