HOME
TheInfoList



The canton of Uri (german: Kanton Uri ) is one of the 26
cantons of Switzerland The 26 cantons of Switzerland (german: Kanton; french: canton; it, cantone; Sursilvan and Surmiran: ''cantun''; Vallader and Puter: ''Chantun''; Sutsilvan: ''cantùn''; Rumantsch Grischun: ''chantun'') are the member states of the Swiss Confede ...
and a founding member of the
Swiss Confederation ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent directorial republic , leader_title1 = Federal Council , leader_name ...
. It is located in
Central Switzerland Central Switzerland is the region of the Alpine foothills geographically the heart and historically the origin of Switzerland, with the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Lucerne and Zug. Central Switzerland is one of the NUTS 2 Statistic ...

Central Switzerland
. The canton's territory covers the valley of the
ReussReuss may refer to: *Reuss (surname) *Reuss (river) in Switzerland *Reuss (state) or Reuß, several former states or countries in present-day Germany, and the Republic of Reuss *Reuss Elder Line and Reuss Younger Line (House of Reuss), members inclu ...
between the
St. Gotthard Passgerman: Gotthardpass , photo = File:Gotthardpass 2008.jpg , photo_caption = The area of the Gotthard Pass from the west , elevation_m = 2106 , elevation_ref = , traversed = National Road 2 Old paved road (Tremola) Gotthard Rail Tunnel Gotthard Ro ...
and
Lake Lucerne Lake Lucerne (german: Vierwaldstättersee, literally "Lake of the four forested settlements" (in English usually translated as ''forest cantons''), french: lac des Quatre-Cantons, it, lago dei Quattro Cantoni) is a lake in central Switzerland an ...

Lake Lucerne
. The official language of Uri is (the Swiss variety of Standard)
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language * Germanic peoples * Ger ...
, but the main spoken dialect is the Alemannic
Swiss German Swiss German (Standard German: ''Schweizerdeutsch'', gsw, Schwiizerdütsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many d ...
called . Uri was once the only canton where the children in school had to learn Italian as their first foreign language, but in the school year of 2005/2006 this was changed to English, as in other Central and Northeastern Swiss cantons. The population is about 35,000 of which 3,046 (or 8.7%) are foreigners. The legendary
William Tell William Tell (german: Wilhelm Tell, ; french: Guillaume Tell; it, Guglielmo Tell; rm, Guglielm Tell) is a folk hero of Switzerland. According to the legend, Tell was an expert marksman with the crossbow who assassinated Albrecht Gessler, a tyrann ...
is said to have hailed from Uri. The historical landmark
Rütli Rütli () or Grütli (; ) is a mountain meadow on Lake Lucerne, in the Seelisberg municipality of the Swiss canton of Uri. It is the site of the Rütlischwur in traditional Swiss historiography, the oath marking the foundation of the original ...

Rütli
lies within the canton of Uri.


Name

The name of the valley is first mentioned in the 8th or 9th century, in the Latinized form of ''Uronia''. In the medieval period, the name referred not to the entire Reuss valley but just to Altdorf and the surrounding settlements and estates. The extension of the name to a larger territory is the result of the territorial expansion of the canton in the 15th century. However, usage of ''Uri'' as referring to Altdorf remained current. From the 13th century onward, the German form of the name is recorded as ''Ure(n)''. The modern form ''Uri'' dates to the 16th century. The name has been derived from either Latin ''ora'' "brim, edge, margin" (reflected as Rumantsch ''ur''), or from a pre-Roman hydronym containing the
PIE root The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes. PIE roots usually have verbal meaning like "to eat" or "to run". Roots never occur alone in the language. ...
''u̯er'' "water", in either case extended by a suffix in ''-n-''. Both etymologies would refer to the Reuss and/or the shore of Lake Lucerne. The ''-n-'' suffix was reduced to an ending in ''-n'' in Middle High German, and the ending ''-n'' in the German toponym was lost only in
early modern German Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650. The term is the standard translation of the German (Fnhd., Frnhd.), introduced ...
(remaining visible in the demonym ''Urner'').Albert Hug, Viktor Weibel: ''Urner Namenbuch. Die Orts- und Flurnamen des Kantons Uri'', Altdorf 1990, Band 3, Seite 768 ff. bzw
''Uri'' unter ortsnamen.ch
/ref> There is a long-standing
popular etymology A false etymology (fake etymology, popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the latter term is also a technical term in linguistics – is a popularly held but false belief ...
associating the name with ''ûr'', the German name of the
aurochs The aurochs ( or ; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses) (''Bos primigenius''), also known as urus or ure, is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Asia, Europe, and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle. T ...
. This tradition may date as far back as the Middle High German period, reflected in the introduction of the cantonal seal showing a bull's head in the 13th century. Beginning in the 17th century, the bull of Uri (''Uristier'') came to be associated with the name of the
Taurisci The Taurisci were a federation of Celtic tribes who dwelt in today's Carinthia and northern Slovenia (Carniola) before the coming of the Romans (c. 200 BC) According to Pliny the Elder, they are the same people known as the Norici. Etymology The ...
in learned speculation.


