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Christie's
Christie's
is a British auction house. It was founded in 1766 by James Christie. Its main premises are on King Street, St James's, in London, and in Rockefeller Center
Rockefeller Center
in New York City
New York City
in the United States.[1] The company is owned by Groupe Artémis, the holding company of François-Henri Pinault.[2] Sales in 2015 totalled £4.8 billion ($7.4 billion).[3] It has the credit of selling the Salvator Mundi
Salvator Mundi
for $450.3 million, the most expensive painting ever sold.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding 1.2 1979–2000 1.3 1998 takeover 1.4 Today

2 Commissions 3 Locations 4 Price-fixing scandal 5 Notable auctions 6 Auction errors at Christie's 7 Christie's
Christie's
Fine Art
Art
Storage Services (CFASS) 8 Christie's Education
Christie's Education
graduate programmes 9 Ventures 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

History[edit]

In A Peep at Christies (1799), James Gillray
James Gillray
caricatured actress Elizabeth Farren
Elizabeth Farren
and huntsman Lord Derby examining paintings appropriate to their tastes and heights.

Founding[edit] The official company literature states that founder James Christie conducted the first sale in London, England, on 5 December 1766,[5] and the earliest auction catalogue the company retains is from December 1766. However, other sources note that James Christie rented auction rooms from 1762, and newspaper advertisements of Christie's sales dating from 1759 have also been traced.[6] Christie's
Christie's
soon established a reputation as a leading auction house, and took advantage of London's new found status as the major center of the international art trade after the French Revolution. From 1859, the company was called Christie, Manson & Woods. In 1958, it established its first overseas office, by placing a representative in Rome. The first overseas salesroom opened in Geneva, where Christie's holds jewellery auctions. 1979–2000[edit]

The Microcosm of London
London
(1808), an engraving of Christie's
Christie's
auction room

