BAGUIO, officially the CITY OF BAGUIO (Ibaloi : Ciudad ne Bagiw;
Ilocano : Siudad ti Baguio;
Pangasinan : Siyudad na Baguio; Tagalog :
Lungsod ng Baguio) and often referred to as BAGUIO CITY, is a highly
urbanized city in northern
Luzon of the
Philippines , also referred to
as the Summer Capital of the Philippines. It is geographically located
Benguet , serving as the provincial capital from 1901 to 1916,
but has since been administered independently from the province
following its conversion into a chartered city. The city has become
the center of business, commerce, and education in northern Luzon, as
well as the regional center of the
Cordillera Administrative Region .
According to the 2015 census,
Baguio has a population of 345,366.
Baguio was established as a hill station by the Americans in 1900 at
the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. It was the United
States' only hill station in Asia. The name of the city is derived
from bagiw, the Ibaloi word for "moss". The city is situated at an
altitude of approximately 1,500 meters (4,900 feet) in the Luzon
tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive for the growth of mossy
plants and orchids.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Spanish colonial period
* 1.2 American colonial period
World War II
World War II
* 1.4 1990 earthquake
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Barangays
* 2.2 Climate
* 2.2.1 Precipitation
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Religion
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Industrial
* 4.2 Outsourcing
* 5 Culture
* 6 Tourism
* 7 Local government
* 8 Sports
* 9 Transportation
* 9.1 Air
* 9.2 Land
* 10 Education
* 11 Notable people
* 12 Twin towns – Sister cities
* 12.1 Local
* 12.2 International
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 External links
SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
During the Spanish rule in 1846, the Spaniards established a
comandancia in the nearby town of La Trinidad , and organized Benguet
into 31 rancheria s, one of which was Kafagway, a wide grassy area
where the present Burnham Park is situated. Most of the lands in
Kafagway were owned by Ibaloys even prior to the appointment of Mateo
Cariño as chieftain . The Spanish presidencia, which was located at
Bagyiw at the vicinity of Guisad Valley was later moved to Cariño's
house where the current City Hall stands. Bagyiw, a local term for
"moss" once abundant in the area was converted by the Spaniards into
Baguio, which served as the name of the rancheria.
Philippine Revolution in July 1899, Filipino revolutionary
Pedro Paterno liberated La Trinidad from the Spaniards
and took over the government, proclaiming
Benguet as a province of the
new Republic of the
Baguio was converted into a "town",
with Mateo Cariño being the presidente (mayor).
AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD
Summer offices of the
Insular Government in
1909 The tents and dormitories of Teachers Camp in Baguio,
1909, the summer retreat for American educators
United States occupied the
Philippines after the
Spanish–American War ,
Baguio was selected to become the summer
capital of the
Philippine Islands . Governor-General
William Taft on
his first visit in 1901, noted the "air as bracing as
Murray Bay ... temperature this hottest month in the
Philippines on my
cottage porch at three in the afternoon sixty-eight." :317–319
In 1903, Filipino , Japanese and Chinese workers were hired to build
Kennon Road , the first road directly connecting
Baguio with the
Pangasinan . Before this, the only road to
Naguilian Road , and it was largely a horse trail at higher
Camp John Hay was established on October 25, 1903
Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order setting
aside land in
Benguet for a military reservation under the United
States Army . It was named after Roosevelt's
Secretary of State
Secretary of State , John
Milton Hay .
The Mansion , built in 1908, served as the official residence of the
American Governor-General during the summer to escape Manila's heat.
The Mansion was designed by architect
William E. Parsons which was
based on preliminary plans by architect
Daniel H. Burnham , the
planner of the city of Baguio, designed the mountain retreat following
the tenets of the
City Beautiful Movement . In 1904 the rest of the
city was planned out by the American architect
Daniel Burnham , one of
the earliest successful modern city planners . On September 1, 1909
Baguio was declared as a chartered city and the "Summer Capital of the
Philippines". The period after saw further development of
the construction of Wright Park in honor of Governor-General Luke E.
Wright , Burnham Park in honor of Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and
Session Road .
