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Caracas
Caracas
(Spanish pronunciation: [kaˈɾakas]; locally [kaˈɾaːka]), officially Santiago
Santiago
de León de Caracas, is the capital, the center of the Greater Caracas
Greater Caracas
Area, and the largest city of Venezuela. Caracas
Caracas
is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas
Caracas
Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range (Cordillera de la Costa). Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m (2,490 and 3,740 ft) above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range. The valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high (7,200 ft) mountain range, Cerro El Ávila; to the south there are more hills and mountains. The Metropolitan District of Caracas
Metropolitan District of Caracas
is made up of five municipalities: Libertador Municipality which is the only administrative division of the Venezuelan Capital District, and four other municipalities, which are within in Miranda State: Chacao, Baruta, Sucre, and El Hatillo. Libertador holds many of the government buildings and is the Capital District (Distrito Capital). The Distrito Capital had a population of 2,013,366 as of 2011[update],[3] while the Metropolitan District of Caracas
Metropolitan District of Caracas
was estimated at 3,273,863 as of 2013.[3] The Metropolitan Region of Caracas
Metropolitan Region of Caracas
has an estimated population of 5,243,301. Businesses in the city include service companies, banks, and malls. Caracas
Caracas
has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area.[4] The Caracas
Caracas
Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela
Venezuela
(PDVSA) are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA
PDVSA
is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas
Caracas
is also Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters, museums, and shopping centers. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas. Caracas
Caracas
has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist, industrial and economic centers of Latin America. The Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas
Caracas
is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas
Caracas
are also noteworthy.[5] The National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena.[6] Boulevard of Sabana Grande is the main commercial corridor of the city and is visited by more than 500 thousand people every day.[7] In 2011, the pedestrian space of Sabana Grande quadrupled.[8] Sabana Grande is a broad, tree-shaded, pedestrians-only boulevard lined on both sides with stylish fashion boutiques, gift shops and street art. Caracas
Caracas
is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers. It has a nominal GDP of 91988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars.9 Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America. The Central Park Towers still boast the title of the highest twin towers in Latin America, although they are no longer the tallest skyscrapers in the region. In 2015, Caracas
Caracas
had the highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 119 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.[9] Most murders and other violent crimes go unsolved.[10]

Contents

1 History 2 Symbols 3 Local government 4 Economy

4.1 Cost of living 4.2 Tourism

5 Geography

5.1 Climate

6 Demographics

6.1 Crime

7 Landmarks

7.1 Federal Capitol 7.2 Boulevard of Sabana Grande 7.3 East Park 7.4 Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex 7.5 Simón Bolívar's Birthplace Home 7.6 National Pantheon 7.7 Parque Central Complex 7.8 Public squares 7.9 El Hatillo 7.10 Cerro El Ávila 7.11 Las Mercedes 7.12 Altamira neighborhood 7.13 Religious buildings 7.14 Landmarks

8 Colleges, universities and international schools

8.1 Central University of Venezuela 8.2 Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
University 8.3 Other universities 8.4 International schools

9 Sports

9.1 Teams

10 Culture

10.1 Gastronomy

11 Notable people 12 Transportation 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and Sister Cities 13.2 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities

14 Districts 15 See also 16 Notes and references 17 Bibliography 18 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Caracas

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Conqueror Diego de Losada, founder of Santiago
Santiago
de León de Caracas (painted early 20th century )

At the time of the founding of the city in 1567,[11] the valley of Caracas
Caracas
was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long. It was destroyed by natives of the region led by Terepaima and Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada
Diego de Losada
laid the foundations of the city of Santiago
Santiago
de León de Caracas. The foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada
Diego de Losada
in founding the city of Caracas
Caracas
on 25 July 1567. In 1577 Caracas
Caracas
became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela
Venezuela
Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel
Juan de Pimentel
(1576–1583). During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela
Venezuela
was frequently raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas
Caracas
was relatively immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation.[12][13] As the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas
Caracas
grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas
Caracas
was ultimately the site of the signing of a Declaration of Independence on 5 July 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas. The independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.[14] Caracas
Caracas
grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas
Caracas
began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s. The Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva
Carlos Raúl Villanueva
and declared World Heritage
World Heritage
by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio, also designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero
23 de Enero
and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, Chuao, and El Cafetal. The dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being primarily agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, and made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho (slum) belt of the valley of Caracas. Symbols[edit] The flag of Caracas
Caracas
consists of a burgundy red field with the version of the Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms
of the City (effective since the 1980s). The red field symbolises the blood spilt by Caraquenian people in favour of independence and the highest ideals of the Venezuelan Nation. Later, in the year 1994, presumably as a result of the change of municipal authorities, it was decided to increase the size of the Caracas
Caracas
coat of arms and move it to the centre of the field. This version of the flag is still in use today. The coat of arms of the City of Caracas
Caracas
was adopted by the Libertador Municipality to identify itself. Later, the Metropolitan Mayor Office assumed the lion, the scallop and Saint James' Cross for the same purpose. The anthem of the city is the Marcha a Caracas, written by the composer Tiero Pezzuti de Matteis with the lyrics by José Enrique Sarabia. The lyrics are said to be inspired by the heroism of the Caraquenian people, and the memory of the City of Red Roofs. Incidentally, the National Anthem
National Anthem
of Venezuela, Gloria al Bravo Pueblo, includes the lines "...y si el despotismo levanta la voz, seguid el ejemplo que Caracas
Caracas
dio" ("...and if despotism raises its voice, follow the example that Caracas
Caracas
gave"), reflecting the fact that, in addition to generously providing many heroic fighters to the War of Independence, the junta established in Caracas
Caracas
(19 April 1810) served as inspiration for other regions to do the same—as did its declaration of independence a year later. Local government[edit] Caracas
Caracas
has five municipalities: Baruta, El Hatillo, Chacao, Libertador and Sucre. Under the constitution of Venezuela, municipal governments have two branches: the executive (governed by a mayor) and the legislative (managed by a municipal council). On 8 March 2000, the year after a new constitution was introduced in Venezuela, it was decreed in Gaceta Official N° 36,906 that the Metropolitan District of Caracas
Caracas
would be created, and that some of the powers of these municipalities would be delegated to the Alcaldía Mayor, physically located in the large Libertador municipality, in the center of the city.[15] Economy[edit]

