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The Bharatiya Janata Party (pronounced [bʱaːrət̪iːjə dʒənət̪aː paːrʈiː] ( listen); translation: Indian People's Party; abbr. BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.[17] As of 2016[update], it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies, and it is the world's largest party in terms of primary membership. The BJP is a right-wing party,[11][18] with close ideological and organisational links to the Hindu nationalist
Hindu nationalist
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The BJP's origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951[19] by Syama Prasad Mukherjee. After the State of Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party; it defeated the incumbent Congress party in the 1977 general election. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although initially unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP
BJP
became the largest party in the parliament in 1996; however, it lacked a majority in the lower house of Parliament, and its government lasted only 13 days. After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) formed a government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a full term in office; this was the first non-Congress government to do so. In the 2004 general election, the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, and for the next ten years the BJP
BJP
was the principal opposition party. Long time Gujarat
Gujarat
Chief Minister Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi has led the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of February 2018[update], the alliance governs 21 states. The official ideology of the BJP
BJP
is "integral humanism", first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya
Deendayal Upadhyaya
in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, and its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist
Hindu nationalist
positions. The BJP
BJP
advocates social conservatism and a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple
Ram temple
in Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and the implementation of a uniform civil code. However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues. It instead focused on a largely neoliberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Bharatiya Jana Sangh
(1951–77) 1.2 Janata Party (1977–80) 1.3 BJP
BJP
(1980–present)

1.3.1 Formation and early days 1.3.2 Babri Masjid demolition and the Hindutva
Hindutva
movement 1.3.3 NDA government (1998–2004) 1.3.4 2002 Gujarat
Gujarat
violence 1.3.5 General election defeats 1.3.6 General election victory, 2014

2 General election results 3 Ideology and political positions

3.1 Social policies and Hindutva 3.2 Economic policies 3.3 Defence and counterterrorism 3.4 Foreign policy

4 Organisation and structure 5 Presence in various states

5.1 Current BJP
BJP
and NDA governments

6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources

7 Further reading 8 External links

History Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Bharatiya Jana Sangh
(1951–77) Main article: Bharatiya Jana Sangh The BJP's origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, popularly known as the Jana Sangh, founded by Syama Prasad Mookerjee
Syama Prasad Mookerjee
in 1951 in response to the politics of the dominant Congress party. It was founded in collaboration with the Hindu nationalist
Hindu nationalist
volunteer organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
(RSS), and was widely regarded as the political arm of the RSS.[20] The Jana Sangh's aims included the protection of India's "Hindu" cultural identity, in addition to countering what it perceived to be the appeasement of Muslim people and the country of Pakistan
Pakistan
by the Congress party and then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The RSS loaned several of its leading pracharaks, or full-time workers, to the Jana Sangh to get the new party off the ground. Prominent among these was Deendayal Upadhyaya, who was appointed General Secretary. The Jana Sangh won only three Lok Sabha seats in the first general elections in 1952. It maintained a minor presence in parliament until 1967.[21][22] The Jana Sangh's first major campaign, begun in early 1953, centred on a demand for the complete integration of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
into India.[23] Mookerjee was arrested in May 1953 for violating orders from the state government restraining him from entering Kashmir. He died of a heart attack the following month, while still in jail.[23] Mauli Chandra Sharma was elected to succeed Mookerjee; however, he was forced out of power by the RSS activists within the party, and the leadership went instead to Upadhyaya. Upadhyay remained the General Secretary until 1967, and worked to build a committed grassroots organisation in the image of the RSS. The party minimised engagement with the public, focusing instead on building its network of propagandists. Upadhyaya also articulated the philosophy of integral humanism, which formed the official doctrine of the party.[24] Younger leaders, such as Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
and Lal Krishna Advani
Lal Krishna Advani
also became involved with the leadership in this period, with Vajpayee succeeding Upadhyaya as president in 1968. The major themes on the party's agenda during this period were legislating a uniform civil code, banning cow slaughter and abolishing the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir.[25] After assembly elections across the country in 1967, the party entered into a coalition with several other parties, including the Swatantra Party and the socialists. It formed governments in various states across the Hindi heartland, including Madhya Pradesh, Bihar
Bihar
and Uttar Pradesh. It was the first time the Jana Sangh held political office, albeit within a coalition; this caused the shelving of the Jana Sangh's more radical agenda.[26] Janata Party (1977–80) Main article: Janata Party In 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
imposed a state of emergency. The Jana Sangh took part in the widespread protests, with thousands of its members being imprisoned along with other agitators across the country. In 1977, the emergency was withdrawn and general elections were held. The Jana Sangh merged with parties from across the political spectrum, including the Socialist Party, the Congress (O) and the Bharatiya Lok Dal to form the Janata Party, with its main agenda being defeating Indira Gandhi.[22] The Janata Party won a majority in 1977 and formed a government with Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
as Prime Minister. The former Jana Sangh contributed the largest tally to the Janata Party's parliamentary contingent, with 93 seats or 31% of its strength. Vajpayee, previously the leader of the Jana Sangh, was appointed the Minister of External Affairs.[27] The national leadership of the former Jana Sangh consciously renounced its identity, and attempted to integrate with the political culture of the Janata Party, based on Gandhian and Hindu traditionalist principles. According to Christophe Jaffrelot, this proved to be an impossible assimilation.[28] The state and local levels of the Jana Sangh remained relatively unchanged, retaining a strong association with the RSS, which did not sit well with the moderate centre-right constituents of the Party.[29] Violence between Hindus and Muslims increased sharply during the years that the Janata Party formed the government, with former Jana Sangha members being implicated in the riots at Aligarh
Aligarh
and Jamshedpur
Jamshedpur
in 1978–79. The other major constituents of the Janata Party demanded that the Jana Sangh should break from the RSS, which the Jana Sangh refused to do. Eventually, a fragment of the Janata Party broke off to form the Janata Party (Secular). The Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
government was reduced to a minority in the Parliament, forcing its resignation. Following a brief period of coalition rule, general elections were held in 1980, in which the Janata Party fared poorly, winning only 31 seats. In April 1980, shortly after the elections, the National Executive Council of the Janata Party banned its members from being 'dual members' of party and the RSS. In response, the former Jana Sangh members left to create a new political party, known as the Bharatiya Janata Party.[30][27] BJP
BJP
(1980–present)

