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Christmas
Christmas
Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas
Christmas
Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.[4] Christmas
Christmas
Day is observed around the world, and Christmas
Christmas
Eve is widely observed as a full or partial holiday in anticipation of Christmas
Christmas
Day. Together, both days are considered one of the most culturally significant celebrations in Christendom
Christendom
and Western society. Christmas
Christmas
celebrations in the denominations of Western Christianity have long begun on the night of the 24th, due in part to the Christian liturgical day starting at sunset,[5] a practice inherited from Jewish tradition[6] and based on the story of Creation in the Book of Genesis: "And there was evening, and there was morning – the first day."[7] Many churches still ring their church bells and hold prayers in the evening; for example, the Nordic Lutheran
Lutheran
churches.[8] Since tradition holds that Jesus
Jesus
was born at night (based in Luke 2:6-8), Midnight Mass
Midnight Mass
is celebrated on Christmas
Christmas
Eve, traditionally at midnight, in commemoration of his birth.[9] The idea of Jesus
Jesus
being born at night is reflected in the fact that Christmas
Christmas
Eve is referred to as Heilige Nacht (Holy Night) in German, Nochebuena
Nochebuena
(the Good Night) in Spanish and similarly in other expressions of Christmas spirituality, such as the song "Silent Night, Holy Night". Many other varying cultural traditions and experiences are also associated with Christmas
Christmas
Eve around the world, including the gathering of family and friends, the singing of Christmas
Christmas
carols, the illumination and enjoyment of Christmas
Christmas
lights, trees, and other decorations, the wrapping, exchange and opening of gifts, and general preparation for Christmas
Christmas
Day. Legendary Christmas
Christmas
gift-bearing figures including Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Christkind, and Saint Nicholas are also often said to depart for their annual journey to deliver presents to children around the world on Christmas
Christmas
Eve, although until the Protestant introduction of Christkind
Christkind
in 16th-century Europe,[10] such figures were said to instead deliver presents on the eve of Saint Nicholas' feast day (6 December).

Contents

1 Religious traditions

1.1 Western churches 1.2 Eastern churches 1.3 Meals

1.3.1 Bulgaria 1.3.2 France 1.3.3 Italy 1.3.4 Poland 1.3.5 Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania 1.3.6 Serbia

2 Gift giving 3 Christmas
Christmas
Eve around the world

3.1 Celebrations 3.2 In Jewish culture

3.2.1 In contemporary American-Jewish culture

4 Historical events

4.1 Christmas
Christmas
truce 4.2 Apollo 8
Apollo 8
reading from Genesis

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Religious traditions[edit] Western churches[edit]

Midnight Mass
Midnight Mass
is held in many churches toward the end of Christmas Eve, often with dim lighting and traditional decorative accents such as greenery

Roman Catholics and high church Anglicans traditionally celebrate Midnight
Midnight
Mass, which begins either at or sometime before midnight on Christmas
Christmas
Eve. This ceremony, which is held in churches throughout the world, celebrates the birth of Christ, which is believed to have occurred at night. Midnight Mass
Midnight Mass
is popular in Poland (pasterka). In recent years some churches have scheduled their "Midnight" Mass as early as 7 pm. In Spanish-speaking areas, the Midnight Mass
Midnight Mass
is sometimes referred to as Misa de Gallo, or Missa do Galo in Portuguese ("Rooster's Mass"). In the Philippines, the custom has expanded into the nine-day Simbang Gabi, when Filipinos attend dawn Masses (traditionally beginning around 04:00 to 05:00 PST) from 16 December, continuing daily until Christmas
Christmas
Eve. In 2009 Vatican officials scheduled the Midnight Mass
Midnight Mass
to start at 10 pm so that the 82-year-old Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
would not have too late a night.[11] Whilst it does not include any kind of Mass, the Church of Scotland has a service beginning just before midnight, in which carols are sung. The Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
no longer holds Hogmanay
Hogmanay
services on New Year's Eve, however. The Christmas
Christmas
Eve Services are still very popular. On Christmas
Christmas
Eve, the Christ Candle in the center of the Advent wreath
Advent wreath
is traditionally lit in many church services. In candlelight services, while singing Silent Night, each member of the congregation receives a candle and passes along their flame which is first received from the Christ Candle.

