Cider (/ˈsaɪdər/ SY-dər), hard apple cider, or hard cider in the
US, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of
Cider is popular in the United Kingdom, especially in the
West Country, and widely available. The UK has the world's highest per
capita consumption, as well as its largest cider-producing
Cider is also popular in many Commonwealth
countries, such as Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Aside
from the UK and its former colonies, cider is popular in other
European countries including Ireland, Portugal (mainly in Minho and
Madeira), France (particularly
Brittany and Normandy), northern Italy
Piedmont and Friuli), and Spain (especially
Asturias and the Basque
Country). Central Europe also has its own types of cider with
Hesse producing a particularly tart version
known as Apfelwein.
The juice of any variety of apple can be used to make cider, but cider
apples are best. The addition of sugar or extra fruit before a
second fermentation increases the ethanol content of the resulting
Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% to 8.5%
more in traditional English ciders, and 3.5% to 12% in continental
ciders. In UK law, it must contain at least 35% apple juice (fresh
or from concentrate), although
CAMRA (the Campaign for Real Ale)
says that "real cider" must be at least 90% fresh apple juice. In
the US, there is a 50% minimum. In France, cider must be made
solely from apples. In 2014, a study found that a pint of
mass-market cider contained five teaspoons (20.5 g) of sugar,
nearly the amount the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of
added sugar, and 5–10 times the amount of sugar in lager or ale.
Perry is a similar product to cider made from fermented pear
1 Appearance and types
2.1 Scratting and pressing
2.3 Blending and bottling
4 Uses and variations
5 Related drinks
6 National varieties
6.1.16 United Kingdom
7 South America
8.1 East Asia
9.1 South Africa
10 Southwest Pacific
10.2 New Zealand
11 North America
11.3 United States
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Appearance and types
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American cider in a bottle
The flavour of cider varies. Ciders can be classified from dry to
sweet. Their appearance ranges from cloudy with sediment to completely
clear, and their colour ranges from almost colourless to amber to
brown. The variations in clarity and colour are mostly due to
filtering between pressing and fermentation. Some apple varieties will
produce a clear cider without any need for filtration. Both sparkling
and still ciders are made; the sparkling variety is the more common.
Modern, mass-produced ciders closely resemble sparkling wine in
appearance. More traditional brands tend to be darker and cloudier.
They are often stronger than the mass-produced varieties and taste
more strongly of apples. Almost colourless, white cider has the same
apple juice content as conventional cider but is harder to create
because the cider maker has to blend various apples to create a
clearer liquid. White ciders tend to be sweeter and more refreshing.
They are typically 7-8 %
ABV in strength. Black cider, by
contrast, is dry amber premium cider which has an alcohol content of
7-8 % ABV. The descriptor black usually comes after the
brand name such as Union Black and Barnstormer Black.
Scratting and pressing
Cider mill and
Apples grown for consumption are suitable for cider making, though
some regional cider-makers prefer to use a mix of eating and cider
apples (as in Kent, England), or exclusively cider apples (as in the
West Country, England). There are many hundreds of varieties of
cultivars developed specifically for cider making.
Few traditional horse-drawn circular cider presses are still in use,
but many may still be seen used as garden ornaments, flower planters,
or architectural features
Once the apples are gathered from trees in orchards they are scratted
(ground down) into what is called pomace or pommage. Historically this
was done using pressing stones with circular troughs, or by a cider
Cider mills were traditionally driven by the hand, water-mill,
or horse-power. In modern times, they are likely to be powered by
electricity. The pulp is then transferred to the cider press and built
up in layers known as cheeses into a block.
Traditionally the method for squeezing the juice from the apples
involves placing sweet straw or haircloths between the layers of
pomace. This will alternate with slatted ash-wood racks until there is
a pile of ten or twelve layers.
The set is then subjected to increasing degrees of pressure until all
the 'must' or juice is squeezed from the pomace. This juice, after
being strained in a coarse hair-sieve, is then put into either open
vats or closed casks. The pressed pulp is given to farm animals as
winter feed, composted, discarded or used to make liqueurs.
