Atlantis (Ancient Greek: Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of
Atlas") is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the
hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it
represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens",
the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic.
In the story, Athens repels the Atlantean attack unlike any other
nation of the known world, supposedly giving testament to the
superiority of Plato's concept of a state. The story concludes
Atlantis falling out of favor with the deities and submerging
into the Atlantic Ocean.
Despite its minor importance in Plato's work, the
Atlantis story has
had a considerable impact on literature. The allegorical aspect of
Atlantis was taken up in utopian works of several
such as Francis Bacon's
New Atlantis and Thomas More's Utopia.
On the other hand, nineteenth-century amateur scholars misinterpreted
Plato's narrative as historical tradition, most notably in Ignatius L.
Donnelly's Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. Plato's vague indications
of the time of the events—more than 9,000 years before his
time—and the alleged location of Atlantis—"beyond the Pillars
of Hercules"—has led to much pseudoscientific speculation. As a
Atlantis has become a byword for any and all supposed
advanced prehistoric lost civilizations and continues to inspire
contemporary fiction, from comic books to films.
While present-day philologists and classicists agree on the story's
fictional character, there is still debate on what served as its
inspiration. As for instance with the story of Gyges,
known to have freely borrowed some of his allegories and metaphors
from older traditions. This led a number of scholars to investigate
possible inspiration of
Atlantis from Egyptian records of the Thera
Sea Peoples invasion, or the Trojan War.
Others have rejected this chain of tradition as implausible and insist
Plato created an entirely fictional nation as his
example, drawing loose inspiration from contemporary
events such as the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC
or the destruction of
Helike in 373 BC.
1 Plato's dialogues
2.2 Jewish and Christian
188.8.131.52 Early influential literature
184.108.40.206 Impact of Mayanism
220.127.116.11 Ignatius Donnelly
Blavatsky and the Theosophists
Nazism and occultism
18.104.22.168 Edgar Cayce
2.3.2 Recent times
3 Location hypotheses
3.1 In or near the Mediterranean Sea
3.2 In the Atlantic Ocean
3.3 In Europe
3.4 Other locations
4 Literary interpretations
4.1 Ancient versions
4.2 Utopias and dystopias
4.3 A land lost in the distance
4.4 Epic narratives
5 Artistic representations
5.2 Painting and sculpture
6 See also
8 Further reading
A fifteenth-century Latin translation of Plato's Timaeus
Main article: Timaeus (dialogue)
The only primary sources for
Atlantis are Plato's dialogues Timaeus
and Critias; all other mentions of the island are based on them. The
dialogues claim to quote Solon, who visited
Egypt between 590 and 580
BC; they state that he translated Egyptian records of Atlantis.
Written in 360 BC,
Atlantis in Timaeus:
For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State
stayed the course of a mighty host, which, starting from a distant
point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the
whole of Europe, and
Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that
time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as
you say, 'the pillars of Heracles,' there lay an island which was
larger than Libya and
Asia together; and it was possible for the
travelers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from
the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which
encompasses that veritable ocean. For all that we have here, lying
within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a
narrow entrance; but that yonder is a real ocean, and the land
surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest
sense, a continent. Now in this island of
Atlantis there existed a
confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway
over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the
The four people appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians
Hermocrates as well as the philosophers
Timaeus of Locri, although only
Critias speaks of Atlantis. In his
Plato makes extensive use of the
Socratic method in order to
discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition.
The Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the
creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations. In
Socrates muses about the perfect society, described
in Plato's Republic (c. 380 BC), and wonders if he and his guests
might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias
mentions a tale he considered to be historical, that would make the
perfect example, and he then follows by describing
Atlantis as is
recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to
represent the "perfect society" and
Atlantis its opponent,
representing the very antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in
According to Critias, the Hellenic deities of old divided the land so
that each deity might have their own lot;
Poseidon was appropriately,
and to his liking, bequeathed the island of Atlantis. The island was
Ancient Libya and
Asia Minor combined, but it was
later sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal,
inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean.
Plato asserted that the
Atlantis as an island consisting mostly of
mountains in the northern portions and along the shore and
encompassing a great plain in an oblong shape in the south "extending
in one direction three thousand stadia [about 555 km;
345 mi], but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia
[about 370 km; 230 mi]." Fifty stadia [9 km; 6 mi]
from the coast was a mountain that was low on all sides ... broke
it off all round about ... the central island itself was five
stades in diameter [about 0.92 km; 0.57 mi].
In Plato's metaphorical tale,
Poseidon fell in love with Cleito, the
Evenor and Leucippe, who bore him five pairs of male
twins. The eldest of these, Atlas, was made rightful king of the
entire island and the ocean (called the
Atlantic Ocean in his honor),
and was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as
his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus, or Eumelus in Greek, was given the
extremity of the island toward the pillars of Hercules. The other
four pairs of twins—Ampheres and Evaemon,
Mneseus and Autochthon,
Elasippus and Mestor, and Azaes and Diaprepes—were also given "rule
over many men, and a large territory."