Advent
Advent
wreath, lighting the candle

Lutherans traditionally practice Christmas
Christmas
Eve Eucharistic traditions typical of Germany and Scandinavia. "Krippenspiele" (Nativity plays), special festive music for organ, vocal and brass choirs and candlelight services make Christmas
Christmas
Eve one of the highlights in the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church calendar. A nativity scene may be erected indoors or outdoors, and is composed of figurines depicting the infant Jesus resting in a manger, Mary, and Joseph.[12] Other figures in the scene may include angels, shepherds, and various animals. The figures may be made of any material,[13] and arranged in a stable or grotto. The Magi may also appear, and are sometimes not placed in the scene until the week following Christmas
Christmas
to account for their travel time to Bethlehem. While most home nativity scenes are packed away at Christmas
Christmas
or shortly thereafter, nativity scenes in churches usually remain on display until the feast of the Baptism of the Lord.[13] Christmas
Christmas
Vespers
Vespers
are popular in the early evening, and midnight services are also widespread in regions which are predominantly Lutheran. The old Lutheran
Lutheran
tradition of a Christmas
Christmas
Vigil in the early morning hours of Christmas
Christmas
Day (Christmette) can still be found in some regions. In eastern and middle Germany, congregations still continue the tradition of " Quempas singing": separate groups dispersed in various parts of the church sing verses of the song "He whom shepherds once came Praising" (Quem pastores laudavere) responsively.

A nativity scene

Methodists celebrate the evening in different ways. Some, in the early evening, come to their church to celebrate Holy Communion with their families. The mood is very solemn, and the only visible light is the Advent
Advent
Wreath, and the candles upon the Lord's Table. Others celebrate the evening with services of light, which include singing the song Silent Night
Silent Night
as a variety of candles (including personal candles) are lit. Other churches have late evening services perhaps at 11 pm, so that the church can celebrate Christmas
Christmas
Day together with the ringing of bells at midnight. Others offer Christmas
Christmas
Day services as well. The annual "Nine Lessons and Carols", broadcast from King's College, Cambridge on Christmas
Christmas
Eve, has established itself a Christmas
Christmas
custom in the United Kingdom.[14] It is broadcast outside the UK via the BBC World Service, and is also bought by broadcasters around the world.[14] Eastern churches[edit]

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Annunciation
Annunciation
of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
Greek Orthodox Cathedral, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