Main article: Fermentation (food)
Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 4–16 °C
(40–60 °F). This is low for most kinds of fermentation but is
beneficial for cider as it leads to slower fermentation with less loss
of delicate aromas. Fermentation can occur due to natural yeasts that
are present in the must or some cider makers add cultivated strains of
cider yeast, such as Saccharomyces bayanus.
Shortly before the fermentation consumes all the sugar, the liquor is
"racked" (siphoned) into new vats. This leaves dead yeast cells and
other undesirable material at the bottom of the old vat. At this
point, it becomes important to exclude airborne acetic bacteria, so
vats are filled completely to exclude air. The fermenting of the
remaining available sugar generates a small amount of carbon dioxide
that forms a protective layer, reducing air contact. This final
fermentation creates a small amount of carbonation. Extra sugar may be
added specifically for this purpose. Racking is sometimes repeated if
the liquor remains too cloudy.
Apple-based juice may also be combined with fruit to make a fine
cider; fruit purées or flavourings can be used, such as grape,
cherry, raspberry, and cranberry.
The cider is ready to drink after a three-month fermentation period,
though more often it is matured in the vats for up to three years.
Blending and bottling
Layers of pomace wrapped in canvas
For larger-scale cider production, ciders from vats produced from
different varieties of apple may be blended to accord with market
taste. If the cider is to be bottled, usually some extra sugar is
added for sparkle. Higher quality ciders can be made using the
champagne method, but this is expensive in time and money and requires
special corks, bottles, and other equipment. Some home brewers use
beer bottles, which work perfectly well, and are inexpensive. This
allows the cider to become naturally carbonated.
The western British tradition of wassailing the apple trees and making
an offering of cider and bread in
Autumn to protect the fertility of
the orchard appears to be a relatively ancient tradition,
superficially dating back to the pre-Christian Early Medieval
period. The autumn tradition of 'bobbing' for apples
is due to the abundance of fruit at this time. A
modern cider festival is an organized event that promotes cider and
(usually) perry. A variety of ciders and perries will be available for
tasting and buying. Such festivals may be organized by pubs, cider
producers, or cider-promoting private organizations.
Uses and variations
Calvados and applejack are distilled from cider.
Calvados is made
throughout Normandy, France, not just in the
Calvados département. It
is made from cider by double distillation. In the first pass, the
result is a liquid containing 28–30% alcohol. After the second pass,
the concentration of alcohol is about 40%.
Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage made in North America by
concentrating cider, either by the traditional method of freeze
distillation or by true evaporative distillation. In traditional
freeze distillation, a barrel of cider is left outside during the
winter. When the temperature is low enough, the water in the cider
starts to freeze. If the ice is removed, the (now more concentrated)
alcoholic solution is left behind in the barrel. If the process is
repeated often enough, and the temperature is low enough, the alcohol
concentration is raised to 20–30 % alcohol by volume. Home
production of applejack is popular in Europe.
A few producers in
Quebec and England, inspired by ice wine, have
developed ice cider (French: cidre de glace). For this product, the
apples are frozen either before or after being harvested. Its alcohol
concentration is 9–13 % ABV.
A popular apéritif in
Normandy is pommeau, a drink produced by
blending unfermented apple juice and apple brandy in the barrel (the
high alcoholic content of the spirit prevents fermentation of the
juice and the blend takes on the character of the aged barrel).
Cocktails may include cider. Besides kir and snakebite, an example is
Black Velvet in a version of which cider may replace champagne.
Cider may also be used to make vinegar.
Apple cider vinegar is noted
for its high acidity and flavour.
Other fruits can be used to make cider-like drinks. The most popular
is made from fermented pear juice, known as perry. It is called poiré
in France and produced mostly in Lower
Normandy there. A branded sweet
perry known as Babycham, marketed principally as a women's drink and
sold in miniature Champagne-style bottles, was once popular but has
become unfashionable. Another related drink is cyser – cider
fermented with honey.
Although not widely made in modern times, various other pome fruits
can produce palatable drinks. Apicius, in Book II of De re coquinaria,
includes a recipe calling for quince cider.