WORLD WAR II
Battle of Baguio (1945)
World War II
World War II ,
Baguio was the summer capital of the
Commonwealth of the
Philippines , and the home of the Philippine
Military Academy . Following the Japanese invasion of the Philippines
in 1941, the Japanese used
Camp John Hay , an American installation in
Baguio, as a military base. The nearby
Philippine Constabulary base,
Camp Holmes , was used as an internment camp for about 500 civilian
enemy aliens, mostly Americans, between April 1942 and December 1944.
On April 26, 1945, Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th, 13th,
15th and 16th Infantry Division of the
Philippine Commonwealth Army
Philippine Commonwealth Army ,
1st Infantry Regiment of the
Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL
66th Infantry Regiment and the American troops of the 33rd and 37th
Infantry Division of the
United States Army
United States Army entered
Baguio and fought
Japanese Imperial Army forces led by General Tomoyuki
Yamashita which started the Battle for the Liberation of
World War II
World War II .
By late March,
Baguio was within range of the American and Filipino
military artillery . President
José P. Laurel of the Second
Philippine Republic , a puppet state established on 1943, departed the
city on March 22 and reaching
Taiwan on March 30. The remainder of
the Second Republic government, along with Japanese civilians, were
ordered to evacuate
Baguio on 30 March. Yamashita and his staff then
Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya . A major offensive to capture
Baguio did not occur until mid-April, when
United States Army's 37th
Infantry Division , minus the 145th Infantry Regiment , was released
Manila to launch a two-division assault into Baguio
from the west and south.
Baguio is the site of the formal surrender of General Tomoyuki
Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi at Camp John Hay\'s American
Residence in the presence of lieutenant-generals
Arthur Percival and
Jonathan Wainwright . It is where they gave up the entire Imperial
Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High
Commissioner\'s Residence (now the
United States Ambassador's
Camp John Hay on September 3, 1945, marking the end of
World War II.
Luzon earthquake (Ms = 7.8) destroyed much of the city of
Baguio on July 16, 1990. A significant number of buildings and
infrastructure were damaged, including the Hyatt Terraces Plaza,
Baguio Park Hotel, FRB Hotel and
Baguio Hilltop Hotel;
major highways were temporarily severed; and a number of houses were
leveled or severely-shaken with a significant loss of life. Some of
the fallen buildings were built on or near fault lines.
rebuilt with the aid from the national government and various
international donors such as
Singapore and other countries.
After moving past the earthquake,
Baguio then known as City of Pines
was also able to attain theThe Summer Capital of the Philippines
Baguio is located some 1,540 meters (5,050 feet) above sea level,
nestled within the Cordillera Central mountain range in northern Luzon
. The city is enclosed by the province of
Benguet . It covers a small
area of 57.5 square kilometres (22.2 sq mi). Most of the developed
part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northern
Daniel Burnham draughted plans for the city, he made the
City Hall a reference point where the city limits extend 8.2
kilometres (5.1 mi) from east to west and 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from
north to south.
Baguio is politically subdivided into 129 barangays .