Christie's
Christie's
was a public company, listed on the London
London
Stock Exchange from 1973 to 1999. In 1974, Jo Floyd was appointed chairman of Christie's. He served as chairman of Christie's
Christie's
International plc. from 1976 to 1988, until handing over to Lord Carrington, and later was a non-executive member of the board of directors until 1992.[7] The auction house's subsidiary Christie's
Christie's
International Inc. held its first sale in the United States in 1977, 13 years later than Sotheby's. Christie's
Christie's
growth was slow but steady since 1989, when it had 42 percent of the auction market.[8] In 1990, the company reversed a longstanding policy and guaranteed a minimum price for a collection of artworks in its May auctions.[9] In 1996, the auction house's sales eclipsed Sotheby's
Sotheby's
for the first time since 1954.[10] However, its profits did not grow at the same pace;[11] from 1993 through 1997, Christie's
Christie's
annual pretax profits were about $60 million, whereas Sotheby's
Sotheby's
annual pretax profits were about $265 million for those years.[12] In 1993, Christie's
Christie's
paid $12.7 million for the London
London
gallery Spink & Sons, which specialised in Oriental art and British paintings; the gallery was run as a separate entity from the auction house. The company bought Leger Gallery for $3.3 million in 1996, and merged it with Spink to become Spink-Leger.[13] Spink-Leger was closed in 2002. To make itself competitive with Sotheby's
Sotheby's
in the property market, Christie's
Christie's
bought Great Estates in 1995, then the largest network of independent estate agents in North America, changing its name to Christie's
Christie's
Great Estates Inc.[8] 1998 takeover[edit] In December 1997, under the chairmanship of Lord Hindlip, Christie's put itself on the auction block, but after two months of negotiations with the consortium-led investment firm SBC Warburg Dillon Read
Warburg Dillon Read
it did not attract a bid high enough to accept.[12] In May 1998, François Pinault's holding company, Groupe Artémis S.A., first bought 29.1 percent of the company for $243.2 million, and subsequently purchased the rest of it in a deal that valued the entire company at $1.2 billion.[11] The company has since not been reporting profits, though it gives sale totals twice a year. Its policy, in line with UK accounting standards, is to convert non-UK results using an average exchange rate weighted daily by sales throughout the year.[14] In 2002, Christie's
Christie's
France held its first auction in Paris.[15] Like Sotheby's, Christie's
Christie's
became increasingly involved in high-profile private transactions. In 2006, Christie's
Christie's
offered a reported $21 million guarantee to the Donald Judd
Donald Judd
Foundation and displayed the artist's works for five weeks in an exhibition that later won an AICA award for "Best Installation in an Alternative Space".[16] In 2007 the auction house brokered a $68 million deal that transferred Thomas Eakins's The Gross Clinic
The Gross Clinic
(1875) from the Jefferson Medical College at the Thomas Jefferson University
Thomas Jefferson University
in Philadelphia to joint ownership by the Philadelphia Museum of Art
Art
and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.[17] That same year, Haunch of Venison, a contemporary art gallery which since 2002 had successfully conducted back-room sales of secondary-market works by major artists such as Francis Bacon, Andy Warhol, and Damien Hirst
Damien Hirst
from its locations in London
London
and Zürich,[18] became a subsidiary of Christie's International plc.[19] Under the original deal, the gallery was meant to be the channel for all of Christie's
Christie's
private-client business as well as the focus of its primary trade.[20] Also, the auction house originally announced that Haunch employees could not bid at auction because of conflicts of interest or issues of market manipulation, but later abandoned this rule.[21] While Christie's
Christie's
eventually retained the brand name and repositioned Haunch as purely a primary-focused gallery, any secondary-market activities were taken over by the auction house's post-war and contemporary department.[22] Today, the gallery continues to operate as an independent company in London
London
and New York, and again handles all of its secondary market activities itself.[23] On 28 December 2008, The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
reported that Pinault's debts left him "considering" the sale of Christie's
Christie's
and that a number of "private equity groups" were thought to be interested in its acquisition.[24] In January 2009, Christie's
Christie's
