HOME
The Info List - Basque Surnames


--- Advertisement ---



Basque surnames
Basque surnames
refer to surnames with a Basque-language origin or a long, identifiable tradition in the Basque Country. They can be divided into two main types, patronymic and non-patronymic. The patronymics such as Munioitz, Santxez or Santxitz, and Diaitz (Spanish spellings: Muñoz, Sánchez, and Díaz) are the most common and ancient. The Basque monarchy, including the first king of Pamplona, Iñigo
Iñigo
Iñigitz, or Eneko Aritza, were the first to use this type of surname. Patronymics are by far the most common surnames in the whole of the Basque Autonomic Community and Navarra.[1] The non-patronyic surnames are often toponymic ones that refer to the family's etxea, the historically all important family home. When a farm (baserri) was rented to another family, often the new tenants were known locally by the farm name rather than by their officially registered surname. They also referred to the occupation of the head of the family such as Olaberria (new smith) or Salaberria (new farm/farmer) or could describe where their home was such as Elizondo (by the church).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Oldest records 1.2 Medieval names 1.3 Upper nobility

2 Grammar and orthography 3 Conventions 4 Types and composition 5 Recognising Basque non-patronymic surnames 6 See also

6.1 Significant Basque surnames

7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Oldest records[edit] The earliest documented Basque surnames
Basque surnames
occur on Aquitanian inscriptions from the time of the Roman conquest of Hispania
Roman conquest of Hispania
and Gallia Aquitania. For the most part these can be easily identified with modern or medieval Basque surnames, for example ENNECONIS (the personal name Eneko plus the Latin
Latin
genitive ending -IS, stem augmented by -N) > Enekoitz. Also SEMBECONNIS, possibly a derivative of the later surname Jimenez (Scemeno attested in the 8–9th century). V(alerius) BELTESONIS (probable coinage from beltz 'black', less likely linked to bele/bela 'crow') engraved on the stella of Andriarriaga located in Oiartzun bears witness to a mixture of Roman and Vasconic tradition in the local aristocracy during the Antiquity. Medieval names[edit] García, one of the most frequent Spanish surnames, was originally a Basque first name stemming from Basque gartzea, 'the young'. Medieval Basque names follow this descriptive naming pattern about the person, pointing to physical features ("Gutia", "Motza", "Okerra", "Ezkerro", "Zuria", etc.), family relations or geographical origin, e.g. Eneko (Spanish Íñigo) may be a hypocoristic mother-to-child addressing, 'my little'.[2] In the Middle Ages, a totemic animal figure often stood for the person's presumable features.[3]:20 Otxoa ("wolf") was a Basque version of the Romance name Lope, or the other way round, with an early medieval prevalence all around the Pyrenees and west into the Cantabrian Mountains. It is now a surname, like its akin "Otxotorena" ('little wolf's house', or possibly 'little wolf's wife'),[3]:144, so similar in meaning to Spanish "Lopez" (regional variants "Lopes", "Lupiz", etc.). "Velasco" was a name, later to become a surname, derived from Basque "belasko", 'small raven'. "Aznar" is a medieval Basque, Gascon and Spanish surname
Spanish surname
arguably based on old Basque "azenari", 'fox' (modern Basque "azeri", cf. old Basque "Zenarrutza" vs. modern Basque "Ziortza").[3]:63 The non-patronymic, descriptive Basque naming tradition came to a halt when in the 16th century Catholic Church tightened regulations to Christianize practices that didn't stick to the Church's orthodoxy (cf. given name Ochanda, 'female wolf', in Vitoria-Gasteiz still in the 16th century).[clarification needed] Thereafter, Romance first names were imposed, while surnames went on to express place descriptions (e.g. "Luzuriaga", 'place of white earth') and parental origin (e.g. "Marinelarena", 'the sailor's son')[3]:83, 126 for the most part. The patronymics are derived from the father through the suffix -ez, -oz, -iz or -az which means 'of'. The Basque language also expresses family links with the genitive suffix -(r)ena, e.g. Perurena, Arozena, etc., meaning 'belonging to'. Upper nobility[edit] The first king of Navarre, Íñigo Arista of Pamplona, is said to hail from the lineage of Iñigo
Iñigo
(Eneko). While the use of -ez was the norm amongst the monarchs of Pamplona and the Lords of Biscay, the first record we have of the use of -ez in the monarchs of Leon is through the consort queens from Navarre: Jimena of Asturias, Oneca of Pamplona or Urraca Fernández. Marital alliances between the Christian kingdoms of Leon and Navarre were typical in the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries in order to protect themselves from the southern Islamic attacks. Proof is the fact that the king Alfonso V of León
Alfonso V of León
was mainly of Basque-Navarrese origin through his mother Elvira García and his paternal grandmother Urraca Fernández. On the other hand, the first king of Aragón, Ramiro I of Aragon, was son of Sancho III of Navarre, grandson of García Sánchez II of Pamplona and great-grandson of Sancho Garcés II of Pamplona, all of them kings of Navarre
Navarre
who used the suffix -ez and that could have introduced it in this region. As a result of the Reconquista, the Douro
Douro
basin was repopulated, most probably by people mainly coming from Navarre, Biscay, Cantabria or Alava, who used the suffix -ez. Furthermore, it is possible that many of the most common patronymic Spanish surnames
Spanish surnames
are not only of Basque-Navarrese origin, but also of royal and aristocratic background. It is logical to assume that the royal families from Leon, Navarre, Aragón and the aristocracy of Biscay, Alava
Alava
or La Rioja would have had larger numbers of offspring than the regular population given their greater financial means and longer life expectancy.[4] Grammar and orthography[edit] The grammar of the patronymic endings -ez, -iz or -oz is very similar to that of their use to denote origin or content such as egurrez (made of wood), harriz (made of stone) or ardoz bete (full of wine). In Basque, -z is added to the end of the word if it ends in vowel (as in Muñoz, offspring of Munio) or -ez if the word ends in consonant (as in Antúnez, offspring of Anton). This grammar structure is not always the case in the patronymic surnames, e.g., González, offspring of Gonzalo. However, in documents of the 10th, 11th and 12th century linked to the Monastery of Santa Maria de Nájera, we find old versions of these surnames such as Galindoz, Enecoz, Albaroz, Ordonioz, Munioz de Alava
Alava
o Lopiz de Bizcaya. It is possible that the proper Basque grammar of the patronymic was lost as its use was extended south of the Basque country.[5] During the medieval period Basque names were written broadly following the spelling conventions of the official languages of the day, usually Spanish and French. The main differences lie in the way the relatively large number of Basque sibilants are spelled. These are especially hard to represent using French spelling conventions, so on the whole, the French spelling of Basque words in general tends to be harder to reconcile with the modern spellings and the pronunciation. Also, vowel-initial Basque surnames
Basque surnames
from the Northern Basque Country acquired an initial d (French de) in many cases, often obscuring the original Basque form e.g. Duhalt < de + uhalte ('the stream environs'), Dotchandabarats < de + otxandabaratz ('orchard of the female wolf'), Delouart < del + uharte ('between streams'). Since the introduction of Standard Basque
Standard Basque
and a common written standard, the number of non-indigenous spelling variants has begun to decrease, especially in Spain, taking on a form in accordance with the meaning of the surname in Basque, which remains irrelevant in other language spellings.