Poseidon carved the mountain where his love dwelt into a palace and
enclosed it with three circular moats of increasing width, varying
from one to three stadia and separated by rings of land proportional
in size. The Atlanteans then built bridges northward from the
mountain, making a route to the rest of the island. They dug a great
canal to the sea, and alongside the bridges carved tunnels into the
rings of rock so that ships could pass into the city around the
mountain; they carved docks from the rock walls of the moats. Every
passage to the city was guarded by gates and towers, and a wall
surrounded each ring of the city. The walls were constructed of red,
white, and black rock, quarried from the moats, and were covered with
brass, tin, and the precious metal orichalcum, respectively.
According to Critias, 9,000 years before his lifetime a war took place
between those outside the
Pillars of Hercules
Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of
Gibraltar and those who dwelt within them. The Atlanteans had
conquered the parts of Libya within the Pillars of Hercules, as far as
Egypt, and the European continent as far as Tyrrhenia, and had
subjected its people to slavery. The Athenians led an alliance of
resistors against the Atlantean empire, and as the alliance
disintegrated, prevailed alone against the empire, liberating the
But afterwards there occurred violent earthquakes and floods; and in a
single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in a body sank
into the earth, and the island of
Atlantis in like manner disappeared
in the depths of the sea. For which reason the sea in those parts is
impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in the
way; and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.
Hellanicus of Lesbos
Hellanicus of Lesbos wrote an earlier work entitled
Atlantis, of which only a few fragments survive. Hellanicus' work
appears to have been a genealogical one concerning the daughters of
Atlas (Ἀτλαντὶς in Greek means "of Atlas"), but some
authors have suggested a possible connection with Plato's island. John
V. Luce notes that when
Plato writes about the genealogy of Atlantis's
kings, he writes in the same style as Hellanicus, suggesting a
similarity between a fragment of Hellanicus's work and an account in
the Critias. Rodney Castleden suggests that
Plato may have
borrowed his title from Hellanicus, who may have based his work on an
earlier work about Atlantis.
Castleden has pointed out that
Plato wrote of
Atlantis in 359 BC, when
he returned to Athens from Sicily. He notes a number of parallels
between the physical organisation and fortifications of Syracuse and
Plato's description of Atlantis.
Gunnar Rudberg was the first who
elaborated upon the idea that Plato's attempt to realize his political
ideas in the city of Syracuse could have heavily inspired the Atlantis
Some ancient writers viewed
Atlantis as fictional or metaphorical
myth; others believed it to be real.
Aristotle believed that
Plato, his teacher, had invented the island to teach philosophy.
The philosopher Crantor, a student of Plato's student Xenocrates, is
cited often as an example of a writer who thought the story to be
historical fact. His work, a commentary on Timaeus, is lost, but
Neoplatonist of the fifth century AD, reports on it.
The passage in question has been represented in the modern literature
either as claiming that
Crantor visited Egypt, had conversations with
priests, and saw hieroglyphs confirming the story, or, as claiming
that he learned about them from other visitors to Egypt. Proclus
As for the whole of this account of the Atlanteans, some say that it
is unadorned history, such as Crantor, the first commentator on Plato.
Crantor also says that Plato's contemporaries used to criticize him
jokingly for not being the inventor of his Republic but copying the
institutions of the Egyptians.
Plato took these critics seriously
enough to assign to the Egyptians this story about the Athenians and
Atlanteans, so as to make them say that the Athenians really once
lived according to that system.
The next sentence is often translated "
Crantor adds, that this is
testified by the prophets of the Egyptians, who assert that these
particulars [which are narrated by Plato] are written on pillars which
are still preserved." But in the original, the sentence starts not
with the name
Crantor but with the ambiguous He; whether this referred
Crantor or to
Plato is the subject of considerable debate.
Proponents of both
Atlantis as a metaphorical myth and
history have argued that the pronoun refers to Crantor.
Alan Cameron argues that the pronoun should be interpreted as
referring to Plato, and that, when
Proclus writes that "we must bear
in mind concerning this whole feat of the Athenians, that it is
neither a mere myth nor unadorned history, although some take it as
history and others as myth", he is treating "Crantor's view as mere
personal opinion, nothing more; in fact he first quotes and then
dismisses it as representing one of the two unacceptable
Cameron also points out that whether he refers to
Plato or to Crantor,
the statement does not support conclusions such as Otto Muck's
Crantor came to Sais and saw there in the temple of
Neith the column,
completely covered with hieroglyphs, on which the history of Atlantis
was recorded. Scholars translated it for him, and he testified that
their account fully agreed with Plato's account of Atlantis" or J.
V. Luce's suggestion that
Crantor sent "a special enquiry to Egypt"
and that he may simply be referring to Plato's own claims.
Another passage from the commentary by
Proclus on the "Timaeus" gives
a description of the geography of Atlantis:
That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from
what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the
outer sea. For according to them, there were seven islands in that sea
in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous
size, one of which was sacred to Hades, another to Ammon, and another
one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand
stadia [200 km]; and the inhabitants of it—they add—preserved
the remembrance from their ancestors of the immeasurably large island
Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had
reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself had
like-wise been sacred to Poseidon. Now these things Marcellus has
written in his Aethiopica.
Marcellus remains unidentified.
Other ancient historians and philosophers who believed in the
Strabo and Posidonius. Some have
theorized that, before the sixth century BC, the "Pillars of Hercules"
may have applied to mountains on either side of the Gulf of Laconia,
and also may have been part of the pillar cult of the Aegean.