Business Center Sabana Grande (Centro Empresarial Sabana Grande), headquarter of Petrocaribe
Petrocaribe
and PDVSA
PDVSA
La Estancia. Vicente Quintero Photographer. (2018).

Businesses that are located here include service companies, banks, and malls, among others. It has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area.[4] The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela
Venezuela
(PDVSA) are headquartered here. The PDVSA
PDVSA
is the largest company in Venezuela,[16] and negotiates all the international agreements for the distribution and export of petroleum.[17] When the company existed, the airline Viasa had its headquarters in the Torre Viasa.[18][19] Several international companies and embassies are located in El Rosal and Las Mercedes, in the north of the Baruta municipality and the south of the Chacao municipality. Other important business districts include Sabana Grande (home to PDVSA, Citibank, El Recreo Shopping Mall, Petrocaribe, Gran Meliá Caracas, Banco Plaza, Torre Centrum, Centro Empresarial Sabana Grande, and many others), Chacao, Altamira, La Candelaria and Parque Central Complex. Boulevard of Sabana Grande is home to many fashion stores, such as: Balú, Planeta Sports, Mango, Angely and more. PDVSA
PDVSA
is the main industry of Caracas. Central Bank of Venezuela
Venezuela
is located in the center of the city, near La Candelaria. Parroquia El Recreo ( Sabana Grande district) is the only place in Libertador Municipality) who host European embassies, such as the Embassy of Greece
Greece
and the Embassy of Abkhazia.

Caracas Stock Exchange
Caracas Stock Exchange
building in El Rosal district

Sabana Grande is the main shopping thoroughfare in Caracas, Venezuela. It is a broad, tree-shaded, pedestrians-only boulevard lined on both sides with stylish fashion boutiques, gift shops and street art. Nowadays, Balú is the most important store in Sabana Grande district. Those who need rest can sit on tree-shaded wooden benches that are placed along the length of the boulevard. Refreshments and/or quick-munch lunches can be bought from fast-food outlets and outdoor cafes sandwiched between the retail shops. Sabana Grande has been the bohemian district of Caracas
Caracas
and it has had many ups and downs in its history. Small and medium-size industry contributes to the Caracas
Caracas
economy. The city provides communication and transportation infrastructure between the metropolitan area and the rest of the country. Important industries in Caracas
Caracas
include chemicals, textiles, leather, food, iron and wood products. There are also rubber and cement factories.[20] Its GDP(Nominal) is 70 billion USD and the GDP(PPP) per Capita is.USD 24,000 [21] Cost of living[edit] A 2009 United Nations survey reported that the cost of living in Caracas
Caracas
was 89% of that of its baseline city: New York.[22] However, this statistic is based upon a fixed currency-exchange-rate of 2003 and might not be completely realistic, due to the elevated inflation rates of the last several years.[23] However, Caracas
Caracas
is now one of the cheapest cities for tourists, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit. Caracas
Caracas
is now the 132th most expensive city in the world.[24] Tourism[edit] In 2013, the World Economic forum evaluated countries in terms of how successful they were in advertising campaigns to attract foreign visitors. Out of the 140 countries evaluated, Venezuela
Venezuela
fell in the last place. There are multiple factors that contribute to the lack of tourism in Caracas. A major factor that has contributed to the lack of foreign visitors has been poor transport for tourists. Venezuela
Venezuela
has limited railway systems and airlines. High crime rates and the negative attitude of the Venezuelan population towards tourism also contributed to the poor evaluation. In an attempt to attract more foreign visitors, the Venezuelan Ministry of Tourism invested in multiple hotel infrastructures. The largest hotel investment has been in the Hotel Alba Caracas. The cost for the general maintenance of the north and south towers of the hotel is approximately 231.5 million Venezuelan bolivars. Although the Venezuelan Ministry of Tourism has taken the initiative to recognize the importance of the tourism industry, the Venezuelan government has not placed the tourism industry as an economic priority. In 2013, the budget for the Ministry of Tourism was only 173.8 million bolivars, while the Ministry of the Youth received approximately 724.6 million bolivars. The tourism industry in Venezuela
Venezuela
contributes approximately 3.8 percent of the country GDP. Venezuela's current goal is to reach a GDP of 7.6 percent. The World Economic Forum predicts Venezuela's GDP to rise to 4.2 percent by 2022.[25] Geography[edit] Caracas
Caracas
is contained entirely within a valley of the Venezuelan central range, and separated from the Caribbean coast by a roughly 15 kilometres (9 miles) expanse of El Ávila National Park. The valley is relatively small and quite irregular, the altitude with respect to sea level varies from between 870 and 1,043 meters (2,854 and 3,422 ft) , with 900 meters (3,000 feet) in the historic zone. This, along with the rapid population growth, has profoundly influenced the urban development of the city. The most elevated point of the Capital District, wherein the city is located, is the Pico El Ávila, which rises to 2,159 meters (7,083 feet). The main body of water in Caracas is the Guaire River, which flows across the city and empties into the Tuy River, which is also fed by the El Valle and San Pedro rivers, in addition to numerous streams which descend from El Ávila. The La Mariposa and Camatagua reservoirs provide water to the city. The city is occasionally subject to earthquakes - notably in 1641 and 1967.

