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The Federal city of Bonn ( lat, Bonna) is a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
on the banks of the
Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Director ...

Rhine
in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About south-southeast of
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany's most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the fourth-most populous city in Germany. With 3.6 million people in the urban region and 1.1 million inhabit ...
, Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants. It is famous as a
university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...
city, the birthplace of Beethoven, as well as the
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital ...
of
West Germany ) , capital = Bonnf , largest_city = Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central Eu ...
from 1949 to 1990. Founded in the 1st century BC as the Roman settlement Germania Inferior, Bonn is one of Germany's oldest cities. From 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne, and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany's most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the fourth-most populous city in Germany. With 3.6 million people in the urban region and 1.1 million inhabit ...
. From 1949 to 1990, Bonn was the capital of
West Germany ) , capital = Bonnf , largest_city = Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central Eu ...
, and Germany's present constitution, the
Basic Law In countries with uncodified constitutions, basic law is the denomination of a law providing constitutional powers. In Germany ''basic law'' ("Grundgesetz") is the name given to the codified constitution. "Basic law" is often used to denote an inte ...
, was declared in the city in 1949. The era when Bonn served as the capital of West Germany is referred to by historians as the ''Bonn Republic''. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government – but no longer capital – of reunited Germany. Due to a political compromise ( Berlin-Bonn Act) following the reunification, the German federal government maintains a substantial presence in Bonn. Roughly a third of all ministerial jobs are located in Bonn , and the city is considered a second, unofficial, capital of the country. Bonn is the secondary seat of the President, the Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor, the Bundesrat of Germany, Bundesrat and the primary seat of six federal government ministries and twenty federal authorities. The title of Federal City (german: link=no, Bundesstadt) reflects its important political status within Germany. The headquarters of Deutsche Post DHL and Deutsche Telekom, both DAX-listed corporations, are in Bonn. The city is home to the University of Bonn and a total of 20 United Nations institutions, the highest number in all of Germany. These institutions include the headquarters for Secretariat of the UN Framework Convention Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Secretariat of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the UN Volunteers programme.


Geography


Topography

Situated in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area with over 11 million inhabitants, Bonn lies within the States of Germany, German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, on the border with Rhineland-Palatinate. Spanning an area of more on both sides of the river
Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Director ...

Rhine
, almost three-quarters of the city lies on the river's left bank. To the south and to the west, Bonn is bordering the Eifel region which encompasses the Rhineland Nature Park. To the north, Bonn borders the Cologne Lowland. Natural borders are constituted by the river Sieg to the north-east and by the Siebengebirge (also known as the Seven Hills) to the east. The largest extension of the city in north–south dimensions is and in west–east dimensions. The city borders have a total length of . The geographical centre of Bonn is the Bundeskanzlerplatz ''(Chancellor Square)'' in Bonn-Gronau.


Administration

The States of Germany, German state of North Rhine-Westphalia is divided into five Regierungsbezirk, governmental districts (german: link=no, Regierungsbezirk), and Bonn is part of the Regierungsbezirk Köln, governmental district of Cologne (german: link=no, Regierungsbezirk Köln). Within this governmental district, the city of Bonn is an List of districts of Germany, urban district in its own right. The urban district of Bonn is then again divided into four administrative municipal districts (german: link=no, Stadtbezirk). These are Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn-Beuel and Bonn-Hardtberg. In 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before.


Climate

Bonn has an oceanic climate (''Cfb''). In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, Bonn is in one of Germany's warmest regions.