The mountains stood at either side of the southernmost gulf in Greece,
the largest in the Peloponnese, and it opens onto the Mediterranean
Sea. This would have placed
Atlantis in the Mediterranean, lending
credence to many details in Plato's discussion.
The fourth-century historian Ammianus Marcellinus, relying on a lost
work by Timagenes, a historian writing in the first century BC, writes
Gaul said that part of the inhabitants of
migrated there from distant islands. Some have understood Ammianus's
testimony as a claim that at the time of Atlantis's sinking into the
sea, its inhabitants fled to western Europe; but Ammianus, in fact,
says that "the Drasidae (Druids) recall that a part of the population
is indigenous but others also migrated in from islands and lands
beyond the Rhine" (Res Gestae 15.9), an indication that the immigrants
Gaul from the north (Britain, the Netherlands, or Germany),
not from a theorized location in the
Atlantic Ocean to the
south-west. Instead, the Celts who dwelled along the ocean were
reported to venerate twin gods, (Dioscori), who appeared to them
coming from that ocean.
Jewish and Christian
During the early first century AD, the Hellenistic Jewish philosopher
Philo wrote about the destruction of
Atlantis in his On the Eternity
of the World, xxvi. 141, in a longer passage allegedly citing
Aristotle's successor Theophrastus:
... And the island of Atalantes [translator's spelling; original:
Ἀτλαντίς] which was greater than
Africa and Asia, as Plato
says in the Timaeus, in one day and night was overwhelmed beneath the
sea in consequence of an extraordinary earthquake and inundation and
suddenly disappeared, becoming sea, not indeed navigable, but full of
gulfs and eddies.
There is the possibility that
Clement of Rome
Clement of Rome cryptically referred to
Atlantis in his First Epistle of Clement, 20: 8:
... The ocean which is impassable for men, and the worlds beyond
it, are directed by the same ordinances of the Master.
Joseph Barber Lightfoot
Joseph Barber Lightfoot (Apostolic Fathers, 1885, II,
p. 84) noted on this passage: "Clement may possibly be referring
to some known, but hardly accessible land, lying without the pillars
of Hercules. But more probably he contemplated some unknown land in
the far west beyond the ocean, like the fabled
Other early Christian writers wrote about Atlantis, although they had
mixed views on whether it once existed or was an untrustworthy myth of
Atlantis was once real and wrote
that in the
Atlantic Ocean once existed "[the isle] that was equal in
size to Libya or Asia" referring to Plato's geographical
description of Atlantis. The early Christian apologist writer Arnobius
Atlantis once existed, but blamed its destruction on
Cosmas Indicopleustes in the sixth century wrote of
Atlantis in his
Christian Topography in an attempt to prove his theory that the world
was flat and surrounded by water:
... In like manner the philosopher Timaeus also describes this
Earth as surrounded by the Ocean, and the Ocean as surrounded by the
more remote earth. For he supposes that there is to westward an
island, Atlantis, lying out in the Ocean, in the direction of Gadeira
(Cadiz), of an enormous magnitude, and relates that the ten kings
having procured mercenaries from the nations in this island came from
the earth far away, and conquered
Europe and Asia, but were afterwards
conquered by the Athenians, while that island itself was submerged by
God under the sea. Both
Aristotle praise this philosopher,
Proclus has written a commentary on him. He himself expresses
views similar to our own with some modifications, transferring the
scene of the events from the east to the west. Moreover he mentions
those ten generations as well as that earth which lies beyond the
Ocean. And in a word it is evident that all of them borrow from Moses,
and publish his statements as their own.
Hebrew language treatise on computational astronomy dated to AD
1378/79, alludes to the
Atlantis myth in a discussion concerning the
determination of zero points for the calculation of
longitude:[original research?]
Some say that they [the inhabited regions] begin at the beginning of
the western ocean [the Atlantic] and beyond. For in the earliest times
[literally: the first days] there was an island in the middle of the
ocean. There were scholars there, who isolated themselves in [the
pursuit of] philosophy. In their day, that was the [beginning for
measuring] the longitude[s] of the inhabited world. Today, it has
become [covered by the?] sea, and it is ten degrees into the sea; and
they reckon the beginning of longitude from the beginning of the
A map showing the supposed extent of the Atlantean Empire, from
Ignatius L. Donnelly's Atlantis: the Antediluvian World, 1882 
Aside from Plato's original account, modern interpretations regarding
Atlantis are an amalgamation of diverse, speculative movements that
began in the sixteenth century, when scholars began to identify
Atlantis with the New World.
Francisco Lopez de Gomara
Francisco Lopez de Gomara was the first
to state that
Plato was referring to America, as did
Francis Bacon and
Alexander von Humboldt; Janus Joannes Bircherod said in 1663 orbe novo
non novo ("the
New World is not new").
Athanasius Kircher accepted
Plato's account as literally true, describing
Atlantis as a small
continent in the Atlantic Ocean.
Contemporary perceptions of
Atlantis share roots with Mayanism, which
can be traced to the beginning of the Modern Age, when European
imaginations were fueled by their initial encounters with the
indigenous peoples of the Americas. From this era sprang
apocalyptic and utopian visions that would inspire many subsequent
generations of theorists.
Most of these interpretations are considered pseudohistory,
pseudoscience, or pseudoarchaeology, as they have presented their
works as academic or scientific, but lack the standards or criteria.