History


Early history

There are traces of settlement dating to the Bronze and Iron Age, with suggestions of trans-alpine trade with Quinto in
Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal Tessin . is ...
and the alpine
Rhine valley Rhine Valley (German: ''Rheintal'') is the valley, or any section of it, of the river Rhine in Europe. Particular valleys of the Rhine or any of its sections: * Alpine Rhine Valley ** Chur Rhine Valley (or Grisonian Rhine Valley; german: Churer R ...
. During the
Roman era In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Rom ...
, Uri remained mostly isolated from the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire
. An analysis of the place names along the shores of
Lake Lucerne Lake Lucerne (german: Vierwaldstättersee, literally "Lake of the four forested settlements" (in English usually translated as ''forest cantons''), french: lac des Quatre-Cantons, it, lago dei Quattro Cantoni) is a lake in central Switzerland an ...

Lake Lucerne
show a
Gallo-Roman The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, language, morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The ...
influence, while in the mountain valleys Raetian names are more common. When the Roman Empire withdrew from the Alps, the lake side villages looked north to the towns along the lake for support, while the alpine villages in the valley called
Urseren Image:Wappen Urseren.svg, 200px, Coat of arms The Urseren (also ''Ursern'') is the valley of the upper Reuss in Uri, Switzerland, running southwest to northeast, from Realp to Hospental and Andermatt. Separated from the main valley of Uri, it con ...

Urseren
banded together. Alemannic settlement begins in the 7th century. Uri is first mentioned in 732 as the place of banishment of Eto, the abbot of Reichenau, by the duke of
Alamannia Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Germanic Alemanni peoples after they broke through the Roman ''limes'' in 213. The Alemanni expanded from the Main River basin during the 3rd century, raiding Roman provinces and settling ...
. In 853, Uri is granted to the
Fraumünster The Fraumünster (; lit. in en, Women's Minster, but often wrongly translated to urLady Minster) is a church in Zürich which was built on the remains of a former abbey for aristocratic women which was founded in 853 by Louis the German for his d ...
abbey in Zürich by
Louis the German#REDIRECT Louis the German#REDIRECT Louis the German {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. Parts of the
Urseren Image:Wappen Urseren.svg, 200px, Coat of arms The Urseren (also ''Ursern'') is the valley of the upper Reuss in Uri, Switzerland, running southwest to northeast, from Realp to Hospental and Andermatt. Separated from the main valley of Uri, it con ...

Urseren
were settled by
Disentis Abbey Disentis Abbey (german: Reichskloster Disentis) is a Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Graubünden in eastern Switzerland, around which the present town of Disentis ( rm, Mustér) grew up. Early history Formerly the date of the foundation of th ...
and were part of the
Diocese of Chur The Diocese of Chur extends over the Swiss Cantons of Graubünden (Grisons), Schwyz, Glarus, Zurich, Nidwalden, Obwalden and Uri. The Catholic Diocese must be distinguished from the historical Prince-Bishopric of Chur, a State of the Holy Roman Em ...
. By the 10th century, there were settlements of Romansh speakers from Disentis in the high valleys. Uri briefly passed under
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the most ...
rule in 1218, with the extinction of the Zähringer,. The
Gotthard Passgerman: Gotthardpass , photo = File:Gotthardpass 2008.jpg , photo_caption = The area of the Gotthard Pass from the west , elevation_m = 2106 , elevation_ref = , traversed = National Road 2 Old paved road (Tremola) Gotthard Rail Tunnel Gotthard Ro ...
was opened in 1230, and Uri was granted
imperial immediacy Imperial immediacy (german: Reichsfreiheit or ') was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular princ ...
by Henry VII in the following year. Trade across the Gotthard brought ever increasing wealth to Uri, and the towns and villages along the Gotthard route became increasing independent. As early as 1243 Uri had a district seal, and in 1274,
Rudolph of Habsburg Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum which ha ...
, who was now the Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed its privileges. Meanwhile,
Urseren Image:Wappen Urseren.svg, 200px, Coat of arms The Urseren (also ''Ursern'') is the valley of the upper Reuss in Uri, Switzerland, running southwest to northeast, from Realp to Hospental and Andermatt. Separated from the main valley of Uri, it con ...

Urseren
passed from
Rapperswil Rapperswil (Swiss German: or ;Andres Kristol, ''Rapperswil SG (See)'' in: ''Dictionnaire toponymique des communes suisses – Lexikon der schweizerischen Gemeindenamen – Dizionario toponomastico dei comuni svizzeri (DTS, LSG)'', Centre de dialec ...
to the Habsburgs in 1283. Since at least the 10th century, the people of Uri signed treaties as a collective, as ''nos inhabitantes Uroniam'' (955) or ''homines universi vallis Uranie'' (1273). By 1243, they used a seal with a bull's head.