was reported to employ 2,100 people worldwide, though an unspecified number of staff and consultants were soon to be cut due to a worldwide downturn in the art market;[25] later news reports said that 300 jobs would be cut.[26] With sales for premier Impressionist, Modern, and contemporary artworks tallying only $US248.8 million in comparison to $US739 million just a year before, a second round of job cuts began after May 2009 when the auction house was still reported to employ 1,900 people worldwide.[27] One of the auction house's "rainmakers" in the sale of Impressionist and Modern art, Guy Bennett, resigned from the auction house just prior to the beginning of the summer 2009 sales season.[28] Although the economic downturn has encouraged some collectors to sell art, others are unwilling to sell in a market which may yield only bargain prices.[26] Today[edit] On 1 January 2017 Guillaume Cerutti was appointed chief executive officer.[29] Patricia Barbizet was appointed chief executive officer of Christie's
Christie's
in 2014, the first female CEO of the company.[30] In 2012, Impressionist works, which dominated the market during the 1980s boom, were replaced by contemporary art as Christie's
Christie's
top category. Asian art was the third most-lucrative area.[14] With income from classic auctioneering falling, treaty sales made £413.4 million ($665 million) in the first half of 2012, an increase of 53% on the same period last year; they now represent more than 18% of turnover.[31] The company has promoted curated events, centred on a theme rather than an art classification or time period.[32] As part of a companywide review in 2017, Christie's
Christie's
announced the layoffs of 250 employees, or 12 percent of the total work force, based mainly in Britain and Europe.[33] Commissions[edit] From 2008 until 2013, Christie's
Christie's
charged 25 percent for the first $50,000; 20 percent on the amount between $50,001 and $1 million, and 12 percent on the rest. From 2013, it charged 25 percent for the first $75,000; 20 percent on the next $75,001 to $1.5 million and 12 percent on the rest.[34] Locations[edit] Christie's
Christie's
main London
London
salesroom is on King Street in St. James's, where it has been based since 1823. It had a second London
London
salesroom in South Kensington
South Kensington
which opened in 1975 and primarily handled the middle market. Christie's
Christie's
permanently closed the South Kensington salesroom in July 2017 as part of their restructuring plans announced March 2017. The closure was due in part to a considerable decrease in sales between 2015 and 2016 in addition to the company expanding its online sales presence.[35][36] In 1977, Christie's
Christie's
opened a branch on New York's Park Avenue, with a salesroom accommodating about 600 people. Increasingly cramped for space, the auction house signed a 30-year lease in 1997 for a 300,000-square-foot space in Rockefeller Center
Rockefeller Center
for $40 million.[37] The Christie's
Christie's
New York sign was created by Nancy Meyers
Nancy Meyers
during the production of the 2003 film Something's Gotta Give for an exterior shot; the auction house liked the sign so much that it requested the production leave it after shooting finished.[citation needed] Until 2001, Christie's
Christie's
East, a division that sold lower-priced art and objects, was located at 219 East 67th Street. In 1996, Christie's bought a townhouse on East 59th Street in Manhattan as a separate gallery where experts could show clients art in complete privacy to conduct private treaty sales.[8] Christie's
Christie's
opened a Beverly Hills salesroom in 1997.[38] In January 2009,[25] Christie's
Christie's
had 85 offices in 43 countries, including New York City, Los Angeles, Paris, Geneva, Houston, Amsterdam, Moscow, Vienna, Buenos Aires, Berlin, Rome, South Korea, Milan, Madrid, Japan, China, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Bangkok, Tel Aviv, Dubai, and Mexico City. In 1995, Christie's
Christie's
became the first international auction house to exhibit works of art in Beijing, China. In early 2017, Christie's
Christie's
announced plans to close its secondary South Kensington salesroom at the end of the year and scale back its operation in Amsterdam.[33] In April 2017, Christie’s is to open a 4,500 square feet two-story flagship space in Beverly Hills, California.[39] Price-fixing scandal[edit] In 2000, allegations surfaced of a price-fixing arrangement between Christie's
Christie's
and Sotheby's, another major auction house. Executives from Christie's
Christie's
subsequently alerted the Department of Justice of their suspicions of commission-fixing collusion. Christie's
Christie's
gained immunity from prosecution in the United States as a longtime employee of Christie's
Christie's
confessed and cooperated with the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Numerous members of Sotheby's
Sotheby's
senior management were fired soon thereafter, and A. Alfred Taubman, the largest shareholder of Sotheby's
Sotheby's
at the time, took most of the blame; he and Dede Brooks (the CEO) were given jail sentences, and Christie's, Sotheby's
Sotheby's
and their owners also paid a civil lawsuit settlement of $512 million.[40][41][42] Notable auctions[edit]