In the Byzantine Rite, Christmas
Christmas
Eve is referred to as Paramony ("preparation"). It is the concluding day of the Nativity Fast
Nativity Fast
and is observed as a day of strict fasting by those devout Byzantine Christians who are physically capable of doing so. In some traditions, nothing is eaten until the first star appears in the evening sky, in commemoration of the Star of Bethlehem. The liturgical celebration begins earlier in the day with the celebration of the Royal Hours, followed by the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
combined with the celebration of Vespers, during which a large number of passages from the Old Testament are chanted, recounting the history of salvation. After the dismissal at the end of the service, a new candle is brought out into the center of the church and lit, and all gather round and sing the Troparion
Troparion
and Kontakion
Kontakion
of the Feast. In the evening, the All-Night Vigil for the Feast of the Nativity is composed of Great Compline, Matins and the First Hour. The Byzantine services of Christmas
Christmas
Eve are intentionally parallel to those of Good Friday, illustrating the theological point that the purpose of the Incarnation was to make possible the Crucifixion and Resurrection. This is illustrated in Eastern icons of the Nativity, on which the Christ Child
Christ Child
is wrapped in swaddling clothes reminiscent of his burial wrappings. The child is also shown lying on a stone, representing the Tomb of Christ, rather than a manger. The Cave of the Nativity is also a reminder of the cave in which Jesus
Jesus
was buried. The services of Christmas
Christmas
Eve are also similar to those of the Eve of Theophany (Epiphany), and the two Great Feasts
Great Feasts
are considered one celebration. In some Orthodox cultures, after the Vesperal Liturgy the family returns home to a festive meal, but one at which Orthodox fasting rules are still observed: no meat or dairy products (milk, cheese, eggs, etc.) are consumed (see below for variations according to nationality). Then they return to the church for the All-Night Vigil. The next morning, Christmas
Christmas
Day, the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
is celebrated again, but with special features that occur only on Great Feasts
Great Feasts
of the Lord. After the dismissal of this Liturgy, the faithful customarily greet each other with the kiss of peace and the words: "Christ is Born!", to which the one being greeted responds: "Glorify Him!" (these are the opening words of the Canon of the Nativity that was chanted the night before during the Vigil). This greeting, together with many of the hymns of the feast, continue to be used until the leave-taking of the feast on 29 December. The first three days of the feast are particularly solemn. The second day is known as the Synaxis
Synaxis
of the Theotokos, and commemorates the role of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
in the Nativity of Jesus. The third day is referred to simply as "the Third Day of the Nativity". The Saturday and Sunday following 25 December have special Epistle
Epistle
and Gospel readings assigned to them. 29 December celebrates the Holy Innocents. Byzantine Christians observe a festal period of twelve days, during which no one in the Church fasts, even on Wednesdays and Fridays, which are normal fasting days throughout the rest of the year. During this time one feast leads into another: 25–31 December is the afterfeast of the Nativity; 2–5 January is the forefeast of the Epiphany. Meals[edit] Further information: List of Christmas
Christmas
dishes Bulgaria[edit] In Bulgaria, the meal consists of an odd number of lenten dishes in compliance with the rules of fasting. They are usually the traditional sarma, bob chorba (bean soup), fortune kravai (pastry with a fortune in it; also called bogovitsa, vechernik, kolednik), stuffed peppers, nuts, dried fruit, boiled wheat.[15] The meal is often accompanied with wine or Bulgaria's traditional alcoholic beverage rakia, in the past - olovina (a type of homemade rye beer). The meals used to be put on top of hay, directly on the floor, together with a ploughshare or a coulter.[16] France[edit] In French-speaking places, Réveillon is a long dinner eaten on Christmas
Christmas
Eve. Italy[edit] While other Christian families throughout the world celebrate the Christmas
Christmas
Eve meal with various meats, Italians (especially Sicilians) celebrate the traditional Catholic
Catholic
"Feast of the Seven Fishes" which was historically served after a 24-hour fasting period. Although Christmas
Christmas
fasting is no longer a popular custom, some Italian-Americans
Italian-Americans
still enjoy a meatless Christmas
Christmas
Eve feast[17] and attend the Midnight
Midnight
Mass. In various cultures, a festive dinner is traditionally served for the family and close friends in attendance, when the first star (usually Sirius) arrives on the sky. Poland[edit]

