The Info List - Bridgeport, Connecticut

Bridgeport is a historic seaport city in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Connecticut. The largest city in the state, it is located in Fairfield County at the mouth of the Pequonnock River
Pequonnock River
on Long Island
Long Island
Sound. As of 2017, Bridgeport had an estimated population of 151,267,[4] making it also the 5th-most populous in New England[5] Located 60 miles from Manhattan
and 40 miles from the Bronx, it is bordered by the towns of Trumbull to the north, Fairfield to the west, and Stratford to the east. The Greater Bridgeport
Greater Bridgeport
area is the 48th-largest urban area in the United States. Bridgeport was inhabited by the Paugussett
Indian tribe at the time of its English colonization. The English farming community became a center of trade, shipbuilding, and whaling. The town incorporated to subsidize the Housatonic Railroad
Housatonic Railroad
and rapidly industrialized following the rail line's connection to the New York and New Haven railroad. Manufacturing was the mainstay of the local economy until the 1970s. The showman P.T. Barnum
P.T. Barnum
was a resident of the city and served as the town's mayor in the late 19th century. Barnum built four houses in Bridgeport, and housed his circus in town during winter. The first Subway restaurant opened in the North End section of the city in 1965.[6] The Frisbie Pie Company
Frisbie Pie Company
was located here, and Bridgeport is credited as the birthplace of the Frisbee.[7] Industrial restructuring and suburbanization caused the loss of many jobs and affluent residents, leaving Bridgeport struggling with problems of poverty and crime. In the 21st century, conversion of office and factory buildings to residential use, and other redevelopment is attracting new residents.


1 History

1.1 Colonial history 1.2 19th century 1.3 20th century 1.4 21st century 1.5 Notable speeches

2 Geography

2.1 Parks 2.2 Neighborhoods 2.3 Climate

3 Demographics 4 Economy

4.1 Top employers

5 Education

5.1 Higher education 5.2 Public education 5.3 Private education

6 Government and politics

6.1 Taxes

7 Culture

7.1 Performing arts

7.1.1 Theater and music 7.1.2 Music festivals and concert series

7.2 Museums, zoos and parks 7.3 In popular culture

7.3.1 Movies 7.3.2 Television 7.3.3 Novels

8 Sports 9 Media

9.1 Radio 9.2 Newspapers 9.3 Television

10 Transportation

10.1 Airports 10.2 Roads

10.2.1 Surface thoroughfares 10.2.2 Highways

10.3 Railroad and ferries 10.4 Buses

11 Historic sites

11.1 Historic districts

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Bridgeport, Connecticut Colonial history[edit]

Colonial Stratfield, c.1886 map

The first documented English settlement within the present city limits of Bridgeport took place in 1644, centered at Black Rock Harbor
Black Rock Harbor
and along North Avenue between Park and Briarwood avenues. The place was called Pequonnock[8] (Quiripi for "Cleared Land"), after a band of the Paugussett, an Algonquian-speaking Native American people who occupied this area. One of their sacred sites was Golden Hill, which overlooked the harbor and was the location of natural springs and their planting fields. (It has since been blasted through for construction of an expressway.)[9][10] The Golden Hill Indians were granted a reservation here by the Colony of Connecticut
in 1639; it lasted until 1802. (One of the tribe acquired land for a small reservation in the late 19th century that was recognized by the state. It is retained in the Town of Trumbull.) Bridgeport's early years were marked by residents' reliance on fishing and farming. This was similar to the economy of the Paugusset, who had cultivated corn, beans, and squash; and fished and gathered shellfish from both the river and sound. A village called Newfield began to develop around the corner of State and Water streets in the 1760s.[11] The area officially became known as Stratfield in 1695[8] or 1701, due to its location between the already existing towns of Stratford and Fairfield.[12] During the American Revolution, Newfield Harbor was a center of privateering.[8][13] 19th century[edit]

Iranistan, the residence of P.T. Barnum, in 1848

Bridgeport in 1824, by H. L. Barnum[14]

The route of the NY&NH, showing Bridgeport in 1845

East Bridgeport Bridge over Pequannock River, ca. 1850

By the time of the State of Connecticut's ratification of the American constitution in 1781, many of the local farmers held shares in vessels trading at Newfield Harbor or had begun trading in their own name. Newfield initially expanded around the coasting trade with Boston, New York, and Baltimore
and the international trade with the West Indies.[11][15] The commercial activity of the village was clustered around the wharves on the west bank of the Pequonnock, while the churches were erected inland on Broad Street.[14] In 1800, the village became the Borough of Bridgeport,[18] the first so incorporated in the state.[19] It was named for the Newfield or Lottery Bridge across the Pequonnock, connecting the wharves on its east and west banks.[17] Bridgeport Bank was established in 1806.[20] In 1821, the township of Bridgeport became independent of Stratford.[21] The West India trade died down around 1840,[11] but by that time the Bridgeport Steamship Company (1824)[22] and Bridgeport Whaling Company (1833) had been incorporated[11] and the Housatonic Railroad
Housatonic Railroad
chartered (1836).[23][24] The HRRC ran upstate along the Housatonic Valley, connecting with Massachusetts's Berkshire Railroad
Berkshire Railroad
at the state line. Bridgeport was chartered as Connecticut's fifth city in 1836[21][25][28] in order to enable the town council to secure funding (ultimately $150,000) to provide to the HRRC and ensure that it would terminate in Bridgeport.[29] The Naugatuck Railroad—connecting Bridgeport to Waterbury and Winsted along the Naugatuck—was chartered in 1845 and began operation four years later.[30][31] The same year, the New York and New Haven Railroad
New York and New Haven Railroad
began operation,[32] connecting Bridgeport to New York and the other towns along the north shore of the Long Island
Long Island
Sound. Now a major junction for western Connecticut, the city rapidly industrialized. Following the Civil War, it held several iron foundries and factories manufacturing firearms, metallic cartridges, horse harnesses, locks, and blinds.[21] Wheeler & Wilson's sewing machines were exported throughout the world. Bridgeport annexed the West End and the village of Black Rock and its busy harbor in 1870.[33] In 1875, P.T. Barnum
P.T. Barnum
was elected mayor of the town, which afterwards served as the winter headquarters of Barnum and Bailey's Circus and Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show.[8] 20th century[edit]