History


Founding and Roman times

The history of the city dates back to Roman times. In about 12 BC, the Roman army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the city. Even earlier, the army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn. The Latin name for that settlement, "Bonna", may stem from the original population of this and many other settlements in the area, the Eburones, Eburoni. The Eburoni were members of a large tribal coalition effectively wiped out during the final phase of Julius Caesar, Caesar's Gallic Wars, War in Gaul. After several decades, the army gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement. During the 1st century Anno Domini, AD, the army then chose a site to the north of the emerging town in what is now the section of Bonn-Castell to build a large military installation dubbed Castra Bonnensis, i.e., literally, "Fort Bonn". Initially built from wood, the fort was eventually rebuilt in stone. With additions, changes and new construction, the fort remained in use by the army into the waning days of the Western Roman Empire, possibly the mid-5th century. The structures themselves remained standing well into the Middle Ages, when they were called the Bonnburg. They were used by Kingdom of the Franks, Frankish kings until they fell into disuse. Eventually, much of the building materials seem to have been re-used in the construction of Bonn's 13th-century Defensive wall, city wall. The Sterntor (''star gate'') in the city center is a reconstruction using the last remnants of the medieval city wall. To date, Bonn's Roman fort remains the largest fort of its type known from the Ancient history, ancient world, i.e. a fort built to accommodate a full-strength Roman legion, Imperial Legion and its auxiliaries. The fort covered an area of approximately . Between its walls it contained a dense grid of streets and a multitude of buildings, ranging from spacious headquarters and large officers' quarters to barracks, stables and a Military prison, military jail. Among the legions stationed in Bonn, the "1st", i.e. the Legio I Minervia, Prima Legio Minervia, seems to have served here the longest. Units of the Bonn legion were deployed to theatres of war ranging from modern-day Algeria to what is now the Russian republic of Chechnya. The chief Roman roads, Roman road linking the provincial capitals of Cologne and Mainz cut right through the fort where it joined the fort's main road (now, Römerstraße). Once past the South Gate, the Cologne–Mainz road continued along what are now streets named Belderberg, Adenauerallee et al. On both sides of the road, the local settlement, ''Bonna'', grew into a sizeable Roman town. Bonn is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. In late antiquity, much of the town seems to have been destroyed by marauding invaders. The remaining civilian population then took refuge inside the fort along with the remnants of the troops stationed here. During the final decades of Imperial rule, the troops were supplied by Franks, Franci chieftains employed by the Roman administration. When the end came, these troops simply shifted their allegiances to the new barbarian rulers, the Kingdom of the Franks. From the fort, the Bonnburg, as well as from a new medieval settlement to the South centered around what later became the Bonn Minster, minster, grew the medieval city of Bonn. Local legends arose from this period that the name of the village came from Saint Boniface via Vulgar Latin ''*Bonnifatia'', but this proved to be a myth.


Middle Ages and Early Modern times

Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the Romanesque architecture, Romanesque style Bonn Minster was built, and in 1597 Bonn became the seat of the Diocese, Archdiocese of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne, Cologne. The city gained more influence and grew considerably. The city was subject to a major bombardment during the Siege of Bonn (1689), Siege of Bonn in 1689. The Electorate of Cologne, elector Clemens August of Bavaria, Clemens August (ruled 1723–1761) ordered the construction of a series of Baroque buildings which still give the city its character. Another memorable ruler was Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria, Max Franz (ruled 1784–1794), who founded the university and the spa quarter of Bad Godesberg. In addition he was a patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven, who was born in Bonn in 1770; the elector financed the composer's first journey to Vienna. In 1794, the city was seized by French troops, becoming a part of the First French Empire. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, Bonn became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Administered within the Prussian Rhine Province, the city became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. Bonn was of little relevance in these years.


20th century and the "Bonn Republic"

During the Second World War, Bonn acquired military significance because of its strategic location on the Rhine, which formed a natural barrier to easy penetration into the German heartland from the west. The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Bonn on 7 March 1945, and the US 1st Infantry Division (United States), 1st Infantry Division captured the city during the battle of 8–9 March 1945. Aftermath of World War II, After the Second World War, Bonn was in the British zone of occupation. Following the advocacy of West Germany's first chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, a former Cologne Mayor and a native of that area, Bonn became the ''de facto'' capital, officially designated the "temporary seat of the Federal institutions," of the newly formed Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. However, the Bundestag, seated in Bonn's Bundeshaus (Bonn), Bundeshaus, affirmed Berlin's status as the German capital. Bonn was chosen as the provisional capital and seat of government despite the fact that Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt already had most of the required facilities and using Bonn was estimated to be 95 million DM more expensive than using Frankfurt. Bonn was chosen because Adenauer and other prominent politicians intended to make Berlin the capital of the reunified Germany, and felt that locating the capital in a major city like Frankfurt or Hamburg would imply a permanent capital and weaken support in West Germany for reunification. In 1949, the Parlamentarischer Rat, Parliamentary Council in Bonn drafted and adopted the current German constitution, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. As the political centre of West Germany, Bonn saw six Chancellor of Germany, Chancellors and six President of Germany, Presidents of the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn's time as the capital of West Germany is commonly referred to as the ''Bonn Republic,'' in contrast to the ''Berlin Republic'' which followed reunification in 1990.


Bonn in the "Berlin Republic"