Traditional Polish Wigilia
Wigilia
meal

A similar tradition (Wigilia, or ' Christmas
Christmas
Vigil') exists in Poland. The number of dishes used to be traditionally an odd number (usually 5, 7, 9, or 11.)[18] According to the Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego (Etymological Dictionary of the Polish Language) by Aleksander Brückner, the number of dishes was traditionally related to social class: the peasants' vigil consisted of 5 or 7 dishes, the gentry usually had 9, and the aristocracy, 11 dishes, but the even number 12 is also found today to remember the 12 disciples. It is obligatory to try a portion of all of them. Some traditions specify that the number of guests cannot be odd.[19][20] In Poland, gifts are unwrapped on the Christmas
Christmas
Eve, as opposed to the Christmas
Christmas
Day. Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania[edit] In Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania, a traditional meatless 12-dishes Christmas
Christmas
Eve Supper is served on Christmas
Christmas
Eve before opening gifts. This is known as the "Holy Meal" ( Kūčios
Kūčios
in Lithuania). The table is spread with a white cloth symbolic of the swaddling clothes the Child Jesus
Jesus
was wrapped in, and a large white candle stands in the center of the table symbolizing Christ the Light of the World. Next to it is a round loaf of bread symbolizing Christ Bread of Life. Hay
Hay
is often displayed either on the table or as a decoration in the room, reminiscent of the manger in Bethlehem. The twelve dishes (which differ by nationality or region) symbolize the Twelve Apostles. The Holy Meal was a common Eastern Orthodox tradition in the Russian Empire, but during the era of the Soviet Union it was greatly discouraged as a result of the official atheism of the former regime. It is coming back in Russia and continues to be popular in Ukraine. The main attributes of Holy Meal in Ukraine are kutia, a poppy seed, honey and wheat dish, and uzvar, a drink made from reconstituted dried fruits. Other typical dishes are borscht, Varenyky, and dishes made of fish, phaseolus and cabbage. Serbia[edit]

Candles on Christmas
Christmas
Eve 2010

In accordance with the Christmas
Christmas
traditions of the Serbs, their festive meal has a copious and diverse selection of foods, although it is prepared according to the rules of fasting. As well as a round, unleavened loaf of bread and salt, which are necessary, this meal may comprise roast fish, cooked beans, sauerkraut, noodles with ground walnuts, honey, and wine. Families in some Slavic countries leave an empty place at the table for guests (alluding to Mary and Joseph looking for shelter in Bethlehem).

Gift giving[edit]

Christmas
Christmas
presents under the Christmas
Christmas
tree

During the Reformation in 16th- and 17th-century Europe, many Protestants changed the gift bringer to the Christ Child
Christ Child
or Christkindl, and the date of giving gifts changed from 6 December to Christmas
Christmas
Eve.[21] It is the night when Santa Claus
Santa Claus
makes his rounds delivering gifts to good children. Many trace the custom of giving gifts to the Magi
Magi
who brought gifts for the Christ child
Christ child
in the manger. In the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia and Hungary, where Saint Nicholas (sv. Mikuláš/szent Mikulás) gives his sweet gifts on 6 December, the Christmas
Christmas
gift-giver is the Child Jesus
Jesus
( Ježíšek in Czech, Jézuska in Hungarian, Ježiško in Slovak and Isusek in Croatian).[22] In most parts of Austria, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic and Switzerland, presents are traditionally exchanged on the evening of 24 December. Children are commonly told that presents were brought either by the Christkind
Christkind
(German for Christ child),[23] or by the Weihnachtsmann. Both leave the gifts, but are in most families not seen doing so. In Germany, the gifts are also brought on 6 December by "the Nikolaus" with his helper Knecht Ruprecht.

Christmas
Christmas
tree with presents hanging on the tree

In Estonia Jõuluvana, in Finland Joulupukki, in Norway Julenissen and in Sweden Jultomten, personally meets children and gives presents in the evening of Christmas
Christmas
Eve.[24][25] In Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Denmark, Estonia, the Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Quebec, Romania, Uruguay, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Czech Republic, Christmas
Christmas
presents are opened mostly on the evening of the 24th – following German tradition, this is also the practice among the British Royal Family
British Royal Family
since it was introduced by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
and Albert, Prince Consort[26][27] – while in Italy, the United States, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, English Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, this occurs mostly on the morning of Christmas
Christmas
Day. In other Latin American countries, people stay awake until midnight, when they open the presents. In Spain, gifts are traditionally opened on the morning of 6 January, Epiphany day ("Día de Los Tres Reyes Magos"),[28] though in some other countries, like Argentina and Uruguay, people receive presents both around Christmas
Christmas
and on the morning of Epiphany day. In Belgium and the Netherlands Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
or Sinterklaas
Sinterklaas
and his companion Zwarte Piet
Zwarte Piet
deliver presents to children and adults alike on the evening of 5 December, the eve of his nameday.[29] On 24 December they go to church or watch the late-night mass on TV, or have a meal.[citation needed] Christmas
Christmas
Eve around the world[edit]