Day view of El Avila National Park
El Avila National Park
from Parque del Este

Galipán, town atop El Ávila

View of the Rio Guaire canyon, main body of water that passes through Caracas

View of the Avila gondola lift starting from Caracas
Caracas
to Hotel Humboldt station

Climate[edit]

View of the east side of Caracas

Under the Köppen climate classification, Caracas
Caracas
has a tropical savanna climate (Aw). Caracas
Caracas
is also intertropical, with precipitation that varies between 900 and 1,300 millimeters (35 and 51 inches) (annual), in the city proper, and up to 2,000 millimeters (79 inches) in some parts of the Mountain range. While Caracas
Caracas
is within the tropics, due to its altitude temperatures are generally not nearly as high as other tropical locations at sea level. The annual average temperature is approximately 23.8 °C (75 °F), with the average of the coldest month (January) 22.8 °C (73 °F) and the average of the warmest month (July) 25.0 °C (77 °F), which gives a small annual thermal amplitude of 2.2 °C (4.0 °F). In the months of December and January abundant fog may appear, in addition to a sudden nightly drop in temperature, until reaching 8 °C (46 °F).[26] This peculiar weather is known by the natives of Caracas
Caracas
as the Pacheco. In addition, nightly temperatures at any time of the year are much (14 to 20 °C) lower than daytime highs and usually do not remain above 24 °C (75 °F), resulting in very pleasant evening temperatures. Hail storms appear in Caracas, although only on rare occasions. Electrical storms are much more frequent, especially between June and October, due to the city being in a closed valley and the orographic action of Cerro El Ávila. Caracas
Caracas
record extremes have been reported in other city's stations to reach a minimum of 6 °C (43 °F) and a maximum of 35.5 °C (95.9 °F)[27][better source needed][self-published source]

Climate data for Caracas
Caracas
(1970–1998)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31.9 (89.4) 34.1 (93.4) 35.3 (95.5) 33.5 (92.3) 34.4 (93.9) 32.8 (91) 33.6 (92.5) 31.5 (88.7) 32.2 (90) 31.4 (88.5) 31.2 (88.2) 30.8 (87.4) 35.3 (95.5)

Average high °C (°F) 23.3 (73.9) 23.6 (74.5) 24.3 (75.7) 25.0 (77) 25.8 (78.4) 26.0 (78.8) 25.5 (77.9) 25.8 (78.4) 25.5 (77.9) 25.2 (77.4) 24.6 (76.3) 23.8 (74.8) 24.9 (76.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 19.6 (67.3) 19.7 (67.5) 20.2 (68.4) 21.2 (70.2) 22.0 (71.6) 22.0 (71.6) 21.7 (71.1) 21.9 (71.4) 21.9 (71.4) 21.8 (71.2) 21.3 (70.3) 20.2 (68.4) 21.1 (70)

Average low °C (°F) 15.9 (60.6) 15.8 (60.4) 16.0 (60.8) 17.5 (63.5) 18.2 (64.8) 18.1 (64.6) 17.9 (64.2) 18.1 (64.6) 18.3 (64.9) 18.4 (65.1) 18.0 (64.4) 16.5 (61.7) 17.4 (63.3)

Record low °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 10.9 (51.6) 11.4 (52.5) 12.5 (54.5) 13.1 (55.6) 14.9 (58.8) 14.1 (57.4) 14.3 (57.7) 15.5 (59.9) 13.1 (55.6) 11.9 (53.4) 10.0 (50) 7.1 (44.8)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 15.3 (0.602) 13.2 (0.52) 11.4 (0.449) 59.2 (2.331) 81.7 (3.217) 134.1 (5.28) 118.4 (4.661) 123.8 (4.874) 115.4 (4.543) 126.3 (4.972) 72.6 (2.858) 41.4 (1.63) 912.8 (35.937)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6 4 3 7 13 19 19 18 15 15 13 10 142

Average relative humidity (%) 73.7 74.2 73.0 76.3 75.4 75.1 74.1 74.0 74.9 74.7 73.7 74.7 74.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 229.4 217.5 235.6 183.0 182.9 183.0 210.8 217.0 213.0 210.8 210.0 213.9 2,506.9

Source #1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (INAMEH)[28][29]

Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (rainfall data),[30] Hong Kong Observatory (sun only),[31] NOAA(extremes)[32]

Demographics[edit] According to the population census of 2011 the Caracas
Caracas
proper (Distrito Capital) is over 1.9 million inhabitants,[33] while that of the Metropolitan District of Caracas
Metropolitan District of Caracas
is estimated at 2.9 million as of 2011[update]. The majority of the population is mixed-race, typically with varying degrees of European, African, Indigenous and occasional Asian ancestry. There is a noteworthy Afro-Venezuelan community formed by residents whose ancestors settled in Caracas
Caracas
after being liberated from slavery as a reward for aiding Bolívar in the Venezuelan War of Independence. Additionally, the city has a large number of both European Venezuelans & Asian Venezuelans who descend from the massive influx of various immigrants Venezuela
Venezuela
received from all across Eurasia during the 20th century. The descendants of Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, Chinese, Colombians, Germans, Syrians and Lebanese stand out.[33][34]

Panoramic view of the Caracas
Caracas
valley from Parque Nacional El Ávila

Night view of downtown Caracas

Crime[edit] Main article: Crime in Venezuela

The slums on the east and west hills of Caracas
Caracas
are the poorest neighborhoods in the city, and where crime tends to be concentrated.