1912 postcard showing Main Street in Bridgeport

Sterling Block-Bishop Arcade, a Victorian-era shopping arcade

From 1870 to 1910, Bridgeport became the major industrial center of Connecticut
and its population rose from around 25,000 to over 100,000, including thousands of Irish, Slovaks, Hungarians, Germans, English, and Italian immigrants.[8] A Singer factory joined Wheeler & Wilson in producing sewing machines[8] and the Locomobile Company of America was a prominent early automobile manufacturer, producing a prototype of the Stanley Steamer
Stanley Steamer
and various luxury cars.[34] The town was the center of America's corset production, responsible for almost 20% of the national total,[8] and became the headquarters of Remington Arms
Remington Arms
following its 1912 merger with the Union Metallic Cartridge Co.
Union Metallic Cartridge Co.
Around the time of the First World War, Bridgeport was also producing steam-fitting and heating apparatuses, brass goods, phonographs, typewriters,[8] milling machines, brassieres, and saddles.[35] A series of strikes in the summer of 1915 imposed the eight-hour day on the town's factories; rather than moving business elsewhere, the success spread the eight-hour day throughout the Northeast.[36] The First World War
First World War
continued the city's expansion so that, on the eve of the Great Depression, there were more than 500 factories in Bridgeport, including Columbia Records' primary pressing plant. The build-up to World War II
World War II
helped its recovery in the late 1930s.[37] Restructuring of heavy industry starting after the mid-20th century caused the loss of thousands of jobs and residents. Like other urban centers in Connecticut, Bridgeport suffered during the deindustrialization of the United States in the 1970s and 1980s.[38] Continued development of new suburban housing attracted middle and upper-class residents, leaving the city with a higher proportion of poor. The city suffered from overall mismanagement, for which several city officials were convicted, contributing to the economic and social decline.[39] In September 1978, Bridgeport teachers went on a 19-day strike due to deadlocked contract negotiations. A court order, as well as a state law that made strikes by public workers illegal in Connecticut, resulted in 274 teachers being arrested and jailed.[40] Bridgeport made numerous efforts at revitalization. In one proposal, Las Vegas
Las Vegas
developer Steve Wynn
Steve Wynn
was to build a large casino, but that project failed. In 1991, the city filed for bankruptcy protection but was declared solvent by a federal court.[41] 21st century[edit]

A street scene in Bridgeport

In the early 21st century, Bridgeport has taken steps toward redevelopment of its downtown and other neighborhoods. In 2004, artists' lofts were developed in the former Read's Department Store
Read's Department Store
on Broad Street. Several other rental conversions have been completed, including the 117-unit Citytrust bank building on Main Street. The recession halted, at least temporarily, two major mixed-use projects including a $1-billion waterfront development at Steel Point, but other redevelopment projects have proceeded, such as the condominium conversion project in Bijou Square.[42] In 2009, the City
Council approved a new master plan for development, designed both to promote redevelopment in selected areas and to protect existing residential neighborhoods.[43] In 2010, the Bridgeport Housing Authority and a local health center announced plans to build a $20 million medical and housing complex at Albion Street, making use of federal stimulus funds and designed to replace some of the housing lost with the demolition of Father Panik Village.[44] Recently, MGM announced plans to build a waterfront casino and shopping center in the city, awaiting approval by the state government. If built, the development will create 2,000 permanent jobs and about 5,779 temporary jobs.[45] Notable speeches[edit] On March 10, 1860, Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
spoke in the city's Washington Hall, an auditorium at the old Bridgeport City
Hall (now McLevy Hall), at the corner of State and Broad Streets. The largest room in the city was packed, and a crowd formed outside, as well. Lincoln received a standing ovation before taking the 9:07 pm train that night back to Manhattan.[46][47] A plaque marks the site where Lincoln spoke; later that year, he was elected president. The Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
spoke three times at the Klein Auditorium during the 1960s. Additionally, President George W. Bush spoke before a small group of Connecticut
business people and officials at the Playhouse on the Green in 2006.[48] President Barack Obama also spoke at the Harbor Yard arena in 2010 to gain support for the campaign of Democratic Governor Dan Malloy.[49] Geography[edit] See also: Geography of Bridgeport, Connecticut Bridgeport is located along Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
at the mouth of the Pequonnock River, named for the Native American tribe who historically lived along it. Parks[edit] Bridgeport is renowned for its public park system, which has led to its official nickname as "The Park City". The city's first public park was the westerly portion of McLevy Green, first set aside as a public square 1806,[50] although the Clinton Park Militia Grounds (1666) and Old Mill Green (1717) were set aside earlier as public commons by the towns of Fairfield and Stratford, respectively. As the city rapidly grew in population, residents recognized the need for more public parks and by 1864, Barnum and other residents had donated approximately 44 acres (180,000 m2) to create Seaside Park, now increased by acquisition and landfill to 375 acres (1.52 km2).[51] In 1878, over 100 acres (400,000 m2) of land bordering the Pequonnock River
Pequonnock River
was added as Beardsley Park.[52] Frederick Law Olmsted, famous for creating New York City's Central Park, designed both Seaside and Beardsley Parks.[53] Over time, more parks were added including 35-acre (140,000 m2) Beechwood Park and Pleasure Beach, home to a popular amusement park for many years. Neighborhoods[edit] The city of Bridgeport is divided into many distinct neighborhoods,[54] divided into five geographic areas: Downtown, the East Side, the North End, the South End, and the West Side.[55]


McLeevy Green Harral Square The Hollow Enterprise Zone

East Side

Avenue/Mill Hill East End Lower East Side Newfield Pleasure Beach Steel Point Upper East Side

North End

Brooklawn/St. Vincent Lake Forest Lake Success North Bridgeport/Little Italy Reservoir/Whiskey Hill