* A. Bonifacio-Caguioa-Rimando (ABCR)
* Abanao-Zandueta-Kayong-Chugum-Otek (AZKCO)
* Alfonso Tabora
* Andres Bonifacio (Lower Bokawkan)
* Asin Road
* Atok Trail
* Aurora Hill Proper (Malvar-Sgt. Floresca)
* Aurora Hill, North Central
* Aurora Hill, South Central
* Bagong Lipunan (Market Area)
* Bakakeng Central
* Bakakeng North
* Bal-Marcoville (Marcoville)
* Bayan Park East
* Bayan Park Village
* Bayan Park West (Bayan Park)
* BGH Compound
* Cabinet Hill-Teacher's Camp
* Camdas Subdivision
* Camp 7
* Camp 8
* Camp Allen
* Campo Filipino
* City Camp Central
* City Camp Proper
* Country Club Village
* Cresencia Village
* Dagsian, Lower
* Dagsian, Upper
* Dizon Subdivision
* Dominican Hill-Mirador
* Engineers' Hill
* Fairview Village
* Ferdinand (Happy Homes-Campo Sioco)
* Fort del Pilar
* Gabriela Silang
* General Emilio F. Aguinaldo (Quirino‑Magsaysay, Lower)
* General Luna, Upper
* General Luna, Lower
* Greenwater Village
* Guisad Central
* Guisad Sorong
* Happy Hollow
* Happy Homes (Happy Homes-Lucban)
* Harrison-Claudio Carantes
* Holy Ghost Extension
* Holy Ghost Proper
* Honeymoon (Honeymoon-Holy Ghost)
* Imelda R. Marcos (La Salle)
* Imelda Village
* Kayang Extension
* Loakan Proper
* Lopez Jaena
* Lourdes Subdivision Extension
* Lourdes Subdivision, Lower
* Lourdes Subdivision, Proper
* Magsaysay Private Road
* Magsaysay, Lower
* Magsaysay, Upper
* Malcolm Square-Perfecto (Jose Abad Santos)
* Manuel A. Roxas
* Market Subdivision, Upper
* Middle Quezon Hill Subdivision (Quezon Hill Middle)
* Military Cut-off
* Mines View Park
* Modern Site, East
* Modern Site, West
* MRR-Queen of Peace
* New Lucban
* Outlook Drive
* Padre Burgos
* Padre Zamora
* Palma-Urbano (Cariño-Palma)
* Pinsao Pilot Project
* Pinsao Proper
* Quezon Hill Proper
* Quezon Hill, Upper
* Quirino Hill, East
* Quirino Hill, Lower
* Quirino Hill, Middle
* Quirino Hill, West
* Quirino-Magsaysay, Upper (Upper QM)
* Rizal Monument Area
* Rock Quarry, Lower
* Rock Quarry, Middle
* Rock Quarry, Upper
* Saint Joseph Village
* Salud Mitra
* San Antonio Village
* San Luis Village
* San Roque Village
* San Vicente
* Sanitary Camp, North
* Sanitary Camp, South
* Santa Escolastica
* Santo Rosario
* Santo Tomas Proper
* Santo Tomas School Area
* Scout Barrio
Session Road Area
* Slaughter House Area (Santo Niño Slaughter)
* SLU-SVP Housing Village
* South Drive
* Teodora Alonzo
* Victoria Village
Köppen climate classification ,
Baguio features a
subtropical highland climate (Cwb) that closely borders a tropical
monsoon climate (Am). The city is known for its mild climate owing to
its high elevation. The temperature in the city is usually about 7-8
degrees Celsius lower than the temperature in the lowland area.
Average temperature ranges from 15 to 23 °C (59 to 73 °F) with the
lowest temperatures between November and February. The lowest recorded
temperature was 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) on January 18, 1961 and in
contrast, the all-time high of 30.4 °C (86.7 °F) was recorded on
March 15, 1988 during the 1988
El Niño season. The temperature
seldom exceeds 26 °C (79 °F) even during the warmest part of the
Like many other cities with a subtropical highland climate, Baguio
receives noticeably less precipitation during its dry season. However,
the city has an extraordinary amount of precipitation during the rainy
season with the months of July and August having, on average, more
than 700 mm (28 in) of rain. The city averages over 3,100 mm (122 in)
of precipitation annually.
CLIMATE DATA FOR BAGUIO
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Atonement
The city’s population as of May 2000 was placed at 250,000 persons.
The city has a very young age structure as 65.5 percent of its total
population is below thirty years old. Females comprise 51.3 percent of
the population as against 48.7 percent for males. The household
population comprises 98 percent of the total population or 245000
persons. With an average of 4.6 members per household, a total of
53,261 household are gleaned. During the peak of the annual tourist
influx, particularly during the Lenten period , transients triple the
POPULATION CENSUS OF BAGUIO
Philippine Statistics Authority
The majority of Baguio's population are Roman Catholics . Other
religious groups active in the city include the Pentecostal Missionary
Church of Christ (4th Watch) , Episcopal Church ,
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo ,
Iglesia Filipina Independiente , Jehovah\'s Witnesses , United Church
of Christ in the
Jesus Is Lord Church (JIL), Jesus
Miracle Crusade (JMC), the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
(LDS), the United Methodist Church ,
Assemblies of God (AG), and
Baptist, Presbyterian , Lutheran , Members Church of God International
(MCGI), Bible Fundamental, and other Evangelical churches.