Modern Standard Spanish Spelling French Spelling

Aroztegi Arostegui Rosteguy

Elizalde Elizalde Elissalde/Delissalde/Delissalt

Eneko Iñigo/Yñigo Éneco/Ínego/

Etxeberria Echeverría Etcheverry/Detcheverry/Echeverri

Etxepare Echepare Etchepare/Detchepare

Ezkibel Esquivel Esquibel

Intxausti Inchausti Ynchausty

Zubiri Zubiri Çubiry

Note that in the French-based spellings the D is unhistoric and represents the French partitive particle d' "of". Conventions[edit]

Relieve with the names of the farmhouses of Getxo, on the wall of Saint Mary's church.

As is the legal convention in Spain, Basques in the South have double legal surnames, the first being that of the father and the second that of the mother. In the North, Basques legally have only one surname as is the convention in France. Nonetheless, most Basques can at least recite the surnames of their parents' and grandparents' generations. The founder of Basque nationalism, Sabino Arana, demanded a certain quantity of Basque surnames
Basque surnames
from his followers in order to reject those of mixed Basque-Spanish descent. In Alava
Alava
and west of Navarre
Navarre
a distinctive formula has been followed, with the surname being composite, i.e. [a first title of Castilian origin; usually a patronymic which uses the Basque suffix -ez] + de + [a Basque place-name (usually a village)],[3]:23–24 take for instance Fernández de Larrinoa, Ruiz de Gauna or López de Luzuriaga, meaning 'Fernández from Larrinoa', etc., which does not imply a noble origin. Therefore, surnames can be very long if both paternal and maternal surnames are required when filling out a form for example. Such forms have been found from as early as 1053.[6] For a while it was popular in some circles to follow a convention of stating one's name that was invented by Sabino Arana
Sabino Arana
in the latter part of the 19th century. He decided that Basque surnames
Basque surnames
ought to be followed by the ethnonymic suffix -(t)ar. Thus he adopted the habit of giving his name, Sabino Arana
Sabino Arana
Goiri, as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin. This style was adopted for a while by a number of his fellow Basque Nationalist Party (PNV/EAJ) supporters but has largely fallen out of fashion now. These descriptive surnames can become very long. The family will probably be known by a short form or a nickname. The longest Basque surname recorded is Burionagonatotorecagageazcoechea sported by an employee at the Ministry of Finances in Madrid in 1867.[7] Types and composition[edit] The majority of modern Basque non patronymic surnames fall into two categories:

a descriptive of the family house. This usually either refers to the relative location of the home or the purpose of the building. the first owner of the house. Usually this is a man's name. These surnames are relatively recent[6]

Surnames from either category are formed using nouns, adjectives, a number of suffixes and endings such as the absolutive ending -a, the adjectival suffix -ko, and the genitive ending -ren. An example of the second class are Martinikorena ("Martinico's [house]", Martinico being a Navarrese hypocorism for Martin). Another would be Mikelena, "Michael's". The following examples all relate to the location of the family home.