Old Swiss Confederacy

A treaty of mutual recognition and assistance with
Schwyz The town of Schwyz (; french: Schwytz; it, Svitto) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The Federal Charter of 1291 or ''Bundesbrief'', the charter that eventually led to the foundation of Switzerland, can be seen at the ''Bu ...

Schwyz
, possibly concluded in 1291 and certainly by 1309, would come to be regarded as the foundational act of the
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German: ; historically , after the Reformation also , "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (, German or ) within the Holy Rom ...
or . The
Battle of Morgarten The Battle of Morgarten occurred on 15 November 1315, when the men of Schwyz, with support of their allies of Uri and Unterwalden, ambushed a Habsburg army under the command of Duke Leopold I on the shores of Lake Ägeri, in the territory of Sch ...

Battle of Morgarten
in 1315, while of limited strategic importance, was the first instance of the Confederates defeating the Habsburgs in the field. A few months after the victory at Morgarten, the three Forest Cantons met at
Brunnen Brunnen is a resort on Lake Lucerne in Switzerland, part of the municipality Ingenbohl (Canton of Schwyz), at . Brunnen railway station, on the Gotthard railway, is served by hourly InterRegio trains, and by lines S2 of the Stadtbahn Zug, which ...

Brunnen
to reaffirm their alliance in the
Pact of BrunnenThe Pact of Brunnen (''Bund von Brunnen'') is a historical treaty between the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, concluded in Brunnen on 9 December 1315. Representatives of the four territories (Unterwalden was composed of Obwalden and Nidwalde ...
. Over the following decades, the Confederacy expanded into the , now representing a regional power with the potential to challenge Habsburg hegemony. The Confederacy decisively defeated Habsburg in the
Battle of Sempach The Battle of Sempach was fought on 9 July 1386, between Leopold III, Duke of Austria and the Old Swiss Confederacy. The battle was a decisive Swiss victory in which Duke Leopold and numerous Austrian nobles died. The victory helped turn the loos ...
1386, opening the way to further territorial expansion. Following the victory at Sempach, Uri began a program of territorial expansion to allow them to control the entire Gotthard route. As a first step, Uri annexed the Urseren valley in 1410, although the community of Urseren was allowed to retain its own assembly and courts. In 1403, Uri began to acquire its transmontane bailiwicks, with the help of Obwalden taking the
Leventina The Leventina District is one of the eight districts of the largely Italian-speaking canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The capital of the district is Faido but the largest town is Airolo on the southern flank of the Gotthard Pass. Situated to the n ...
valley from the
duke of Milan The following is a list of rulers of Milan from the 13th century to 1814, after which it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia by the Congress of Vienna. Before elevation to duchy Until 1259, Milan was a free commune that electe ...
. The conflict between the Swiss Confederacy and the Duchy of Milan for territories now forming
canton of Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal Tessin . is ...
continued throughout the 15th century. The conflict was decided in 1500, when the Confederates captured Bellinzona, heavily fortifying it against future conquests. The Confederates also acquired
Lugano Lugano (, , ; lmo, label=Ticinese, Lugan ) is a town and a municipality in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy. The territory of the municipality was expanded between 2004 and 2013. Lugano has a populatio ...
in 1512, but the period of territorial expansion came to its end in 1515 with the Confederate defeat at
Marignano The Battle of Marignano was the last major engagement of the War of the League of Cambrai and took place on 13–14 September 1515, near the town now called Melegnano, 16 km southeast of Milan. It pitted the French army, composed of the bes ...
. Uri, along with Central Switzerland as a whole, resisted the
Swiss Reformation Map of the Swiss Confederacy by Sebastian Münster () The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate (Mark Reust) and population of Zürich in the 1520s. It led to s ...
and remained staunchly Roman Catholic. As the Reformation spread through the Swiss Confederation, the five central, catholic cantons felt increasingly isolated and they began to search for allies. After two months of negotiations, the Five Cantons formed (the Christian Alliance) with on 22 April 1529. After the Battle at Kappel of 1531, in which was killed, the Confederacy was on the point of fracturing along confessional lines. The peace treaty after the Kappel war established that each canton would choose which religion to follow, but peace between Catholic and Protestant cantons remained brittle throughout the early modern period. Growth of Uri stagnated in the early modern period, due to the limited availability of arable land, as well as disease and crop failures.
Plague Plague or The Plague may refer to: Agriculture, fauna, and medicine *Plague (disease), a disease caused by ''Yersinia pestis'' * An epidemic of infectious disease (medical or agricultural) * A pandemic caused by such a disease * A swarm of pest ...
broke out in the canton in 1348–49, 1517–18, 1574–75 and 1629. In 1742–43 and again 1770–71, crop failures combined with cattle diseases led to starvation and mass emigration. The consequences for the population were severe, in 1743 Uri had 9,828 inhabitants, but by the end of the 18th Century there were only 9,464 people.