Before the development of rapid long distance transportation, regions
of cider consumption generally coincided with those of cider
production. As such, cider was said to be more common than wine in
12th-century Galicia and certainly the idea of it was present in
England the Conquest of 1066, using crab apples: the word "Wassail" is
derived from a Saxon phrase, wæs hæl": it is what would have been
said by Saxons as a toast at Yuletide. Southern Italy, by contrast,
though indeed possessing apples, had no tradition for cider apples at
all and like its other neighbours on the Mediterranean Sea preserved
the Roman tradition of apples as an ingredient for desserts, as
evidenced by the frescoes at Herculaneum and Pompeii, descriptions by
Classical writers and playwrights, and Apicius, whose famous cookbook
does not contain a single recipe for fermenting apples but rather
includes them as part of main courses, especially accompanying pork.
In Austria, cider is made in the southwest of Lower Austria, the
so-called "Mostviertel" and in
Upper Austria as well as in parts of
Styria. Almost every farmer there has some apple or pear trees. Many
farmers also have a kind of inn called a "Mostheuriger", similar to a
heuriger for new wine, where they serve cider and traditional fare.
Non-sparkling cider is typically called "Most". Austria's most popular
sparkling cider Goldkehlchen is produced in south
Styria and marketed
internationally since 2013 by the company founders Adam and
Cidrerie Ruwet SA, established in 1898, is the only independent craft
cider producer in Belgium. In addition to their own brand Ruwet, the
company produces 'high-end' ciders for private labels.
the other Belgian cider maker Stassen SA, who in addition to their own
local brands such as Strassen X
Cider also produce Strongbow Jacques,
ABV cider with cherry, raspberry, and blackcurrant flavours.
Zonhoven based Konings NV specialises in private label ciders for
European retailers and offers a wide variety of flavours and packaging
options to the beverage industry.
Stella Artois Cidre is produced in
Zonhoven and has been marketed since 2011.
Despite a strong apple tradition, Denmark has little cider production.
Six places that produce cider in Denmark are Pomona (since 2003),
Cider (since 2003), Dancider (since 2004), Ørbæk Bryggeri
(since 2006), Ciderprojektet (since 2008), and Svaneke Bryghus (since
2009). All are inspired mainly by English and French cider styles. The
assortment of imported ciders has grown significantly since 2000,
prior to that only ciders from Sweden, primarily non-alcoholic, were
generally available. The leading cider on the Danish market is made by
CULT A/S. In 2008, Carlsberg launched an alcoholic cider in
Denmark called Somersby
Cider which has an alcohol content of 4.7% and
a sweet taste.
The best-known brands labelled as cider are Golden Cap, Fizz, and
Upcider. They typically contain 4.5-4.7 %vol of alcohol.
Virtually all Finnish "cider" is produced from fermented apple (or
pear) juice concentrate mixed with water and is not
Cider as per the
traditional description of the drink. It typically comes in a variety
of flavours ranging from forest berry to rhubarb and vanilla.
France was one of the countries that inherited a knowledge of apple
cultivation from both the Celtic
Gauls and the later Romans, who ruled
the country for approximately 500 years: both had knowledge of
grafting and keeping apples. The earliest mentions of cider in this
country go back to the Greek geographer Strabo: he speaks of the
profusion of apple trees in
Gaul and describes a cider-like drink.
In the 9th century, Charlemagne, in the Capitulars, ordered skilled
brewers (the Sicetores) to always be present on his estates to make
him ale, "pommé" (pomacium), perry and all the liquors liable to be
used as drinks, and also ordered an expansion of planting apple trees
in what is now Northern France.
Artisanal cider from Brittany
French cidre (French pronunciation: [sidʁ]) is an alcoholic
drink produced predominantly in
Normandy and Brittany. It varies in
strength from below 4% alcohol to considerably more. Cidre Doux is a
sweet cider, usually up to 3% in strength. 'Demi-Sec' is 3–5% and
Cidre Brut is a strong dry cider of 4.5% alcohol and above. Most
French ciders are sparkling. Higher quality cider is sold in
champagne-style bottles (cidre bouché). Many ciders are sold in
corked bottles, but some screw-top bottles exist. In crêperies
(crêpe restaurants) in Brittany, cider is generally served in
traditional ceramic bowls (or wide cups) rather than glasses. A kir
Breton (or kir normand) is a cocktail apéritif made with cider and
cassis, rather than white wine and cassis for the traditional kir. The
Domfrontais, in the
Orne (Basse-Normandie), is famous for its pear
cider (poiré). The calvados du Domfrontais is made of cider and
Some cider is also made in southwestern France, in the French part of
the Basque Country. It is a traditional drink there and is making a
recovery. Ciders produced here are generally of the style seen in the
Spanish part of the Basque Country. A recently popular variety is the
Akived, a piquant drink served cold.