Influential figures

Syama Prasad Mookerjee, founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the first BJP
BJP
prime minister (1998–2004)

Lal Krishna Advani, deputy Prime Minister under Vajpayee and one of the architects of the Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
movement

Formation and early days Although the newly formed BJP
BJP
was technically distinct from the Jana Sangh, the bulk of its rank and file were identical to its predecessor, with Vajpayee being its first president. Historian Ramachandra Guha
Ramachandra Guha
writes that the early 1980s were marked by a wave of violence between Hindus and Muslims. The BJP
BJP
initially moderated the Hindu nationalist
Hindu nationalist
stance of its predecessor the Jana Sangh to gain a wider appeal, emphasising its links to the Janata Party and the ideology of Gandhian Socialism.[9] This was unsuccessful, as it won only two Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seats in the elections of 1984.[9] The assassination of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
a few months earlier resulted in a wave of support for the Congress which won a record tally of 403 seats, contributing to the low number for the BJP.[31] Babri Masjid demolition and the Hindutva
Hindutva
movement Further information: Ram Rath Yatra
Ram Rath Yatra
and Demolition of the Babri Masjid The failure of Vajpayee's moderate strategy led to a shift in the ideology of the party toward a policy of more hardline Hindu nationalism.[32][33] In 1984, Advani was appointed president of the party, and under him it became the political voice of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. In the early 1980s, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) began a campaign for the construction of a temple dedicated to the Hindu deity Rama
Rama
at the site of the Babri mosque
Babri mosque
in Ayodhya. The mosque had been constructed by the Mughal Emperor Babur
Babur
in 1527. There is a dispute about whether a temple once stood there.[34] The agitation was on the basis of the belief that the site was the birthplace of Rama, and that a temple had been demolished to construct the mosque.[35] The BJP
BJP
threw its support behind this campaign, and made it a part of their election platform. It won 86 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seats in 1989, a tally which made its support crucial to the National Front government of V. P. Singh.[36] In September 1990, Advani began a rath yatra (chariot journey) to Ayodhya
Ayodhya
in support of the Ram temple
Ram temple
movement. According to Guha, the imagery employed by the yatra was "religious, allusive, militant, masculine, and anti-Muslim", and the speeches delivered by Advani during the yatra accused the government of appeasing Muslims and practising "pseudo-secularism" that obstructed the legitimate aspirations of Hindus.[37] Advani defended the yatra, stating that it had been free of incident from Somnath to Ayodhya, and that the English media were to blame for the violence that followed.[38] Advani was placed under preventive detention on the orders of the then Bihar chief minister Lalu Prasad Yadav. A large number of kar sevaks nonetheless converged on Ayodhya. On the orders of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
chief minister Mulayam Singh Yadav, 150,000 of them were detained, yet half as many managed to reach Ayodhya
Ayodhya
and some attacked the mosque. Three days of fighting with the paramilitary forces ended with the deaths of several kar sevaks. Hindus were urged by VHP to "take revenge" for these deaths, resulting in riots against Muslims across Uttar Pradesh. [39] The BJP
BJP
withdrew its support from the V.P. Singh government, leading to fresh general elections. It once again increased its tally, to 120 seats, and won a majority in the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
assembly.[40] On 6 December 1992, the RSS and its affiliates organised a rally involving more than 100,000 VHP and BJP
BJP
activists at the site of the mosque.[40] Under circumstances that are not entirely clear, the rally developed into a frenzied attack that ended with the demolition of the mosque.[40] Over the following weeks, waves of violence between Hindus and Muslims erupted all over the country, killing over 2,000 people.[40] The government briefly banned the VHP, and many BJP leaders, including Advani were arrested for making inflammatory speeches provoking the demolition.[41][42] Several historians have said that the demolition was the product of a conspiracy by the Sangh Parivar, and not a spontaneous act.[40] A 2009 report, authored by Justice Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Liberhan, found that 68 people were responsible for the demolition, mostly leaders from the BJP.[42] Among those named were Vajpayee, Advani, and Murli Manohar Joshi. The report also criticised Kalyan Singh, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
during the demolition.[42] He was accused of posting bureaucrats and police officers who would stay silent during the demolition.[42] Anju Gupta, an Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
officer in charge of Advani's security, appeared as a prominent witness before the commission. She said that Advani and Joshi made provocative speeches that were a major factor in the mob's behaviour.[43] In the parliamentary elections in 1996, the BJP
BJP
capitalised on the communal polarisation that followed the demolition to win 161 Lok Sabha seats, making it the largest party in parliament.[44] Vajpayee was sworn in as Prime Minister, but was unable to attain a majority in the Lok Sabha, forcing the government to resign after 13 days.[44] NDA government (1998–2004) Further information: National Democratic Alliance (India) A coalition of regional parties formed the government in 1996, but this grouping was short lived, and mid-term polls were held in 1998. The BJP
BJP
contested the elections leading a coalition called the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), which contained its existing allies like the Samata Party, the Shiromani Akali Dal, the Shiv Sena in addition to the All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(AIADMK) and the Biju Janata Dal. Among these regional parties, the Shiv Sena was the only one which had an ideology similar to the BJP; Amartya Sen, for example, called the coalition an "ad hoc" grouping.[45][46] The NDA had a majority with outside support from the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) and Vajpayee returned as Prime Minister.[47] However, the coalition ruptured in May 1999 when the leader of AIADMK, Jayalalitha, withdrew her support, and fresh elections were held again.[48] On 13 October 1999, the NDA, without the AIADMK, won 303 seats in parliament and thus an outright majority. The BJP
BJP
had its highest ever tally of 183. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for the third time; Advani became Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister. This NDA government lasted its full term of five years. Its policy agenda included a more aggressive stance on defence and terror as well as neo-liberal economic policies.[49] In 2001, Bangaru Laxman, then the BJP
BJP
president, was filmed accepting a bribe of ₹100,000 (equivalent to ₹280,000 or US$4,300 in 2017)[50] to recommend the purchase of hand-held thermal imagers for the Indian Army
Indian Army
to the Defence Ministry, in a sting operation by Tehelka
Tehelka
journalists.[51][52] The BJP
BJP
was forced to make him resign and he was subsequently prosecuted. In April 2012, he was sentenced to four years in prison.[53] 2002 Gujarat
Gujarat
violence Main article: 2002 Gujarat
Gujarat
violence On 27 February 2002, a train carrying Hindu pilgrims was burned outside the town of Godhra, killing 59 people. The incident was seen as an attack upon Hindus, and sparked off massive anti-Muslim violence across the state of Gujarat
Gujarat
that lasted several weeks.[54] The death toll estimated was as high as 2000, while 150,000 were displaced.[55] Rape, mutilation, and torture were also widespread.[55][56] The then- Gujarat
Gujarat
chief minister Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
and several high-ranking government officials were accused of initiating and condoning the violence, as were police officers who allegedly directed the rioters and gave them lists of Muslim-owned properties.[57] In April 2009, a Special
Special
Investigation Team (SIT) was appointed by the Supreme Court to investigate and expedite the Gujarat
Gujarat
riots cases. In 2012, Modi was cleared of complicity in the violence by the SIT and BJP
BJP
MLA Maya Kodnani, who later held a cabinet portfolio in the Modi government, was convicted of having orchestrated one of the riots and sentenced to 28 years imprisonment.[58][59] Scholars such as Paul Brass, Martha Nussbaum and Dipankar Gupta have said that there was a high level of state complicity in the incidents.[60][61][62] General election defeats Vajpayee called for elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. The NDA's campaign was based on the slogan " India
India
Shining", which sought to depict it as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country.[63] However, the NDA unexpectedly suffered a heavy defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the Congress and its allies. Manmohan Singh succeeded Vajpayee as Prime Minister as the head of the United Progressive Alliance. The NDA's failure to reach out to rural Indians was provided as an explanation for its defeat, as was its divisive policy agenda.[63][64] In May 2008, the BJP
BJP
won the state elections in Karnataka. This was the first time that the party won assembly elections in any South Indian state. In the 2009 general elections, its strength in the Lok Sabha was reduced to 116 seats. It lost the next assembly election in 2013.[65] General election victory, 2014

Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
became the Prime Minister of India, following the 2014 Indian general election.

In the 2014 Indian general election, the BJP
BJP
won 282 seats, leading the NDA to a tally of 336 seats in the 543-seat Lok Sabha.[66] Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
was sworn in as the 15th Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
on 26 May 2014.[67][68] The vote share of the BJP
BJP
was 31% of all votes cast, a low figure relative to the number of seats it won.[69] This was the first instance since 1984 of a single party achieving an outright majority in the Indian Parliament[70] and the first time that it achieved a majority in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
on its own strength. Support was concentrated in the Hindi-speaking belt in North-central India.[69] The magnitude of the victory was not predicted by most opinion and exit polls.[69] Political analysts have suggested several reasons for this victory, including the popularity of Modi, and the loss of support for the Congress due to the corruption scandals in its previous term.[71] The BJP
BJP
was also able to expand its traditionally upper-caste, upper-class support base and received significant support from middle-class and Dalit
Dalit
people, as well as among Other Backward Classes.[72][69] Its support among Muslims remained low; only 8% of Muslim voters voted for the BJP.[72][69] The BJP
BJP
was also very successful at mobilising its supporters, and raising voter turnout among them.[69] General election results The Bharatiya Janata Party was officially created in 1980, and the first general election it contested was in 1984, in which it won only two Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seats. Following the election in 1996, the BJP
BJP
became the largest party in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
for the first time, but the government it formed was short-lived.[44] In the elections of 1998 and 1999, it remained the largest party, and headed the ruling coalition on both occasions.[49] In the 2014 general election, it won an outright majority in parliament. From 1991 onwards, a BJP
BJP
member has led the Opposition whenever the party was not in power.[73] For the electoral results of the BJP's predecessors, see the JP and BJS articles.

Year General election Seats won Change in seats % of votes Vote swing Ref.