The Flemish cartographer and geographer
Abraham Ortelius is believed
to have been the first person to imagine that the continents were
joined together before drifting to their present positions. In the
1596 edition of his Thesaurus Geographicus he wrote: "Unless it be a
fable, the island of Gadir or Gades [Cadiz] will be the remaining part
of the island of
Atlantis or America, which was not sunk (as Plato
reports in the Timaeus) so much as torn away from
earthquakes and flood... The traces of the ruptures are shown by the
Africa and the indentations of America in
the parts of the coasts of these three said lands that face each other
to anyone who, using a map of the world, carefully considered them. So
that anyone may say with
Book 2, that what
Plato says of the
Atlantis on the authority of
Solon is not a figment."
Early influential literature
The term "utopia" (from "no place") was coined by Sir
Thomas More in
his sixteenth-century work of fiction Utopia. Inspired by Plato's
Atlantis and travelers' accounts of the Americas, More described an
imaginary land set in the New World. His idealistic vision
established a connection between the
Americas and utopian societies, a
theme that Bacon discussed in The
New Atlantis (c. 1623). A
character in the narrative gives a history of
Atlantis that is similar
to Plato's and places
Atlantis in America. People had begun believing
that the Mayan and
Aztec ruins could possibly be the remnants of
Impact of Mayanism
Much speculation began as to the origins of the Maya, which led to a
variety of narratives and publications that tried to rationalize the
discoveries within the context of the
Bible and that had undertones of
racism in their connections between the Old and New World. The
Europeans believed the indigenous people to be inferior and incapable
of building that which was now in ruins and by sharing a common
history, they insinuate that another race must have been responsible.
In the middle and late nineteenth century, several renowned
Mesoamerican scholars, starting with Charles Etienne Brasseur de
Bourbourg, and including
Edward Herbert Thompson
Edward Herbert Thompson and Augustus Le
Plongeon, formally proposed that
Atlantis was somehow related to Mayan
The French scholar Brasseur de Bourbourg traveled extensively through
Mesoamerica in the mid-1800s, and was renowned for his translations of
Mayan texts, most notably the sacred book Popol Vuh, as well as a
comprehensive history of the region. Soon after these publications,
however, Brasseur de Bourbourg lost his academic credibility, due to
his claim that the
Maya peoples had descended from the Toltecs, people
he believed were the surviving population of the racially superior
civilization of Atlantis. His work combined with the skillful,
romantic illustrations of Jean Frederic Waldeck, which visually
Egypt and other aspects of the Old World, created an
authoritative fantasy that excited much interest in the connections
Inspired by Brasseur de Bourbourg's diffusion theories, the
Augustus Le Plongeon
Augustus Le Plongeon traveled to
performed some of the first excavations of many famous Mayan ruins. Le
Plongeon invented narratives, such as the kingdom of Mu saga, which
romantically drew connections to him, his wife Alice, and Egyptian
Osiris and Isis, as well as to Heinrich Schliemann, who had
just discovered the ancient city of
Troy from Homer's epic poetry
(that had been described as merely mythical). He also believed
that he had found connections between the Greek and Mayan languages,
which produced a narrative of the destruction of Atlantis.
The 1882 publication of Atlantis: the Antediluvian World by Ignatius
Donnelly stimulated much popular interest in Atlantis. He was
greatly inspired by early works in Mayanism, and like them, attempted
to establish that all known ancient civilizations were descended from
Atlantis, which he saw as a technologically sophisticated, more
Donnelly drew parallels between creation stories in
the Old and New Worlds, attributing the connections to Atlantis, where
he believed the Biblical
Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden existed. As implied by the
title of his book, he also believed that
Atlantis was destroyed by the
Great Flood mentioned in the Bible.
Donnelly is credited as the "father of the nineteenth century Atlantis
revival" and is the reason the myth endures today. He
unintentionally promoted an alternative method of inquiry to history
and science, and the idea that myths contain hidden information that
opens them to "ingenious" interpretation by people who believe they
have new or special insight.
Blavatsky and the Theosophists
Atlantis according to
William Scott-Elliott (The Story of
Atlantis, Russian edition, 1910)
The Russian mystic
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and her partner Henry
Steel Olcott founded their
Theosophical Society in the 1870s with a
philosophy that combined western romanticism and eastern religious
Blavatsky and her followers in this group are often cited as
the founders of
New Age and other spiritual movements.
Blavatsky took up Donnelly's interpretations when she wrote The Secret
Doctrine (1888), which she claimed was originally dictated in
Atlantis. She maintained that the Atlanteans were cultural heroes
(contrary to Plato, who describes them mainly as a military threat).
She believed in a form of racial evolution (as opposed to primate
evolution), in which the Atlanteans were the fourth "Root Race",
succeeded by the fifth and most superior "Aryan race" (her own
Theosophists believed that the civilization of Atlantis
reached its peak between 1,000,000 and 900,000 years ago, but
destroyed itself through internal warfare brought about by the
dangerous use of psychic and supernatural powers of the inhabitants.
Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy and Waldorf Schools,
along with other well known Theosophists, such as Annie Besant, also
wrote of cultural evolution in much the same vein.
Some subsequent occultists have followed Blavatsky, at least to the
point of tracing the lineage of occult practices back to Atlantis.