Calvados, from Normandy, and Lambig from
Brittany are a spirits made
of cider through a process called double distillation. In the first
pass, the result is a liquid containing 28%–30% alcohol. In a second
pass, the amount of alcohol is augmented to about 40%.
Main article: Apfelwein
"Apfelwein" by Bembel-With-Care, made from traditional Odenwälder
German cider, usually called
Apfelwein (apple wine), and regionally
known as Ebbelwoi, Apfelmost (apple must), Viez (from
Latin vice, the
second or substitute wine), or Saurer Most (sour must), has an alcohol
content of 5.5%–7% and a tart, sour taste.
German cider is mainly produced and consumed in Hessen, particularly
in the Frankfurt, Wetterau, and
Odenwald areas, in Moselfranken,
Merzig (Saarland) and the
Trier area, as well as the lower Saar area
and the region bordering on Luxembourg and in the area along the
Neckar River in Swabia. In these regions, several large producers, as
well as numerous small, private producers, often use traditional
recipes. An official Viez route or cider route connects
the border to Luxembourg.
Cider is a popular drink in Ireland. A single cider, Bulmers,
dominates sales in Ireland: owned by C&C and produced in Clonmel,
County Tipperary, Bulmers has a connected history to the British
Bulmers cider brand up until 1949. Outside the Republic of Ireland,
C&C brand their cider as Magners. It is very popular in Ireland to
drink cider over ice and encouraged in their advertising. Cidona, a
non-alcoholic version of Bulmers, is a popular soft drink in Ireland
and used to be a C&C-owned brand. However, in recent years, other
ciders have begun to take a large share in the market, for example,
There has been a renaissance in the smaller artisanal cider producers
since 2010. These now number more than a dozen across the island of
Ireland and offer the consumer a broad range of differing, typically
non-mainstream flavour profiles.
Cider was once widely produced in Northern Italy's apple growing
regions, with a marked decline during fascist rule, due to the
introduction of a law banning the industrial production of alcoholic
beverages derived from fruits of less than 7% ABV, which was aimed at
protecting wine producers. Present laws and regulations are
favourable to cider makers, but production has only survived in a few
alpine locations, mostly in the regions of Trentino, and in Piedmont,
where it is known as vin ëd pom (apple wine) or pomada, because it
traditionally was left to ferment in a vat along with grape pomace,
giving it a distinctive reddish colour.
In the Netherlands, cider is not as commonly available as in its
surrounding countries. In 2007,
Heineken started testing a cider-based
Jillz in a number of bars throughout the country. The
beverage, an alcopop made by blending sparkling water, fruit
flavoring, malt, and cider, is marketed towards female drinkers as an
alternative to beer. At the same time,
Heineken also introduced
Strongbow Gold as a secondary brand to provide the choice of a real
cider, which was targeted to a male audience. Both beverages contain
5% alcohol by volume, which is similar to a typical draught beer in
the Netherlands. Other brands are available in supermarkets, most
Magners and Savanna Dry, and in liquor stores,
generally, a broader range may be obtained.
In Norway, cider (sider) is a naturally fermented apple juice. Pear
juice is sometimes mixed with the apple to get a better fermenting
Three brands of sparkling cider with an abv of approximately 10% are
available to the Norwegian public through distribution by the monopoly
Hardanger Sider Sprudlande from Hardanger,
Krunesider from Bergen sourcing apples from Hardanger, and Liersider
from Lier. In line with the law of 1975 prohibiting all
advertising of alcoholic beverages of abv above 2.5%, the products
receive little exposure despite a few favourable press
Ciders of low alcohol levels are widely available, mostly brands
imported from Sweden; carbonated soft drinks with no alcoholic content
may also be marketed as "cider".