Pontormo, Portrait of a Halberdier, 1528–1530. Sold by Christie's for US $35. 2 million in 1989. (J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles)

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In 1987, during the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
auction, Christie's
Christie's
famously auctioned off a Bugatti Royale
Bugatti Royale
automobile for a world record price of £5.5 million. In May 1989, Pontormo's Portrait of a Halberdier was sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum for $35.2 million, more than tripling the previous auction record for an Old Master
Old Master
painting.[43] On 11 November 1994, the Codex Leicester
Codex Leicester
was sold to Bill Gates
Bill Gates
for US$30,802,500.[44] In 1998, Christie's
Christie's
in New York sold the famous Archimedes Palimpsest after the conclusion of a lawsuit in which its ownership was disputed. In November 1999, a single strand necklace of 41 natural and graduated pearls, which belonged to Barbara Hutton, was auctioned by Christie's Geneva
Geneva
for $1,476,000. In June 2001, Elton John
Elton John
sold 20 of his cars at Christie's, saying he didn't get the chance to drive them because he was out of the country so often. The sale, which included a 1993 Jaguar XJ220, the most expensive at £234,750, and several Ferraris, Rolls-Royces, and Bentleys, raised nearly £2 million. In 2006, a single Imperial Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
porcelain bowl, another item which belonged to Barbara Hutton, was auctioned by Christie's
Christie's
Hong Kong for a price of $22,240,000. On 16 May 2006, Christie's
Christie's
auctioned a Stradivarius
Stradivarius
called The Hammer for a record US$3,544,000. It was, at that time, the most paid at public auction for any musical instrument.[45] In October 2006, Christie's
Christie's
auctioned 1,000 lots of official Star Trek contents from the CBS
CBS
Paramount Television studios. A model of the starship Enterprise-D, used in Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek Generations sold for $500,000. In November 2006, four celebrated paintings by Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
were sold for a total of $192 million, after being restituted by Austria to Jewish heirs after a lengthy legal battle.[46] In December 2006, a copy of the black dress worn by Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
in the film Breakfast at Tiffany's was sold for £467,200 at Christie's South Kensington. In 2006 Christie's
Christie's
lists for auction artefacts known to be looted from Bulgaria and refuses to stop the sale despite strong evidence from the Bulgaria's culture ministry.[47][48] Continuing to dominate the global market for fine arts, Christie's staged the five largest auctions of all time in November 2006,[46] and May and June 2007. [49][citation needed] In November 2007, an album of eight leaves, ink on paper, by China's Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
court painter Dong Qichang
Dong Qichang
was sold at the Christie's Hong Kong Chinese Paintings Auction for US$6,235,500, a world auction record for the artist.[50] In 2008, the Ink and wash painting
Ink and wash painting
of Gundam
Gundam
drawn by Hisashi in 2005 was sold in the Christie's
Christie's
auction held in Hong Kong with a price of US$600,000.[51][52][53][54][55] On 24 May 2008, Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas
Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas
by Claude Monet
Claude Monet
was sold for a price of $80.4 million, the highest price ever for a Monet. Over a three-day sale in Paris in February 2009, Christie's
Christie's
auctioned the monumental private collection of Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé for a record-breaking 370 million euros (US$490 million).[56] It was the most expensive private collection ever sold at auction,[57] breaking auction records for Brâncuși, Matisse, and Mondrian.[56] The "Dragons" armchair
"Dragons" armchair
by Irish furniture designer Eileen Gray
Eileen Gray
sold for 21.9 million euros (US$28 million), setting an auction record for a piece of 20th century decorative art.[58] The 2009 auction (for US$36 million) of two imperial bronze zodiac sculptures collected by Yves Saint Laurent, looted in 1860 from the Old Summer Palace
Old Summer Palace
of Beijing by French and British forces at the close of the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
caused controversy.[59] Christie's
Christie's
Hong Kong, November 2009 sale of Fine Modern Chinese Paintings, sold a work by Fu Baoshi
Fu Baoshi
titled Landscape inspired by Dufu's Poetic Sentiments, for HK$60,020,000 (US$7,780,105) – a world record for the artist. Christie's
Christie's
auctioned Pablo Picasso's Nude, Green Leaves and Bust
Nude, Green Leaves and Bust
on 4 May 2010. The piece sold for US$106.5 million, making the sale among the most expensive paintings ever sold. On 14 June 2010 Amedeo Modigliani's Tête, a limestone sculpture of a woman's head, became the second most expensive sculpture ever sold and the most expensive work of art sold in France. On 18 April 2012, the silver cup given to the marathon winner, Greek athlete Spyridon Louis, at the first modern Olympic Games staged in Athens in 1896 sold for UK£541,250 (US$860,000), breaking the auction record for Olympic memorabilia.[60] On 22 June 2012 George Washington's personal annotated copy of the Acts Passed at a Congress of the United States of America from 1789, which includes The Constitution of the United States
The Constitution of the United States
and a draft of the Bill of Rights, was sold at Christie's
Christie's
for a record $9,826,500, with fees the final cost, to The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. This was the record for a document sold at auction.[61] On 12 November 2013, Francis Bacon's Three Studies of Lucian Freud sold for US$142.4 million (including the buyer's premium) to an unnamed buyer, nominally becoming the most expensive work of art ever to be sold at auction.[62][63][64][65] On 11 May 2015, Pablo Picasso's Les Femmes d'Alger ("Version O") sold for US$179.3 million to an unnamed buyer, becoming the most expensive work of art ever to be sold at auction at Christie's
Christie's
New York. In November of the same year, Amedeo Modigliani's Nu Couché (1917–18) sold at Christie’s in New York for $170.4 million, making it the second most expensive work sold at auction.[66] In May 2016 the Oppenheimer Blue diamond sold for 56.837 million SFr, a record price for a jewel at auction.[67] On 7 July 2016 the highest price ever sold for an old master painting at Christie's
Christie's
was achieved with £44,882,500 / $58,167,720 / €52,422,760 for Rubens' Lot and his Daughters.[68][69] On 15 November 2017, Leonardo Da Vinci's Salvator Mundi
Salvator Mundi
sold for a record $450.3 million (including buyer's premium).[70] The buyer was Badr bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Farhan, his name was revealed by several media news including The New York Times.

Auction errors at Christie's[edit]