Surname Elements Meaning

Arrigorriagakoa (h)arri "stone" + gorri "red" + aga "place of" + -ko "of" + -a "the" the one of the place of the red stones

Aroztegi (h)arotz "smith/carpenter"[8] + -tegi "place" smith's workshop/carpentry

Bidarte bide "way" + arte "between" between the ways

Bolibar bolu "mill" + ibar "valley" mill valley

Elkano elke "vegetable garden" + no "small" small vegetable garden

Elizondo eliza "church" + ondo "nearby" near the church

Etxandi etxe "house" + handi "big" big house

Etxarte etxe "house" + arte "between" house between

Etxeberri etxe "house" + berri "new" new house

Goikoetxea goi "high place" + etxe "house" high lying house

Ibaiguren ibai "river" + guren "edge"[3] river's edge

Ibarra ibar valley

Lekubarri lekhu "place" + barri "new"[9] new place

Loiola lohi "mud" + -ola "place" muddy place

Mariñelarena Marinela "sailor" + suffix "rena" the sailor's (home/son)

Mendiluze mendi "mountain" + luze "long" the long mountain

Mendoza mendi "mountain" + hotza "cold" cold mountain

Urberoaga ur "water" + bero "hot" + -aga "place of" the place of the hot water

Zabala zabal "wide" the wide one

Zubiondo zubi "bridge" + ondo "nearby" near the bridge

Yñigo
Yñigo
(Eneko) ene- "mine", -ko (hypocristic) my little (love/dear)

Recognising Basque non-patronymic surnames[edit] Basque non patronymic surnames are relatively easy to spot through the high frequency of certain elements and endings used in their formation, bearing in mind the spelling variants. Outside the Basque Country, Basque surnames
Basque surnames
are often found in Spain and France, the former Spanish colonies in parts of South America
South America
and the Philippines and parts of the United States
United States
such as Idaho
Idaho
where substantial numbers of Basques emigrated to.

Modern Spelling Meaning Older Spellings

-aga place of

agirre prominence aguirre

-alde side alde

-arte between art

aurre(a) front

barren(a) inner, lowest. Often in a pair with goien

behe down be, ve

berri(a) new berry, varri, verría, verry

bide(a) way, path vida, vide

buru head, end bure

garai(a) high garay

goi high goy

eliza church eliç(e), elic(e), eliss, elex, elej

-eta abundance of ette

etxe(a) house ech, eche, etche

gorri(a) red corri, gourry

(h)aritz(a) oak áriz, harits

(h)arri(a) stone harri, harry

iturri source

mendi(a) mountain mendy

neko eneko arquiñigo, erquiñigo, iñigo, necochea, yñigo

-ola hut, forge olha

-ondo nearby onde

sagar(ra) apple

-tegi home, workshop tegui

-(t)za abundance

urru(ti) far, beyond

zabal(a) wide, meadow çabal, zábal, zaval

-zahar(ra) old zar, zaar

zubi bridge subi

See also[edit]

Legal name Patronymic Personal name Surname map Ocho apellidos vascos

Significant Basque surnames[edit] These are Basque surnames
Basque surnames
that are well-known or famous around the world.

Agirre/Aguirre Bacque Biskarret / Sp: Viscarrat Elizabelar Elizondo Etxeberri / Sp: Echeverria Mariñelarena Mendoza Nafarro / Fr: Navarre, Sp: Navarro Orzabal
Orzabal
/ Sp: Órtiz Ochoa Semen / Sp: Jiménez Sorapuru Uzain Ybiricu Yaben Zatarain
Zatarain
(or Katarain) Zubiria (or Zufiria)

Footnotes[edit]

^ http://www.elcorreo.com/vizcaya/20110515/mas-actualidad/sociedad/cincoapellidos-201105151951.html ^ "Nombres: Eneko". Euskaltzaindia
Euskaltzaindia
(The Royal Academy of the Basque Language). Retrieved 2009-04-23.  Article in Spanish ^ a b c d e f Michelena, L. (1973) Apellidos vascos (5th edition), Txertoa: 1997. ^ http://iris.cnice.mec.es/kairos/ensenanzas/bachillerato/espana/rcristianos_03_01.html ^ "Colección documental Santa María de Najera" (PDF).  ^ a b Apellido in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Entziklopedia. ^ Enciclopedia de los nombres propios, Josep M. Albaigès, Editorial Planeta, 1995, ISBN 84-08-01286-X ^ arotz in Hiztegi Batua, Euskaltzaindia ^ "Lekubarri". 

References[edit]

Etxegoien, J. Orhipean: Gure Herria ezagutzen Xamar: 1992, ISBN 84-7681-119-5 Gorrotxategi, M. Nomenclátor de apellidos vascos/Euskal deituren izendegia Euskaltzaindia: 1998 Michelena, L. Apellidos vascos (5th edition), Txertoa: 1997 Trask, L. The History of Basque, Routledge: 1997, ISBN 0-415-13116-2

External links[edit]

Etymological list

.