There is also a significant number of Muslims in the cities,
Filipino Muslims of different ethnicities and Muslims of
other nationalities. The largest mosque in the area is Masjid
Al-Maarif, which is a known centre of Islamic studies in the
Philippines. The city also has smaller numbers of Buddhists and
atheists , along with members of other faiths.
SM City Baguio
SM City Baguio in 2012 Maharlika Livelihood Complex
Brooms with price tags being sold in market
Baguio is the melting pot of different peoples and cultures in the
Cordillera Administrative Region . Because of this, numerous
investments and business opportunities are lured to the city. Baguio
has a large retail industry, with shoppers coming to the city to take
advantage of the diversity of competitively priced commercial products
on sale. The city is also popular with bargain hunters—some of the
most popular bargaining areas include
Baguio Market and Maharlika
Livelihood Center. Despite the city's relatively small size, it is
home to numerous shopping centers and malls catering to increasing
commercial and tourist activity in Baguio: these include SM City
Baguio Center Mall, Cooyeesan Hotel Plaza, Abanao Square, The
Maharlika Livelihood Center, Porta Vaga Mall and Centerpoint Plaza.
Various food and retail businesses run by local residents
proliferate, forming a key part of Baguio's cultural landscape.
Several retail outlets and dining outlets are situated along Bonifacio
Session Road , near Teacher\'s Camp , and
Center near the market.
The areas of
Session Road , Harrison Road, Magsaysay Avenue and
Abanao Street comprise the trade center of the city, where commercial
and business structures such as cinemas, hotels, restaurants,
department stores, and shopping centers are concentrated. The City
Market offers a wide array of locally sourced goods and products,
Benguet province, which includes colorful woven fabrics
and hand-strung beads to primitive wood carvings, cut flowers,
strawberries and "Baguio" vegetables, the latter often denoting
vegetable types that do well in the cooler growing climate.
(Strawberries and string beans —referred to as
Baguio beans across
the Philippines—are shipped to major urban markets across the
Another key source of income for
Baguio is its position as the
commercial hub for the province of
Benguet . Many of the agricultural
and mining goods produced in
Benguet pass through
processing, sale or further distribution to the "lowlands."
Baguio is one of the country's most profitable and best investment
Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) accredited
business and industrial park called the
Baguio City Economic Zone
(BCEZ). Located in the southern part of the city between Camp John Hay
Country Club and
Philippine Military Academy
Philippine Military Academy in
Barangay Loakan. Firms
located in the BCEZ mostly produce and export knitted clothing,
transistors, small components for vehicles, electronics and computer
parts. Notable firms include
Philippines , which
happens to be the second largest exporter in the country, Other
companies headquartered inside the economic zone are Moog Philippines,
Inc. , Linde Philippines, Inc. ,
Philippines Corporation ,
Baguio-Ayalaland Technohub, and
Outsourcing also contributes to the city's economy and employment.
There are many call centers present in the city. Teleperformance
Baguio is headquartered in front of Sunshine Park. Other call centers
in downtown are Optimum Transsource, Sterling Global and Global
Translogic. While others like
Convergys and IHG (InterContinental
Hotels Group) have call centers in
Camp John Hay away from the city
proper. Tech-Synergy operates a large transcription and backoffice
operation near Wright park.
Sitel ThoughtFocus Technologies, a leading
US provider of Software and KPO services decided to set up its KPO
operation center in Baguio.
A float by the Scouts Royale Brotherhood used at the 2012
The languages commonly spoken in
Baguio are Ibaloi , Kankana-ey and
Ifugao , as well as Ilocano ,
Pangasinan and Kapampangan . Filipino
and English are also understood by many inhabitants within and around
the city. Several restaurants also serve different types of local and
Panagbenga Festival , the annual Flower Festival, is celebrated
each February to showcase Baguio's rich cultural heritage, its
appreciation of the environment, and inclination towards the arts.