Venezuela
Venezuela
and its capital, Caracas, are reported to both have among the highest per capita murder rates in the world. Caracas
Caracas
is the city with the highest homicide rate in the world outside of a warzone, with a 2016 rate of around 120 murders per 100,000 people.[35][36][37][38][39][40] Most murders and other violent crimes go unsolved, with estimates of the number of unresolved crimes as high as 98%.[41][42][43] The U.S. Department of State
U.S. Department of State
has issued travel warnings for Venezuela
Venezuela
(especially Caracas) due to high rates of crime.[44] Landmarks[edit] Federal Capitol[edit] The Federal Capitol occupies an entire city block, and, with its golden domes and neoclassical pediments, can seem even bigger. The building was commissioned by Antonio Guzmán Blanco
Antonio Guzmán Blanco
in the 1870s, and is most famous for its Salón Elíptico, an oval hall with a mural-covered dome and walls lined with portraits of the country's great and good. The nearby Palacio Municipal de Caracas
Palacio Municipal de Caracas
dating from 1696 was renovated in the Neoclassical style in 1906 and now serves as the city hall and the Caracas
Caracas
Museum.[45] Boulevard of Sabana Grande[edit] Sabana Grande district Main article: Sabana Grande (Caracas)

Fashion stores in the boulevard of Sabana Grande (2018). Vicente Quintero Photographer.

Sabana Grande is the main shopping thoroughfare in Caracas
Caracas
Venezuela. It is a broad, tree-shaded, pedestrians-only boulevard lined on both sides with stylish fashion boutiques and gift shops. Those who need rest can sit on tree-shaded wooden benches that are placed along the length of the boulevard. Refreshments and/or quick-munch lunches can be bought from fast-food outlets and outdoor cafes sandwiched between the retail shops. East Park[edit] The Caracas
Caracas
East Park (Parque del Este, now officially Parque Generalísimo Francisco de Miranda) was designed by Brazilian architect Roberto Burle Marx. It is a green paradise in the middle of the city, and it contains a small zoo. A replica of the ship led by Francisco de Miranda, the Leander, is in the southern part of the park. Before there used to exist a replica of the Santa Maria ship, used by Christopher Colombus
Christopher Colombus
in his voyages to America. Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex[edit] Main article: Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex
Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex
(Complejo Cultural Teresa Carreño), or more commonly the Teresa Carreño Theatre (Teatro Teresa Carreño), is by far the most important theater of Caracas
Caracas
and Venezuela. The theater presents symphonic and popular concerts, operas, ballet, and dramatic works. It is the second largest theater in South America, after the Teatro Colón
Teatro Colón
of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Colonial painting of Our Lady of Caracas, Patroness of the city, and below the city (circa 1766).

Simón Bolívar's Birthplace Home[edit] Skyscrapers may loom overhead, but there is more than a hint of original colonial flavor in this neatly proportioned reconstruction of the house where Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
was born on 24 July 1783. The museum's exhibits include period weapons, banners and uniforms. Much of the original colonial interior has been replaced by monumental paintings of battle scenes, but more personal relics can be seen in the nearby Bolivarian museum. The pride of the place goes to the coffin in which Bolívar's remains were brought from Colombia; his ashes now rest in the National Pantheon. National Pantheon[edit] Main article: National Pantheon of Venezuela Venezuela's most venerated building is five blocks north of Plaza Bolívar, on the northern edge of the old town. Formerly a church, the building was given its new purpose as the final resting place for eminent Venezuelans by Antonio Guzmán Blanco
Antonio Guzmán Blanco
in 1874. Parque Central Complex[edit] Main article: Parque Central Complex At a short distance east of Plaza Bolívar is Parque Central, a concrete complex of five high-rise residential slabs of somewhat apocalyptic-appearing architecture, crowned by two 56-storey octagonal towers, one of them is under repair due to the fire which burnt the building on 17 October 2004. Parque Central is Caracas' art and culture hub, with museums, cinemas and the Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex. The West Tower balcony, on the 52nd floor, gives a 360° bird's-eye view of Caracas. Public squares[edit]

Plaza Bolívar is the focus of the old town with the monument to El Libertador, Simón Bolívar, at its heart. Modern high-rise buildings have overpowered much of the colonial flavor of Caracas' founding neighbourhood. Plaza Venezuela
Venezuela
is the geographic center of Caracas. It is a large urban plaza at the entrance of the Central University of Venezuela. Kinetic artists have displayed their works there, including Carlos Cruz-Diez, Alejandro Otero
Alejandro Otero
and Jesus Soto. East of the Plaza is the Plaza Venezuela
Venezuela
Fountain, a large computerized display of water, music and colored light refurbished in 2009 to include the latest available technology.[46] Plaza Caracas
Caracas
was constructed in 1983. It is in the Simón Bolívar Center. Plaza San Jacinto dates to 1603 and used to be the site of the city market Plaza Los Palos Grandes is a modern construction located at the municipality of Chacao. It has a display of water and a beautiful coffee shop. this plaza is the center of free yoga lessons for all the people that want to enjoy the city outdoors. It also has its own library.