German reunification in 1990 made Berlin the nominal capital of Germany again. This decision, however, did not mandate that the republic's political institutions would also move. While some argued for the seat of government to move to Berlin, others advocated leaving it in Bonn – a situation roughly analogous to that of the Netherlands, where Amsterdam is the capital but The Hague is the seat of government. Berlin's previous history as united Germany's capital was strongly connected with the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and more ominously with Nazi Germany. It was felt that a new peacefully united Germany should not be governed from a city connected to such overtones of war. Additionally, Bonn was closer to Brussels, headquarters of the European Economic Community. Former chancellor and mayor of West Berlin Willy Brandt caused considerable offence to the Western Allies during the debate by stating that France would not have kept the seat of government at Vichy France, Vichy after Liberation. The heated debate that Decision on the Capital of Germany, resulted was settled by the ''Bundestag'' (Germany's parliament) only on 20 June 1991. By a vote of 338–320, the Bundestag voted to move the seat of government to Berlin. The vote broke largely along regional lines, with legislators from the south and west favouring Bonn and legislators from the north and east voting for Berlin. It also broke along generational lines as well; older legislators with memories of Berlin's past glory favoured Berlin, while younger legislators favoured Bonn. Ultimately, the votes of the New states of Germany#Culture, eastern German legislators tipped the balance in favour of Berlin. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government of reunited Germany. In recognition of its former status as German capital, it holds the name of Federal City (german: link=no, Bundesstadt). Bonn currently shares the status of Germany's seat of government with Berlin, with the President, the Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor and many government ministries (such as Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Germany), Food & Agriculture and Federal Ministry of Defence (Germany), Defence) maintaining large presences in Bonn. Over 8,000 of the 18,000 federal officials remain in Bonn. A total of 19 United Nations (UN) institutions operate from Bonn today.


Politics


Mayor

The current Mayor of Bonn is Katja Dörner of Alliance 90/The Greens since 2020. She defeated incumbent mayor Ashok-Alexander Sridharan in the most recent mayoral election, which was held on 13 September 2020, with a runoff held on 27 September. The results were as follows: ! rowspan=2 colspan=2, Candidate ! rowspan=2, Party ! colspan=2, First round ! colspan=2, Second round , - ! Votes ! % ! Votes ! % , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Ashok-Alexander Sridharan , align=left, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union , 48,454 , 34.5 , 52,762 , 43.7 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Katja Dörner , align=left, Alliance 90/The Greens , 38,793 , 27.6 , 67,880 , 56.3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Lissi von Bülow , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party , 28,389 , 20.2 , - , , align=left, Christoph Artur Manka , align=left, Citizens' League Bonn , 8,694 , 6.2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Michael Faber , align=left, The Left (Germany), The Left , 7,032 , 5.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Werner Hümmrich , align=left, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party , 4,853 , 3.5 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Frank Rudolf Christian Findeiß , align=left, Die PARTEI , 2,873 , 2.0 , - , , align=left, Kaisa Ilunga , align=left, Alliance for Innovation and Justice , 1,507 , 1.1 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 140,595 ! 99.1 ! 120,642 ! 99.5 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 1,219 ! 0.9 ! 627 ! 0.5 , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 141,814 ! 100.0 ! 121,269 ! 100.0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 249,091 ! 56.9 ! 249,098 ! 48.7 , - , colspan=7, Source
State Returning Officer


City council

The Bonn city council governs the city alongside the Mayor. It used to be based in the Rococo-style ' (old city hall), built in 1737, located adjacent to Bonn's central market square. However, due to the enlargement of Bonn in 1969 through the incorporation of Beuel and Bad Godesberg, it moved into the larger Stadthaus facilities further north. This was necessary for the city council to accommodate an increased number of representatives. The mayor of Bonn still sits in the ', which is also used for representative and official purposes. The most recent city council election was held on 13 September 2020, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) , 39,311 , 27.9 , 9.2 , 19 , 3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) , 36,315 , 25.7 , 4.7 , 17 , 10 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD) , 21,956 , 15.6 , 7.9 , 11 , 9 , - , , align=left, Citizens' League Bonn (BBB) , 9,948 , 7.1 , 2.0 , 5 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, The Left (Germany), The Left (Die Linke) , 8,745 , 6.2 , 0.0 , 4 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party (FDP) , 7,268 , 5.2 , 3.0 , 3 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Volt Europa#Germany, Volt Germany (Volt) , 7,148 , 5.1 , New , 3 , New , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Alternative for Germany (AfD) , 4,569 , 3.2 , 0.4 , 2 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Die PARTEI (PARTEI) , 3,095 , 2.2 , New , 1 , New , - , , align=left, Alliance for Innovation and Justice (BIG) , 1,775 , 1.3 , 0.2 , 1 , ±0 , - , colspan=7 bgcolor=lightgrey, , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Pirate Party Germany (Piraten) , 869 , 0.6 , 1.6 , 0 , 2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Independents , 101 , 0.1 , – , 0 , – , - ! colspan=2, Valid votes ! 141,100 ! 99.3 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=2, Invalid votes ! 1,052 ! 0.7 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=2, Total ! 142,152 ! 100.0 ! ! 66 ! 20 , - ! colspan=2, Electorate/voter turnout ! 249,091 ! 57.1 ! 0.3 ! ! , - , colspan=7, Source
State Returning Officer


Landtag election

Four delegates represent the Federal city of Bonn in the Landtag of Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, North Rhine-Westphalia. The last election took place in May 2017. The current delegates are Guido Déus (Christian Democratic Union of Germany, CDU), Christos Katzidis (CDU), Joachim Stamp Free Democratic Party (Germany), (FDP) and Franziska Müller-Rech (FDP).


