Attila (; ), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns
from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths
, among others, in Central
and Eastern Europe
During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western
Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube
twice and plundered the Balkans
, but was unable to take Constantinople
. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia
was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, the success of which emboldened Attila to invade the West. He also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul
(modern France), crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum (Orléans
) before being stopped in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains
He subsequently invaded Italy
, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome
. He planned for further campaigns against the Romans
, but died in 453. After Attila's death, his close adviser, Ardaric
of the Gepids
, led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire quickly collapsed
. He would live on as a character in Germanic heroic legend
Appearance and character
There is no surviving first-hand account of Attila's appearance, but there is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes
, who cites a description given by Priscus
Some scholars have suggested that this description is typically East Asian, because it has all the combined features that fit the physical type of people from Eastern Asia, and Attila's ancestors may have come from there. Other historians also believed that the same descriptions were also evident on some Scythian
Many scholars have argued that the name Attila
derives from East Germanic
origin; ''Attila'' is formed from the Gothic
noun ''atta'', "father", by means of the diminutive suffix ''-ila'', meaning "little father", compare Wulfila
from ''wulfs'' "wolf" and ''-ila'', i.e. "little wolf". The Gothic etymology was first proposed by Jacob
and Wilhelm Grimm
in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen notes that this derivation of the name "offers neither phonetic nor semantic difficulties", and Gerhard Doerfer notes that the name is simply correct Gothic. Alexander Savelyev and Choongwon Jeong (2020) similarly state that Attila's name "must have been Gothic in origin."
The name has sometimes been interpreted as a Germanization of a name of Hunnic
Other scholars have argued for a Turkic
origin of the name. Omeljan Pritsak
considered ''Ἀττίλα'' (Attíla) a composite title-name which derived from Turkic *''es'' (great, old), and *''til'' (sea, ocean), and the suffix /a/. The stressed back syllabic ''til'' assimilated the front member ''es'', so it became *''as''. It is a nominative, in form of ''attíl-'' (< *''etsíl'' < *''es tíl'') with the meaning "the oceanic, universal ruler". J. J. Mikkola
connected it with Turkic ''āt'' (name, fame). As another Turkic possibility, H. Althof (1902) considered it was related to Turkish ''atli'' (horseman, cavalier), or Turkish ''at'' (horse) and ''dil'' (tongue). Maenchen-Helfen argues that Pritsak's derivation is "ingenious but for many reasons unacceptable", while dismissing Mikkola's as "too farfetched to be taken seriously". M. Snædal similarly notes that none of these proposals has achieved wide acceptance. Criticizing the proposals of finding Turkic or other etymologies for Attila, Doerfer notes that King George VI
of the United Kingdom had a name of Greek origin, and Süleyman the Magnificent
had a name of Arabic origin, yet that does not make them Greeks or Arabs: it is therefore plausible that Attila would have a name not of Hunnic origin. Historian Hyun Jin Kim, however, has argued that the Turkic etymology is "more probable".
M. Snædal, in a paper that rejects the Germanic derivation but notes the problems with the existing proposed Turkic etymologies, argues that Attila's name could have originated from Turkic-Mongolian
''at, adyy/agta'' (gelding
) and Turkish ''atli'' (horseman, cavalier), meaning "possessor of geldings, provider of warhorses".
Historiography and source
The historiography of Attila is faced with a major challenge, in that the only complete sources are written in Greek
by the enemies of the Huns. Attila's contemporaries left many testimonials of his life, but only fragments of these remain. Priscus
was a Byzantine
diplomat and historian who wrote in Greek, and he was both a witness to and an actor in the story of Attila, as a member of the embassy of Theodosius II
at the Hunnic court in 449. He was obviously biased by his political position, but his writing is a major source for information on the life of Attila, and he is the only person known to have recorded a physical description of him. He wrote a history of the late Roman Empire in eight books covering the period from 430 to 476.
Only fragments of Priscus' work remain. It was cited extensively by 6th-century historians Procopius
, especially in Jordanes' ''The Origin and Deeds of the Goths
'', which contains numerous references to Priscus's history, and it is also an important source of information about the Hunnic empire and its neighbors. He describes the legacy of Attila and the Hunnic people for a century after Attila's death. Marcellinus Comes
, a chancellor of Justinian
during the same era, also describes the relations between the Huns and the Eastern Roman Empire
Numerous ecclesiastical writings contain useful but scattered information, sometimes difficult to authenticate or distorted by years of hand-copying between the 6th and 17th centuries. The Hungarian
writers of the 12th century wished to portray the Huns in a positive light as their glorious ancestors, and so repressed certain historical elements and added their own legends.