South End

Seaside Park Soundgate

West Side

Black Rock West Side

Climate[edit] Under the Köppen climate classification, Bridgeport has a temperate climate (Cfa), with some maritime influence; it is part of USDA hardiness zone 7a.[56] Bridgeport, like the rest of coastal Connecticut, lies in the broad transition zone between the continental climates of New England
New England
and southeast Canada to the north, and the milder temperate climates to the south. The normal average monthly temperature ranges from 30.1 °F (−1.1 °C) in January to 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) in July; on average, there are 20 days where the temperature remains at or below freezing and 7.6 days with a high at or above 90 °F (32 °C) annually; the last year to not reach the latter mark was 2004.[57] Temperatures reaching 0 °F (−18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are rare, and were last seen respectively on January 7, 2018 and July 22, 2011.[57] The record low is −7 °F (−22 °C), set on January 22, 1984, while the record high is 103 °F (39 °C), set on July 22 in 1957 and 2011.[57] Precipitation
averages 42.7 inches (1,080 mm) annually, and is somewhat evenly distributed throughout the year, though March and April are the wettest months in terms of total precipitation. Snowfall averages 27.6 inches (70 cm) per winter, falling almost entirely from December to March. As is typical of coastal Connecticut, snow cover does not usually remain for long, with an average of 29 days per winter with snow cover of at least 1 inch (2.5 cm).

Climate data for Bridgeport, Connecticut
(Sikorsky Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1948–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 68 (20) 67 (19) 84 (29) 91 (33) 97 (36) 97 (36) 103 (39) 100 (38) 99 (37) 89 (32) 78 (26) 76 (24) 103 (39)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 55.2 (12.9) 55.4 (13) 65.8 (18.8) 76.4 (24.7) 83.7 (28.7) 89.9 (32.2) 92.9 (33.8) 91.4 (33) 85.1 (29.5) 76.6 (24.8) 67.4 (19.7) 58.6 (14.8) 94.6 (34.8)

Average high °F (°C) 37.1 (2.8) 39.7 (4.3) 47.2 (8.4) 57.7 (14.3) 67.6 (19.8) 77.0 (25) 82.2 (27.9) 80.9 (27.2) 74.0 (23.3) 63.3 (17.4) 53.1 (11.7) 42.3 (5.7) 60.2 (15.7)

Daily mean °F (°C) 30.1 (−1.1) 32.4 (0.2) 39.3 (4.1) 49.3 (9.6) 59.1 (15.1) 68.7 (20.4) 74.3 (23.5) 73.3 (22.9) 66.2 (19) 54.9 (12.7) 45.5 (7.5) 35.4 (1.9) 52.4 (11.3)

Average low °F (°C) 23.0 (−5) 25.2 (−3.8) 31.4 (−0.3) 41.0 (5) 50.6 (10.3) 60.4 (15.8) 66.4 (19.1) 65.8 (18.8) 58.3 (14.6) 46.5 (8.1) 38.0 (3.3) 28.4 (−2) 44.6 (7)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 5.3 (−14.8) 9.8 (−12.3) 16.3 (−8.7) 30.0 (−1.1) 39.7 (4.3) 49.5 (9.7) 57.0 (13.9) 54.9 (12.7) 44.6 (7) 33.4 (0.8) 23.8 (−4.6) 12.9 (−10.6) 3.5 (−15.8)

Record low °F (°C) −7 (−22) −6 (−21) 4 (−16) 18 (−8) 31 (−1) 41 (5) 49 (9) 44 (7) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 16 (−9) −4 (−20) −7 (−22)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.10 (78.7) 2.79 (70.9) 4.05 (102.9) 4.13 (104.9) 3.80 (96.5) 3.61 (91.7) 3.46 (87.9) 3.96 (100.6) 3.48 (88.4) 3.64 (92.5) 3.39 (86.1) 3.33 (84.6) 42.74 (1,085.7)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.7 (19.6) 8.1 (20.6) 5.1 (13) 0.9 (2.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.7 (1.8) 5.1 (13) 27.6 (70.3)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 10.9 9.7 11.3 11.0 11.8 11.1 8.9 8.9 8.2 8.8 10.0 11.1 121.7

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 inch) 4.8 3.5 2.4 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 3.1 14.6

Source: NOAA[57][58]

Demographics[edit] See also: List of Connecticut
locations by per capita income

Historical population

Census Pop.

1810 1,089

1820 1,500


1830 2,800


1840 3,294


1850 7,560


1860 13,299


1870 18,969


1880 27,643


1890 48,866


1900 70,996


1910 102,054


1920 143,555


1930 146,716


1940 147,121


1950 158,709


1960 156,748


1970 156,542


1980 142,546


1990 141,686


2000 139,529


2010 144,229


Est. 2015 147,629 [59] 2.4%

Population 1840–1970[60] U.S. Decennial Census[61] 2014 Estimate[62]

As of the census of 2000, there were 139,529 people, 50,307 households, and 32,749 families residing in the city. The population density was 8,720.9 people per square mile (3,367.0/km²). There were 54,367 housing units at an average density of 3,398.1 per square mile (1,312.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 45.0% White, 30.8% African American, 0.5% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.3% of the population. Other ancestry groups include: Italian (8.6%), Irish (5.1%), Portuguese (2.9%), Polish (2.8%), and German (2.4%).[63] As of the 2010 census, there were 144,229 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city residents was 39.6% White; 34.6% Black or African American; 3.4% Asian; and 4.3% from two or more races. A total of 38.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 50,307 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.0% were married couples living together, 24.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.9% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.34. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,658, and the median income for a family was $39,571. Males had a median income of $32,430 versus $26,966 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,306. About 16.2% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.8% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. Since 1849, FSWINC, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization has provided care for individuals living in difficult socioeconomic situations in both Bridgeport and Fairfield.[64][65] According to 2010 census data, the Bridgeport MSA, containing all of Fairfield County, is the most economically unequal region in America, with 57% of the wealth going to the top percentile.[66][67] Economy[edit] Since the decline of its industrial sector beginning in the middle of the 20th century, Bridgeport has gradually adjusted to a service-based economy. Though a level of industrial activity continues, healthcare, finance, and education have evolved into the centerpieces of Bridgeport's economy. The two largest employers within the city are Bridgeport's primary hospitals, Bridgeport Hospital
Bridgeport Hospital
and St. Vincent's Medical Center. The former Park City
Hospital closed in 1993 and was reopened in 2010 as elderly and homeless housing units.[68] Emergency medical services are provided by American Medical Response
American Medical Response
at the paramedic level. Top employers[edit] According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[69] the top employers in the city are:

Bridgeport Hospital, an affiliate of the Yale School of Medicine

A portion of the harbor in Bridgeport: Facilities shown are part of the United Illuminating coal-fired power plant

Employer # of Employees

St. Vincent's Medical Center 3,000

Bridgeport Hospital 2,622

People's United Bank 1,179

University of Bridgeport 875

Bridgeport Health Care Center 500

Housatonic Community College 482

Prime Line 310

Derecktor Shipyards 300

Lacey Manufacturing 275

Watermark Retirement Communities 165

Education[edit] Main article: Education in Bridgeport, Connecticut Higher education[edit] Bridgeport is home to the University of Bridgeport, Housatonic Community College, St. Vincent's College, and the Yeshiva Gedola of Bridgeport. The Yeshiva Gedola is currently the home of the Bridgeport Community Kollel, a rabbinic fellowship program.[70] The University of Bridgeport's Ernest C. Trefz School of Business offers programs for both undergraduate and graduate. Public education[edit] The city's public school system has 30 elementary schools, three comprehensive high schools, two alternative programs and an interdistrict vocational aquaculture school. The system has about 20,800 students, making the Bridgeport Public Schools the second largest school system in Connecticut
after Hartford. It is ranked #158 out of the 164 Connecticut
school districts.[71] The school system employs a professional staff of more than 1,700. The city has started a large school renovation and construction program, with plans for new schools and modernization of existing buildings. Public high schools

Bassick High School
Bassick High School
established in 1929. Central High School established in 1876, home to Central Magnet, largest of the high schools. Warren Harding High School home to the International Baccalaureate Program (IBO) and the Health Magnet Program in association with Bridgeport Hospital, St. Vincent's Medical Center, and Bridgeport Manor; also the alma mater of Walt Kelly, creator of Pogo. Bridgeport Regional Vocational Aquaculture School (BRVAS), a school specializing in marine and aquaculture curriculum. Located near historic Captain's Cove and open to students from surrounding towns. Bullard Havens Technical High School, a vocational high school. (State School) The Bridge Academy: Bridgeport Charter High School Achievement First Bridgeport Charter High School

Public magnet schools

Fairchild Wheeler Interdistrict Multi-Magnet High School

Private education[edit] Bridgeport is also home to private schools, including Bridgeport Hope School (K-8), Bridgeport International Academy
Bridgeport International Academy
(grades 9-12), Catholic Academies of Bridgeport (PK-8), Kolbe Cathedral High School (9-12), St. Andrew Academy (PK-8), St. Ann Academy (PK-8), and Zion Lutheran School (PK-8). Government and politics[edit]

Bridgeport City

The city is governed by the mayor-council system. Twenty members of the city council are elected from districts. Each district elects two members. The mayor is elected at-large by the entire city. Bridgeport is notable for having had a Socialist mayor for 24 years; Jasper McLevy
Jasper McLevy
served as mayor from 1933 to 1957. Mayor Joseph P. Ganim was involved in a corruption scandal, as has been the case with Mayor Eddie Perez of Hartford
in 2010.[72] In June 2006, Mayor John M. Fabrizi admitted that he had used cocaine while in office.[73]

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 27, 2015[74]

Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage

Republican 3,583 1,004 4,587 5.99%

Democratic 42,176 8,627 50,803 66.40%

Unaffiliated 15,474 5,348 20,822 27.21%

Minor parties 270 32 302 0.39%

Total 61,503 15,011 76,514 100%

Taxes[edit] Taxes are high in Bridgeport, and the second highest in the county[citation needed]. In 2005, the mill rate for Bridgeport was 42.28[75] and is reportedly 41.855 for fiscal year 2013-2014.[76] Culture[edit]

Barnum Museum.

Performing arts[edit] Theater and music[edit] Bridgeport has a number of venues for live theater and music events, ranging from intimate performing spaces to a stadium hosting rock concerts.[77]

Downtown Cabaret Theatre – cabaret, children's theater, concerts Playhouse on the Green – (228 seats) theater with plays and varied musical events Klein Memorial Auditorium
Klein Memorial Auditorium
– (1,400 seats) home to the Greater Bridgeport Symphony, touring shows and concerts Webster Bank Arena
Webster Bank Arena
– Sporting events venue, but also hosts large concerts

Music festivals and concert series[edit] Bridgeport has been the annual home to Gathering of the Vibes, a weekend long arts, music and camping festival featuring some of the best names in festival talent. In 1999, 2000, and 2007 through 2010, thousands of people have come from all over the world to camp in Seaside Park and enjoy such talent as Buddy Guy, Bob Weir and Ratdog, Deep Banana Blackout, Les Claypool, Assembly of Dust, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Los Lobos
Los Lobos
and Bridgeport's own The Alternate Routes. Since 1945, the Greater Bridgeport
Greater Bridgeport
Symphony has been a cultural and musical gem for the City
of Bridgeport and its surrounding towns, performing at the 1,400 seat Klein Memorial Auditorium. The orchestra has a rich and vibrant history. Under the direction of Gustav Meier for the past 41 years, the prestigious orchestra has welcomed international soloists Beverly Sills, Midori, Benny Goodman, Itzhak Perlman with other links to legends like Leonard Bernstein, Jose Iturbi. Through its annual Carlson-Horn Competition for Young Instrumentalist created many new bright professional soloists including Andrew Armstrong, Alexander Markov, and Anita Chen. Museums, zoos and parks[edit] Bridgeport has a number of museums, ranging from the science-oriented to fine arts and historical, as well as the state's largest zoo.[77]

The Discovery Museum and Planetarium
Discovery Museum and Planetarium
emphasizes exhibits on science, with the state's only Challenger Center, affiliated with the national space program. Housatonic Museum of Art, located at Housatonic Community College, has the largest collection of art of any two-year college in the nation. The Barnum Museum
Barnum Museum
celebrates the showman, circuses and Bridgeport history. Beardsley Zoo
Beardsley Zoo
is the only such center in Connecticut.