Among the most famous is
Dion Fortune in her Esoteric Orders and Their
Nazism and occultism
Nazism and occultism
Blavatsky was also inspired by the work of the eighteenth-century
astronomer Jean-Sylvain Bailly, who had "Orientalized" the Atlantis
myth in his mythical continent of Hyperborea, a reference to Greek
myths featuring a Northern European region of the same name, home to a
giant, godlike race. Her reshaping of this theory in The Secret
Doctrine provided the Nazis with a mythological precedent and a
pretext for their ideological platform and their subsequent
Julius Evola's writing in 1934 also suggested that the Atlanteans were
Hyperborean, Nordic supermen who originated at the North Pole (see
Alfred Rosenberg (in The
Myth of the Twentieth
Century, 1930) spoke of a "Nordic-Atlantean" or "Aryan-Nordic" master
Edgar Cayce was a man from humble upbringings in
allegedly possessed psychic abilities, which were performed from a
trance-like state. In addition to allegedly healing the sick from this
state, he also spoke frequently on the topic of Atlantis. In his "life
readings," he purportedly revealed that many of his subjects were
reincarnations of people who had lived on Atlantis. By tapping into
their collective consciousness, the "Akashic Records" (a term borrowed
from Theosophy), he declared that he was able to give detailed
descriptions of the lost continent. He also asserted that Atlantis
would "rise" again in the 1960s (sparking much popularity of the myth
in that decade) and that there is a "Hall of Records" beneath the
Egyptian Sphinx, which holds the historical texts of Atlantis.
As continental drift became widely accepted during the 1960s, and the
increased understanding of plate tectonics demonstrated the
impossibility of a lost continent in the geologically recent past,
most "Lost Continent" theories of
Atlantis began to wane in
Plato scholar Julia Annas,
Regents Professor of Philosophy at the
University of Arizona, had this to say on the matter:
The continuing industry of discovering
Atlantis illustrates the
dangers of reading Plato. For he is clearly using what has become a
standard device of fiction—stressing the historicity of an event
(and the discovery of hitherto unknown authorities) as an indication
that what follows is fiction. The idea is that we should use the story
to examine our ideas of government and power. We have missed the point
if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the sea
bed. The continuing misunderstanding of
Plato as historian here
enables us to see why his distrust of imaginative writing is sometimes
One of the proposed explanations for the historical context of the
Atlantis story is a warning of
Plato to his contemporary
fourth-century fellow-citizens against their striving for naval
Kenneth Feder points out that Critias's story in the Timaeus provides
a major clue. In the dialogue,
Critias says, referring to Socrates'
And when you were speaking yesterday about your city and citizens, the
tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my mind, and I
remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence, you
agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of
Feder quotes A. E. Taylor, who wrote, "We could not be told much more
plainly that the whole narrative of Solon's conversation with the
priests and his intention of writing the poem about
Atlantis are an
invention of Plato's fancy."
Main article: Location hypotheses of Atlantis
Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens of locations proposed for
Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic concept,
divorced from the specifics of Plato's account. This is reflected in
the fact that many proposed sites are not within the Atlantic at all.
Few today are scholarly or archaeological hypotheses, while others
have been made by psychic (e.g., Edgar Cayce) or other
pseudoscientific means. (The
Atlantis researchers Jacques
Collina-Girard and Georgeos Díaz-Montexano, for instance, each claim
the other's hypothesis is pseudoscience.) Many of the proposed
sites share some of the characteristics of the
Atlantis story (water,
catastrophic end, relevant time period), but none has been
demonstrated to be a true historical Atlantis.
Satellite image of the islands of Santorini. From the Minoan eruption
event, and the 1964 discovery of Akrotiri on the island, this location
is one of many sites purported to have been the location of Atlantis
In or near the Mediterranean Sea
Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the
Mediterranean Sea: islands such as Sardinia, Crete,
Santorini (Thera), Sicily, Cyprus, and Malta; land-based cities or
states such as Troy, Tartessos, and Tantalis (in the province of
Manisa, Turkey); Israel-Sinai or Canaan; and
The Thera eruption, dated to the seventeenth or sixteenth century BC,
caused a large tsunami that some experts hypothesize devastated the
Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading
some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired
the story. In the area of the
Black Sea the following
locations have been proposed:
Bosporus and Ancomah (a legendary place
Others have noted that, before the sixth century BC, the mountains on
either side of the
Gulf of Laconia were called the "Pillars of
Hercules", and they could be the geographical location being
described in ancient reports upon which
Plato was basing his story.
The mountains stood at either side of the southernmost gulf in Greece,
the largest in the Peloponnese, and that gulf opens onto the
Mediterranean Sea. If from the beginning of discussions,
misinterpretation of Gibraltar as the location rather than being at
the Gulf of Laconia, would lend itself to many erroneous concepts
regarding the location of Atlantis.
Plato may have not been aware of
the difference. The Laconian pillars open to the south toward Crete
and beyond which is Egypt. The
Thera eruption and the Late Bronze Age
collapse affected that area and might have been the devastation to
which the sources used by
Plato referred. Significant events such as
these would have been likely material for tales passed from one
generation to another for almost a thousand years.