German federal election

Bonn's Electoral district, constituency is called ' (096). In the German federal election, 2017, German federal election 2017, Ulrich Kelber Social Democratic Party of Germany, (SPD) was elected a member of Bundestag, German Federal parliament, the Bundestag by direct mandate. It is his fifth term. Katja Dörner representing Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and Alexander Graf Lambsdorff for Free Democratic Party of Germany, FDP were eleceted as well. Kelber resigned in 2019 because he was appointed Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information. As Dörner was elected Lord Mayer of Bonn in September 2020, she resigned as a member of parliament after her entry into office.


Culture

Beethoven's birthplace is located in Bonngasse near the market place. Next to the market place is the Old City Hall, built in 1737 in Rococo style, under the rule of Clemens August of Bavaria. It is used for receptions of guests of the city, and as an office for the mayor. Nearby is the ''Electoral Palace, Bonn, Kurfürstliches Schloss'', built as a residence for the prince-elector and now the main building of the University of Bonn. The ''Poppelsdorfer Allee'' is an avenue flanked by Chestnut trees which had the first horsecar of the city. It connects the ''Kurfürstliches Schloss'' with the ''Poppelsdorfer Schloss'', a palace that was built as a resort for the prince-electors in the first half of the 18th century, and whose grounds are now a botanical garden (the Botanischer Garten Bonn). This axis is interrupted by a railway line and Bonn Hauptbahnhof, a building erected in 1883/84. The Beethoven Monument (Bonn), Beethoven Monument stands on the Münsterplatz, which is flanked by the Bonn Minster, one of Germany's oldest churches. The three highest structures in the city are the Westdeutscher Rundfunk, WDR Radio masts and towers, radio mast in Bonn-Venusberg (), the headquarters of the Deutsche Post called ''Post Tower'' () and the former building for the German members of parliament ''Langer Eugen'' () now the location of the UN Campus.


Churches

* Bonn Minster * Doppelkirche Schwarzrheindorf built in 1151 * Alter Friedhof, Bonn, Old Cemetery Bonn (''Alter Friedhof''), one of the best known cemeteries in Germany * Kreuzbergkirche, built in 1627 with Johann Balthasar Neumann's ''Heilige Stiege'', it is a stairway for Christian pilgrims * St. Remigius, Bonn, St. Remigius, where Beethoven was baptized


Castles and residences

* Godesburg fortress ruins


Modern buildings

* Beethovenhalle * Bundesviertel (federal quarter) with many government structures including ** Post Tower, the tallest building in the state North Rhine-Westphalia, housing the headquarters of Deutsche Post/DHL Express, DHL ** Maritim Bonn, five-star hotel and convention centre ** Schürmann-Bau, headquarters of Deutsche Welle ** Langer Eugen, since 2006 the centre of the United Nations Campus, formerly housing the offices of the members of the German parliament * Deutsche Telekom headquarters * T-Mobile headquarters * Kameha Grand, five-star hotel


Museums

Just as Bonn's other four major museums, the ''Haus der Geschichte'' or Museum of the History of the Federal Republic of Germany, is located on the so-called ''Museumsmeile'' ("Museum Mile")''.'' The Haus der Geschichte is one of the foremost German museums of contemporary German history, with branches in Berlin and Leipzig. In its permanent exhibition, the Haus der Geschichte presents German history from 1945 until the present, also shedding light on Bonn's own role as former capital of West Germany. Numerous temporary exhibitions emphasize different features, such as Nazism or important personalities in German history. The ''Kunstmuseum Bonn'' or Bonn Museum of Modern Art is an art museum founded in 1947. The Kunstmuseum exhibits both temporary exhibitions and its permanent collection. The latter is focused on Rhenish Expressionism and post-war German art. German artists on display include Georg Baselitz, Joseph Beuys, Hanne Darboven, Anselm Kiefer, Blinky Palermo and Wolf Vostell. The museum owns one of the largest collections of artwork by Expressionist painter August Macke. His work is also on display in the August-Macke-Haus, located in Macke's former home where he lived from 1911 to 1914. The Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ''Bundeskunsthalle'' (full name: Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland or Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany), focuses on the crossroads of culture, arts, and science. To date, it attracted more than 17 million visitors. One of its main objectives is to show the cultural heritage outside of Germany or Europe. Next to its changing exhibitions, the Bundeskunsthalle regularly hosts concerts, discussion panels, congresses, and lectures. The ''Museum Koenig'' is Bonn's natural history museum. Affiliated with the University of Bonn, it is also a Zoology, zoological research institution housing the ''Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere''. Politically interesting, it is on the premises of the Museum Koenig where the Parlamentarischer Rat first met. The ''Deutsches Museum Bonn'', affiliated with one of the world's foremost science museums, the Deutsches Museum in Munich, is an interactive science museum focusing on post-war German scientists, engineers, and inventions. Other museums include the Beethoven House, birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven, the Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn (Rhinish Regional Museum Bonn), the Bonn Women's Museum, the Rheinisches Malermuseum and the Arithmeum.