A Christmas
Christmas
Eve candlelight service in Baghdad, Iraq

Christmas
Christmas
Eve is celebrated in different ways around the world, varying by country and region. Elements common to many areas of the world include the attendance of special religious observances such as a midnight Mass or Vespers, and the giving and receiving of presents. Along with Easter, Christmastime is one of the most important periods on the Christian calendar, and is often closely connected to other holidays at this time of year, such as Advent, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, St. Nicholas Day, St. Stephen's Day, New Year's, and the Feast of the Epiphany. Celebrations[edit] Among Christians, as well as non-Christians who celebrate Christmas, the significant amount of vacation travel, and travel back to family homes, that takes place in the lead-up to Christmas
Christmas
means that Christmas
Christmas
Eve is also frequently a time of social events and parties, worldwide.[30][31][32][33][34] Further information on Christmas
Christmas
Eve traditions around the world: Christmas
Christmas
worldwide In Jewish culture[edit] Nittel Nacht is a name given to Christmas
Christmas
Eve by Jewish scholars in the 17th century. In contemporary American-Jewish culture[edit] With Christmas
Christmas
Day a work holiday throughout the United States, there is a space of unfilled free time during which much of American commerce and society is not functioning, and which can give rise to a sense of loneliness or alienation for American Jews.[35][36][37][38][39] Jews also typically do not engage in the family gathering and religious worship activities that are central to Christmas
Christmas
Eve for Christians.[40] Typical contemporary activities have usually been limited to "Chinese and a movie"[41][42][43]—consuming a meal at a Chinese restaurant, which tend to be open for business on the Christmas
Christmas
holiday, and watching a movie at the theater or at home, stereotypically a rerun of It's a Wonderful Life.[39][44][45][46] Since the 1980s a variety of social events for young Jews have sprung up, and become popular, on Christmas
Christmas
Eve.[47] These include the Matzo Ball, The Ball, and a number of local events organized by Jewish communities and local Jewish Federations in North America.[36] Further information on Christmas
Christmas
Eve social events for young Jews in North America: Matzo Ball Historical events[edit]

A cross, left near Ypres
Ypres
in Belgium in 1999, to commemorate the site of the 1914 Christmas
Christmas
Truce. The text reads 1914—The Khaki Chum's Christmas
Christmas
Truce—85 Years—Lest We Forget.

A number of historical events have been influenced by the occurrence of Christmas
Christmas
Eve. Christmas
Christmas
truce[edit] Main article: Christmas
Christmas
truce During World War I
World War I
in 1914 and 1915 there was an unofficial Christmas truce, particularly between British and German troops. The truce began on Christmas
Christmas
Eve, 24 December 1914, when German troops began decorating the area around their trenches in the region of Ypres, Belgium, for Christmas. They began by placing candles on trees, then continued the celebration by singing Christmas
Christmas
carols, most notably Stille Nacht ("Silent Night"). The British troops in the trenches across from them responded by singing English carols. The two sides shouted Christmas
Christmas
greetings to each other. Soon there were calls for visits across the "No man's land" when small gifts were exchanged. The truce also allowed a breathing space during which recently killed soldiers could be brought back behind their lines by burial parties. Funerals took place as soldiers from both sides mourned the dead together and paid their respects. At one funeral in No Man's Land, soldiers from both sides gathered and read a passage from Psalm 23. The truce occurred in spite of opposition at higher levels of the military command. Earlier in the autumn, a call by Pope Benedict XV for an official truce between the warring governments had been ignored.