The literature and knowledge of the Huns themselves was transmitted orally, by means of epics and chanted poems that were handed down from generation to generation. Indirectly, fragments of this oral history
have reached us via the literature of the Scandinavians and Germans, neighbors of the Huns who wrote between the 9th and 13th centuries. Attila is a major character in many Medieval epics, such as the Nibelungenlied
, as well as various Edda
s and saga
investigation has uncovered some details about the lifestyle, art, and warfare of the Huns. There are a few traces of battles and sieges, but the tomb of Attila and the location of his capital have not yet been found.
Early life and background
The Huns were a group of Eurasian nomads
, appearing from east of the Volga
, who migrated further into Western Europe
c. 370 and built up an enormous empire there. Their main military techniques were mounted archer
y and javelin
throwing. They were in the process of developing settlements
before their arrival in Western Europe, yet the Huns were a society of pastoral warriors whose primary form of nourishment was meat and milk, products of their herds.
The origin and language of the Huns
has been the subject of debate for centuries. According to some theories, their leaders at least may have spoken a Turkic language
, perhaps closest to the modern Chuvash language
. One scholar suggests a relationship to Yeniseian
. According to the ''Encyclopedia of European Peoples'', "the Huns, especially those who migrated to the west, may have been a combination of central Asian Turkic
, and Ugric
Attila's father Mundzuk
was the brother of kings Octar
, who reigned jointly over the Hunnic empire in the early fifth century. This form of diarchy
was recurrent with the Huns, but historians are unsure whether it was institutionalized, merely customary, or an occasional occurrence. His family was from a noble lineage, but it is uncertain whether they constituted a royal dynasty
. Attila's birthdate is debated; journalist Éric Deschodt
and writer Herman Schreiber have proposed a date of 395. However, historian Iaroslav Lebedynsky
and archaeologist Katalin Escher prefer an estimate between the 390s and the first decade of the fifth century. Several historians have proposed 406 as the date.
Attila grew up in a rapidly changing world. His people were nomads who had only recently arrived in Europe. They crossed the Volga
river during the 370s and annexed the territory of the Alans
, then attacked the Gothic kingdom between the Carpathian mountains
and the Danube
. They were a very mobile people, whose mounted archers had acquired a reputation for invincibility, and the Germanic tribes
seemed unable to withstand them. Vast populations fleeing the Huns moved from Germania
into the Roman Empire in the west and south, and along the banks of the Rhine
and Danube. In 376, the Goths crossed the Danube, initially submitting to the Romans but soon rebelling against Emperor Valens
, whom they killed in the Battle of Adrianople
in 378. Large numbers of Vandals
, Alans, Suebi
, and Burgundians crossed the Rhine
and invaded Roman Gaul
on December 31, 406 to escape the Huns. The Roman Empire had been split in half since 395 and was ruled by two distinct governments, one based in Ravenna
in the West, and the other in Constantinople
in the East. The Roman Emperors, both East and West, were generally from the Theodosian
family in Attila's lifetime (despite several power struggles).
The Huns dominated a vast territory with nebulous borders determined by the will of a constellation of ethnically varied peoples. Some were assimilated to Hunnic nationality, whereas many retained their own identities and rulers but acknowledged the suzerainty
of the king of the Huns. The Huns were also the indirect source of many of the Romans' problems, driving various Germanic tribes into Roman territory, yet relations between the two empires were cordial: the Romans used the Huns as mercenaries
against the Germans and even in their civil wars. Thus, the usurper Joannes
was able to recruit thousands of Huns for his army against Valentinian III
in 424. It was Aëtius
, later Patrician of the West, who managed this operation. They exchanged ambassadors and hostages, the alliance lasting from 401 to 450 and permitting the Romans numerous military victories. The Huns considered the Romans to be paying them tribute, whereas the Romans preferred to view this as payment for services rendered. The Huns had become a great power by the time that Attila came of age during the reign of his uncle Ruga, to the point that Nestorius
, the Patriarch of Constantinople, deplored the situation with these words: "They have become both masters and slaves of the Romans".
Campaigns against the Eastern Roman Empire
The death of Rugila
(also known as Rua or Ruga) in 434 left the sons of his brother Mundzuk
, Attila and Bleda
, in control of the united Hun tribes. At the time of the two brothers' accession, the Hun tribes were bargaining with Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II
's envoys for the return of several renegades
who had taken refuge within the Eastern Roman Empire
, possibly Hunnic nobles who disagreed with the brothers' assumption of leadership.