In popular culture[edit] Movies[edit] A list of films shot or partially filmed in the city:[78]

Officer Down (2012) A Dance for Grace (2010) Ironmen (2010) 3 Weeks to Daytona (2009) Accidental Mayor (2009) All Good Things (2009) Confessions of a Shopaholic (2009) Dear Beautiful (2009) The Godfather Musical Part III: Luca Brasi Sleeps with the Fishes (2009) House of Satisfaction (2009) Made for Each Other (2009) The Music of Erich Zann (2009/II) Old Dogs (2009/I) College Road Trip
College Road Trip
(2008) Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
(2008) Pistol Whipped
Pistol Whipped
(2008) Righteous Kill
Righteous Kill
(2008) The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2
(2008) What Just Happened
What Just Happened
(2008) Bobby Dogs (2007) Dear Beautiful (2007) Praying to Hendrix (2007) Die Hard with a Vengeance
Die Hard with a Vengeance
(1995) A Walk with Death (1993) Route One USA (1989) There's a Nightmare in My Closet (1987) Without a Trace (1983) The Case of the Cosmic Comic (1976) The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds (1972) The Light that Failed
The Light that Failed


Kitchen Nightmares
Kitchen Nightmares
(Season 4, Episode 7, "Tavolini Restaurant", 2011) Brian Boitano Skating Spectacular (2010) (TV) Ghost Adventures:" Remington Arms
Remington Arms
Factory" (Episode 21, November 2009) WWE Raw
(Nov. 18, 2002; Mar. 8, 2004; Dec. 26, 2005; August 21, 2006; April 9, 2007; April 27, 2009; June 21, 2010, April 11, 2011 and Sep 17, 2012) WWE Smackdown, ECW, and NXT (May 7, 2002; March 4, 2003; August 2, 2005; Dec. 9, 2008; Nov. 24, 2009; Nov. 2, 2010; and Nov. 15, 2011) Oprah Winfrey Presents: Mitch Albom's For One More Day (2007) WWE Raw's 15th Anniversary Special
(2007) Flip This House: "Burning Down the House" (2005) Extreme Makeover: Home Edition (2003 & 2007) Made in America (2003) U.S. Bounty Hunter (2003) Muggsy (1976) The Twentieth Century (1957, The Class of '58 episode) Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye (TV Movie, 1977), bar scene of JFK campaigning with local workers filmed in the Ideal Bar on Barnum Avenue across from the former Singer Building Live PD
Live PD


Bridgeport is the setting for Maureen Howard's Natural History, a novel that includes scenes from the city's history and depicts important historical figures such as P. T. Barnum.


Club League Venue Established Championships Logo

Bridgeport Bluefish ALPB, Baseball The Ballpark at Harbor Yard 1998 1

Bridgeport Sound Tigers AHL, Ice hockey Arena at Harbor Yard 2001 0

Webster Bank Arena
Webster Bank Arena
serves as the city's sports and hospitality center. Seating 10,000, the Arena serves as the home rink of the Bridgeport Sound Tigers AHL hockey team and as the home court of Fairfield University's basketball team. The Ballpark at Harbor Yard
The Ballpark at Harbor Yard
served as a minor-league baseball stadium from 1998 to 2017. It was built in 1998 to serve as the homefield of the Bridgeport Bluefish. From 2001 to 2003 it was the homefield for the Bridgeport Barrage, a Major League Lacrosse team. It is located downtown on a former brownfield site. It is visually prominent to commuters on I-95 or on passing trains. On August 8, 2017, Mayor Joe Ganim announced that the Bluefish would be ending their 20 year stint at the ballpark at the end of the 2017 season. The ballpark is expected to be converted to a concert venue. The Bluefish played their final home game at the park on September 17, 2017, losing by a score of 9–2 to the Somerset Patriots.[79] Kennedy Stadium serves as a community sports facility. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, it was the home of an Atlantic Coast Football League minor league football team, the Bridgeport Jets, a New York Jets farm team also known locally as the Hi-Ho Jets due to their sponsorship by the (Hi-Ho) D'Addario construction company. Fairfield University
Fairfield University
is located in the neighboring town of Fairfield, and many of the athletic teams play on campus. Only the men's and women's basketball teams play in Bridgeport. Nutmeg Curling
Club, one of two curling clubs in Connecticut, is located in Bridgeport. It is the home club of the 2013 USA Mixed National Champions,[80] led by club members Derek Surka and Charissa Lin. The club is a member of the Grand National Curling
Club Region. Media[edit] Radio[edit]

WCUM AM 1450; 1,000 watts (formerly WJBX-AM, and before that, WNAB-AM) Spanish Format station better known as Radio Cumbre. WDJZ AM 1530; 5,000 watts (daytime only) Gospel Radio that serves the African American
African American
and Caribbean communities in the Bridgeport Metro area. WICC-AM 600; 1,000 watts (daytime), 500 watts (nighttime) – WICC began broadcasting on November 21, 1926, when a previous radio station, WCWS, was given a new name, WICC. The last three letters standing for Industrial Capitol of Connecticut. The Bridgeport Broadcasting Company Inc. was the new station's owner. Back then, the station was powered at 500 watts. From 1951 to 1956 one of the station's radio hosts was Bob Crane, who later went on to play Col. Robert Hogan on the Hogan's Heroes television comedy series.[81] WICC's transmitter is located on Pleasure Beach, an island located between downtown Bridgeport and Long Island
Long Island
Sound. WEBE-FM 107.9; 50,000 watts. WEBE108 is "CT's Best Music Variety!" owned and operated by Cumulus Media. Licensed to Westport, CT, with studios and transmitter in Bridgeport. WEZN-FM 99.9; 27,500 watts (formerly WJZZ-FM). Star 99.9 is "Today's Best Mix!" The station owned by Connoisseur Media. Lincensed to Bridgeport, CT, with studios in Milford and transmitter in Shelton. WPKN-FM 89.5; 10,000 watts[82]