El Hatillo[edit] Main article: El Hatillo Municipality El Hatillo is a colonial town that is located at the south-east suburbs of Caracas
Caracas
in the municipal area of the same name. This small town, which is one of Venezuela's few well-preserved typical colonial areas, gives an idea of what Caracas
Caracas
was like in centuries past. Cerro El Ávila[edit] Main article: Cerro El Ávila Cerro El Ávila (Mountain El Ávila) (Indigenous name: Waraira Repano), is a mountain in the mid-North of Venezuela. It rises next to Caracas
Caracas
and separates the city from the Caribbean Sea. It is considered the lungs of Caracas
Caracas
due to the amount of vegetation on the mountain. Las Mercedes[edit] Main article: Las Mercedes
Las Mercedes
(district in Caracas, Venezuela) This zone contains restaurants with varied gastronomical specialties, along with pubs, bars, pools and art galleries. Altamira neighborhood[edit] Main article: Altamira (Caracas) Altamira is a neighborhood in the Chacao municipality of Caracas. It has its own Metro Station, many hotels, malls and restaurants, and is an important business and cultural centre. The Francisco de Miranda avenue (a major avenue in Caracas) and the Distibuidor Altamira (a congested highway exit) are both in Altamira.

Caracas, as painted by Joseph Thomas in 1839

Religious buildings[edit]

Caracas
Caracas
cityscape in the early 1900s.

The Iglesia de San Francisco is of historical value. Bolívar's funeral was held here twelve years after his death. Here he was proclaimed Libertador in 1813 by the people of Caracas. The church has gilded baroque altarpieces, and retains much of its original colonial interior, despite being given a treatment in the 19th century under the auspices of Antonio Guzmán Blanco, which was intended to be modernizing.[citation needed] It contains some 17th-century masterpieces of art, carvings, sculptures and oil paintings. The Central University of Venezuela, established during the reign of Philip V, was lodged for centuries in the church cloisters next door, which today are the seat of the Language Academy, and the Academies of History, Physics, and Mathematics. Caracas Cathedral
Caracas Cathedral
is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Caracas. Basilica of St. Teresa
Basilica of St. Teresa
is designated a National Historic Landmark. The Mosque of Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim
Mosque of Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim
is the second largest mosque in Latin America. For many years it was the biggest.[47] The Union Israelita de Caracas
Caracas
is the biggest Synagogue for the Jewish Ashkenazi community in Caracas. Its mission is to host the religious services and preserve the memory of the Jewish heritage in Venezuela. Similarly, Mariperez is the biggest Synagogue for the Jewish Sephardic community in Caracas. Landmarks[edit]

Parque del Este

Lourdes Chapel

Palacio de las Academias

Paseo Los Proceres

Sabana Grande district

Federal Capitol

Parque Cristal

Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex

Aerial view of Plaza Altamira

Caracas
Caracas
Cathedral

Boulevard of Sabana Grande

Fashion stores in Sabana Grande

Colleges, universities and international schools[edit]

Central University of Venezuela

Laberinto Cromovegetal, at the Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
University

Aerial view of Universidad Metropolitana

Central University of Venezuela[edit] Main article: Central University of Venezuela The Central University of Venezuela
Venezuela
(Universidad Central de Venezuela in Spanish) is a public University. Founded in 1721, it is the oldest university in Venezuela
Venezuela
and one of the first in Latin America.[citation needed] The university campus was designed by architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva
Carlos Raúl Villanueva
and it was declared World Heritage by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 2000. The Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas, as the main Campus is also known, is considered a masterpiece of architecture and urban planning and it is the only university campus designed in the 20th century that has received such recognition by UNESCO.[citation needed] Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
University[edit] Main article: Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
University The Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
University (Universidad Simón Bolívar, in Spanish, or USB) is a public institution in Caracas
Caracas
that focuses on science and technology. Its motto is "La Universidad de la Excelencia" ("University of Excellence"). Other universities[edit]

Academia Militar de Venezuela Escuela de Formacion de Oficiales de las Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperación Universidad Alejandro de Humboldt Universidad Bolivariana de Venezuela Universidad Católica Andrés Bello Universidad Experimental Politécnica Antonio José de Sucre Universidad José María Vargas Universidad Metropolitana Universidad Monteavila Universidad Nacional Experimental de las Fuerzas Armadas (UNEFA) Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez Universidad Nueva Esparta Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador Universidad Santa Maria

International schools[edit]

British School of Caracas Colegio Internacional de Caracas Escuela Campo Alegre International Christian School Tomchei Tmimim Lycée Français de Caracas
Caracas
- Colegio Francia

Sports[edit]

UCV Baseball Stadium

UCV Olympic Stadium

The city hosted the official 2013 Americas Basketball Championship. There are professional association football, baseball and several other sports. Professional teams include Caracas
Caracas
Fútbol Club, Deportivo Petare, Atletico Venezuela, SD Centro Italo Venezolano, Estrella Roja FC
Estrella Roja FC
and Real Esppor Club. The Deportivo Petare
Deportivo Petare
has reached the semifinals of international tournaments, such as the Copa Libertadores de America, while the Caracas Fútbol Club
Caracas Fútbol Club
has reached the quarterfinals. Baseball teams Tiburones de La Guaira
Tiburones de La Guaira
and Leones del Caracas
Leones del Caracas
play in the Estadio Universitario de la UCV, of the Central University of Venezuela, with a capacity of 26,000 spectators. Another baseball team started in Caracas: the Navegantes del Magallanes. It was moved to Valencia, Carabobo
Valencia, Carabobo
in the 1970s. Association Football stadiums include:

Estadio Olímpico de la UCV, with capacity of 30 000 spectators is seat of the Deportivo Italia
Deportivo Italia
and Caracas
Caracas
Fútbol Club. Brígido Iriarte stadium, with a capacity of 12 000 spectators (old seat of the Deportivo Italia
Deportivo Italia
and Caracas
Caracas
Fútbol Club, and seat of the Estrella Roja FC). The Caracas Fútbol Club
Caracas Fútbol Club
opened its own stadium in 2005, Campo Deportivo Cocodrilos. Cocodrilos de Caracas
Cocodrilos de Caracas
plays in the Venezuelan professional basketball league. They play their games in the "Gimnasio José Beracasa" in the neighbourhood of El Paraíso.