The following year, Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus
), all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner, and negotiated an advantageous treaty
. The Romans agreed to return the fugitives, to double their previous tribute
of 350 Roman pounds (c. 115 kg) of gold, to open their markets to Hunnish traders, and to pay a ransom of eight ''solidi
'' for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the Roman Empire and returned to their home in the Great Hungarian Plain
, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire. Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople
, building the city's first sea wall
, and to build up his border defenses along the Danube
The Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years while they invaded the Sassanid Empire
. They were defeated in Armenia
by the Sassanids, abandoned their invasion, and turned their attentions back to Europe. In 440, they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty of 435.
Crossing the Danube, they laid waste to the cities of Illyricum
and forts on the river, including (according to Priscus
, a city of Moesia
. Their advance began at Margus, where they demanded that the Romans turn over a bishop who had retained property that Attila regarded as his. While the Romans discussed the bishop's fate, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.
While the Huns attacked city-states along the Danube, the Vandals
(led by Geiseric
) captured the Western Roman province of Africa and its capital of Carthage
. Carthage was the richest province of the Western Empire and a main source of food for Rome. The Sassanid Shah Yazdegerd II
The Romans stripped the Balkan area of forces, sending them to Sicily in order to mount an expedition against the Vandals in Africa. This left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyricum into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army sacked Margus and Viminacium, and then took Singidunum
) and Sirmium
. During 442, Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily
and ordered a large issue of new coins to finance operations against the Huns. He believed that he could defeat the Huns and refused the Hunnish kings' demands.
Attila responded with a campaign in 443. For the first time (as far as the Romans knew) his forces were equipped with battering ram
s and rolling siege towers, with which they successfully assaulted the military centers of Ratiara and Naissus (Niš
) and massacred the inhabitants. Priscus
said "When we arrived at Naissus we found the city deserted, as though it had been sacked; only a few sick persons lay in the churches. We halted at a short distance from the river, in an open space, for all the ground adjacent to the bank was full of the bones of men slain in war."
Advancing along the Nišava River
, the Huns next took Serdica (Sofia
), Philippopolis (Plovdiv
), and Arcadiopolis (Lüleburgaz
). They encountered and destroyed a Roman army outside Constantinople but were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital. They defeated a second army near Callipolis (Gelibolu
Theodosius, unable to make effective armed resistance, admitted defeat, sending the ''Magister militum per Orientem
to negotiate peace terms. The terms were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (c. 2000 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (c. 700 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 ''solidi''.
Their demands were met for a time, and the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire. Bleda died following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445). Attila then took the throne for himself, becoming the sole ruler of the Huns.
In 447, Attila again rode south into the Eastern Roman Empire
. The Roman army
, under Gothic
, met him in the Battle of the Utus
and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses. The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae
Constantinople itself was saved by the Isauria
n troops of ''magister militum per Orientem
and protected by the intervention of prefect Constantinus
, who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old. Callinicus, in his ''Life of Saint Hypatius'', wrote:
In the west
In 450, Attila proclaimed his intent to attack the Visigoth
kingdom of Toulouse
by making an alliance
with Emperor Valentinian III
. He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire
and its influential general Flavius Aëtius
. Aëtius had spent a brief exile
among the Huns in 433, and the troops that Attila provided against the Goths
had helped earn him the largely honorary title of ''magister militum
'' in the west. The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric
, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans.
However, Valentinian's sister was Honoria
, who had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help—and her engagement ring—in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator
in the spring of 450. Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, but Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry.
When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia
convinced him to exile Honoria, rather than killing her. He also wrote to Attila, strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila sent an emissary to Ravenna
to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.
Attila interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler. Attila supported the elder son, while Aëtius supported the younger. (The location and identity of these kings is not known and subject to conjecture.) Attila gathered his vassal
, among others–and began his march west. In 451, he arrived in Belgica
with an army exaggerated by Jordanes
to half a million strong.
On April 7, he captured Metz
. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic
'' written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius
was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheims
is alleged to have saved Tongeren
with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve
is said to have saved Paris. Lupus
, bishop of Troyes
, is also credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person.
Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks
, the Burgundians
, and the Celts
. A mission by Avitus
and Attila's continued westward advance convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I
(Theodorid) to ally with the Romans. The combined armies reached Orléans
ahead of Attila, thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance. Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Catalaunum (modern Châlons-en-Champagne
). Attila decided to fight the Romans on plains where he could use his cavalry.
The two armies clashed in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains
, the outcome of which is commonly considered to be a strategic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance. Theodoric was killed in the fighting, and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, according to Edward Gibbon and Edward Creasy, because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visigothic triumph as much as he did a defeat. From Aëtius' point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious.
Invasion of Italy and death
Attila returned in 452 to renew his marriage claim with Honoria, invading and ravaging Italy along the way. Communities became established in what would later become Venice
as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon
. His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia
so completely that it was afterwards hard to recognize its original site. Aëtius lacked the strength to offer battle, but managed to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the River Po
. By this point, disease and starvation may have taken hold in Attila's camp, thus hindering his war efforts and potentially contributing to the cessation of invasion.
Emperor Valentinian III
sent three envoys, the high civilian officers Gennadius Avienus
and Trigetius, as well as the Bishop of Rome Leo I
, who met Attila at Mincio
in the vicinity of Mantua
and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the Emperor. Prosper of Aquitaine
gives a short description of the historic meeting, but gives all the credit to Leo for the successful negotiation. Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric
gave him pause—as Alaric died shortly after sacking Rome in 410.
Italy had suffered from a terrible famine in 451 and her crops were faring little better in 452. Attila's devastating invasion of the plains of northern Italy this year did not improve the harvest. To advance on Rome would have required supplies which were not available in Italy, and taking the city would not have improved Attila's supply situation. Therefore, it was more profitable for Attila to conclude peace and retreat to his homeland.
Furthermore, an East Roman force had crossed the Danube under the command of another officer also named Aetius—who had participated in the Council of Chalcedon
the previous year—and proceeded to defeat the Huns who had been left behind by Attila to safeguard their home territories. Attila, hence, faced heavy human and natural pressures to retire "from Italy without ever setting foot south of the Po
". As Hydatius
writes in his ''Chronica Minora'':
Marcian was the successor of Theodosius, and he had ceased paying tribute to the Huns in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west. Multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder.
After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had stopped. However, he died in the early months of 453.
The conventional account from Priscus says that Attila was at a feast celebrating his latest marriage, this time to the beautiful young Ildico
(the name suggests Gothic
origins). In the midst of the revels, however, he suffered severe bleeding and died. He may have had a nosebleed
and choked to death in a stupor. Or he may have succumbed to internal bleeding
, possibly due to ruptured esophageal varices
. Esophageal varices are dilated veins that form in the lower part of the esophagus
, often caused by years of excessive alcohol consumption; they are fragile and can easily rupture, leading to death by hemorrhage.
Another account of his death was first recorded 80 years after the events by Roman chronicler Marcellinus Comes
. It reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife". One modern analyst suggests that he was assassinated, but most reject these accounts as no more than hearsay, preferring instead the account given by Attila's contemporary Priscus, recounted in the 6th century by Jordanes
Attila's sons Ellac
, "in their rash eagerness to rule they all alike destroyed his empire". They "were clamoring that the nations should be divided among them equally and that warlike kings with their peoples should be apportioned to them by lot like a family estate". Against the treatment as "slaves of the basest condition" a Germanic alliance led by the Gepid ruler Ardaric
(who was noted for great loyalty to Attila) revolted and fought with the Huns in Pannonia in the Battle of Nedao
454 AD. Attila's eldest son Ellac was killed in that battle. Attila's sons "regarding the Goths as deserters from their rule, came against them as though they were seeking fugitive slaves", attacked Ostrogothic co-ruler Valamir
(who also fought alongside Ardaric and Attila at the Catalaunian Plains), but were repelled, and some group of Huns moved to Scythia (probably those of Ernak). His brother Dengizich attempted a renewed invasion across the Danube in 468 AD, but was defeated at the Battle of Bassianae
by the Ostrogoths. Dengizich was killed by Roman-Gothic general Anagast
the following year, after which the Hunnic dominion ended.
Attila's many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dried up, and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila's descendants. This has not stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent
for various medieval rulers. One of the most credible claims has been that of the ''Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans
'' for mythological Avitohol
from the Dulo clan
of the Bulgars
Later folklore and iconography
embellished the report of Priscus
, reporting that Attila had possessed the "Holy War Sword of the Scythians
", which was given to him by Mars
and made him a "prince of the entire world".