Due to Bridgeport's close proximity to Long Island
Long Island
Sound, many radio stations from New York and Long Island
Long Island
are received clearly day and night in the market. These include WMCA, WFAN, WOR, WABC, WNYC, WCBS, WEPN, WQEW, WBLI, and WALK.[83]

v t e

Radio stations in the Bridgeport, Connecticut

By AM frequency

600 690 960 1260 1450 1500

By FM frequency

88.1 88.5 89.5 90.1 91.1 95.9 99.9 101.7 102.5 104.5 105.3 107.9

Digital radio by frequency & subchannel

91.1-1 91.1-2 91.1-3 95.9-1 107.9-1

By callsign






Radio markets in Fairfield County Bridgeport Danbury Stamford-Norwalk

Other nearby radio markets Hudson Valley Long Island New Haven New York City Poughkeepsie

See also List of radio stations in Connecticut


Elsolnews.com, a community Spanish language weekly newspaper covering news and events. Connecticut
Post - Formerly the Bridgeport Post and Bridgeport Telegram, which covers Bridgeport and the surrounding area. The newspaper is printed daily.

Television[edit] Bridgeport was NBC's pioneer UHF TV test site from December 29, 1949 to August 23, 1952;[84] the equipment from the "Operation Bridgeport" tests was later deployed commercially at KPTV
in Portland, Oregon (1952-1957). While Bridgeport is primarily served by New York City stations, some local UHF broadcasters operate today:

WEDW channel 49; one of the Connecticut
Public Television stations, broadcasts from Bridgeport and can be seen in Hartford. In 2011, WTNH-TV
opened a satellite studio in the offices of the Connecticut
Post downtown on State Street. WZME channel 43 now mostly broadcasts older classic TV shows. Licensed to Bridgeport with transmitter in Trumbull.

Transportation[edit] Airports[edit] Sikorsky Memorial Airport
Sikorsky Memorial Airport
in neighboring Stratford was previously owned by the City
of Bridgeport before closing a deal in 2016 that sold the land to Stratford. It once provided regional flights to major cities, but commercial operations at the airport were terminated in November 1999. Roads[edit] Surface thoroughfares[edit] The main portion of the city is divided by major north/south roads that approximately parallel each other:

Main Street, the city's principal artery, extending from the Trumbull town line down through the North End, under Routes 8/25, and into downtown, with its southern terminus at Seaside Park. The portion North of State Street was laid out as the "Newtown Turnpike" in 1795. Porter Street, Beechmont Avenue, and Kaechele Place are former curves in this highway that were lopped of as the road was straightened in the 19th century. Park Avenue lies on the borderline with the town of Fairfield (North of its intersection with Brooklawn Avenue) and extends from the Trumbull, Connecticut
border in the North End to the South End at Seaside Park. It was known as "Division Street" until 1867. It is the easternmost of the "11 o'clock" roadways laid out in 17th-century Fairfield (their north-northwesterly direction points them like a clock's hands at that hour, exactly perpendicular to the shoreline of Long Island
Long Island
Sound, that facilitated land distribution). Clinton/Brooklawn Avenues are a central artery through the West End, extending North from Railroad Avenue to the Fairfield line at the Rooster River. The portion to the North of Fairfield Avenue was laid out in the 17th century at the center of the agricultural village of Stratfield. It was known as "Stratfield Road" prior to 1870. Brewster Street extends from Black Rock Harbor
Black Rock Harbor
North to the Fairfield line at Ash Creek, and is the major north-south artery through the Black Rock neighborhood. This was the southernmost portion of the "Black Rock Turnpike," a toll road of the late-18th century that extended North as far as Danbury. Madison Avenue is situated between Main Street and Park Avenue, that extends from the Trumbull town line in the North End and continues through the West Side. It was formerly known as "Chestnut Hill Road," and follows the route of an Indian path. Reservoir Avenue was part of a turnpike that was laid out in 1817 in an almost arrow-straight line from Bridgeport north to the Monroe Green (it followed Daniels Farm Road in Trumbull and Moose Hill Road in Monroe). The "Reservoir" was a stone structure at the intersection of Sylvan Avenue, to which water was pumped from nearby Bunnell's Pond, and from which water was supplied to the entire city by gravity. Prior to construction of the Route 25-8 Expressway, this street extended South to North Avenue. Noble Avenue extends from the corner of Congress Street just South of Washington Park to the intersection of East Main Street and Huntington Turnpike. The portion below Boston
Avenue was laid out in 1850 as "Noble Street;" the part to the north was added to connect with the entrance to the new Beardsley Park
Beardsley Park
in 1878. East Main Street is the major North/South road through East Bridgeport, extending from the Trumbull/Stratford line though the East Side, ending at Bridgeport Harbor. The portion South of Boston Avenue/Old Mill Green was laid out in 1800. Huntington Road/ Huntington Turnpike
Huntington Turnpike
is the major roadway through the Upper East Side, extending Northeasterly from the Berkshire Bridge to the Trumbull town line (a small portion today becomes part of East Main Street). It was one of a number of turnpikes laid out in the immediate post-Revolutionary period to funnel rural commerce to the fledgling city's seaport, and formerly extended to the city center by way of North Washington Avenue. Seaview Avenue runs the length of the East End neighborhood on the East shore of Pembroke Lake, Yellow Mill Pond, and Bridgeport Harbor. It extends Northwesterly from Central to Stratford Avenues, then due North from Stratford to Boston
Avenues. It was laid out at the time of the Civil War in three sections that were later connected: "Sea View Avenue" South of Stratford Avenue: "West Avenue" at Deacon's Point, from Sixth Street North to the railroad tracks; and "Lake Avenue," from Barnum Avenue North to Boston
Avenue. Central/Palisade Avenues were laid out as farm highways through the westerly portions of what was the town of Stratford in the early 19th century. They form a North-South axis through the center of today's East End. The portion of Central Avenue to the north of Barnum Avenue was known as "Prospect Street" from the 1860s through 1889 due to the vistas from its hillside location.