Modern history

The government of Uri spoke out against the ideals of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in November 1799 with the formation of the French Consulate. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles of Western liberal de ...
and opposed any attempt to institute changes in Switzerland. In January 1798,
French revolutionary The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in November 1799 with the formation of the French Consulate. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles of Western liberal de ...
forces invaded Switzerland. On 11 April the victorious French announced the creation of the
Helvetic Republic In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subje ...
and gave the cantons twelve days to accept the new constitution. The cantons of Central Switzerland attempted to resist, but the uprising was suppressed and on 5 May Uri agreed to accept the Helvetic Republic. The cantonal army was disarmed in September and the canton was occupied by French troops in October. Under the Helvetic Republic, Uri was part of the
Canton of Waldstätten Waldstätten was a canton of the Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1803, combining the territories of the founding cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy, Uri (without the Leventina but with the Urseren), Schwyz (without March and Höfe) and both can ...
, along with Zug, Obwalden, Nidwalden and the inner portions of Schwyz. The Leventina valley was given to the newly formed
Canton of Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal Tessin . is ...
, stripping Uri of all possessions south of the Gotthard. In April and May 1799, Franz Vincenz Schmid led an unsuccessful uprising against the occupying French army. From June until the end of September 1799, troops of the
Second Coalition The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by most of the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and ...
fought the French in Uri. With the defeat of the Russian general
Alexander Korsakov Alexander Mikhailovich Rimsky-Korsakov (russian: Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков) (August 24, 1753May 25, 1840) was a Russian general remembered as an unlucky assistant to Alexander Suvorov during his ...
at the
Second Battle of Zürich Contemporary drawing of the battle by Siméon Fort. The Second Battle of Zurich (25–26 September 1799) was a key victory by the Republican French army in Switzerland led by André Masséna over an Austrian and Russian force commanded by ...
, the only other Coalition army, under
Alexander Suvorov Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, Aleksándr Vasíl'evič Suvórov; or 1730) was a Russian general in service of the Russian Empire. He was Count of Rymnik, Count of the Holy Rom ...
, was forced to retreat out of Switzerland through the alps in winter. The damage from fighting, Suvorov's retreat and other disasters (including a fire that destroyed much of Altdorf in 1799) caused a famine in Uri. Although the government commissioner,
Heinrich Zschokke Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke (22 March 177127 June 1848) was a German, later Swiss, author and reformer. Most of his life was spent, and most of his reputation earned, in Switzerland. He had an extensive civil service career, and wrote histori ...
, organized a relief effort to prevent starvation, it took years for Uri to repair the damage to the villages and towns. In October 1801, a new government came to power in the Helvetic Republic and in early November the Canton of Waldstätten was dissolved and Uri became a canton again. The governor, Josef Anton von Beroldingen, attempted unsuccessfully to bring the Leventina valley back into Uri. Half a year later, on 17 April 1802, the Unitarian party took power back in the Republic and revised the constitution once again. In early June, Uri rejected the newest constitution while at the same time French troops withdrew from Switzerland. Without the French army to suppress them, Uri and other rural populations successfully rebelled against the government in the
Stecklikrieg The ("War of Sticks") of 1802 resulted in the collapse of the Helvetic Republic, the renewed French occupation of Switzerland and ultimately the Act of Mediation dictated by Napoleon on 19 February 1803. The conflict itself was between insurgents ...
. In response to the collapse of the Helvetic Republic, Napoleon issued the
Act of Mediation The Act of Mediation () was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the French Republic on 19 February 1803 establishing the Swiss Confederation. The act also abolished the previous Helvetic Republic, which had existed since the invasion of ...
in 1803. As part of the Act of Mediation, Uri regained its independence and all attempts towards religious or constitutional reform were resisted. After the invasion of the
Sixth Coalition Sixth is the ordinal form of the number six. * The Sixth Amendment, to the U.S. Constitution * A keg of beer, equal to 5 U.S. gallons or 1/6 barrel * A fraction (mathematics), such as Music * Sixth interval (music)s: ** major sixth, a musical ...
into Switzerland on 29 December 1813, the Act of Mediation lost its power. While the neighbouring cantons of Schwyz and Nidwalden wanted to return to the organization of the Old Swiss Confederation, Uri was part of the Zürich-led party, which sought to reorganize the 19 cantons created by the Act. Uri also attempted, unsuccessful, to reincorporate the Leventina valley, but was only able to receive the rights to one-half of the taxes on all trade over Monte Piottino into the Leventina. On 5 May 1815 the ''
Landsgemeinde The ''Landsgemeinde'' () or "cantonal assembly" is a public, non-secret ballot voting system operating by majority rule, which constitutes one of the oldest forms of direct democracy. Still at use – in a few places – at the subnational politi ...
'' approved the federal constitution. Uri then mediated between the Tagsatzung and Nidwalden, which had refused to recognize the treaty. Uri remained without an official constitution until 1820. The document included only six principles that were based on traditional practice and existing state laws. The government remained deeply conservative during the Restoration period. Discontent with the cantonal government collected until 1834 when a reform party demanded a number of liberal constitutional changes. The ''
Landsgemeinde The ''Landsgemeinde'' () or "cantonal assembly" is a public, non-secret ballot voting system operating by majority rule, which constitutes one of the oldest forms of direct democracy. Still at use – in a few places – at the subnational politi ...
'', however, rejected these calls for reform. In the 1840s, urban, Protestant liberals gained the majority in the Tagsatzung and proposed a new constitution. To protect their traditional religion and power structure, the seven conservative, catholic cantons formed a separate alliance or ''Sonderbund'' in 1843. In 1847, the Sonderbund broke with the Federal Government and the
Sonderbund War The Sonderbund War (german: Sonderbundskrieg, fr , Guerre du Sonderbund) of November 1847 was a civil war in Switzerland, then still a relatively loose confederacy of cantons (states). It ensued after seven Catholic cantons formed the ("separat ...
broke out. During the conflict, Uri sent troops to participate in the fighting along the
ReussReuss may refer to: *Reuss (surname) *Reuss (river) in Switzerland *Reuss (state) or Reuß, several former states or countries in present-day Germany, and the Republic of Reuss *Reuss Elder Line and Reuss Younger Line (House of Reuss), members inclu ...
- Emme defensive line as well as on the foray over the Gotthard into Ticino. After the defeat of the Sonderbund troops in
Gisikon Gisikon is a municipality in the district of Lucerne in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. History Gisikon is first mentioned around 1270 as ''Gisinkon''. In the 19th century, especially referring to the battle that occurred on 23 November 1847 ...
on 23 November 1847 Uri withdrew from the alliance and surrendered on 28 November 1847. Two days later federal troops moved into Uri. After the defeat of the Sonderbund, Uri supported the new
Swiss Federal Constitution The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (SR 10, german: Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (BV), french: Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse (Cst.), it, Costituzione federale della Confederazio ...
. They established a cantonal constitution that included some liberal changes including; the abolition of lifetime alderman positions, eliminating the privy council and secret council meetings and the establishment of a provisional executive council. The ''Landsgemeinde'' was the supreme sovereign power. The Catholic Church continued to enjoy privileges, but freedom of worship was now available for other faiths. The new Federal Constitution of 1874, which was rejected by the voters of Uri, led to a total revision of the cantonal constitution in 1888. The new constitution streamlined the government and addressed many of the issues of the 1848 cantonal constitution. The ''Landsgemeinde'' continued to meet on a local level until the last one was held in Bötzlingen in the municipality of
Schattdorf Schattdorf is a village and a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. History Schattdorf is first mentioned in 1248 as ''Sachdorf''. Geography Schattdorf has an area, , of . Of this area, 33.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3 ...
on 6 May 1928. The Christian Democratic Party (CVP) and the Free Democratic Party (FDP) have dominated politics in Uri during the 20th century.