Article on Docantic concerning a cabinet incorrectly assigned to René DROUET

Christie's
Christie's
Fine Art
Art
Storage Services (CFASS)[edit] Christie's
Christie's
first ventured into storage services for outside clients in 1984, when it opened a 100,000 square feet brick warehouse in London that was granted "Exempted Status" by HM Revenue and Customs,[71] meaning that property may be imported into the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and stored without incurring import duties and VAT. Christie's
Christie's
Fine Art Storage Services, or CFASS, is a wholly owned subsidiary that runs Christie's
Christie's
storage operation. In September 2008, Christie's
Christie's
signed a 50-year lease on an early 1900s warehouse of the historic New York Dock Company[72] in Red Hook, Brooklyn, and subsequently spent $30 million converting it into a six-storey, 250,000 square feet[73] art-storage facility.[71] The facility opened in 2010 and features high-tech security and climate controls that maintain a virtually constant 70° and 50% relative humidity.[74] Since 2009, Christie's
Christie's
has been the main tenant of the Singapore
Singapore
FreePort, taking up 40 per cent of the space to offer its fine art storage services to its global clients. Located near the Upper Bay tidal waterway near the Atlantic Ocean, the Brooklyn facility was hit by at least one storm surge during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. CFASS subsequently faced client defections and complaints arising from damage to works of art.[72] In 2013, AXA
AXA
Art Insurance filed a lawsuit in New York court alleging that CFASS' "gross negligence" during the hurricane damaged art collected by late cellist Gregor Piatigorsky
Gregor Piatigorsky
and his wife Jacqueline Rebecca Louise de Rothschild.[75] Later that year, StarNet Insurance Co., the insurer for the LeRoy Neiman
LeRoy Neiman
Foundation and the artist's estate, also filed a lawsuit in New York Supreme Court
New York Supreme Court
claiming that the storage company's negligence caused more than $10 million in damages to Neiman's art.[76] Christie's Education
Christie's Education
graduate programmes[edit] The educational arm of Christie's
Christie's
auction house is called Christie's Education. It offers graduate programs in London
London
and New York, and nondegree programs in London, Paris, New York and Melbourne.[77] It has colleges in London
London
and New York accredited by the University of Glasgow in the UK and the New York State Board of Regents in the US. It offers master's degrees, Graduate Diplomas, Art
Art
Business Certificates and an Undergraduate Degree. Courses include: Arts of China; Arts of Europe; Art, Style and Design; Modern and Contemporary Art
Art
(all in London) and History of Art
Art
and the Art
Art
Market (in New York). Evening programmes in Art
Art
Business and part-time certificates in continuing education are also offered in London
London
and New York. Ventures[edit] Christie's
Christie's
Images is the picture library for the auction house and has an archive of several million fine and decorative art images representing items sold in its sale rooms around the world. With offices in New York and London, images are available for reproduction. With Bonhams, Christie's
Christie's
is a shareholder in the London-based Art
Art
Loss Register, a privately owned database used by law enforcement services worldwide to trace and recover stolen art.[78] References[edit]