Earthrise, as seen from Apollo 8, 24 December 1968 (NASA)

Apollo 8
Apollo 8
reading from Genesis[edit] Main article: Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Genesis reading On 24 December 1968, in what was the most watched television broadcast to that date, the astronauts Bill Anders, Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
and Frank Borman of Apollo 8
Apollo 8
surprised the world with a reading of the Creation from the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
as they orbited the moon.[48] Madalyn Murray O'Hair, an atheist activist, filed a lawsuit under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment; the US Supreme Court
US Supreme Court
dismissed the suit.[49][50] In 1969, the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
issued a stamp (Scott# 1371) commemorating the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
flight around the moon. The stamp featured a detail of the famous photograph, Earthrise, of the Earth "rising" over the moon ( NASA
NASA
image AS8-14-2383HR), taken by Anders on Christmas Eve, and the words, "In the beginning God..." See also[edit]

Christmas
Christmas
Day Nativity of Jesus Santa Claus Winter holiday season

References[edit]

^ Christmas
Christmas
as a Multi-faith Festival—BBC News. Retrieved 24 November 2011. ^ Several traditions of Eastern Christianity
Christianity
that use the Julian calendar celebrate on 25 December according to that calendar, which is now 6 January on the Gregorian calendar. Some Armenian churches use the Julian calendar, thus celebrating Christmas
Christmas
Eve on 18 January on the Gregorian calendar. ^ Ramzy, John. "The Glorious Feast of Nativity:? 29 Kiahk? 25 December?". Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Retrieved 17 January 2011.  ^ Mary Pat Fisher (1997). Living Religions: an encyclopedia of the world's faiths. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781860641480. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2010. Christmas
Christmas
is the celebration of Jesus' birth on earth.  ^ "Christian Calendar". Jerusalem Center for Jewish-Christian Relations. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2010.  ^ Kessler, Edward; Neil Wenborn (2005). A dictionary of Jewish-Christian relations. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom: Cambridge university Press. p. 274.  ^ Bible - NIV. 2005.  ^ "Helgmålsringning". Natinalencyclopedin. Retrieved 29 December 2010.  ^ "Vatican Today". Retrieved 29 December 2010.  ^ Forbes, Bruce David, Christmas: a candid history, University of California Press, 2007, ISBN 0-520-25104-0, pp. 68–79. ^ "Woman knocks Pope down at Christmas
Christmas
Mass". British Broadcasting Company. 25 December 2009.  ^ Vermes, Geza. The Nativity: History and Legend. Penguin, 2006 ^ a b Dues, Greg. Catholic
Catholic
Customs and Traditions: A Popular Guide Twenty-Third Publications, 2000. ^ a b Alex Webb (24 December 2001), Choir
Choir
that sings to the world, BBC News  ^ Bulgarian Main Courses Archived 4 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Христо Вакарелски. Етнография на България. Наука и изкуство. София 1977. с. 500 ^ "Feast of Seven Fishes – A Sicilian Christmas
Christmas
Eve Tradition". Rachael Ray Digital LLC. 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014. Sicilians traditionally celebrate Christmas
Christmas
Eve with a "Feast of Seven Fishes" which was historically served after a 24-hour fasting period. Although pre- Christmas
Christmas
fasting is not a popular custom still practiced by Italian-Americans, many still enjoy a meatless Christmas
Christmas