Nature

There are several parks, leisure and protected areas in and around Bonn. The ' is Bonn's most important leisure park, with its role being comparable to what Central Park is for New York City. It lies on the banks of the Rhine and is the city's biggest park intra muros. The Rhine promenade and the ''Alter Zoll'' (Old Toll Station) are in direct neighbourhood of the city centre and are popular amongst both residents and visitors. The ''Arboretum Park Härle'' is an arboretum with specimens dating to back to 1870. The ''Botanical Garden, Bonn, Botanischer Garten'' (Botanical Garden) is affiliated with the university and it is here where Titan arum set a world record. The natural reserve of ''Kottenforst'' is a large area of protected woods on the hills west of the city centre. It is about in area and part of the Rhineland Nature Park (). In the very south of the city, on the border with Wachtberg and Rhineland-Palatinate, there is an extinct volcano, the Rodderberg, featuring a popular area for hikes. Also south of the city, there is the Siebengebirge which is part of the lower half of the Middle Rhine region. The nearby upper half of the Middle Rhine from Bingen am Rhein, Bingen to Koblenz is a List of World Heritage Sites in Europe, UNESCO World Heritage Site with more than 40 castles and fortresses from the Middle Ages and important German vineyards.


Transportation


Air traffic

Named after Konrad Adenauer, the first post-war Chancellor of West Germany, Cologne Bonn Airport is situated north-east from the city centre of Bonn. With around 10.3 million passengers passing through it in 2015, it is the List of the busiest airports in Germany, seventh-largest passenger airport in Germany and the third-largest in terms of cargo operations. By traffic units, which combines cargo and passengers, the airport is in fifth position in Germany. As of March 2015, Cologne Bonn Airport had services to 115 passenger destinations in 35 countries. The airport is one of Germany's few 24-hour airports, and is a hub for Eurowings and cargo operators FedEx Express and UPS Airlines. The federal motorway (''Autobahn'') Bundesautobahn 59, A59 connects the airport with the city. Long distance and regional trains to and from the airport stop at Cologne/Bonn Airport station. Other major airports within a one-hour drive by car are Frankfurt International Airport, Frankurt International Airport and Düsseldorf Airport, Düsseldorf International Airport.


Rail and bus system

Bonn's central railway station, Bonn Hauptbahnhof, serves urban (S-train, S-Bahn, U-Bahn, sharing the same network with the neighbouring city of Cologne), regional (Regionalbahn), and long-distance destinations (Intercity-Express, ICE) such as Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Zurich, Vienna, Brussels, Amsterdam and Paris. Daily, more than 67,000 people travel via Bonn Hauptbahnhof. In late 2016, around 80 long distance and more than 165 regional trains departed to or from Bonn every day. The other major railway station (Siegburg/Bonn station, Siegburg/Bonn) lies on the Köln–Frankfurt high-speed rail line, high-speed rail line between Cologne and Frankfurt. The bus system of Bonn is composed of roughly 30 lines which operate on a regular basis. During peaks, buses usually run every 5 minutes; off-peak buses run every 20 minutes. Several lines offer night services, especially during the weekends. Bonn is part of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg (''Rhine-Sieg Transport Association'') which is the public transport association covering the area of the Cologne/Bonn Region.


Road network

Four Autobahns run through or are adjacent to Bonn: the Bundesautobahn 59, A59 (right bank of the Rhine, connecting Bonn with Düsseldorf and Duisburg), the Bundesautobahn 555, A555 (left bank of the
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Rhine
, connecting Bonn with Cologne), the Bundesautobahn 562, A562 (connecting the right with the left bank of the Rhine south of Bonn), and the Bundesautobahn 565, A565 (connecting the A59 and the A555 with the Bundesautobahn 61, A61 to the southwest). Three Bundesstraßen, which have a general speed limit in contrast to the Autobahn, connect Bonn to its immediate surroundings (Bundesstraßen B9, B42 and B56). With Bonn being divided into two parts by the
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Rhine
, three bridges are crucial for inner-city road traffic: the Konrad-Adenauer-Brücke (A562), the Friedrich-Ebert-Brücke (A565), and the Kennedybrücke (B56). In addition, regular ferries operate between Bonn-Mehlem and Königswinter, Bonn-Bad Godesberg and Niederdollendorf, and Graurheindorf and Mondorf.