Caracas
Caracas
is the seat of the National Institute of Sports and of the Venezuelan Olympic Committee. Caracas
Caracas
hosted the 1983 Pan American Games. Teams[edit]

Association Football: Caracas
Caracas
Fútbol Club, Deportivo Petare, Atletico Venezuela, SD Centro Italo Venezolano, Estrella Roja Futbol club, Real Esppor Club. Baseball: Tiburones de la Guaira, Leones del Caracas. Basketball: Cocodrilos de Caracas.

Culture[edit]

Cloud Shepherd, by Hans Arp, UCV

Caracas
Caracas
is Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters, museums, and shopping centers. The city is home to an array of immigrants from but not limited to: Spain, Italy, Portugal, the Middle East, Germany, China, and Latin American countries.[48][49][50][51] Gastronomy[edit] Caracas
Caracas
has a gastronomical heritage due to the influence of immigrants, leading to a choice of regional and international cuisine. There are a variety of international restaurants including American, French, Lebanese, Italian, Spanish, Indian, Chinese, Peruvian, Japanese, Mediterranean and Mexican. The district of Sabana Grande contains Spanish, Italian, Arab and Chinese restaurants. Urrutia, La Huerta, Da Guido and El Arabito are very popular in Sabana Grande. The district of La Candelaria contains Spanish restaurants, resulting from Galician and Canarian immigrants that came to the area in the mid-20th century. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Caracas Transportation[edit]

Inside Plaza Venezuela
Venezuela
station of the Caracas
Caracas
Metro

Railway Caracas
Caracas
- Cúa

The Caracas Metro
Caracas Metro
has been in operation since 27 March 1983. With 4 lines, 47 stations and about 10 more to be constructed. It covers a great part of the city and also has an integrated ticket system that combines the route of the Metro with those offered by the Metrobús, a bus service of the Caracas
Caracas
Metro. In 2010, the first segment of a new ariel cable car system opened, Metrocable[52] which feeds into the larger metro system. Buses are the main means of mass transportation. There are two bus systems: the traditional system and the Metrobús. The traditional system runs a variety of bus types, operated by several companies on normal streets and avenues:

Autobus; large buses Camioneta; medium size buses microbus or camionetica; vans or minivans

IFE; train services to and from Tuy Valley cities of Charallave and Cúa Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
International Airport, the biggest and most important in the country is located outside the city, roughly 32 kilometres (20 mi) from the downtown area. Caracas
Caracas
Aerial Tramway The Los Teques Metro
Los Teques Metro
is a suburban mass-transit system completed in 2006 that connects Caracas
Caracas
with the suburban city of Los Teques. In March 2009 four of the five Caracas
Caracas
districts launched Plan Vía Libre to reduce traffic (the pro-Chavez Jorge Rodríguez' Libertador District is currently not cooperating as the other districts are in the hands of the opposition[53]). On each weekday, cars with certain number plates are banned from entering key parts of the city centre; the numbers rotate so that any particular car is banned one day a week.[54] Generalisimo Francisco de Miranda
Francisco de Miranda
airbase used by military aviation and govern aeroplane

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South America Twin towns and Sister Cities[edit] Caracas
Caracas
is twinned with:[citation needed]

Honolulu, USA[55] New Orleans, USA[55] Melilla, Spain[56] Rosario, Argentina, since 1998[57] Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, since 1981[58]

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[edit] Caracas
Caracas
is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[59] from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra Asunción, Paraguay Bogotá, Colombia Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala Havana, Cuba Quito, Ecuador La Paz, Bolivia Lima, Peru Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain[60] Managua, Nicaragua Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Montevideo, Uruguay Panama
Panama
City, Panama Rio de Janeiro, Brazil San Jose, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico San Salvador, El Salvador Santiago, Chile Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Districts[edit]

v t e

Caracas
Caracas
Divisions

Northwest

Catia 23 de Enero Propatria Lomas de Urdaneta Casalta El Atlántico Caño Amarillo Los Magallanes de Catia Alta Vista Ruperto Lugo Lídice Gramoven Manicomio

Center

El Silencio Capitolio La Hoyada Altagracia La Pastora Cotiza Quinta Crespo Guaicaipuro La Candelaria San Bernardino

Southwest

Artigas Vista Alegre Bella Vista Colinas de Vista Alegre La Yaguara Zona Industrial de La Yaguara El Algodonal Carapa Antímano Washington Las Fuentes El Paraíso El Pinar La Paz El Paraíso Montalbán Juan Pablo II La Vega Las Adjuntas Caricuao Mamera

Centereastern

El Conde Parque Central San Agustín del Sur San Agustín del Norte Simón Rodríguez Maripérez La Colina Las Palmas Las Lomas San Rafael Los Caobos Quebrada Honda San Bernardino

South

Cementerio Los Carmenes Los Castaños Prado de Maria La Bandera Las Acacias Colinas de las Acacias Los Rosales Valle Abajo Los Chaguaramos Ciudad Universitaria Santa Mónica Colinas de Santa Mónica Colinas de Bello Monte Cumbres de Curumo El Valle Los Jardines de El Valle Coche Delgado Chalbaud La Rinconada

Eastern

La Campiña La Florida Alta Florida Chapellín Los Cedros El Bosque Chacaíto Sabana Grande Bello Monte Country Club El Pedregal San Marino Campo Alegre Chacao Bello Campo El Rosal El Retiro Las Mercedes Tamanaco Chuao Altamira Los Palos Grandes La Castellana La Floresta Santa Eduvigis Sebucán La Carlota Santa Cecilia Campo Claro Los Ruices Montecristo Los Chorros Los Dos Caminos Boleíta Los Cortijos La California Horizonte El Marqués La Urbina Terrazas del Ávila Lomas del Ávila El Llanito Macaracuay La Guairita Caurimare El Cafetal San Román Santa Rosa San Luis Santa Sofía Santa Paula Santa Inés Los Pomelos Palo Verde Petare