Eve feast.  ^ Kasprzyk, Magdalena. "The 12 Dishes of Polish Christmas". Culture.pl. Retrieved 3 August 2016.  ^ "12, 11, 9? Ile dań na Wigilie? - Święta". polskieradio.pl. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ "Wigilia". Polishcenter.org. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Forbes, Bruce David, Christmas: a candid history, University of California Press, 2007, ISBN 0-520-25104-0, pp. 68–79. ^ The Christmas
Christmas
encyclopedia McFarland p.143. & Co., 2005 ^ The Christmas
Christmas
Almanack p.56. Random House Reference, 2004 ^ Llewellyn's Sabbats Almanac: Samhain 2010 to Mabon 2011 p.64. Llewellyn Worldwide, 2010 ^ Festivals of Western Europe p.202. Forgotten Books, 1973 ^ "Queen Victoria's Christmas
Christmas
- A 'chandelier Christmas
Christmas
tree' and family gifts go on display for the first time". Royal Collection Trust. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2016.  ^ Hoey, Brian (12 December 2014). "How the Royal Family do Christmas". Wales Online. Retrieved 25 December 2016.  ^ Francis, Charles Wisdom Well Said p.224 Levine Mesa Press, 2009 ^ Concepts of person in religion and thought Walter de Gruyter, 1990 ^ Eugene Fodor, Fodor's South 1980: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 1979, at p. 87, available at Google Books ^ Gary Sigley, A Chinese Christmas
Christmas
Story, in Shi-xu, ed., Discourse as Cultural Struggle, 2007, at p. 99, available at Google Books ^ Adebayo Oyebade, Culture and Customs of Angola, 2007, at pp. 103, 140, available at Google Books ^ See, e.g., GetQd Twas the Night Before Christmas
Christmas
@ Tonic @ Tonic Nightclub Vancouver BC, 2009 Archived 6 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ See, e.g., Upcoming.org, The College Night Out, 2009 Archived 18 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kellie Hwang, Dec. 24 is time to party at Mazelpalooza, Matzoball, Arizona Republic/AZCentral.com, December 18, 2014 ^ a b Jessica Gresko, "Dec. 24 Becomes Party Night for Jewish Singles", Associated Press (Washington Post), December 24, 2006 ^ Marc Tracy, " Christmas
Christmas
is the Greatest Jewish Holiday", The New Republic, December 19, 2013 ^ Barbara Lewis, "MatzoBall Detroit: Jewish singles now have their own party on Christmas
Christmas
Eve", Detroit Jewish News, December 18, 2014 ^ a b "Hundreds of Jewish singles in Palm Beach County will spend Christmas
Christmas
Eve mingling", China Daily, December 24, 2008 ^ Brenda Lane Richardson, "Deciding to Celebrate Christmas, or Not", New York Times, December 16, 1987 ^ Marziah Karch, "Happy Chinese and a Movie", Wired, December 24, 2014 ^ Julie Wiener, The joy of not celebrating Christmas, JTA (Jewish Telegraphic Agency), December 24, 2013 ^ Simon Vozick-Levinson, "Chinese food and movies: A Christmas tradition", Entertainment Weekly, December 25, 2009 ^ Marshall Heyman, "'Tis the Season For Matzo Balls", Wall Street Journal, December 27, 2010 ^ Jodi Duckett, "Jewish Singles Mingle Christmas
Christmas
Eve", Allentown Morning Call, December 18, 1995 ^ Robert Gluck, "What young Jews do on Christmas
Christmas
Eve", Los Angeles Jewish Journal, December 20, 2011 ^ " Christmas
Christmas
Eve parties now a Jewish tradition". 24 December 2006. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ "The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Christmas
Christmas
Eve Broadcast". NASA
NASA
National Space Science Data Center. 25 September 2007. Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008.  ^ Chaikin, Andrew (1994). A Man On The Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts. Viking. pp. 204, 623. ISBN 0-670-81446-6.  ^ "O'Hair v. Paine, 397 U.S. 531". Findlaw. 1970. Retrieved 13 February 2008. 