The major East/West roads in the city include Barnum Avenue, Boston Avenue, Fairfield Avenue/Stratford Avenue, North Avenue, Capitol Avenue, State Street, and Railroad Avenue:

Barnum Avenue extends from the Stratford line, below Old Mill Hill, and ends at the Pequonnock River. The portion through the East Side was laid out as "Barnum Street" in 1850. From Pembroke Lake to Mill Hill Avenue was added in 1863. The road from Mill Hill Avenue to the Washington Bridge between Stratford and Milford was laid out as the "Air Line Highway" in 1870. Boston
Avenue breaks off from Barnum Avenue near the Bridgeport line in Stratford and travels east-west over Old Mill Hill to the Upper East Side toward the North End. It follows the route of an Indian path, crossing Old Mill Brook and the Pequonnock River
Pequonnock River
and the southernmost points where they were fordable, that became the Post Road in the 1670s. Stratford Avenue starts in the South End of the town of Stratford and travels Southwest through the East End. It then travels East through East Bridgeport directly into the center of Downtown Bridgeport, where it turns into Fairfield Avenue at Water Street. It was laid out in 1795 as a more direct route for the "Post Road," and the bridge built that year over the Pequonnock was the origin of the name "Bridgeport." Connecticut
Avenue, which parallels it one block to the North through the East End, is a one-way street heading West, while Stratford Avenue is one-way heading East. Fairfield Avenue extends West and then Southwest through the West End and into Black Rock, where it turns into the Boston
Post Road, or simply, the Post Road, at the Fairfield, Connecticut
line. Its route through the West End parallels what had been the northerly edge of an extensive salt marsh, and had been in existence in the 18th century. The portion through Black Rock was added in the 1870s. North Avenue begins at Boston
Avenue where the East Side abuts the Island Brook neighborhood at the Pequonnock River
Pequonnock River
and extends Southwest diagonally through the city as US 1. It then turns into Kings Highway in Fairfield. As with Boston
Avenue, it was follows an Indian trail, and was formalized as a part of the New York-to-Boston Post Road in the 1670s. Capitol Avenue begins by breaking off from North Avenue at Island Brook Avenue Extension. It travels West across the Old North End and Brooklawn neighborhoods and ends at the Fairfield line. State Street begins in Downtown and cuts across the West End, where it terminates (as 'State Street Extension') at the Fairfield line. The portion from Park Avenue to Bridgeport Harbor was in existence by the 1760s; the part to the West of Park Avenue was extended across what was then marshy terrain in 1867. Atlantic Street bisects the South End neighborhood, historically separating the well-to-do residential district that adjoined the old portion of Seaside Park from the working-class blocks to the north. Today it forms the north border of the University of Bridgeport campus. Railroad Avenue extends from Broad Street just below Downtown Bridgeport and runs parallel with the Metro North/New Haven Railroad lines. The Westbound side is to the north of the tracks, and the Eastbound side to the south of them. It terminates at Fairfield Avenue in the West End.

Highways[edit] Bridgeport has several major roadways. Interstate 95
Interstate 95
and the Route 8/Route 25 Connector meet in downtown Bridgeport. I-95 runs east-west near the coast heading towards New York City
to the southwest and Providence to the northeast. Routes 8 and 25 run north-south across the city, with the two routes splitting just north of the city. Route 8 continues towards Waterbury and Torrington and Route 25 continues towards the Danbury area. Both Routes 8 and 25 connect to the Merritt Parkway in the adjacent town of Trumbull. Other major surface arteries are U.S. 1 (the Boston
Post Road), which runs east-west north of downtown, and Main Street, which runs north-south towards Trumbull center. The city also has several secondary state highways, namely, Route 127 (East Main Street), Route 130 ( Connecticut
Ave, Stratford Ave, Fairfield Ave and Water Street), and the Huntington Turnpike. Railroad and ferries[edit]

A New Haven Line
New Haven Line
train approaches the intermodal transit hub at Bridgeport Station

The Bridgeport Traction Company provided streetcar service in the region until 1937. The Housatonic Railroad
Housatonic Railroad
carried passengers North through the Pequonnock and Housatonic Valleys prior to 1933. The city is connected to nearby New York City
by both Amtrak
and Metro-North commuter trains, which serve Bridgeport's Metro-North station. Many residents commute to New York jobs on these trains, and the city to some extent is developing as an outpost of New York–based workers seeking cheaper rents and larger living spaces. Connecting service is also available to Waterbury via Metro-North, and New Haven via Amtrak
and Metro-North. Shoreline East
Shoreline East
service links Old Saybrook and New London with New Haven, which extends to Bridgeport and Stamford during weekday rush hours only. The Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry service runs from Bridgeport across Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
to Port Jefferson, New York; the three vessels "Grand Republic", "P.T. Barnum" and "Park City" transport both automobiles and passengers. Buses[edit] The Greater Bridgeport
Greater Bridgeport
Transit Authority (GBTA) provides bus service to Bridgeport and its immediate suburbs. Route 2 the Coastal Link goes west to Norwalk and east to Westfield's Connecticut
Post Mall in Milford, from where Connecticut
Transit can bring passengers to the New Haven Green. Greyhound
and Peter Pan Bus Lines
Peter Pan Bus Lines
both offer intercity bus service to points throughout the Northeast and points beyond. Historic sites[edit] Historic districts[edit] Bridgeport has five local historic districts, where exterior changes to structures are under the control of two Historic District Commissions:

Black Rock Harbor
Black Rock Harbor
Historic District, 88 buildings along Ellsworth, Brewster, and Beacon Streets, includes the village center of a historic seaport, with buildings that date back to the 17th century Pembroke City
Historic District, 266 buildings in a general two-block radius of Washington Park, a planned residential development constructed 1850–1900 that contains the city's most important concentration of Victorian architecture Stratfield Historic District, 300 buildings along Clinton, Brooklawn, and Laurel Avenues that made up an elite residential district of the Edwardian era Barnum-Palliser Development Historic District, 33 buildings on Austin, Gregory, and Atlantic Streets and Myrtle Avenue that was a planned working-class development of the 1880s designed by the architectural firm of Palliser, Palliser, and Company Marina Park Historic District, 14 buildings along South Park Avenue and Marina Park, contains some of the city's most opulent late 19th-early 20th century mansions overlooking Seaside Park