Cider was once very popular in
Northern Portugal  where its
production was larger than wine production until the 11th century,
but nowadays, its popularity has decreased and it is only consumed in
the coasts of Minho, Âncora e Lima, where it is used as a refreshment
for thirst. In some festivities, it is still used rather than wine.
There's also a traditional production of the drink in Madeira.
Poland is the largest producer of apples in Europe.
Cider is known in
Poland as Cydr or Jabłecznik. In 2013, Poles drank 2 million litres
of cider, which adds up to 1% of the country’s annual alcohol sales.
Sales more than doubled from the previous year. In the summer of 2014,
Minister of Economy
Janusz Piechociński supported in vain the
creation of a draft law to legalise television cider publicity.
The category is just gaining popularity among consumers. Areas strong
in cider production are focused around the centre of the country in
the Masovian and Łódź voivoideships.  Large quantities of
Polish apple concentrate are exported to UK, Scandinavia, and Ireland
for cider production.
Asturian cider being poured ("escanciado") in the traditional manner
The making and drinking of cider is traditional in several areas of
northern Spain, mainly Galicia, the Principality of Asturias,
Cantabria, and the Basque Country.
The largest producer of cider in Spain is the Atlantic region of
Asturias, where cider is considered not only a beverage but an
intrinsic part of its culture and folklore.
Asturias amounts more than
80% of the whole production of Spain. The consumption of cider in
Asturias is of 54 litres per person/year, probably the highest in any
European region. One of the most popular ciders in Spain is called "El
Gaitero" (the bagpipe player) which can be found everywhere in Spain
and which is produced in this region. However, it must not be confused
with the traditional Asturian cider as it is a sparkling cider more in
the way of French ciders. It is a factory produced cider, sweet and
very foamy, much like lambrusco, different from the more artisan and
traditional cider productions. Recently, new apple tree plantations
have been started in grounds belonging to the old coal mines, once
important in Asturias.
The first testimony about cider in
Asturias was made by Greek
Strabo in 60 BC.
The traditional Asturian sidra is a still cider of 4–8% strength,
although there are other varieties. Traditionally, it is served in
sidrerías and chigres, pubs specializing in cider where it is also
possible to have other drinks as well as traditional food. One of the
most outstanding characteristics is that it is poured in very small
quantities from a height into a wide glass, with the arm holding the
bottle extended upwards and the one holding the glass extended
downwards. This technique is called escanciar un culín (also echar un
culín) and is done to get air bubbles into the drink (espalmar), thus
giving it a sparkling taste like Champagne that lasts a very short
Cider is also poured from barrels in the traditional Espichas.
Basque people drinking cider in a sagardotegi (cider house)
Cider has also been popular in the Basque Country for centuries.
Txakoli and Rioja wines became more popular in Biscay, Álava,
Navarre during the 19th century, there is still a strong Basque
cider culture in Gipuzkoa. From the 1980s, government and gastronomic
associations have worked to revive this culture in all Basque regions.
Known as sagardoa (IPA: /s̺a'gardoa/), it is drunk either bottled or
in a cider house (called a sagardotegi), where it is poured from
barrels. Most of "sagardotegis" are in the north of Gipuzkoa
(Astigarraga, Hernani, Urnieta, and Usurbil), but they can be found
everywhere in Gipuzkoa, the northwest of
Navarre and the Northern
Cider tasting events are popular in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa,
where stalls are set up on the street selling the drink from several
producers at cheap prices and served until stock runs out.
A glass of
Rekorderlig wild-berries cider
Due to Swedish law, stores in Sweden cannot sell cider with less than
15 percentage juice by volume under the name Cider. "Cider" with
none or less than 15% juice is instead usually sold as "Apple/Pear
beverage of cider character" (Swedish: "Äpple-/Pärondryck med
Ciderkaraktär"). Brands of cider in Sweden include Rekorderlig,
Kivik, Herrljunga and Kopparberg.
In Switzerland cider is called Suure Most or Saft in the
German-speaking part, Cidre in the Romandy, and Sidro in the
Italian-speaking regions. The drink was made popular in the 19th
century when apple production increased due to progress in pomology.