In the Atlantic Ocean
The location of
Atlantis in the
Atlantic Ocean has a certain appeal
given the closely related names. Popular culture often places Atlantis
there, perpetuating the original Platonic setting as they understand
Canary Islands and
Madeira Islands have been identified as a
possible location, west of the Straits of Gibraltar,
but in relative proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed studies
of their geomorphology and geology have demonstrated, however, that
they have been steadily uplifted, without any significant periods of
subsidence, over the last four million years, by geologic processes
such as erosional unloading, gravitational unloading, lithospheric
flexure induced by adjacent islands, and volcanic
underplating. Various islands or island groups in the Atlantic
were also identified as possible locations, notably the
Azores. Similarly, cores of sediment covering the ocean bottom
Azores and other evidence demonstrate that it has been
an undersea plateau for millions of years. The submerged
Spartel near the
Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar has also been
Map showing hypothetical extent of
Doggerland (c. 8,000 BC),
which provided a land bridge between Great Britain and continental
Several hypotheses place the sunken island in northern Europe,
Doggerland in the North Sea, and
Olof Rudbeck in
Atland, 1672–1702). Doggerland, as well as Viking Bergen Island, is
thought to have been flooded by a megatsunami following the Storegga
slide of c. 6100 BC. Some have proposed the Celtic Shelf as a possible
location, and that there is a link to Ireland.
In 2011, a team, working on a documentary for the National Geographic
Channel, led by Professor Richard Freund from the University of
Hartford, claimed to have found possible evidence of
southwestern Andalusia. The team identified its possible location
within the marshlands of the Doñana National Park, in the area that
once was the Lacus Ligustinus, between the Huelva, Cádiz, and
Seville provinces, and they speculated that
Atlantis had been
destroyed by a tsunami, extrapolating results from a previous
study by Spanish researchers, published four years earlier.
Spanish scientists have dismissed Freund's speculations, claiming that
he sensationalised their work. The anthropologist Juan
Villarías-Robles, who works with the Spanish National Research
Council, said, "Richard Freund was a newcomer to our project and
appeared to be involved in his own very controversial issue concerning
King Solomon's search for ivory and gold in Tartessos, the well
documented settlement in the Doñana area established in the first
millennium BC", and described Freund's claims as "fanciful".
A similar theory had previously been put forward by a German
researcher, Rainer W. Kühne, that is based only on satellite imagery
Atlantis in the Marismas de Hinojos, north of the city of
Cádiz. Before that, the historian
Adolf Schulten had stated in
the 1920s that
Plato had used
Tartessos as the basis for his Atlantis
Several writers have speculated that
Antarctica is the site of
Atlantis, while others have proposed Caribbean locations such
as the alleged
Cuban sunken city
Cuban sunken city off the
Guanahacabibes peninsula in
Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Bermuda Triangle. Areas in the Pacific
and Indian Oceans have also been proposed including
Sundaland). Likewise some have speculated that the continent of
South America bears striking similarities to the description of
Atlantis by Plato, particularly the
Altiplano region of the Andes. The
stories of a lost continent off the coast of India, named "Kumari
Kandam," have inspired some to draw parallels to Atlantis.
A fragment of
Atlantis by Hellanicus of Lesbos
In order to give his account of
Atlantis verisimilitude, Plato
mentions that the story was heard by
Solon in Egypt, and transmitted
orally over several generations through the family of Dropides, until
it reached Critias, a dialogue speaker in Timaeus and Critias.
Solon had supposedly tried to adapt the
Atlantis oral tradition into a
poem (that if published, was to be greater than the works of Hesiod
and Homer). While it was never completed,
Solon passed on the story to
Dropides. Modern classicists deny the existence of Solon's Atlantis
poem and the story as an oral tradition. Instead,
thought to be the sole inventor or fabricator. Hellanicus of Lesbos
used the word
Atlantis as the title for a poem published before
Plato. a fragment of which may be
Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 11,
1359. This work only describes the Atlantides (the daughters of
Atlas), however, and has no relation to Plato's
In the new era, the third century AD
Neoplatonist Zoticus wrote an
epic poem based on Plato's account of Atlantis. Plato's work may
already have inspired parodic imitation, however. Writing only a few
decades after the Timaeus and Critias, the historian
Chios wrote of a land beyond the ocean known as Meropis. This
description was included in
Book 8 of his Philippica, which contains a
Silenus and King Midas.
Silenus describes the
Meropids, a race of men who grow to twice normal size, and inhabit two
cities on the island of Meropis: Eusebes (Εὐσεβής,
"Pious-town") and Machimos (Μάχιμος, "Fighting-town"). He also
reports that an army of ten million soldiers crossed the ocean to
conquer Hyperborea, but abandoned this proposal when they realized
that the Hyperboreans were the luckiest people on earth.
Heinz-Günther Nesselrath has argued that these and other details of
Silenus' story are meant as imitation and exaggeration of the Atlantis
story, by parody, for the purpose of exposing Plato's ideas to
Utopias and dystopias
The creation of
Utopian and dystopian fictions was renewed after the
Renaissance, most notably in Francis Bacon’s
New Atlantis (1627),
the description of an ideal society that he located off the western
coast of America. Thomas Heyrick (1649-1694) followed him with “The
New Atlantis” (1687), a satirical poem in three parts. His new
continent of uncertain location, perhaps even a floating island either
in the sea or the sky, serves as background for his exposure of what
he described in a second edition as “A True Character of Popery and
The title of
The New Atalantis
The New Atalantis by
Delarivier Manley (1709),
distinguished from the two others by the single letter, is an equally
dystopian work but set this time on a fictional Mediterranean
island. In it sexual violence and exploitation is made a metaphor
for the hypocritical behaviour of politicians in their dealings with
the general public. In Manley’s case, the target of satire was
the Whig Party, while in David Maclean Parry's The Scarlet Empire
(1906) it is
Socialism as practised in foundered Atlantis. It was
followed in Russia by Velemir Khlebnikov's poem The Fall of Atlantis
(Gibel' Atlantidy, 1912), which is set in a future rationalist
dystopia that has discovered the secret of immortality and is so
dedicated to progress that it has lost touch with the past. When the
high priest of this ideology is tempted by a slave girl into an act of
irrationality, he murders her and precipitates a second flood, above
which her severed head floats vengefully among the stars.