Southeastern

Valle Arriba Santa Fe Los Campitos Prados del Este Alto Prado Manzanares El Peñón Baruta Piedra Azul La Trinidad La Tahona Monterrey Las Minas Los Samanes Cerro Verde Los Naranjos La Boyera Alto Hatillo El Hatillo Los Geranios La Lagunita El Placer El Guayabao El Volcán La Unión Sartanejas

See also[edit]

Venezuela
Venezuela
portal

1641 Caracas
Caracas
earthquake 1967 Caracas
Caracas
earthquake Greater Caracas Large Cities Climate Leadership Group List of metropolitan areas of Venezuela Venezuela
Venezuela
International Book Fair Caracazo
Caracazo
– a riot Venezuela
Venezuela
60-day state of emergency List of cities with the most high-rise buildings

Notes and references[edit]

^ "Population projection for federal entities" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ "Postal Codes in Caracas". Páginas Amarillas Cantv. Retrieved December 30, 2015.  ^ a b "Cabildo Metropolitano" (PDF). Retrieved 7 October 2014.  ^ a b "Caracas". Caracas.eluniversal.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ Valentina Quintero. 1998. Venezuela. Corporación Venezolana de Turismo. Caracas. 118p. ^ http://lisablackmore.net/?p=1004 ^ http://caracasen450.com/2017/06/19/bulevar-de-sabana-grande/ ^ http://archivo.eluniversal.com/2011/02/01/ccs_art_70-del-bulevar-sera_2175564 ^ "The Most Dangerous Cities in the World".  ^ "24,000 murders last year confirm Venezuela
Venezuela
as one of the world's most dangerous countries". The Guardian. 11 January 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2017.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carácas". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ John Lombardi, Venezuela, Oxford, England, 1982, p 72. ^ "George Somers, Amyas Preston and the Burning of Caracas". The Bermudian.  ^ Maurice Wiesenthal, The History and Geography of a Valley, 1981. ^ Goldfrank, Benjamin (2011). Deepening Local Democracy in Latin America: Participation, Decentralization, and the Left. Penn State Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-271-07451-1.  ^ "Sitio Web PDVSA". Pdvsa.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ "Petróleos de Venezuela
Venezuela
S.A." PDVSA. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 30 March 1985. 130." Retrieved on 17 June 2009. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 26 March 1988. 125. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 16 March 2012.  ^ "The Online Journal of McKinsey & Company". McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-18.  ^ En_eco_art_venezuela With The H_13A884453 - 2007 - El Universal Archived 12 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Caracas
Caracas
entre las ciudades más baratas para turistas". El Venezolano de Orlando.  ^ MARTÍNEZ RODRÍGUEZ, M. (2013). Venezuela: un destino nada chévere. Debates IESA, 18(4), 73-75. ^ "Weather Base – World Weather – Average Conditions – Caracas". BBC. Retrieved 28 July 2013.  ^ http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm Extreme temperatures around the world ^ "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Máximas y Mínimas Medias" (PDF). INAMEH (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.  ^ "Estadísticos Básicos Temperaturas y Humedades Relativas Medias" (PDF). INAMEH (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2012.  ^ "World Weather Information Service - Caracas". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 16 October 2012.  ^ "Climatological Information for Caracas, Venezuela". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 16 October 2012.  ^ "Caracas-La-Carlota Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 January 2013.  ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 2010-04-30.  ^ Censo Nacional Deciembre 2014 ^ "List of cities by murder rate". seguridadjusticiaypaz.org.mx. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ "Most Dangerous Cities in the World". WorldAtlas.  ^ Tait, Robert. "Caracas, Venezuela
Venezuela
named as the world's most violent city". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 April 2017.  ^ Grillo, Ioan. "Venezuela's Murder Epidemic Rages on Amid State of Emergency". TIME. Retrieved 22 April 2017.  ^ Tegel, Simeon. "Venezuela's capital is world's most murderous city". USA Today. Retrieved 22 April 2017.  ^ " Caracas
Caracas
World's Most Violent City: Report". Insight Crime. Retrieved 22 April 2017.  ^ Woody, Christopher. " Venezuela
Venezuela
admits homicides soared to 60 a day in 2016, making it one of the most violent countries in the world". Business Insider.  ^ "'98% Impunity Rate in Venezuela': Opposition". InSight crime. Retrieved 22 April 2017.  ^ Mendoza, Samuel. "Impunity and insecurity go hand in hand in Venezuela". El Universal. Retrieved 22 April 2017.  ^ " Venezuela
Venezuela
Travel Warning". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 16 June 2017.  ^ "Palacio Municipal de Caracas", EcuRed. (in Spanish) Retrieved 20 May 2013. ^ (in Spanish) VTV Noticias "Con gran explosión de luz, sonido y movimiento fue reinaugurada fuente de Plaza Venezuela". vtv.gov.ve. Archived from the original on 2 November 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009.  ^ The New York Times/ Brooke, James (3 January 1993). " Caracas
Caracas
Getting Continent's Biggest Mosque". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2009.  ^ Ingham, James (20 April 2007). "Americas Airships to tackle Caracas
Caracas
crime". BBC News. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ "Venezuela". Travel.state.gov. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ " Venezuela
Venezuela
Warnings or Dangers – Travel Guide". VirtualTourist.com. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ Feinman, Sacha (27 November 2006). "Crime and class in Caracas. – By Sacha Feinman – Slate Magazine". Slate.com. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ " Caracas Metro
Caracas Metro
Cable". www.urbanrail.net.  ^ Gabriel, George. "Discourse and Division in Venezuela". venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ (in Spanish) Noticias24, 1 March 2009, Mañana comienza el "Plan Vía Libre" para combatir las colas en Caracas ^ a b "Caracas, Venezuela". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 9 February 2015.  ^ Terra. "Hermanamiento de Melilla
Melilla
con Caracas".  ^ "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario - Buenos Aires 711. Retrieved 14 October 2014.  ^ Santa Cruz más. "Ciudades hermanadas con Santa Cruz de Tenerife".  ^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12-10-82)" (PDF). 12 October 1982. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-12.  ^ " Madrid
Madrid
International". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Caracas External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caracas.