At the turn of the century, cider consumption was at 28.1 Liter per
person. In the 1920s, advantages in the pasteurisation of apple juice
and the emerging temperance movement led to a strong decrease of cider
Today, typical Swiss cider consists of fermented apple juice mixed
with 30% fresh juice which is added for sweetness. This drink is then
pasteurised and force-carbonated. Imported cider is not common as
according to Swiss laws cider must contain more than 70% of juice.
Cider in the United Kingdom
A pint glass of Strongbow cider
There are two broad main traditions in cider production in the UK -
West Country tradition and the eastern
Kent and East Anglia
tradition. The former are made using a much higher percentage of true
cider apples and so are richer in tannins and sharper in flavour. Kent
East Anglia ciders tend to use a higher percentage of or are
exclusively made from, culinary and dessert fruit; they tend to be
clearer, more vinous and lighter in body and flavour.
At one end of the scale are the traditional, small farm-produced
varieties. These are non-carbonated and usually cloudy orange in
West Country contains many of these farms which
have an abundance of ancient varieties of specialist cider-apples.
Production is often on such a small scale, the product being sold only
at the site of manufacture or in local pubs and shops. At the
other end of the scale are the factories mass-producing brands such as
Strongbow and Blackthorn.
Mass-produced cider, such as that produced by Bulmers, is likely to be
pasteurised and force-carbonated. The colour is likely to be golden
yellow with a clear appearance from the filtration. White ciders are
almost colourless in appearance.
In Argentina, cider, or sidra is by far the most popular alcoholic
carbonated drink during the
Christmas and New Year holidays. It has
traditionally been considered the choice of the middle and lower
classes (along with ananá fizz and pineapple juice), whereas the
higher classes would rather go for champagne or local sparkling wines
Christmas or New Year toast. Popular commercial brands of
cider are Real, La Victoria, "Rama Caida", Tunuyan. It is usually
marketed in 0.72 litre glass or plastic bottles. However, there
has been lately a campaign by some bottlers to make cider a drink
consumed all year round, in any occasion, and not only seasonally.
Cider now comes in smaller bottle sizes and commercials show people
drinking at any time (and not only toasting with it around a
Christmas or New Year table).
Cider has been made in Chile since colonial times.
Southern Chile accounts for nearly all cider production in the
country. Chileans make a distinction between "sidra" ("cider"), in
fact, sparkling cider, and "chicha de manzana" ("apple chicha"), a
homemade cider that is considered of less quality.
Cider fizz or fizz is a cider variety made by mixing and fermenting
various fruit juices other than apple with cider, as ananá fizz
(pineapple juice), frutilla fizz (strawberry juice) or durazno fizz
(peach juice).
Cider in Japan and Korea refers to a soft drink similar to Sprite or
lemonade. A popular drink in China is called "
Apple Vinegar", which is
apple juice. Shanxi Province is noted for the "vinegar" produced
A filtered carbonated apple juice called "Appy Fizz" was introduced by
Parle in India a decade ago and it became a big hit.
Non-alcoholic, apple-flavoured carbonated drinks are popular in the
country, with local brands such as Mehran Bottler's
Apple Sidra and
Murree Brewery's Big
Apple in the market.
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In Japan, "cider" (サイダー, saidā) refers to a soft drink
similar to Sprite or lemonade. The terms "cidre" (シードル,
shīdoru) or "apple sparkling wine" refer to the alcoholic beverage.
Cidre is also used as a marketing term to describe canned or bottled
ciders containing a cider widget or ciders which are cold-filtered
rather than pasteurised. The term "cidre bouché" applies to higher
quality cider sold in champagne-style bottles. Many ciders are sold in
corked bottles, but some screw-top bottles exist.
Popular brands include Asahi's Nikka Cidre and Kirin's Hard Cidre.
Asahi's Nikka Cidre was awarded the International
silver medal in 2014. Kirin's Hard Cidre is available as draught cider
in bars and izakaya throughout the country.
There are two main brands of cider produced in South Africa, Hunters
and Savanna Dry. They are produced and distributed through Distell
Group Limited. Hunters Gold was first introduced in South Africa in
1988 as an alternative to beer. The Hunters range includes Hunters
Dry, Hunters Gold, Hunters Export and Hunters Edge launched in April
Savanna Dry was introduced in 1996 and also comes in a Light
Premium variety as well as in a Savanna Dark variant.