Aside from tourism, the festival also helped the younger generation of
indigenous people to rediscover their culture's old traditions. The
indigenous people were first wary with government-led tourism because
of the threat that they will interfere or change their communities'
The city became a haven for many Filipino artists in the 1970s-1990s.
Drawn by the cool climate and low cost of living, artists such as Ben
Cabrera (now a National Artist) and filmmaker Butch Perez relocated to
the city. At the same time, locals such as mixed-media artist Santiago
Bose and filmmaker
Kidlat Tahimik were also establishing work in the
city. Even today, artists like painters and sculptors from all over
the country are drawn to the
Baguio Arts Festival which is held
Baguio artists used the context of cultural diversity of the
Cordillera Region to establish their work. Other notable Baguio
artists include Narda Capuyan (weaving), Kawayan de Guia (painting),
Kigao (sculpture), Willy Magtibay, Peter Pinder (fiber glass
sculpture, painting, mixed media), Art Tibaldo (mixed media-visual
arts) and Franklin Cimatu (poetry.)
Further information: List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines
Cordillera Administrative Region Burnham Park Lake
Tourism is one of Baguio's main industries due to its cool climate
and history. The city is one of the country's top tourist
destinations. During the year end holidays some people from the
lowlands prefer spending their vacation in Baguio, to experience cold
temperatures they rarely have in their home provinces. Also, during
summer, especially during
Holy Week , tourists from all over the
country flock to the city. During this time, the total number of
people in the city doubles. To accommodate all these people there are
more than 80 hotels and inns available. Local festivities such as the
Panagbenga Festival also attracts both local and foreign tourists.
Baguio is the lone
Philippine destination in the 2011 TripAdvisor
Traveller's Choice Destinations Awards (
Asia category) with the city
being among the top 25 destinations in
Asia . The Burnham Park ,
Mines View Park , Teacher's Camp, and
Baguio Cathedral are among the
top tourist sites in Baguio.
Baguio City Hall
Baguio is governed by a mayor, vice
mayor, and twelve (12) councilors. However, being a highly urbanized
city with its own charter, it is not subject to the jurisdiction of
Benguet province, of which it was formerly a part.
The current mayor of
Baguio is Mauricio Domogan, and the lone
congressional district is currently represented by
Go. They were elected in May 2016.
Baguio Athletic Bowl within the grounds of Burnham Park is one of
Baguio's primary sporting venues.
Baguio has also hosted the 1978
World Chess Championship match between
Anatoly Karpov and Viktor
Loakan Airport runway in the outskirts of the city
Loakan Airport is the lone airport serving the general area of
Baguio. The airport is classified as a trunkline airport, or a major
commercial domestic airport, by the Civil Aviation Authority of the
Philippines but there are currently no regular commercial services in
the airport. It is located south of the city center. Due to the
limited length of the runway which is 1,802 meters or 5,912 feet, it
is restricted to commuter size aircraft. The airport is used primarily
by helicopters, turbo-prop and piston engine aircraft, although on
rare occasion light business jets (LBJ) have flown into the airport.
Session Road , one of Baguio's primary roads
The three main access roads leading to
Baguio from the lowlands are
Kennon Road (formerly known as the
Benguet Road), Aspiras–Palispis
Highway (previously known as Marcos Highway) and
Naguilian Road ,
also known as Quirino Highway.
Kennon Road starts at Rosario, La Union
and winds upwards through a narrow, steep valley. This is often the
fastest route to
Baguio but it is particularly perilous, with
landslides during the rainy season and sharp dropoffs, some without
guardrails. The Aspiras Highway, which starts in
Agoo, La Union and
connects to Palispis Highway, at the boundary of
Benguet and La Union
provinces, and Naguilian Road, which starts in Bauang,
La Union , are
both longer routes but are much safer than
Kennon Road especially
during rainy season, and are the preferred routes for coaches, buses
Benguet-Nueva Vizcaya Road , which links
Nueva Vizcaya province, traverses the towns of
Itogon , Bokod , and
Halsema Highway , (also known as the Baguio-Bontoc Road
or the Mountain Trail) leads north through the mountainous portion of
the provinces of
Mountain Province . It starts at the
northern border of
Baguio with La Trinidad .