Geography

The canton is located in the centre of the country on the north side of the
Swiss Alps The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the ''Swiss Alps'' (german: Schweizer Alpen, french: Alpes suisses, it, Alpi svizzere, rm, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swis ...
. The lands of the canton are that of the
ReussReuss may refer to: *Reuss (surname) *Reuss (river) in Switzerland *Reuss (state) or Reuß, several former states or countries in present-day Germany, and the Republic of Reuss *Reuss Elder Line and Reuss Younger Line (House of Reuss), members inclu ...
valley and those of the main river's tributaries. Uri has an area, , of . Of this area, 24.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 18.2% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.7% is settled (buildings or roads) and 55.6% is unproductive land. The highest elevation in the canton, and in the
Urner Alps The Uri Alps (also known as ''Urner Alps'', german: Urner Alpen) are a mountain range in Central Switzerland and part of the Western Alps. They extend into the cantons of Obwalden, Valais, Bern, Uri and Nidwalden and are bordered by the Bernese Alps ...
as a whole, is the
Dammastock The Dammastock (3,630 m) is the highest mountain in the Urner Alps in Switzerland and is part of the Winterberg massif. Its summit ridge forms the border between the cantons of Uri and the Valais. It is the highest summit in the canton of Uri. The ...
, at , north of the
Furka Pass Furka Pass (french: Le Col de la Furka), with an elevation of , is a high mountain pass in the Swiss Alps connecting Gletsch, Valais with Realp, Uri. The Furka Oberalp Bahn line through the Furka Tunnel bypasses the pass. The base tunnel opened in ...
. The
Glarus , neighboring_municipalities= Glarus Nord, Glarus Süd, Muotathal (SZ), Innerthal (SZ) , twintowns= Wiesbaden-Biebrich (Germany) } Glarus (; gsw, Glaris; french: Glaris; it, Glarona; rm, Glaruna) is the capital of the canton of Glarus in Switzer ...