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Category Portal

v t e

Official holidays of the New York Stock Exchange

Whole days

New Year's Day Martin Luther King Jr. Day Washington's Birthday Good Friday Memorial Day Independence Day Labor Day Thanksgiving Day Christmas
Christmas
Day

Partial days

Day before Independence Day Day after Thanksgiving Christmas
Christmas
Eve

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(1) Yennayer
Yennayer
(12)

February

Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
(14) Tafsut (28)

March

International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(8) Victory Day (19) World Water Day
World Water Day
(22) Maghrebi Blood Donation Day (30) Spring vacation (2 last weeks)

April

April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day
(1) Knowledge Day (16) Berber Spring (20) Earth Day
Earth Day
(22) Election Day (Thursday)

May

International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
(1) World Press Freedom Day (3) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(last Sunday)

June–July–August

Summer vacation (varies)

June

Children's Day
Children's Day
(1) Father's Day
Father's Day
(21)

July

Independence Day (5)

September

International Day of Peace
International Day of Peace
(21)

October

International Day of Non-Violence
International Day of Non-Violence
(2) Halloween
Halloween
(31)

November

Revolution Day (1)

December

Christmas
Christmas
Eve (24) Christmas
Christmas
(25) New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
(31) Winter vacation (2 last weeks)

Varies (year round)

Hijri New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(Muharram 1) Ashura
Ashura
(Muharram 10) Mawlid
Mawlid
(Rabi' al-Awwal 12) Ramadan
Ramadan
( Ramadan
Ramadan
1) Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
( Ramadan
Ramadan
27) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(Shawwal 1) Day of Arafah
Day of Arafah
(Dhu al-Hijjah 9) Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(Dhu al-Hijjah 10) Holi
Holi
(varies)

Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays.

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(federal) Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
(federal)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day
Fred Korematsu Day
(CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day
Lee–Jackson Day
(formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day
Robert E. Lee Day
(FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) The Eighth (LA, former federal)

January–February

Super Bowl Sunday

February American Heart Month Black History Month

Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day

Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
(CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day
Ronald Reagan Day
(CA) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(CA, MO) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

February–March

Mardi Gras

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
(religious) Courir de Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(religious) Super Tuesday

March Irish-American Heritage Month National Colon Cancer Awareness Month Women's History Month

St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break
Spring break
(week)

Casimir Pulaski Day
Casimir Pulaski Day
(IL) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman Day
(NY) Holi
Holi
(NY, religious) Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day
Maryland Day
(MD) National Poison Prevention Week
National Poison Prevention Week
(week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint Joseph's Day
Saint Joseph's Day
(religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas Independence Day
Texas Independence Day
(TX) Town Meeting Day (VT)

March–April

Easter
Easter
(religious)

Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(religious) Passover
Passover
(religious) Good Friday
Good Friday
(CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter
Easter
Monday (religious)

April Confederate History Month

420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
(week) Earth Day Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
(DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Jefferson's Birthday
(AL) Pascua Florida (FL) Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
(MA, ME) San Jacinto Day
San Jacinto Day
(TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night
Walpurgis Night
(religious)

May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Jewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(federal) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(36) Cinco de Mayo

Harvey Milk Day
Harvey Milk Day
(CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse Day National Day of Prayer
National Day of Prayer
(36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) Truman Day
Truman Day
(MO)

June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Father's Day
Father's Day
(36)

Bunker Hill Day
Bunker Hill Day
(Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day
Carolina Day
(SC) Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
In Texas / Juneteenth
Juneteenth
(TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day
Helen Keller Day
(PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day
Jefferson Davis Day
(AL, FL) Kamehameha Day
Kamehameha Day
(HI) Odunde Festival
Odunde Festival
(Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia Day
West Virginia Day
(WV)

July

Independence Day (federal)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day
Parents' Day
(36) Pioneer Day (UT)

July–August

Summer vacation

August

American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama Day
Barack Obama Day
(IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
(TX) National Aviation Day
National Aviation Day
(36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day
Women's Equality Day
(36)

September Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day
Labor Day
(federal)

California Admission Day
California Admission Day
(CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day
Defenders Day
(MD) Gold Star Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(36) National Grandparents Day
National Grandparents Day
(36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day
Patriot Day
(36)

September–October Hispanic Heritage Month

Oktoberfest

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History Month LGBT History Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day
Nevada Day
(NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama Day (AL) Christmas
Christmas
Eve (KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands.

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