A slightly later work, The Ancient of
Atlantis (Boston, 1915) by
Albert Armstrong Manship, expounds the Atlantean wisdom that is to
redeem the earth. Its three parts consist of a verse narrative of the
life and training of an Atlantean wise one, followed by his Utopian
moral teachings and then a psychic drama set in modern times in which
a reincarnated child embodying the lost wisdom is reborn on
Atlantis had a more intimate interpretation. The
land had been a colonial power which, although it had brought
civilization to ancient Europe, had also enslaved its peoples. Its
tyrannical fall from grace had contributed to the fate that had
overtaken it, but now its disappearance had unbalanced the world. This
was the point of view of Jacint Verdaguer’s vast mythological epic
L’Atlantida (1877). After the sinking of the former continent,
Hercules travels east across the Atlantic to found the city of
Barcelona and then departs westward again to the Hesperides. The story
is told by a hermit to a shipwrecked mariner, who is inspired to
follow in his tracks and so “call the
New World into existence to
redress the balance of the Old”. This mariner, of course, was
Verdaguer’s poem was written in Catalan, but was widely translated
Europe and Hispano-America. One response was the
similarly entitled Argentinian Atlantida of Olegario Victor Andrade
(1881), which sees in “Enchanted
Plato foresaw, a
golden promise to the fruitful race” of Latins. The bad example
of the colonising world remains, however. Jose Juan Tablada
characterises its threat in his “De Atlántida” (1894) through the
beguiling picture of the lost world populated by the underwater
creatures of Classical myth, among whom is the Siren of its final
her eye on the keel of the wandering vessel
that in passing deflowers the sea’s smooth mirror,
launching into the night her amorous warbling
and the dulcet lullaby of her treacherous voice!
There is a similar ambivalence in Janus Djurhuus’ six-stanza
“Atlantis” (1917), where a celebration of the Faroese linguistic
revival grants it an ancient pedigree by linking Greek to Norse
legend. In the poem a female figure rising from the sea against a
background of Classical palaces is recognised as a priestess of
Atlantis. The poet recalls “that the Faroes lie there in the north
Atlantic Ocean/ where before lay the poet-dreamt lands,” but also
that in Norse belief, such a figure only appears to those about to
A land lost in the distance
A Faroe Islands postage stamp honoring Janus Djurhuus' "Atlantis"
The fact that
Atlantis is a lost land has made of it a metaphor for
something no longer attainable. For the American poet Edith Willis
Linn Forbes (1865-1945), “The Lost Atlantis” stands for
idealisation of the past; the present moment can only be treasured
once that is realised.
Ella Wheeler Wilcox
Ella Wheeler Wilcox finds the location of
“The Lost Land” (1910) in one’s carefree youthful past.
Similarly, for the Irish poet
Eavan Boland in “Atlantis, a lost
sonnet” (2007), the idea was defined when “the old fable-makers
searched hard for a word/ to convey that what is gone is gone
For some male poets too, the idea of
Atlantis is constructed from what
cannot be obtained.
Charles Bewley in his
Newdigate Prize poem (1910)
thinks it grows from dissatisfaction with one’s condition,
And, because life is partly sweet
And ever girt about with pain,
We take the sweetness, and are fain
To set it free from grief's alloy
in a dream of Atlantis. Similarly for the Australian Gary
Catalano in a 1982 prose poem, it is “a vision that sank under the
weight of its own perfection”. W. H. Auden, however, suggests a
way out of such frustration through the metaphor of journeying toward
Atlantis in his poem of 1941. While travelling, he advises the
one setting out, you will meet with many definitions of the goal in
view, only realising at the end that the way has all the time led
A few late nineteenth century verse narratives complement the genre
fiction that was beginning to be written at the same period. Two of
them report the disaster that overtook the continent as related by
long-lived survivors. In Frederick Tennyson’s
Atlantis (1888) an
ancient Greek mariner sails west and discovers an inhabited island,
which is all that remains of the former kingdom. He learns of its end
and views the shattered remnant of its former glory, from which a few
had escaped to set up the Mediterranean civilisations. In the
second, Mona, Queen of Lost Atlantis: An Idyllic Re-embodiment of Long
Forgotten History (Los Angeles CA 1925) by James Logue Dryden
(1840-1925), the story is told in a series of visions. A Seer is taken
to Mona’s burial chamber in the ruins of Atlantis, where she revives
and describes the catastrophe. There follows a survey of the lost
Hyperborea and Lemuria as well as Atlantis,
accompanied by much spiritualist lore.