Indian general election, 1984 8th Lok Sabha 2 2 7.74  – [74]

Indian general election, 1989 9th Lok Sabha 85 83 11.36 3.62 [75]

Indian general election, 1991 10th Lok Sabha 120 35 20.11 8.75 [76]

Indian general election, 1996 11th Lok Sabha 161 41 20.29 0.18 [77]

Indian general election, 1998 12th Lok Sabha 182 21 25.59 5.30 [78]

Indian general election, 1999 13th Lok Sabha 182 0 23.75 1.84 [79]

Indian general election, 2004 14th Lok Sabha 138 44 22.16 1.69 [80]

Indian general election, 2009 15th Lok Sabha 116 22 18.80 3.36 [81]

Indian general election, 2014 16th Lok Sabha 282 166 31.34 12.54 [82]

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Social policies and Hindutva Further information: Hindutva The official philosophy of the BJP
BJP
is "Integral humanism," a philosophy first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya
Deendayal Upadhyaya
in 1965, who described it as advocating an "indigenous economic model that puts the human being at center stage."[83][84] It is committed to Hindutva, an ideology articulated by Indian independence activist Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. According to the party, Hindutva
Hindutva
is cultural nationalism favouring Indian culture over westernisation, thus it extends to all Indians regardless of religion.[9] However, scholars and political analysts have called their Hindutva
Hindutva
ideology an attempt to redefine India
India
and recast it as a Hindu country to the exclusion of other religions, making it a Hindu nationalist
Hindu nationalist
party in a general sense.[40][9][85][86] The BJP
BJP
has slightly moderated its stance after the NDA was formed in 1998, due to the presence of parties with a broader set of ideologies.[40][49] The BJP's Hindutva
Hindutva
ideology has been reflected in many of its government policies. It supports the construction of the Ram temple
Ram temple
at the site of the Babri Mosque.[85] This issue was its major poll plank in the 1991 general elections.[85] However, the demolition of the mosque during a BJP
BJP
rally in 1992 resulted in a backlash against it, leading to a decline of the temple's prominence in its agenda.[85] The education policy of the NDA government reorganised the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and tasked it with extensively revising the textbooks used in Indian schools.[87] Various scholars have stated that this revision, especially in the case of history textbooks, was a covert attempt to "saffronise" Indian history.[87][88][89][90] The NDA government introduced Vedic astrology as a subject in college curricula, despite opposition from several leading scientists.[91] Taking a position against what it calls the "pseudo-secularism" of the Congress party, the BJP
BJP
instead supports "positive secularism".[85] Vajpayee laid out the BJP's interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi's doctrine of Sarva Dharma Sambhava and contrasted it with what he called European secularism.[92] He had said that Indian secularism attempted to see all religions with equal respect, while European secularism was independent of religion, thus making the former more "positive".[93] The BJP
BJP
supports a uniform civil code, which would apply a common set of personal laws to every citizen regardless of their personal religion, replacing the existing laws which vary by religious community. According to historian Yogendra Malik, this ignores the differential procedures required to protect the cultural identity of the Muslim minority.[9][85] The BJP
BJP
favours the abrogation of Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which grants a greater degree of autonomy to the Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
in recognition of the unusual circumstances surrounding its accession to the Indian union.[9] The BJP
BJP
opposes illegal migration into India
India
from Bangladesh.[86] The party states that this migration, mostly in the states of Assam
Assam
and West Bengal, threatens the security, economy and stability of the country.[86] Academics have pointed out that the BJP
BJP
refers to Hindu migrants from Bangladesh as refugees, and reserves the term "illegal" for Muslim migrants.[86] Academic Michael Gillan writes that this is an attempt to use an emotive issue to mobilise Hindu sentiment in a region where the party has not been historically successful.[86][94] In 2013, the Supreme Court of India
India
reinstated the controversial Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which, among other things, criminalises homosexuality. There was a popular outcry, although clerics, including Muslim religious leaders, stated that they supported the verdict.[95][96] BJP
BJP
president Rajnath Singh
Rajnath Singh
said that the party supported section 377, because it believed that homosexuality was unnatural,[97] though its stand has softened after its victory in the 2014 general elections.[98]Senior party members including Arun Jaitley
Arun Jaitley
and Harsh Vardhan (Delhi politician)
Harsh Vardhan (Delhi politician)
openly support the rights of gender and sexual minorities in India. Vanathi Srinivasan BJP
BJP
leader from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
launched the first book on LGBTQIA and Genderqueer
Genderqueer
in Tamil penned by Gopi Shankar Madurai.[99][100][101][102] Economic policies The BJP's economic policy has changed considerably since its founding. There is a significant range of economic ideologies within the party. In the 1980s, like the Jana Sangh, it reflected the thinking of the RSS and its affiliates. It supported swadeshi (the promotion of indigenous industries and products) and a protectionist export policy. However, it supported internal economic liberalisation, and opposed the state-driven industrialisation favoured by the Congress.[103] During the 1996 elections, the BJP
BJP
shifted its stance away from protectionism and towards globalisation; its election manifesto recommended increasing foreign investment in priority sectors, while restricting it in others. When the party was in power in 1998, it shifted its policy even further in favour of globalisation. The tenure of the NDA saw an unprecedented influx of foreign companies in India.[103] This was criticised by the left parties and the BJP's affiliates (the RSS and the Swadeshi
Swadeshi
Jagran Manch).[103] The communist parties said that the BJP
BJP
was attempting to appease the World Bank
World Bank
and the United States
United States
government through its neoliberal policies.[103] Similarly, the RSS stated that the BJP
BJP
was not being true to its swadeshi ideology.[103] The two NDA governments in the period 1998-2004 introduced significant deregulation and privatisation of government owned enterprises. It also introduced tariff-reducing measures. These reforms built off of the initial economic liberalisation introduced by the Congress government in the early 1990s.[104] India's GDP growth increased substantially during the tenure of the NDA. The 2004 campaign slogan " India