Glarus
and
Lepontine Alps , topo_map= Swiss Federal Office of Topography swisstopo , photo=MonteLeone0001.jpg , photo_caption=Monte Leone , country_type= Countries , country= , subdivision1_type= Cantons, Regions , subdivision1= , parent= Western Alps , borders_on= , geo ...
ranges are also partially situated in the canton of Uri.


Administrative divisions

Uri today comprises 19 self-administered territories: the cantonal capital is Altdorf. The municipalities of the canton of Uri are: Altdorf,
Andermatt , neighboring_municipalities= Airolo (TI), Göschenen, Gurtnellen, Hospental, Tujetsch (GR) , twintowns = Andermatt ( rm, ) is a mountain village and municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. At an altitude of 1437 meters above sea level, A ...
,
Attinghausen Attinghausen is a village and a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. History Attinghausen is first mentioned in 1240 as ''Attingenhusen''. Geography Attinghausen has an area, , of . Of this area, 35.3% is used for agricultural purpose ...
, Bürglen, Uri, Bürglen, Erstfeld, Flüelen, Göschenen, Gurtnellen, Hospental, Isenthal, Realp,
Schattdorf Schattdorf is a village and a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland. History Schattdorf is first mentioned in 1248 as ''Sachdorf''. Geography Schattdorf has an area, , of . Of this area, 33.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 3 ...
, Seedorf, Uri, Seedorf, Seelisberg, Silenen, Sisikon, Spiringen, Unterschächen, Wassen On 1 January 2021 the former municipality of Bauen merged into the municipality of Seedorf.


Flag and coat of arms

The blazon of the coat of arms is ''Or, a bull's head caboshed sable, langued and noseringed gules.'' The use of the bull's head as heraldic charge may be due to a popular etymology associating the canton's name with the name of the
aurochs The aurochs ( or ; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses) (''Bos primigenius''), also known as urus or ure, is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Asia, Europe, and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle. T ...
. It is certain that such an association was made in the early modern period; the introduction of the bull as heraldic animal dates to the 13th century. Uri used a seal with a bull's head, seen from the side, by 1243. By the 14th century, Uri was using a banner showing a black bull's head in a yellow field. In the town-hall of Altfdorf, six cantonal banners dating to the Old Swiss Confederacy are preserved, reportedly dating from the battles of Battle of Morgarten, Morgarten (1315) and Battle of Sempach, Sempach (1386), the Old Zürich War (1443), the Burgundian Wars (1476) and the Swabian War (1499), and the Juliusbanner (1512).Muheim Hans, Das Rathaus von Uri in Altdorf (Kunstführer, Gesellschaft für Schweizerische Kunstgeschichte), Bern, 1989
urikon.ch
).


Demographics

Uri has a population () of . , 9.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (2000–2010) the population has changed at a rate of −0.4%. Migration accounted for −1.2%, while births and deaths accounted for 1.3%. Most of the population () speaks German (32,518 or 93.5%) as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common (677 or 1.9%) and Italian is the third (462 or 1.3%). There are 67 people who speak French and 51 people who speak Romansh. Of the population in the canton, 16,481 or about 47.4% were born in Uri and lived there in 2000. There were 9,118 or 26.2% who were born in the same canton, while 5,426 or 15.6% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 3,019 or 8.7% were born outside of Switzerland. , children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 25% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 58.6% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 16.4%. , there were 15,029 people who were single and never married in the canton. There were 16,839 married individuals, 2,040 widows or widowers and 869 individuals who are divorced.STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.32000
accessed 2 February 2011
, there were 13,430 private households in the canton, and an average of 2.5 persons per household. There were 3,871 households that consist of only one person and 1,382 households with five or more people. , the construction rate of new housing units was 4.7 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the canton, , was 0.77%. The historical population is given in the following chart: Colors= id:lightgrey value:gray(0.9) id:darkgrey value:gray(0.8) ImageSize = width:960 height:500 PlotArea = top:10 left: 100 bottom:90 right:100 Legend = columns:3 left:220 top:70 columnwidth:160 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = x.y Period = from:0 till:35000 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical AlignBars = justify ScaleMajor = gridcolor:darkgrey increment:7000 start:0 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:lightgrey increment:1400 start:0 Colors= id:TO value:yellowgreen legend:Total id:GE value:teal legend:German_Speaking id:IT value:green legend:Italian_Speaking id:CA value:lightpurple legend:Catholic id:PR value:oceanblue legend:Protestant id:SW value:red legend:Swiss PlotData= color:yellowgreen width:40 mark:(line,white) align:center bar:1850 from:start till:14505 text:"14,505" color:TO bar:1880 from:start till:23744 text:"23,744" color:TO bar:1900 from:start till:19700 text:"19,700" color:TO bar:1950 from:start till:28556 text:"28,556" color:TO bar:1970 from:start till:34091 text:"34,091" color:TO bar:2000 from:start till:34777 text:"34,777" color:TO LineData = points:(264,296)(411,304) color:GE points:(411,304)(549,406) color:GE points:(549,406)(686,451) color:GE points:(686,451)(843,462) color:GE points:(264,151)(411,101) color:IT points:(411,101)(549,98) color:IT points:(549,98)(686,112) color:IT points:(686,112)(843,95) color:IT points:(117,250)(264,355) color:CA points:(264,355)(411,306) color:CA points:(411,306)(549,392) color:CA points:(549,392)(686,453) color:CA points:(686,453)(843,431) color:CA points:(117,90)(264,96) color:PR points:(264,96)(411,99) color:PR points:(411,99)(549,114) color:PR points:(549,114)(686,116) color:PR points:(686,116)(843,114) color:PR