East African Breweries launched Tusker Premium
Cider in 2017.
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The composition of cider is defined in the Australia New Zealand Food
Standards Code and "means the fruit wine prepared from the juice or
must of apples and no more than 25% of the juice or must of pears".
Cider has been made in Australia since its early settlement. Primarily
this production has been for limited local usage, with national
commercial distribution and sales dominated by two brands: Mercury
Cider and Strongbow. Since early 2005, they have been joined in the
market by numerous new producers including Three Oaks Cider,
Pipsqueak, and Tooheys 5 Seeds
Cider as well as imported brands like
Magners, Weston's, Monteith's, Kopparberg, Rekorderlig, and Somersby.
With the growth in interest in cider, the number of local producers
has increased. Some cider producers are attempting to use more
traditional methods and traditional cider apple varieties. Other
smaller brands rely on the available culinary (standard eating -
supermarket and cooking apples) fruit. From Victoria's Yarra Valley
Coldstream cider, Kelly Brothers cider and Napoleone & Co.
The Bridge Road Brewery and Amulet Winery, both in Victoria's
Beechworth, have released ciders. South Australia's boutique ciders
include Lobo (Adelaide Hills), The Hills
Cider (Adelaide Hills),
Thorogoods (Burra), and Aussie
Cider (Barossa). In Western Australia,
the number of cider producers has also grown in the southwest region,
particularly in areas where wine is also produced with producers in
Denmark, Pemberton, and Margaret River. In Tasmania, there are a
number of boutique cider makers including Red Sails (Middleton, Pagan
Cider (Huon Valley), Dickens
Cider (Tamar Valley), and Spreyton Cider
In New Zealand, there are many companies which produce and distribute
real cider or "cider".
Cider of Nelson is one of the few producers to make vintage cider
from 100% freshly harvested apples and pears. Unlike the bulk
producers, Abel hand harvest tree ripened fruit, crush it, then
ferment until dry. Abel is unfined and unfiltered, meaning they allow
the cider to naturally clarify via gravity; this gentle process helps
preserve the natural fruit characteristics.
Other boutique cider houses, including
McCashins Brewery in Stoke on
the South Island also specialise in dry style ciders from freshly
All mass produced ciders in New Zealand are loosely regulated with
their minimum content of fruit juice and alcohol content (mostly 4 to
Lion produces Isaac's ciders from concentrate under the Mac's
trademark. The range includes three artificial flavours: apple, pear,
and berry with limited edition ciders that are released seasonally.
Speight's brand also makes a cider from concentrate.
Dominion Breweries brands
Monteith's Brewery in
Greymouth on the
west coast of the South Island makes an apple and a pear cider while
their Old Mout Cider, based in Nelson on the South Island, is blending
fruit wines with cider to create fruit ciders including boysenberry
and feijoa varieties.
Cider (Pear, Wild Berries, Mango and
Raspberry, Strawberry and Lime,
spice), and Johnny Arrow
Cider are another two brands owned by this
In the US, "cider" refers to unfiltered apple juice, traditionally
made with a distinct sweet-tart taste, and in these regions, the
fermented beverage is known as "hard cider". In Canada, the terms
"cider" and "apple cider" are interchangeable although they generally
refer to alcoholic and juice beverages, respectively.
Cider is produced commercially in every Canadian province except
Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador and Saskatchewan, usually with a
5-7% alcohol content although the term is also used for some
non-fermented apple juices. According to the Canadian Food and Drug
Regulations, alcoholic cider is an alcoholic fermentation of apple
juice that does not contain more than 13% absolute alcohol by volume
(ABV) or less than 2.5% ABV.
Frozen apples in
Quebec for the making of ice cider
Quebec cider is considered a traditional alcoholic beverage. It is
generally sold in 750 ml bottles, has an alcohol content
generally between 7% and 13% (with aperitifs ciders having alcohol
content up to 20%), and can be served as a substitute for wine. As in
the rest of the world, sparkling cider is getting more and more
Quebec and thanks to the law cider sold in the province can
only be made from 100% pure apple juice.
was, however, forbidden from the early years of British rule as it was
in direct conflict with established British brewers' interests (most
notably John Molson). In recent years, a new type called ice cider has
been sold. This type of cider is made from apples with a particularly
high level of sugar caused by natural frost.