Port

Located in the northern sub-district of Graurheindorf, the Inland harbor, inland harbour of Bonn is used for container traffic as well as oversea transport. The annual turnover amounts to around . Regular passenger transport occurs to Cologne and Düsseldorf.


Economy

The head offices of Deutsche Telekom, its subsidiary T-Mobile, Deutsche Post, Haribo, German Academic Exchange Service, and SolarWorld are in Bonn.


Education

The Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn (University of Bonn) is one of the largest universities in Germany. It is also the location of the German research institute Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) offices and of the German Academic Exchange Service (''Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst'' – DAAD).


Private schools

* Aloisiuskolleg, a Society of Jesus, Jesuit private school in Bad Godesberg with boarding facilities * Amos-Comenius-Gymnasium, a Protestant private school in Bad Godesberg * Bonn International School (BIS), a private English-speaking school set in the former American Compound in the Rheinaue, which offers places from kindergarten to 12th grade. It follows the curriculum of the International Baccalaureate. * Libysch Schule, private Arabic high school * Independent Bonn International School, (IBIS) private primary school (serving from kindergarten, reception, and years 1 to 6) * École de Gaulle - Adenauer, private French-speaking school serving grades pre-school ("maternelle") to grade 4 (CM1) * Kardinal-Frings-Gymnasium (''KFG''), private catholic school of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne, Archdiocese of Cologne in Beuel * Erzbischöfliche Liebfrauenschule Bonn, Liebfrauenschule (''LFS''), private catholic school of the Archdiocese of Cologne * , private catholic school of the Archdiocese of Cologne in Beuel * , private Catholic school of the Archdiocese of Cologne in Bad Godesberg * , private boarding and day school in Oberkassel, Bonn, Oberkassel * ("PÄDA"), private day school in Bad Godesberg * ("CoJoBo"), private catholic day school * Akademie für Internationale Bildung, private higher educational facility offering programs for international students ; Former * King Fahd Academy (Germany), King Fahd Academy, private Islamic school in Bad Godesberg


Demographics

, Bonn had a population of 327,913. About 70% of the population was entirely of German origin, while about 100,000 people, equating to roughly 30%, were at least partly of non-German origin. The city is one of the fastest-growing municipalities in Germany and the 18th most populous city in the country. Bonn's population is predicted to surpass the populations of Wuppertal and Bochum before the year 2030. The following list shows the largest groups of origin of minorites with "migration background" in Bonn .


Sports

Bonn is home of the Telekom Baskets Bonn, the only basketball club in Germany that owns its arena, the Telekom Dome. The club is a regular participant at international competitions such as the Basketball Champions League. The city also has a semi-professional football team Bonner SC which was formed in 1965 through the merger of ''Bonner FV'' and ''Tura Bonn''. The Bonn Gamecocks American football team play at the 12,000-capacity Stadion Pennenfeld. The headquarters of the International Paralympic Committee has been located in Bonn since 1999.


International relations

Since 1983, the City of Bonn has established friendship relations with the City of Tel Aviv, Israel, and since 1988 Bonn, in former times the residence of the Princes Electors of Cologne, and Potsdam, Germany, the formerly most important residential city of the Prussian rulers, have established a city-to-city partnership. Central Bonn is surrounded by a number of traditional towns and villages which were independent up to several decades ago. As many of those communities had already established their own contacts and partnerships before the regional and local reorganisation in 1969, the Federal City of Bonn now has a dense network of city district partnerships with European partner towns. The city district of Bonn is a partner of the English university city of Oxford, England, UK (since 1947), of Budafok, District XXII of Budapest, Hungary (since 1991) and of Opole, Poland (officially since 1997; contacts were established 1954). The district of Bad Godesberg has established partnerships with Saint-Cloud in France, Frascati in Italy, Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead, Windsor and Maidenhead in England, UK and Kortrijk in Belgium; a friendship agreement has been signed with the town of Yalova, Turkey. The district of Beuel on the right bank of the Rhine and the city district of Hardtberg foster partnerships with towns in France: Mirecourt and Villemomble. Moreover, the city of Bonn has developed a concept of international co-operation and maintains sustainability oriented project partnerships in addition to traditional city twinning, among others with Minsk in Belarus, Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia, Bukhara in Uzbekistan, Chengdu in China and La Paz in Bolivia.


Twin towns – sister cities

Bonn is Sister city, twinned with: * Bukhara, Uzbekistan (1999) * Cape Coast, Ghana (2012) * Chengdu, China (2009) * Minsk, Belarus (1993) * La Paz, Bolivia (1996) * Potsdam, Germany (1988) * Tel Aviv, Israel (1983) * Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (1993) Bonn city district is twinned with: * Oxford, England, United Kingdom (1947) * Budafok-Tétény, Budafok-Tétény (Budapest), Hungary (1991) For twin towns of other city districts, see Bad Godesberg#Twin towns – sister cities, Bad Godesberg, Beuel#Twin towns – sister cities, Beuel and Hardtberg#Twin towns – sister cities, Hardtberg.