Religion

From the , 29,846 or 85.8% were Roman Catholic, while 1,809 or 5.2% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 525 Orthodox Christianity, members of an Orthodox church (or about 1.51% of the population), there were 22 individuals (or about 0.06% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, Christian Catholic Church, and there were 565 individuals (or about 1.62% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 7 individuals (or about 0.02% of the population) who were Jewish, and 683 (or about 1.96% of the population) who were Islam, Muslims. There were 44 individuals who were Buddhism, Buddhist, 46 individuals who were Hinduism, Hindu and 22 individuals who belonged to another church. 818 (or about 2.35% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or Atheism, atheist, and 655 individuals (or about 1.88% of the population) did not answer the question.


Education

In Uri about 11,949 or (34.4%) of the population have completed non-mandatory Education in Switzerland#Secondary, upper secondary education, and 2,794 or (8.0%) have completed additional higher education (either List of universities in Switzerland, university or a ''Fachhochschule''). Of the 2,794 who completed tertiary schooling, 74.2% were Swiss men, 16.9% were Swiss women, 5.7% were non-Swiss men and 3.3% were non-Swiss women.


Economy

The cultivated fields of the canton are located in the valley of the
ReussReuss may refer to: *Reuss (surname) *Reuss (river) in Switzerland *Reuss (state) or Reuß, several former states or countries in present-day Germany, and the Republic of Reuss *Reuss Elder Line and Reuss Younger Line (House of Reuss), members inclu ...
. There are pastures on the lower mountain slopes. Since most of the terrain is extremely hilly, it is not suitable for cultivation. Hydroelectric power generation is of great importance. Forestry is one of the most important sectors of agriculture. At Altdorf there are cable and rubber factories. Tourism is an important source of income in the canton of Uri. An excellent network of roads facilitates tourism in remote areas in the mountains. , Uri had an unemployment rate of 1.4%. , there were 1,764 people employed in the Primary sector of the economy, primary economic sector and about 703 businesses involved in this sector. 5,388 people were employed in the Secondary sector of the economy, secondary sector and there were 324 businesses in this sector. 9,431 people were employed in the Tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector, with 1,113 businesses in this sector. the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 13,383. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 958, of which 891 were in agriculture, 65 were in forestry or lumber production and 1 was in fishing or fisheries. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 5,078 of which 2,948 or (58.1%) were in manufacturing, 71 or (1.4%) were in mining and 1,696 (33.4%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 7,347. In the tertiary sector; 1,384 or 18.8% were in the sale or repair of motor vehicles, 819 or 11.1% were in the movement and storage of goods, 1,126 or 15.3% were in a hotel or restaurant, 103 or 1.4% were in the information industry, 264 or 3.6% were the insurance or financial industry, 445 or 6.1% were technical professionals or scientists, 505 or 6.9% were in education and 1,505 or 20.5% were in health care. Of the working population, 12.1% used public transportation to get to work, and 48.5% used a private car.


Tourism

There are 39 cable cars in the valley which provide access to numerous peaks, hiking and bike trails as well as ski slopes and cross-country tracks. Tourism is a major industry in the Canton of Uri. In , there were 91 hotels in the canton with a total of 1,368 rooms. During the same year 145,600 guests stayed in those hotels and 67.1% were from outside Switzerland. The Canton of Uri is named as erstwhile home of "Heinz the Baron Claus Von Espy" in American 2003 movie, "Intolerable Cruelty", produced by the Coen Brothers.