India
Shining" was based on the party's belief that the free market would bring prosperity to all sectors of society.[105] After its unexpected defeat, commentators said that it was punished for neglecting the needs of the poor and focusing too much on its corporate allies.[63][64][106] This shift in the economic policies of the BJP
BJP
was also visible in state governments, especially in Gujarat, where the BJP
BJP
held power for 16 years.[107] Modi's government, in power from 2002 to 2014, followed a strongly neo-liberal agenda, presented as a drive towards development.[108][109] Its policies have included extensive privatisation of infrastructure and services, as well as a significant rollback of labour and environmental regulations. While this was praised by the business community, commentators criticised it as catering to the BJP's upper class constituency instead of the poor.[108][110] Defence and counterterrorism Compared to the Congress, the BJP
BJP
takes a more aggressive and nationalistic position on defence policy and terrorism.[111][112] The Vajpayee-led NDA government carried out nuclear weapons tests, and enacted the Prevention of Terrorism Act, which later came under heavy criticism.[111][112] It also deployed troops to evict infiltrators from Kargil, and supported the United States' War on Terror.[113] Although previous Congress governments developed the capability for a nuclear weapons test, the Vajpayee government broke with India's historical strategy of avoiding it and authorised Pokhran-II, a series of five nuclear tests in 1998.[111] The tests came soon after Pakistan tested a medium-range ballistic missile. They were seen as an attempt to display India's military prowess to the world, and a reflection of anti- Pakistan
Pakistan
sentiment within the BJP.[111] The Vajpayee government ordered the Indian armed forces to expel the Pakistani soldiers occupying Kashmir
Kashmir
territory, later known as the Kargil War.[114][115] Although the government was later criticised for the intelligence failures that did not detect Pakistani presence, it was successful in ousting them from the previously Indian-controlled territory.[114][115] The Vajpayee administration also offered political support to the US War on Terror, in the hope of better addressing India's issues with terrorism and insurgency in Kashmir. This led to closer defence ties with the US, including negotiations for the sale of weapons.[113] After the terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001, the NDA government passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act.[112] The aim of the act was to improve the government's ability to deal with terrorism.[112] It initially failed to pass in the Rajya Sabha; therefore, the NDA took the extraordinary step of convening a joint session of the Parliament, where the numerical superior Lok Sabha allowed the bill to pass.[112] The act was subsequently used to prosecute hundreds of people accused of terrorism.[112] However, it was criticised by opposition parties and scholars for being an infringement upon civil liberties, and the National Human Rights Commission stated that it had been used to target Muslims.[112] It was later repealed by the Congress-led UPA government in 2004.[116] Foreign policy The historical stance of the BJP
BJP
towards foreign policy, like the Jana Sangh, was based on an aggressive Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
combined with economic protectionism.[117] The Jana Sangh was founded with the explicit aim of reversing the partition of India; as a result, its official position was that the existence of Pakistan
Pakistan
was illegitimate.[117] This antagonism toward Pakistan
Pakistan
remains a significant influence on the BJP's ideology.[117][118] The party and its affiliates have strongly opposed India's long standing policy of nonalignment, and instead advocate closeness to the United States.[117] The Vajpayee government's foreign policy in many ways represented a radical shift from BJP
BJP
orthodoxy, while maintaining some aspects of it.[103][118] Its policy also represented a significant change from the Nehruvian idealism of previous governments, opting instead for realism.[119] His party criticised him for adopting a much more moderate stance with Pakistan. In 1998, he made a landmark visit to Pakistan, and inaugurated the Delhi–Lahore Bus service.[117] Vajpayee signed the Lahore Declaration, which was an attempt to improve Indo-Pakistani relations that deteriorated after the 1998 nuclear tests.[117] However, the presence of Pakistani soldiers and militants in the disputed Kashmir
Kashmir
territory was discovered a few months later, causing the 1999 Kargil War. The war ended a couple of months later, with the expulsion of the infiltrators two months later, without any shift in the Line of Control
Line of Control
that marked the de facto border between the two countries.[117] Despite the war, Vajpayee continued to display a willingness to engage Pakistan
Pakistan
in dialogue. This was not well received among the BJP
BJP
cadre, who criticised the government for being "weak".[117] This faction of the BJP
BJP
asserted itself at the post-Kargil Agra summit, preventing any significant deal from being reached.[117] Organisation and structure The BJP
BJP
is the world's largest political party by primary membership, having 100 million registered members as of April 2015.[1][120] The organisation of the BJP
BJP
is strictly hierarchical, with the president being the highest authority in the party.[84] Until 2012, the BJP constitution mandated that any qualified member could be national or state president for a single three-year term.[84] This was amended to a maximum of two consecutive terms.[121] Below the president is the national executive, which contains a variable number of senior leaders from across the country. It is the higher decision making body of the party. Its members are several vice-presidents, general-secretaries, treasurers and secretaries, who work directly with the president.[84] An identical structure, with an executive committee led by a president, exists at the state, regional, district and local level.[84] The BJP
BJP
is a cadre-based party. It has close connections with other organisations with similar ideology, such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. The cadres of these groups often supplement the BJP's. Its lower members are largely derived from the RSS and its affiliates, loosely known as the Sangh Parivar:[84]

The Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad
Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad
(All India
India
Student's Union), the students' wing of the RSS.[84] The Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (Indian Farmer's Union), the farmers' division.[84] The Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
(Indian Labourers Union), the labour union associated with the RSS.[84]