Notable residents


Up to the 19th century

* Johann Peter Salomon, baptized 20 February 1745 † 25 November 1815 in London, musician * Franz Anton Ries, * 10 November 1755 † 1 November 1846 in Bonn, violinist and violin teacher * Ludwig van Beethoven, * baptized 17 December 1770 † 26 March 1827 in Vienna, composer * Salomon Oppenheim, Jr., * 19 June 1772 † 8 November 1828 in Mainz, banker * Peter Joseph Lenné, * 29 September 1789 † 23 January 1866 in Potsdam, gardener and landscape architect * Friedrich von Gerolt, * 5 March 1797 † 27 July 1879 in Linz, diplomat * Karl Joseph Simrock, * 28 August 1802 † 18 July 1876 in Bonn, writer and specialist in German * Wilhelm Neuland, * July 1806 † 28 December 1889 in Bonn, composer and conductor * Johanna Kinkel, * 8 July 1810 † 15 November 1858 in London, composer and writer * Moses Hess, * 21 June 1812 † 6 April 1875 in Paris, philosopher and writer * Johann Gottfried Kinkel, * 11 August 1815 † 12 November 1882 in Zürich, theologian, writer, and politician * Alexander Kaufmann, * 14 May 1817 † 1 May 1893 in Wertheim, author and archivist * Leopold Kaufmann, * 13 March 1821 † 27 February 1898 in Bonn, mayor * Julius von Haast, * 1 May 1822 † 16 August 1887 in Christchurch, New Zealand, professor of geology * Dietrich Brandis, * 31 March 1824 † 28 May 1907 in Bonn, botanist * Balduin Möllhausen, * 27 January 1825 † 28 May 1905 in Berlin, traveler and writer * Maurus Wolter, * 4 June 1825 † 8 July 1890 in Beuron, Benedictine, founder and first abbot of the Abbey of Beuron and Beuronese Congregation * August Reifferscheid, * 3 October 1835 † 10 November 1887 in Strasbourg, philologist * Antonius Maria Bodewig, * 2 November 1839 † 8 January 1915 in Rome, Jesuit missionary and founder * Nathan Zuntz, * 7 October 1847 † 23 March 1920 in Berlin, physician * Alexander Koenig, * 20 February 1858 † 16 July 1940 in Blücherhof, Klocksin, zoologist, founder of Museum Koenig in Bonn * Alfred Philippson, * 1 January 1864 † 28 March 1953 in Bonn, geographer * Johanna Elberskirchen, * 11 April 1864 † 17 May 1943 in Rüdersdorf, feminist writer and activist * Max Alsberg, * 16 October 1877 † 10 September 1933, lawyer * Kurt Wolff (publisher), Kurt Wolff, * 3 March 1887 † 21 October 1963, publisher * Hans Riegel (senior), * 3 April 1893 † 31 March 1945, entrepreneur * Eduard Krebsbach, * 8 August 1894 † 28 May 1947 in Landsberg am Lech, SS doctor in Nazi Mauthausen concentration camp, executed for war crimes * Paul Kemp (actor), Paul Kemp, * 20 May 1896 † 13 August 1953 in Bonn, actor


20th century


1900–1950

* Hermann Josef Abs, * 15 October 1901 † 5 February 1994 in Bad Soden am Taunus, board member of the Deutsche Bank * Paul Ludwig Landsberg, * 3 December 1901 † 2 April 1944 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, philosopher * Heinrich Lützeler, * 27 January 1902 † 13 June 1988 in Bonn, philosopher, art historian, and literary scholar * Helmut Horten, * 8 January 1909 † , 30 November 1987, entrepreneur * Theodor Schieffer, * 11 June 1910 † 9 April 1992, historian and medievalist * Irene Sänger-Bredt, * 24 April 1911 † 20 October 1983 in Stuttgart, mathematician and physicist * Ernst Friedrich Schumacher, * 16 August 1911 † 4 September 1977 in the train between Geneva and Lausanne, economist * Klaus Barbie, * 25 October 1913 † 25 September 1991 in Lyon, Nazi SS and Gestapo war criminal, the "Butcher of Lyon" * Karl-Theodor Molinari, * 7 February 1915 † 11 December 1993 in Dortmund, General and founding chairman of the German Armed Forces Association * Karlrobert Kreiten, * 26 June 1916 in Bad Godesberg † 7 September 1943 in Berlin-Plotzensee, pianist * Hans Walter Zech-Nenntwich * 10 July 1916 in Toruń, Second Polish Republic, SS Cavalry member and war criminal * Walther Killy (1917–1985), German literary scholar, ''Der Killy'' * Hannjo Hasse, * 31 August 1921 † 5 February 1983 in Falkirk, actor * Walter Gotell, * 15 March 1924 † 5 May 1997 in London, actor * Walter Eschweiler, born 20 September 1935, football referee * Alexandra Cordes, * 16 November 1935 † 27 October 1986 in Châteauneuf-du-Pape, writer * Joachim Bißmeier, born 22 November 1936, actor * Roswitha Esser, born 18 January 1941, canoeist, gold medal winner at the Olympic Games in 1964 and 1968, Sportswoman of the Year 1964 * Heide Simonis, born 4 July 1943, politician (SPD), former Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein, since 2005 honorary chairman of UNICEF Germany * Paul Alger, born 13 August 1943, football player * Johannes Mötsch, born 8 July 1949, archivist and historian * Klaus Ludwig, born 5 October 1949, race car driver