Two types of cider (sidra) are sold in Mexico. One type is a popular
apple-flavoured, carbonated soft drink, sold under a number of soft
drink brands, such as
Sidral Mundet and
Manzana Lift (both Coca-Cola
FEMSA brands) and Sidral Aga from Group AGA. The other type, alcoholic
sidra, is a sparkling cider typically sold in Champagne-style bottles
with an alcohol content comparable to beer. Sidra was, due to the
expense of imported Champagne, sometimes used as a substitute for New
Year's Eve toasts in Mexico, as it is also a sweet, fruity drink.
However, now the practice is to drink cider on
celebrated with the family, and Champagne on New Year's celebrated
Cider beverages form a very small share of the Mexican
alcoholic beverage market, with the figures for 2009 volume sales
amounting to only 3.8 million litres.
Cider in the United States
In the United States, the definition of "cider" is usually broader
than in Europe and specifically Ireland and the UK. There are two
types, one being traditional alcoholic hard cider and the other sweet
or soft cider, often simply called apple cider.
List of cider brands
List of beverages
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^ "National Association of
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Magners in a cider
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^ "Interesting Facts". National Association of
Cider Makers. Archived
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Pear cider boom angers
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Pear Perception". Morning
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^ Crowden, James. "Somerset Cider". Somerset County Council.
Missing or empty url= (help), a Orcharding year, b Somerset cider
^ "History of cider". W3commerce. 2000. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
^ Fletcher, R.A., Liber Sancti Jacobi
^ "Konings maakt
Stella Artois Cidre". Knack. 30 March 2011. Retrieved
^ "Somersby Cider". Carlsberg Group. Retrieved 28 September
^ Very ApS Somersby
Cider byder foråret velkommen! -
Pressesystemet.dk Archived 2012-05-26 at Archive.is
^ "About "Cidre"". La Chouette. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
Apple Journal. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
Cider Ireland the best source for real cider in Ireland".
www.ciderireland.com. Retrieved 2017-05-04.
Orchard Thieves -
Heineken Ireland". Heineken. Retrieved 26 October
^ Henry Tiziana. "SIDRO: TRA I FOLLETTI E LE FATE ..."
sottocoperta.net. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
^ "Osservatorio per il sidro". specialissimo.it. Retrieved 24 August
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^ Hofseth, Arne, Bergens Tidende (2006-05-29). "Sprudlande
stettglas" (in Norwegian).
^ a b Jacobsen, Aase E., VG (2006-05-29). "Brusende nasjonalfølelse"
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^ a b Ørjasæter, Lars Ola, Aperitif (2005-04-20). "Nødvendig
opprydding" (in Norwegian).
^ a b Hélder Marques (1987). "A Região dos Vinhos Verdes" (PDF).
Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto. p. 139. Retrieved
30 July 2012.
^ Sedia, Giuseppe (16 September 2015). "The Rise of Polish Cider".
Krakow Post. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
^ Joanna Pienczykowska (2013). "Cydr z polskich jabłek". Polska The
Times. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
^ "...Before the Christian era, the various peoples of Europe had
succeeded in producing beverages more or less similar to cider from a
variety of fruit. STABON, the Greek geographer, described the
abundance of apple and pear trees in
Gaul and mentioned the "Phitarra"
in the Basque country, which was a beverage obtained by boiling pieces
of apples in water with honey...".
Cider history. Volcler, Societe.
^ Livsmedelsverkets författningssamling LIVSFS 2005:11 (H 161),
(2009-10-21) (in Swedish).
^ Die Texte zu den Produkten sind in der Regel in der jeweiligen
Landessprache abgefasst (German)
^ Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährung SGE: Das
^ Lewis, Paul (1989-04-02). "Fare of the country; England's Realm Of
Cider With a Kick". The New York Times. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
^ Sidra Real. YouTube. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
Cider & Scrumpy, Bob Bunker 1999
Household Cyclopedia, 1881
The History and Virtues of Cyder, R. K. French (Robert Hale 1982 -
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cider.
Cider at Encyclopædia Britannica
"Cider". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
Cider at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
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