The party has subsidiary organisations of its own, such as:

The BJP Mahila Morcha
BJP Mahila Morcha
( BJP
BJP
Women's Front), its women's division.[84] The Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha
Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha
(Indian People's Youth Front), its youth wing.[84] The BJP Minority Morcha
BJP Minority Morcha
( BJP
BJP
Minority Front), its minority division.[84]

Presence in various states

Current ruling parties in the states and union territories of India   BJP   Coalition with BJP   INC   Coalition with INC   Other parties

As of March 2018[update], the BJP
BJP
has Chief Ministers in 15 states:

Arunachal Pradesh Assam
Assam
(with Asom Gana Parishad
Asom Gana Parishad
and Bodoland People's Front) Chhattisgarh Goa
Goa
(with Goa
Goa
Forward Party and Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party) Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand
Jharkhand
(with All Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Students Union) Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(with Shiv Sena) Manipur
Manipur
(with Naga People's Front, National People's Party and Lok Janshakti Party) Rajasthan Tripura
Tripura
(with Indigenous People's Front of Tripura) Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand

In 5 other states, it shares power with other political parties. In all these states, the BJP
BJP
is junior ally in the ruling alliance. The states are:

Bihar
Bihar
(with Janata Dal
Janata Dal
(United), Lok Janshakti Party, Rashtriya Lok Samta Party and Hindustani Awam Morcha) Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
(with Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Peoples Democratic Party and Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
People's Conference) Meghalaya
Meghalaya
(with National People's Party, United Democratic Party, People's Democratic Front and Hill State People's Democratic Party) Nagaland
Nagaland
(with Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party, Janata Dal (United) and National People's Party) Sikkim
Sikkim
(with Sikkim
Sikkim
Democratic Front)

In the past, the BJP
BJP
has also been the sole party in power in the following states

Delhi Karnataka

It has been a part of the government in the following states as a junior ally being a part of coalition governments in the past:

Odisha
Odisha
(with Biju Janata Dal) Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
(with Telugu Desam Party) Puducherry
Puducherry
(with All India
India
N.R. Congress) Punjab (with Shiromani Akali Dal)

It has never been a part of the government in the following states:

Kerala Mizoram Tamil Nadu Telangana
Telangana
(However, BJP
BJP
administered the Telangana
Telangana
region as Andhra Pradesh with its former ally Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party
before the state was bifurcated.) West Bengal

It also has a regional political alliance in the North-East named the North-East Democratic Alliance.[122][123][124][125] Current BJP
BJP
and NDA governments See also: List of chief ministers from the Bharatiya Janata Party

State/UT NDA govt. Since Chief Minister CM's Party CM Since Seats in Assembly Ref(s)

Gujarat 28 February 1998 Vijay Rupani BJP 7 August 2016 99/182 [126]

Chhattisgarh 7 December 2003 Raman Singh BJP 7 December 2003 49/90 [127]

Madhya Pradesh 4 December 2003 Shivraj Singh Chouhan BJP 29 November 2005 166/230 [128]

Nagaland 8 March 2008 Neiphiu Rio NDPP 7 March 2018 34/60 [129]

Goa 6 March 2012 Manohar Parrikar BJP 14 March 2017 24/40 [130]

Rajasthan 8 December 2013 Vasundhara Raje BJP 13 December 2013 160/200 [131]

Haryana 19 October 2014 Manohar Lal Khattar BJP 26 October 2014 47/90 [132]

Maharashtra 19 October 2014 Devendra Fadnavis BJP 31 October 2014 186/288 [133]

Jharkhand 23 December 2014 Raghubar Das BJP 28 December 2014 47/81 [134]

Jammu and Kashmir 23 December 2014 Mehbooba Mufti JKPDP 4 April 2016 55/87 [135]

Assam 24 May 2016 Sarbananda Sonowal BJP 24 May 2016 86/126 [123][124]

Sikkim 24 May 2016 Pawan Kumar Chamling SDF 12 December 1994 21/32 [123][124]

Arunachal Pradesh 16 September 2016 Pema Khandu BJP 16 September 2016 49/60 [136]

Manipur 15 March 2017 N. Biren Singh BJP 15 March 2017 32/60 [137]

Uttarakhand 18 March 2017 Trivendra Singh Rawat BJP 18 March 2017 57/70 [138]

Uttar Pradesh 19 March 2017 Yogi Adityanath BJP 19 March 2017 325/403 [139]