By the end of the 12th century the royal court of Hungary
proclaimed their descent from Attila. Lampert of Hersfeld
's contemporary chronicles report that shortly before the year 1071, the Sword of Attila
had been presented to Otto of Nordheim
by the exiled queen of Hungary, Anastasia of Kiev
. This sword, a cavalry sabre
now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum
in Vienna, appears to be the work of Hungarian goldsmiths of the ninth or tenth century.
An anonymous chronicler of the medieval period represented the meeting of Pope Leo
and Atilla as attended also by Saint Peter
and Saint Paul
, "a miraculous tale calculated to meet the taste of the time" This apotheosis was later portrayed artistically by the Renaissance artist Raphael
and sculptor Algardi
, whom eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon
praised for establishing "one of the noblest legends of ecclesiastical tradition".
According to a version of this narrative related in the Chronicon Pictum
, a mediaeval Hungarian chronicle, the Pope
promised Attila that if he left Rome in peace, one of his successors would receive a holy crown (which has been understood as referring to the Holy Crown of Hungary
Some histories and chronicles describe him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas
'', ''Volsunga saga
'', and ''Atlamál
''. The ''Polish Chronicle'' represents Attila's name as ''Aquila''.
Frutolf of Michelsberg
and Otto of Freising
pointed out that some songs as "vulgar fables" made Theoderic the Great
, Attila and Ermanaric
contemporaries, when any reader of Jordanes knew that this was not the case
. This refers to the so-called historical poems about Dietrich von Bern
(Theoderic), in which Etzel (Attila) is Dietrich's refuge in exile from his wicked uncle Ermenrich (Ermanaric). Etzel is most prominent in the poems ''Dietrichs Flucht
'' and the ''Rabenschlacht
''. Etzel also appears as Kriemhild
's second noble husband in the ''Nibelungenlied
'', in which Kriemhild causes the destruction of both the Hunnish kingdom and that of her Burgundian relatives.
In 1812, Ludwig van Beethoven
conceived the idea of writing an opera about Attila and approached August von Kotzebue
to write the libretto. It was, however, never written. In 1846, Giuseppe Verdi
wrote the opera
, loosely based on episodes in Attila's invasion of Italy.
In World War I, Allied propaganda referred to Germans as the "Huns
", based on a 1900 speech by Emperor Wilhelm II
praising Attila the Hun's military prowess, according to Jawaharlal Nehru
's ''Glimpses of World History
''. ''Der Spiegel
'' commented on November 6, 1948, that the Sword of Attila
was hanging menacingly over Austria
American writer Cecelia Holland
wrote ''The Death of Attila'' (1973), a historical novel in which Attila appears as a powerful background figure whose life and death deeply impact the protagonists, a young Hunnic warrior and a Germanic one.
The name has many variants in several languages: Atli and Atle in Old Norse
; Etzel in Middle High German
); Ætla in Old English
; Attila, Atilla, and Etele in Hungarian
(Attila is the most popular); Attila, Atilla
, Atilay, or Atila in Turkish
; and Adil and Edil in Kazakh
or Adil ("same/similar") or Edil ("to use") in Mongolian
In modern Hungary
and in Turkey
, "Attila" and its Turkish variation "Atilla" are commonly used as a male first name. In Hungary, several public places are named after Attila; for instance, in Budapest
there are 10 Attila Streets, one of which is an important street behind the Buda Castle
. When the Turkish Armed Forces
in 1974, the operations were named after Attila ("The Attila Plan").
The 1954 Universal International
film ''Sign of the Pagan
'' starred Jack Palance
Depictions of Attila
File:AttilatheHun.jpg|Attila the Hun
File:Atli.jpg|Attila the Hun in an illustration in the Poetic Edda
File:Brogi, Carlo (1850-1925) - n. 8227 - Certosa di Pavia - Medaglione sullo zoccolo della facciata.jpg|A nineteenth-century depiction of Attila. Certosa di Pavia - Medallion at the base of the facade. The Latin inscription tells that this is Attila, the scourge of God.
File:Ritratto di Attila.jpg|Image of Attila
File:Alessandro Algardi Meeting of Leo I and Attila 01.jpg|''The Meeting of Leo I
by Alessandro Algardi
* Alaric I
* Bato (Daesitiate chieftain)
* Brennus (4th century BC)
* Mithridates VI of Pontus
* Theodoric the Great
; Other sources
Works about Attila
at Project Gutenberg
Category:5th-century Hunnic rulers
Category:5th-century monarchs in Europe
Category:Deaths from choking