Politics


Federal election

In the 2015 Swiss federal election, 2015 federal election the most popular party was the Swiss People's Party, SVP/UDC which received 44.1% of the vote. The next most popular parties were the Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD with 26.8% and the Green Party of Switzerland, GPS/PES with 26.3%. In the 2011 Swiss federal election, 2011 federal election the most popular party was the FDP.The Liberals, FDP which received 74.3% of the vote. The next most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, SP/PS (21.5%). The remainder of the vote (4.3%) was split between other local parties. The FDP lost about 13.0% of the vote when compared to the 2007 Swiss federal election, 2007 Federal election (87.3% in 2007 vs 74.3% in 2011). The SP/PS moved from below fourth place in 2007 to second.Swiss Federal Statistical Office, ''Nationalratswahlen 2007: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung, nach Gemeinden/Bezirk/Canton''
accessed 28 May 2010


Federal election results

: FDP before 2009, FDP.The Liberals after 2009 : "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.


Cantonal election

In Landrat of Uri election, 2020, the last election, on 8 March 2020, saw the Centrism, centre maintain its dominance of the Landsrat. The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democrats (CVP) gained three seats and remained the largest party with 25 seats. The Swiss People's Party lost two seats to remain the third strongest party, while the FDP.The Liberals who had lost two seats remained second with 16. The coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic and the Green Party of Switzerland, Green retained its 9 seats and remained the smallest fraction in the Landrat. The evolving party membership in the Landrat is shown in the following chart (for selected dates): Colors= id:lightgrey value:gray(0.9) id:darkgrey value:gray(0.8) ImageSize = width:550 height:400 PlotArea = top:10 left: 50 bottom:90 right:52 Legend = columns:3 left:40 top:70 columnwidth:160 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = x.y Period = from:0 till:64 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical AlignBars = justify ScaleMajor = gridcolor:darkgrey increment:10 start:0 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:lightgrey increment:2 start:0 Colors= id: CV value:orange legend: CVP id: FD value:blue legend: FDP id: SP value:red legend: SP id: GR value:green legend: Green_Party id: SG value:rgb(1,0,0.3) legend: Green/SP id: SV value:teal legend: SVP id: AN value:tan1 legend: Other PlotData= bar:1968 from:start till:41 color:CV bar:1968 from:41 till:57 color:FD bar:1968 from:57 till:61 color:SP bar:1972 from:start till:43 color:CV bar:1972 from:43 till:59 color:FD bar:1972 from:59 till:64 color:SP bar:1976 from:start till:41 color:CV bar:1976 from:41 till:59 color:FD bar:1976 from:59 till:64 color:SP bar:1980 from:start till:40 color:CV bar:1980 from:40 till:59 color:FD bar:1980 from:59 till:64 color:SP bar:1984 from:start till:41 color:CV bar:1984 from:41 till:58 color:FD bar:1984 from:58 till:64 color:SP bar:1988 from:start till:41 color:CV bar:1988 from:41 till:58 color:FD bar:1988 from:58 till:64 color:SP bar:1992 from:start till:36 color:CV bar:1992 from:36 till:53 color:FD bar:1992 from:53 till:60 color:SP bar:1992 from:60 till:64 color:AN bar:1996 from:start till:37 color:CV bar:1996 from:37 till:56 color:FD bar:1996 from:56 till:64 color:SP bar:2000 from:start till:29 color:CV bar:2000 from:29 till:50 color:FD bar:2000 from:50 till:59 color:SP bar:2000 from:59 till:60 color:GR bar:2000 from:60 till:64 color:SV bar:2004 from:start till:29 color:CV bar:2004 from:29 till:44 color:FD bar:2004 from:44 till:52 color:SP bar:2004 from:52 till:54 color:GR bar:2004 from:54 till:63 color:SV bar:2004 from:63 till:64 color:AN bar:2008 from:start till:24 color:CV bar:2008 from:24 till:35 color:FD bar:2008 from:35 till:42 color:SP bar:2008 from:42 till:45 color:GR bar:2008 from:45 till:63 color:SV bar:2008 from:63 till:64 color:AN bar:2012 from:start till:23 color:CV bar:2012 from:23 till:37 color:FD bar:2012 from:37 till:48 color:SG bar:2012 from:48 till:62 color:SV bar:2012 from:62 till:63 color:AN bar:2016 from:start till:22 color:CV bar:2016 from:22 till:40 color:FD bar:2016 from:40 till:49 color:SG bar:2016 from:49 till:64 color:SV bar:2020 from:start till:25 color:CV bar:2020 from:25 till:41 color:FD bar:2020 from:41 till:50 color:SG bar:2020 from:50 till:64 color:SV


See also


References


External links


Official site


{{DEFAULTSORT:Uri, Canton Canton of Uri, Cantons of Switzerland 14th-century establishments in the Old Swiss Confederacy 1310s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 1315 establishments in Europe