^ " Christie's
Christie's
locations". Christies.com.  ^ "Christie's". Groupe Artémis. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012.  ^ " Christie's
Christie's
Sales Fall 5% as `Froth' Comes off Global Art
Art
Market". 26 January 2016 – via www.bloomberg.com.  ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah; Brown, Mark (16 November 2017). "How Salvator Mundi
Salvator Mundi
became the most expensive painting ever sold at auction" – via www.theguardian.com.  ^ "Christies.com – About Us". Retrieved 3 December 2008. James Christie conducted the first sale in London
London
on 5 December 1766.  ^ Gazetteer and London
London
Daily Advertiser (London, England), 25 September 1762; Issue 10460 ^ Sarah Lyall (27 February 1998), Jo Floyd, 74; Led Growth and Change at Christie's
Christie's
New York Times. ^ a b c Carol Vogel (11 February 1997), At the Wire, Auction Fans, It's, It's . . . Christie's! New York Times. ^ Rita Reif (12 March 1990), Christie's
Christie's
Reverses Stand on Price Guarantees New York Times. ^ Carol Vogel (6 May 1998), Frenchman Gets Big Stake In Christie's
Christie's
New York Times. ^ a b Carol Vogel (19 May 1998), Frenchman Seeks the Rest Of Christie's
Christie's
New York Times. ^ a b Carol Vogel (19 February 1998), Christie's
Christie's
Ends Talks On Takeover By Swiss New York Times. ^ Carol Vogel (22 June 2001), Re: Real Estate New York Times. ^ a b Scott Reyburn (17 July 2012), Rothko, Private Sales Help Boost Christie's
Christie's
Revenue 13% Bloomberg. ^ Souren Melikian (17 January 2004), The battle of Paris: Christie's rising International Herald Tribune. ^ Souren Melikian (12 January 2007), How Christie's
Christie's
kept top spot over Sotheby's
Sotheby's
in 2006 sales New York Times. ^ Judd Tully (24 October 2011), Private Sales Go Public: Why Christie's
Christie's
and Sotheby's
Sotheby's
Are Embracing Galleries Like Never Before New York Observer. ^ Colin Gleadell (27 February 2007), Christie's
Christie's
move stuns dealers The Daily Telegraph. ^ Kate Taylor (16 April 2007), Auction Houses Vs. Dealers New York Sun. ^ Sarah Thornton (2 June 2010), Smoked venison The Economist. ^ Alexandra Peers (22 June 2008), The Venison Menace New York Magazine. ^ Sarah Thornton (2 June 2010), Smoked venison The Economist. ^ Dan Duray (13 September 2011), Flanking the Competition: Haunch of Venison Gallery Moves Away From Its Auction House Owner New York Observer. ^ Walsh, Kate (28 December 2008). "Pinault woes may force Château Latour sell-off". (London) Sunday Times. Retrieved 14 January 2009.  ^ a b Werdigier, Julia (12 January 2009). " Christie's
Christie's
Plans Cuts as Auctions
Auctions
Slow". New York Times. Retrieved 12 January 2009.  ^ a b Holson, Laura M. (8 February 2009). "In World of High-Glamour, Low-Pay Jobs, the Recession Has Its Bright Spots". New York Times. Retrieved 10 February 2009.  ^ " Christie's
Christie's
Resumes Cutting Jobs After May N.Y. Auctions
Auctions
Decline". Bloomberg News. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.  ^ Vogel, Carol (18 June 2009). " Christie's
Christie's
Executive Leaves a Top Post". New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2009.  ^ Pogrebin, Robin (14 December 2016). " Christie's
Christie's
Chief Executive to Step Down and Hand Reins to Guillaume Cerutti" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "Christie’s Names Barbizet First Woman CEO as Murphy Exits". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 May 2015 ^ Georgina Adam (17 October 2012), Battle for private selling shows Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Art
Art
Newspaper. ^ Childs, Mary (26 January 2016). "'Curated' auctions and new buyers keep Christie's
Christie's
in the frame". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ a b Scott Reyburn (8 March 2017), Christie’s to Close a London Salesroom and Scale Back in Amsterdam New York Times. ^ Carol Vogel (18 February 2013), Christie's
Christie's
Raises Its Commissions for First Time in Five Years New York Times. ^ Spero, Josh (9 March 2017). " Christie's
Christie's
to close South Kensington sale room". Financial Times.  ^ Media, ATG. " Christie's
Christie's
South Kensington
South Kensington
to close sooner than expected". www.antiquestradegazette.com.  ^ Carol Vogel (25 March 1997), Rockefeller Center
Rockefeller Center
Lease Is Signed By Christie's
Christie's
New York Times. ^ Irene Lacher (2 August 1996), Christie's
Christie's
Ups the Ante With Beverly Hills Space Los Angeles Times. ^ Gabriella Angeleti (9 February 2017), Christie’s to open new flagship location in Los Angeles The Art
Art
Newspaper. ^ Rohleder, Anna (2001). "Who's Who in the Sotheby's
Sotheby's
Price-Fixing Trial". Forbes. New York. Retrieved 3 September 2009.  ^ Mason, Christopher (3 May 2005). Art
Art
of the Steal: Inside the Sotheby's- Christie's
Christie's
Auction House Scandal. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-4406-0480-5.  ^ "Going Once, Going Twice… Glamour, Greed and Fraud at Sotheby's and Christie's". Knowledge@Wharton. University of Pennsylvania. 8 September 2004. Retrieved 3 September 2009.  ^ Kimmelman, Michael (3 June 1989). "The Getty Fills a Role, for Itself and the Public". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 February 2009.  ^ "Christie, Manson and Woods, sale 8030, 11 November 1994". Christies.com. 11 November 1994. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ " Stradivarius
Stradivarius
tops auction record". BBC
BBC