1951 to present

* Günter Ollenschläger, born 3 March 1951 in Beuel, medical and science journalist * Hans Bongartz, Hans "Hannes" Bongartz, born 3 October 1951, football player and coach * Christa Goetsch, born 28 August 1952, politician (Alliance '90 / The Greens) * Thomas de Maizière, born 21 January 1954, politician (CDU), former Minister of Defence and of the Interior * Gerd Faltings, born 28 July 1954, mathematician, Fields Medal winner * Olaf Manthey, born 21 April 1955, former touring car racing driver * Michael Kühnen, * 21 June 1955 † 25 April 1991 in Kassel, Neo-Nazi * Roger Willemsen, * 15 August 1955 † 7 February 2016 in Wentorf, publicist, author, essayist, and presenter * Norman Rentrop, born 26 October 1957, publisher, author, and investor * Markus Maria Profitlich, born 25 March 1960, comedian and actor * Guido Westerwelle, * 27 December 1961 † 8 March 2016, politician (FDP), Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of Germany from 2009 to 2011 * Mathias Dopfner, born 15 January 1963, chief executive officer of Axel Springer AG * Nikolaus Blome, born 16 September 1963, journalist * Maxim Kontsevich, born 25 August 1964, mathematician, Fields Medal winner * Johannes B. Kerner, born 9 December 1964, TV presenter, Abitur at the Aloisiuskolleg, and studied in Bonn * Anthony Baffoe, born 25 May 1965 football player, sports presenter, and actor * Sonja Zietlow, born 13 May 1968, TV presenter * Burkhard Garweg, born 1 September 1968, member of the Red Army Faction * Sabriye Tenberken, born 19 September 1970, Tibetologist, founder of Braille Without Borders * Thorsten Libotte, born 20 July 1972, writer * Tamara Gräfin von Nayhauß, born 23 July 1972, television presenter * Silke Bodenbender, born 31 January 1974, actress * Juli Zeh, born 30 June 1974, writer * Oliver Mintzlaff, born 19 August 1975, track and field athlete and sports manager, CEO of RB Leipzig * Markus Dieckmann, born 7 January 1976, beach volleyball player * Bernadette Heerwagen, born 22 June 1977, actress * Melanie Amann, born 1978, journalist * Bushido (rapper), Bushido, born 28 September 1978, musician and rapper * Sebastian Stahl, born 20 September 1978, race car driver * Sonja Fuss, born 5 November 1978, football player * Andreas Tölzer, born 27 January 1980, judoka * Jens Hartwig, born 16 April 1980, actor * Natalie Horler, born 23 September 1981, front woman of the Dance Project Cascada * Marcel Ndjeng, born 6 May 1982, football player * Marc Zwiebler, born 13 March 1984, badminton player * Benjamin Barg, born 15 September 1984, football player * Alexandros Margaritis, born 20 September 1984, race car driver * Ken Miyao, born 16 March 1986, pop singer * Julia Reda, born 30 November 1986, politician * Peter Scholze, born 11 December 1987, mathematician, Fields Medal winner * Célia Okoyino da Mbabi, born 27 June 1988, football player * Luke Mockridge, born 21 March 1989, comedian and author * Pius Heinz, born 4 May 1989, poker player, 2011 World Series of Poker, WSOP Main Event champion * Jonas Wohlfarth-Bottermann, born 20 February 1990, basketball player * Levina (singer), Levina, born 1 May 1991, singer * Bienvenue Basala-Mazana, born 2 January 1992, football player * Annika Beck, born 16 February 1994, tennis player * James Hyndman (actor), James Hyndman, born 23 April 1962, stage actor * Konstanze Klosterhalfen, born 18 February 1997, track and field athlete


References


Bibliography


External links


Official Website

Tourist information




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