Bihar 27 July 2017 Nitish Kumar JDU 27 July 2017 132/243

Himachal Pradesh 27 December 2017 Jai Ram Thakur BJP 27 December 2017 44/68

Meghalaya 6 March 2018 Conrad Sangma NPP 6 March 2018 34/60

Tripura 8 March 2018 Biplab Kumar Deb BJP 8 March 2018 44/60

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comes out, vows to oppose homosexuality". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Retrieved 16 December 2013.  Ramesh, Randeep (14 May 2004). "News World news Shock defeat for India's Hindu nationalists". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2013.  "TDP helps Vajpayee wins confidence vote". Rediff.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.  "Thirteenth Gujarat
Gujarat
Legislative Assembly". Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 29 May 2015.  Sen, Amartya (2005). India
India
and the world (1. publ. ed.). Allen Lane: 2005. ISBN 978-0-7139-9687-6.  Reddy, Sheila (14 April 2008). "Interview "I Was Prepared To Take The Risk"". Outlook India. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014.  Seshia, Shaila (November 1998). "Divide and Rule in Indian Party Politics: The Rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party". Asian Survey. 38 (11): 1036–1050. doi:10.1525/as.1998.38.11.01p0406o.  Shulman, Stephen (September 2000). "Nationalist Sources of International Economic Integration". International Studies Quarterly. 44 (3): 365–390. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00164.  Sridharan, Eswaran (October 2014). "India's Watershed Vote" (PDF). Journal of Democracy. 25 (4).  Swain, Pratap Chandra (2001). Bharatiya Janata Party: Profile and Performance. India: APH publishing. pp. 71–104. ISBN 978-81-7648-257-8. Retrieved 5 July 2014.  " Bangaru Laxman
Bangaru Laxman
convicted for taking bribe". Tehelka. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  "Election results 2014: India
India
places its faith in Moditva — The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2014-08-11.  "SP condemns Vaiko's arrest under Pota". The Times Of India. 13 July 2002.  " BJP
BJP
amends constitution allowing Gadkari to get a second term". Times of India. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2014.  "Stand with RSS, BJP". The Times of India. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2014.  Chatterjee, Mohua (13 July 2015). " BJP
BJP
enrolls 11 crore members, launches 'Mahasampark Abhiyan'". First Post.  Tiwari, Aviral Kumar (March 2012). "An Error-Correction Analysis of India-Us Trade Flows". Journal of Economic Development. 37 (1).  "India: International Religious Freedom Report". US Department of state. Retrieved 11 August 2014.  Vajpayee, Atal Bihari (2007). Jaffrelot, Christophe, ed. Hindu Nationalism: A Reader. Delhi: Permanent Black. ISBN 9780691130989.  Varshney, Ashutosh (October 2014). "Hindu Nationalism in Power?". Journal of Democracy. 25 (4).  Venkatesan, V. (16–29 July 2005). "In the dock, again". Frontline. 22 (15). Retrieved 28 June 2014.  "States of India
India
since 1947". worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 

Further reading

Main article: Bibliography of the Sangh Parivar

Ahuja, Gurdas M. (2004). Bharatiya Janata Party and Resurgent India. Ram Company.  Andersen, Walter K.; Damle, Shridhar D. (1987) [Originally published by Westview Press]. The Brotherhood in Saffron: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism. Delhi: Vistaar Publications.  Baxter, Craig (1971) [first published by University of Pennsylvania Press 1969]. The Jana Sangh — A Biography of an Indian Political Party. Oxford University Press, Bombay. ISBN 0812275837.  Graham, B. D. (1990). Hindu Nationalism and Indian Politics: The Origins and Development of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38348X.  Malik, Yogendra K.; Singh, V.B. (1994). Hindu Nationalists in India : The Rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-8810-4.  Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996). The Hindu
The Hindu
Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1850653011.  Mishra, Madhusudan (1997). Bharatiya Janata Party and India's Foreign Policy. New Delhi: Uppal Pub. House. ISBN 81-85565-79-1.  Sharma, C.P. Thakur, Devendra P. (1999). India
India
under Atal Behari Vajpayee : The BJP
BJP
Era. New Delhi: UBS Publishers' Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7476-250-4.  Bhambhri, C.P. (2001). Bharatiya Janata Party : Periphery to Centre. Delhi: Shipra. ISBN 81-7541-078-7.  Jaffrelot, Christophe (July 2003). "Communal Riots in Gujarat: The State at Risk?" (PDF). Heidelberg Papers in South Asian and Comparative Politics: 16. Retrieved 5 November 2013.  Nag, Kingshuk (2014). The Saffron Tide: The Rise of the BJP. Rupa Publications. ASIN B00NSIB0Q4. ISBN 978-8129134295.  Stein, Burton (2010). A history of India
India
(edited by David Arnold. 2nd ed.). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6.  Rao, Ramesh (2001). Coalition conundrum: the BJP's trials, tribulations, and triumphs. Har Anand. ISBN 9788124108093. 

External links

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Official website

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Bharatiya Janata Party

Party Presidents

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(1980–86) Lal Krishna Advani
Lal Krishna Advani
(1986–91) Murli Manohar Joshi
Murli Manohar Joshi
(1991–93) Lal Krishna Advani
Lal Krishna Advani
(1993–98) Kushabhau Thakre
Kushabhau Thakre
(1998–2000) Bangaru Laxman
Bangaru Laxman
(2000–01) Jana Krishnamurthi
Jana Krishnamurthi
(2001–02) Venkaiah Naidu
Venkaiah Naidu
(2002–04) Lal Krishna Advani
Lal Krishna Advani
(2004–06) Rajnath Singh
Rajnath Singh
(2006–09) Nitin Gadkari
Nitin Gadkari
(2009–13) Rajnath Singh
Rajnath Singh
(2013–14) Amit Shah
Amit Shah
(2014–present)

Current vice presidents

Avinash Rai Khanna Prabhat Jha Dr. Vinay Sahasrabuddhe Renu Devi Om Prakash Mathur Shyam Jaju

Other prominent leaders

Sushma Swaraj Arun Jaitley Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Sunderlal Patwa Ravi Shankar Prasad Pramod Mahajan Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi Sushil Kumar Modi Himanta Biswa Sarma Ram Naik

Prime ministers

Atal Bihari Vajpayee Narendra Modi

Current chief ministers

Vijay Rupani Vasundhara Raje Shivraj Singh Chouhan Raman Singh Manohar Parrikar Jai Ram Thakur Manohar Lal Khattar Devendra Fadnavis Raghubar Das Sarbananda Sonowal Pema Khandu N. Biren Singh Trivendra Singh Rawat Yogi Adityanath Biplab Kumar Deb