News. 17 May 2006. Retrieved 7 April 2007.  ^ a b Vogel, Carol (9 November 2006). "$491 Million Sale at Christie's Shatters Art
Art
Auction Record". New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2009.  ^ "Bulgaria, Christie's
Christie's
Face Off Over Looted Artifact". Art
Art
Info. 7 November 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ Kodzhabasheva, Ani (7 June 2011). "Rogue excavators routinely steal and destroy Bulgaria's archaeological treasures". The Oxonian Globalist. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ " Christie's
Christie's
wewantsexualfreedom.com". www.wewantsexualfreedom.com. Retrieved 2018-01-24.  ^ "Christie's". Studiospecial.com. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ "Most expensive Gundam
Gundam
picture sold in history". People's Daily. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ "Ink painting of Gundam
Gundam
sold at historical price". Gamebase.com.tw. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ Lim, Le-Min (25 May 2008). "Gun-Slinging Robot, Wooden Beams Mark Quiet Hong Kong Art
Art
Sale". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ Artefact (26 May 2008). " Gundam
Gundam
Fetches $600,000". Sankakucomplex.com. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ " Gundam
Gundam
Painting
Painting
Auctioned for US$600,000+ in Hong Kong". Animenewsnetwork.com. 24 February 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ a b "Record-breaking YSL auction shrugs off crisis". Reuters. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2009.  ^ Erlanger, Steve (23 February 2009). "Yves Saint Laurent Art
Art
Sale Brings In $264 Million". New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2009.  ^ "Small brown armchair sells for £19 million". The Daily Telegraph. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2016.  ^ Harris, George (2 March 2009). "China demands return of Christie's 'looted relics'". France 24. Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
(AFP). Retrieved 3 March 2013.  ^ "Marathon cup from 1896 sets Olympics auction record". Reuters. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012.  ^ "NYC Auction of George Washington
George Washington
Document Sets Record". CBS
CBS
News New York. Retrieved 22 June 2012.  ^ Vogel, Carol (12 November 2013). "At $142.4 Million, Triptych Is the Most Expensive Artwork Ever Sold at an Auction". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 November 2013.  ^ Sherwin, Adam (13 November 2013). "When Lucian met Francis: Relationship that spawned most expensive painting ever sold". The Independent. Retrieved 14 November 2013.  ^ "Bacon painting fetches record price". BBC. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.  ^ Swaine, Jon (13 November 2013). " Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
triptych smashes art auction record". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 14 November 2013.  ^ "Contemporary art market cools, but Modern sector heats up at Christie's
Christie's
in 2015". theartnewspaper.com. Retrieved 3 February 2016.  ^ " Oppenheimer Blue diamond sells for world record at auction". The Guardian. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.  ^ Alain Truong art blog ^ 6010107 Christie's
Christie's
sale record ^ "Leonardo da Vinci painting 'Salvator Mundi' sold for record $450.3 million".  ^ a b Kelly Crow (26 April 2010), The Ultimate Walk-In Closet: Christie's
Christie's
Offers Art
Art
Storage in Brooklyn Wall Street Journal. ^ a b Laura Gilbert (26 April 2013), An exodus from Red Hook The Art Newspaper. ^ Diane Cardwell (24 August 2009), A High-Tech Home for Multimillion-Dollar Works of Art
Art
New York Times. ^ Jennifer Maloney (10 May 2013), Builder Is Bullish on New York City's Fine- Art
Art
Storage Market: Developer Starts Construction of Art Storage Facility in Long Island City Wall Street Journal. ^ Laura Gilbert (20 August 2013), Axa sues Christie's
Christie's
storage services over Sandy damage The Art
Art
Newspaper. ^ Laura Gilbert (12 December 2013), Christie's
Christie's
storage hit by second lawsuit over storm damage The Art
Art
Newspaper. ^ Karen W. Arenson (20 October 2005), Getting a Master's Looking at the Masters New York Times. ^ The Art
Art
Loss Register, Ltd.: "The Art
Art
Loss Register is the world's largest database of stolen art and antiques dedicated to their recovery. Its shareholders include Christie's, Bonhams, members of the insurance industry and art trade associations. " Retrieved 27 September 2008.

Bibliography[edit]

J. Herbert, Inside Christie's, London, 1990 (ISBN 978-0340430439) P. A. Colson, The Story of Christie's, London, 1950 H. C. Marillier, Christie's, 1766–1925, London, 1926 M. A. Michael, A Brief History of Christie's
Christie's
Education... , London, 2008 (ISBN 978-0955780707) W. Roberts, Memorials of Christie's, 2 vols, London, 1897 "Going Once." Phaidon Press, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7148-7202-5.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christie's.

Official website Christie's Education
Christie's Education
Graduate Programmes official website Christie's
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International Real Estate – Luxury Properties and Estates official website Christie's
Christie's
page on Arcadja Art
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database with several auction catalogs Bill Brooks – Daily Telegraph obituary Christie's
Christie's
Fine Art
Art
Storage Services – Offi

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