There are several bus lines linking
Manila and Central
Luzon, and provinces such as
Nueva Ecija , Aurora ,
La Union , and those in the Ilocos regions.
Taxis and jeepneys are also common forms of transportation in the
Philippine Military Academy
Philippine Military Academy in Fort del Pilar
Baguio is a university town with 141,088 students out of the 301,926
population count done on the year 2007. It is the center of education
in the entire North Luzon. There are eight major institutions of
higher education in Baguio: the Saint Louis University , University of
Philippine Military Academy
Philippine Military Academy , University of
University of the Cordilleras ,
Baguio Central University ,
Pines City Colleges, and Easter College.
Teachers from all over the country enroll in summer education courses
at Teachers\' Camp .
List of people from Baguio
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
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Cusco , Peru
Hangzhou , China
* Hanyū , Japan
Honolulu, Hawaii ,
Kislovodsk , Russia
Taebaek , South Korea
Vallejo, California ,
Vaughan , Canada
* Wakkanai , Japan
* Capital of the
* La Trinidad
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World War II
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Madison Books. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4616-6286-0 .
* ^ "Flowers, new song for 72nd year of
Baguio war bombings".
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* ^ A B Sinumlag, Alma B. (28 November 2010). "LT folk clarifies
Baguio cut flowers origin". Northern Dispatch Weekly. Retrieved 29
February 2016. LA TRINIDAD,
Benguet —The spokesperson of this
town’s Municipal Agricultural and Fishery Council (MAPC) and
chairperson of the
Barangay Agricultural and Fishery Council (BAPC) in
Lubas, La Trinidad clarified that cut flowers do not really originate
in Baguio. Christina Tiongan in an interview on November 24 lamented
that tourists always associate
Baguio City with cut flowers and other
products like temperate vegetables that do not really originate in the
city. “We are the ones producing those products but there had been
no efforts from the city to correct tourists' perception,” she said.
* ^ Lapniten, Karl (24 February 2016). "Strawberries hit bottom
prices in Baguio". CNN Philippines. Retrieved 29 February 2016. The
capital town of Benguet, La Trinidad supplies most of the strawberries
sold at the
Baguio Public Market. Much of the produce also comes from
small strawberry farms in the outskirts of
Baguio and in nearby
municipalities of Benguet.
* ^ "
Baguio offers investors new profit opportunities".
Inquirer.net. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
* ^ "Business booms in
Baguio City as 18th Ad Congress draws near".
Philsatr Business. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
* ^ Cahiles-Magkilat, Bernie (13 February 2007). "
zone to get P6.7 B in new investments".
Manila Bulletin Publishing
Corporation. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 27
* ^ Cabreza, Vincent (2008-01-26). "Cordillera tribes realize why
they should not fear tourism".
Philippine Daily Inquirer . Archived
from the original on 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
* ^ "--- Statistics: Tourism
Special Tables ---". nscb.gov.ph.
* ^ "Complete list of
* ^ "Best Destinations in
Asia - Travelers\' Choice Awards -
* ^ A B Cabreza, Vincent (16 May 2012). "Fighting for century-old
Philippine Daily Inquirer . Inquirer Northern Luzon.
Retrieved 29 February 2016. The colonial government decided then that
Benguet Road (Kennon Road’s original name) would
provide the Americans a short route up the
Benguet mountains. ... When
Baguio was devastated by the July 16, 1990 earthquake, then Public
Works Secretary Gregorio Vigilar decided to permanently close the
damaged Kennon Road, said Cosalan. The government discovered 471
“disaster spots” along the route, which the Mines and Geosciences
Bureau attributed to the fragility of the rock base, the abandoned
mining operations near the road and the natural ground fractures that
were undetectable in the 1900s.
* ^ "Republic Act No. 8971; An Act Naming the Agoo-Tubao-Pugo
Section of the Agoo-
Baguio Road, the Jose D. Aspiras Highway, and the
Baguio City Section of the Same Road, the Ben Palispis
Highway". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 31 October 2000. Retrieved
29 February 2016.
* ^ Lagasca, Charlie (14 March 2006). "Vizcaya-
completed this year". The
Philippine Star . Retrieved 29 February