Spokespersons

Syed Shahnawaz Hussain Dr. Sudhanshu Trivedi M. J. Akbar Meenakshi Lekhi Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri Siddharth Nath Singh Nalin Kohli Sambit Patra Anil Baluni G. V. L. Narsimha Rao Gopal Krishna Agarwal Siddhartha Bhattacharya Gaurav Bhatia Shaina NC Nupur Sharma Shazia Ilmi

General secretaries

P. Muralidhar Rao Ram Madhav Saroj Pandey Bhupender Yadav Kailash Vijayvargiya Anil Jain Dr. Arun Singh Ram Lal

Political wings

Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha BJP
BJP
Mahila Morcha BJP
BJP
SC Morcha BJP
BJP
ST Morcha BJP
BJP
OBC Morcha BJP
BJP
Minority Morcha BJP
BJP
Kisan Morcha

Related organisations

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Bharatiya Jana Sangh Janata Party Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh Bharatiya Kisan Sangh

Others

Hindutva Integral humanism

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Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
(RSS Family of Organisations)

Organisations

Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad Banga Sena Bajrang Dal Bharatiya Janata Party Bharatiya Kisan Sangh Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh Durga Vahini Ekal Vidyalaya Hindu Munnani Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh Hindu Vivek Kendra Muslim Rashtriya Manch Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
Nyas Rashtra Sevika Samiti Rashtriya Sikh Sangat Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Seva Bharati Swadeshi
Swadeshi
Jagaran Manch Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram Vidya Bharati Vishwa Hindu Parishad Vivekananda Kendra

Sarsanghchalak

Keshav Baliram Hedgewar
Keshav Baliram Hedgewar
(1925–1930 and 1931–1940) Laxman Vaman Paranjpe (1930–1931) Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar (1940–1973) Madhukar Dattatraya Deoras (1973–1994) Rajendra Singh (1994–2000) K. S. Sudarshan (2000–2009) Mohan Bhagwat
Mohan Bhagwat
(2009–present)

Other Major figures

Arun Jaitley Ashok Singhal Atal Bihari Vajpayee Balkrishna Shivram Moonje Babasaheb Apte Bal Thackeray Chinmayananda Saraswati Dattopant Thengadi Deendayal Upadhyaya Eknath Ranade Giriraj Kishore H. V. Sheshadri Jana Krishnamurthi K. N. Govindacharya Kushabhau Thakre Lal Krishna Advani Madhukar Rao Bhagwat Moropant Pingley Murli Manohar Joshi Nanaji Deshmukh Narendra Modi Prabhakar Balwant Dani Praveen Togadia Ram Madhav Rama
Rama
Jois Ramchandra Das Paramhans S. S. Apte Swami Karpatri Syama Prasad Mukherjee Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

Independent authors

D. P. Agrawal Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti Dharampal David Frawley Michel Danino Rajiv Dixit Koenraad Elst Ram Gopal François Gautier Sita Ram Goel Swaraj Prakash Gupta Girilal Jain Christophe Jaffrelot Subhash Kak Raj Krishna K. S. Lal Harsh Narain Balraj Madhok Rajiv Malhotra N. S. Rajaram Ramesh Nagaraj Rao K. D. Sethna Malati Shendge Arun Shourie Ram Swarup

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Kerala
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Kerala
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Member fronts

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Leaders

Atal Bihari Vajpayee Lal Krishna Advani Murli Manohar Joshi Narendra Modi Amit Shah Rajnath Singh Arun Jaitley Sushma Swaraj Manohar Parrikar Uddhav Thackeray Prakash Singh Badal Shivraj Singh Chouhan Raman Singh N. Chandrababu Naidu Nitish Kumar Mehbooba Mufti Bimal Gurung N. Rangaswamy Ramdas Athawale Pawan Kumar Chamling Pema Khandu

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India
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India
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Telangana
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Uttarakhand
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Other parties in parliament

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Apna Dal
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India
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Unrecognised parties or parties with limited presence

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India
Muslim Forum Arunachal Congress Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh Bharatiya Awam Party Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Janata Congress Communist Marxist Party Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist–Leninist) Liberation Democratic Socialist Party (Prabodh Chandra) Gorkha Janmukti Morcha Hindu Sena Hindustani Awam Morcha Indian Federal Democratic Party Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(Socialist) Indian National League Indigenous Nationalist Party of Twipra Jana Sena Party Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Party Karnataka
Karnataka
Janata Paksha Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Balakrishna Pillai) Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Jacob) Kerala
Kerala
Congress (Secular) Kerala
Kerala
People's Party Kongunadu Munnetra Peravai Lok Satta Party Naam Tamilar Katchi People's Guardian Peoples Republican Party Peoples’ Resurgence and Justice Alliance Perunthalaivar Makkal Katchi Pragatisheel Indira Congress Professionals Party of India Puthiya Tamilagam Puducherry
Puducherry
Munnetra Congress Republican Party of India
India
(Gavai) Republican Party of India
India
(Athvale) Republican Party of India
India
(Kamble) Republican Party of India
India
(Democratic) Republican Party of India
India
(Khobragade) Revolutionary Socialist Party (Baby John) Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) Sikkim
Sikkim
Krantikari Morcha Tamizhaga Vazhvurimai Katchi United Goans Democratic Party Welfare
Welfare
Party of India

Former political parties

Janata Dal Justice Party Praja Socialist Party Swatantra Party

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of India

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158301849 ISNI: 0000 0001 0709 882X GND: 5026822-

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