Caracas
Caracas
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Links to related articles

v t e

Landmarks of Caracas

Museums

Alejandro Otero
Alejandro Otero
Museum Birthplace of Simón Bolívar Bolivarian Museum Children's Museum William Phelps Museum Fine Arts Museum Fine Arts Museum La Estancia Art Center National Art Gallery National Pantheon Science Museum Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
Center Soto Sphere Arturo Michelena Museum

Religion

Bet-El Synagogue Tiféret Israel Synagogue Caracas
Caracas
Cathedral Iglesia de San Francisco La Chiquinquirá Church Mosque of Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim Church of St. Constantine and Helena Caracas
Caracas
Venezuela
Venezuela
Temple

Culture and sport

Brígido Iriarte Stadium Caracas
Caracas
Athenaeum Estadio Olímpico Estadio Universitario La Rinconada Hippodrome National Library National Theater Poliedro de Caracas Teatro Municipal Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex University City

Government

Miraflores Palace Palacio de Justicia de Caracas Palacio de las Academias Palacio Federal Legislativo Palacio Municipal de Caracas Supreme Tribunal of Justice

Other

Boulevard of Sabana Grande Aerial Tramway Carmelitas Post Office Centro Sambil Centro San Ignacio El Calvario El Hatillo El Silencio Humboldt Hotel La Casona La Pastora Las Mercedes Los Caobos Park Los Conductores del País Mural Monument to the National Heroes Metro Nuevo Circo Parque Central Complex Parque del Este Plaza Bolívar Plaza Francia Plaza Venezuela Quinta de Anauco Villa Planchart Yellow House

v t e

State capitals of Venezuela

Capital, state

   

Puerto Ayacucho, Amazonas Barcelona, Anzoátegui San Fernando de Apure, Apure Maracay, Aragua Barinas, Barinas Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar

Valencia, Carabobo San Carlos, Cojedes Tucupita, Delta Amacuro Caracas, Distrito Capital Santa Ana de Coro, Falcón San Juan de los Morros, Guárico

Barquisimeto, Lara Mérida, Mérida Los Teques, Miranda Maturín, Monagas La Asunción, Nueva Esparta Guanare, Portuguesa

Cumaná, Sucre San Cristóbal, Táchira Trujillo, Trujillo La Guaira, Vargas San Felipe, Yaracuy Maracaibo, Zulia

Bold indicates national capital.

v t e

Administrative divisions of Venezuela

Capital District

Caracas

States

Amazonas Anzoátegui Apure Aragua Barinas Bolívar Carabobo Cojedes Delta Amacuro Falcón Guárico Lara Mérida Miranda Monagas Nueva Esparta Portuguesa Sucre Táchira Trujillo Vargas Yaracuy Zulia

Dependencies

Los Monjes Archipelago Las Aves archipelago Isla Aves Los Hermanos Archipelago Islas Los Frailes Los Roques archipelago La Sola Island La Tortuga Island La Orchila Blanquilla Island Los Testigos Islands Isla de Patos

Regions

Andean Capital Central Central-Western Guayana Insular Llanos Eastern South-Western Zulian

Claimed

Guayana Esequiba

v t e

Capitals of South America

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Asunción, Paraguay Bogotá, Colombia Brasília, Brazil Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Cayenne, French Guiana
French Guiana
(France) Georgetown, Guyana King Edward Point, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(UK)

La Paz
La Paz
(de facto) Sucre
Sucre
(de jure), Bolivia

Lima, Peru Montevideo, Uruguay Paramaribo, Suriname Quito, Ecuador Santiago, Chile Stanley, Falkland Islands
Stanley, Falkland Islands
(UK)

v t e

Pan American Games
Pan American Games
host cities

Summer

1951: Buenos Aires 1955: Mexico
Mexico
City 1959: Chicago 1963: São Paulo 1967: Winnipeg 1971: Santiago
Santiago
de Cali 1975: Mexico
Mexico
City 1979: San Juan 1983: Caracas 1987: Indianapolis 1991: Havana 1995: Mar del Plata 1999: Winnipeg 2003: Santo Domingo 2007: Rio de Janeiro 2011: Guadalajara 2015: Toronto 2019: Lima 2023: Santiago

Winter

1990: Las Leñas

v t e

Authorities of Caracas

City-wide authority

Government of the Capital District (Head: Daniel Aponte) Metropolitan District of Caracas
Metropolitan District of Caracas
(Mayor: Antonio Ledezma)

Municipalities

Baruta (Mayor: Gerardo Blyde) Chacao (Mayor: Ramón Muchacho) El Hatillo (Mayor: David Smolansky) Libertador (Mayor: Jorge Rodríguez) Sucre
Sucre
(Mayor: Carlos Ocariz)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139170218 LCCN: n79097478 GND: 4009457-1 BNF:

.