See also[edit]


History of Bridgeport, Connecticut National Register of Historic Places listings in Bridgeport, Connecticut List of people from Bridgeport, Connecticut St. Andrew Church (Bridgeport, Connecticut)


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External links[edit]

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of Bridgeport official website Bridgeport Public Schools Bridgeport History Links Bridgeport Working: Voices from the 20th Century – Bridgeport Public Library Bridgeport Herald, Google news archive. —PDFs of 565 issues, dating from 1897 to 1910. " Black Rock Harbor
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Historic District" Bridgeport's first historic district, created in 1979 "BlackRockHistory.org" History of Bridgeport's Black Rock section during the American Revolution "Goldenhillindian.org" History of Bridgeport's Golden Hill Native Americans "Bridgeporthistory.us" History of American Entertainment in Bridgeport

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Bayonne Bergenfield Bethlehem Branford Cheshire Clifton Danbury East Haven East Orange Easton Englewood Ewing Township Fairfield Fair Lawn Fort Lee Freehold Township Garfield Greenwich Hackensack Hamden Hamilton Township, Mercer County Hoboken Howell Kearny Long Beach Long Branch Lower Macungie Township Mahwah Manalapan Marlboro Meriden Middletown, NJ Middletown, NY Milford Mount Vernon Naugatuck New Brunswick New Milford New Rochelle Newburgh Newtown Norwalk Old Bridge Paramus Passaic Perth Amboy Plainfield Poughkeepsie Rahway Shelton Stratford Teaneck Torrington Trenton Trumbull Union City Wallingford West Haven Westfield Westport White Plains Whitehall Township, PA

Cities and towns over 10,000

Ansonia Asbury Park Beacon Bethel Bethlehem Township, PA Brookfield Coolbaugh Township Darien Derby Dover Dumont East Stroudsburg Edgewater Elmwood Park Emmaus, PA Fairview Franklin Lakes Freehold Borough Glen Rock Guildford Guttenberg Harrison, NJ Harrison, NY Hasbrouck Heights Hazlet Hillsdale Holmdel Kingston Linden Little Ferry Lodi Lyndhurst Madison Monroe Morristown New Canaan New Fairfield New Milford North Arlington North Branford North Haven Northampton, PA Oakland Orange Palisades Park Phillipsburg Plymouth Peekskill Ramsey Red Bank Ridgefield, CT Ridgefield, NJ Ridgefield Park Ridgewood Rutherford Rye Saddle
Brook Scarsdale Secaucus Seymour Somerville Southbury Stroud Township Summit Tenafly Upper Macungie Township Wallington Watertown West Milford West New York Weston Westwood Wilton Winchester Wolcott Wyckoff


Catskills Central Jersey Greater Danbury Greater New Haven Greater Waterbury Housatonic Valley Hudson Valley Lehigh Valley Litchfield Hills Long Island North Jersey Poconos Skylands Region Southwestern Connecticut

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Northeast megalopolis

Major metropolitan areas (over 1,000,000)

New York














Other cities (over 100,000)

Newark Jersey City Yonkers Worcester Springfield Alexandria Paterson Bridgeport Elizabeth New Haven Stamford Allentown Manchester Waterbury Cambridge Lowell

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The 100 most populous metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America


New York, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Dallas, TX Houston, TX Washington, DC Philadelphia, PA Miami, FL Atlanta, GA Boston, MA San Francisco, CA Phoenix, AZ Riverside-San Bernardino, CA Detroit, MI Seattle, WA Minneapolis, MN San Diego, CA Tampa, FL Denver, CO St. Louis, MO

Baltimore, MD Charlotte, NC San Juan, PR Orlando, FL San Antonio, TX Portland, OR Pittsburgh, PA Sacramento, CA Cincinnati, OH Las Vegas, NV Kansas City, MO Austin, TX Columbus, OH Cleveland, OH Indianapolis, IN San Jose, CA Nashville, TN Virginia Beach, VA Providence, RI Milwaukee, WI

Jacksonville, FL Memphis, TN Oklahoma City, OK Louisville, KY Richmond, VA New Orleans, LA Hartford, CT Raleigh, NC Birmingham, AL Buffalo, NY Salt Lake City, UT Rochester, NY Grand Rapids, MI Tucson, AZ Honolulu, HI Tulsa, OK Fresno, CA Bridgeport, CT Worcester, MA Albuquerque, NM

Omaha, NE Albany, NY New Haven, CT Bakersfield, CA Knoxville, TN Greenville, SC Oxnard, CA El Paso, TX Allentown, PA Baton Rouge, LA McAllen, TX Dayton, OH Columbia, SC Greensboro, NC Sarasota, FL Little Rock, AR Stockton, CA Akron, OH Charleston, SC Colorado Springs, CO

Syracuse, NY Winston-Salem, NC Cape Coral, FL Boise, ID Wichita, KS Springfield, MA Madison, WI Lakeland, FL Ogden, UT Toledo, OH Deltona, FL Des Moines, IA Jackson, MS Augusta, GA Scranton, PA Youngstown, OH Harrisburg, PA Provo, UT Palm Bay, FL Chattanooga, TN

United States Census
Bureau population estimates for July 1, 2012

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Northeastern United States


Culture Geography Government History


Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Maine Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont

Major cities

Allentown Baltimore Boston Bridgeport Buffalo Burlington Cambridge Elizabeth Erie Hartford Jersey City Lowell Manchester New Haven New York City Newark Paterson Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland Providence Quincy Reading Rochester Scranton Springfield Stamford Syracuse Washington, D.C. Waterbury Wilmington Worcester

State capitals

Albany Annapolis Augusta Boston Concord Dover Hartford Harrisburg Montpelier Providence Trenton

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153882664 LCCN: n80094501 GN