William Walton Hoskins (1856-1919) admits to the readers of his
Atlantis and other poems (Cleveland OH, 1881), that he is only 24. Its
melodramatic plot concerns the poisoning of the descendent of god-born
kings. The usurping poisoner is poisoned in his turn, following which
the continent is swallowed in the waves. Asian gods people the
landscape of The Lost Island (Ottawa 1889) by Edward Taylor Fletcher
(1816–97). An angel foresees impending catastrophe and that the
people will be allowed to escape if their semi-divine rulers will
sacrifice themselves. A final example, Edward N. Beecher’s The
Atlantis or The Great Deluge of All (Cleveland OH, 1898) is just
a doggerel vehicle for its author’s opinions: that the continent was
the location of the Garden of Eden; that Darwin’s theory of
evolution is correct, as are Donnelly’s views.
Atlantis was to become a theme in Russia following the 1890s, taken up
in unfinished poems by
Valery Bryusov and Konstantin Balmont, as well
as in a drama by the schoolgirl Larisa Reisner. One other long
narrative poem was published in New York by George V. Golokhvastoff.
His 250-page The Fall of
Atlantis (1938) records how a high priest,
distressed by the prevailing degeneracy of the ruling classes, seeks
to create an androgynous being from royal twins as a means to overcome
this polarity. When he is unable to control the forces unleashed by
his occult ceremony, the continent is destroyed.
Leon Bakst’s vision of cosmic catastrophe
The Spanish composer
Manuel de Falla
Manuel de Falla worked on a dramatic cantata
based on Verdaguer’s L’Atlántida, during the last 20 years of his
life. The name has been affixed to symphonies by Janis Ivanovs
(1941), Richard Nanes, and Vaclav Buzek (2009). There
was also the symphonic celebration of Alan Hovhaness: "Fanfare for the
New Atlantis" (Op. 281, 1975).
The Bohemian-American composer and arranger Vincent Frank Safranek
Atlantis (The Lost Continent) Suite in Four Parts; I. Nocturne
and Morning Hymn of Praise, II. A Court Function, III. ″I Love
Thee″ (The Prince and Aana), IV. The Destruction of Atlantis, for
military (concert) band in 1913.
Painting and sculpture
Paintings of the submersion of
Atlantis are comparatively rare. In the
seventeenth century there was François de Nomé’s “The Fall of
Atlantis”, which shows a tidal wave surging toward a Baroque city
frontage. The style of architecture apart, it is not very
different from Nicholas Roerich’s “The Last of Atlantis” of
The most dramatic depiction of the catastrophe was Leon Bakst’s
“Ancient Terror” (Terror Antiquus, 1908), although it does not
Atlantis directly. It is a mountain-top view of a rocky bay
breached by the sea, which is washing inland about the tall structures
of an ancient city. A streak of lightning crosses the upper half of
the painting, while below it rises the impassive figure of an
enigmatic goddess who holds a blue dove between her breasts.
Vyacheslav Ivanov identified the subject as
Atlantis in a public
lecture on the painting given in 1909, the year it was first
exhibited, and he has been followed by other commentators in the years
Atlantis have often been stylized single
figures. One of the earliest was Einar Jónsson’s The King of
Atlantis (1919–1922), now in the garden of his museum in Reykjavik.
It represents a single figure, clad in a belted skirt and wearing a
large triangular helmet, who sits on an ornate throne supported
between two young bulls. The walking female entitled Atlantis
(1946) by Ivan Meštrović was from a series inspired by ancient
Greek figures  with the symbolical meaning of unjustified
In the case of the
Brussels fountain feature known as The Man of
Atlantis (2003) by the Belgian sculptor Luk van Soom (nl), the
4-metre tall figure wearing a diving suit steps from a plinth into the
spray. It looks light-hearted but the artist’s comment on it
makes a serious point: "Because habitable land will be scarce, it is
no longer improbable that we will return to the water in the long
term. As a result, a portion of the population will mutate into
fish-like creatures. Global warming and rising water levels are
practical problems for the world in general and here in the
Netherlands in particular".
Robert Smithson’s Hypothetical
Continent (Map of broken clear glass,
Atlantis) was first created as a photographical project on Loveladies
Island NJ in 1969, and then recreated as a gallery installation
of broken glass. On this he commented that he liked “landscapes
that suggest prehistory”, and this is borne out by the original
conceptual drawing of the work that includes an inset map of the
continent sited off the coast of
Africa and at the straits into the
Atlantis in popular culture
Brasil (mythical island)
Iram of the Pillars
Mu (lost continent)
Saint Brendan's Island
Sandy Island, New Caledonia
^ Plato's contemporaries pictured the world as consisting of only
Europe, Northern Africa, and Western
Asia (see the map of Hecataeus of
Miletus). Atlantis, according to Plato, had conquered all Western
parts of the known world, making it the literary counter-image of
Persia. See Welliver, Warman (1977). Character, Plot and Thought in
Plato's Timaeus-Critias. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 42.
^ Hackforth, R. (1944). "The Story of Atlantis: Its Purpose and Its
Moral". Classical Review. 58 (1): 7–9.
doi:10.1017/s0009840x00089356. JSTOR 701961.
^ David, Ephraim (1984). "The Problem of Representing Plato's Ideal
State in Action". Riv. Fil. 112: 33–53.
^ Mumford, Lewis (1965). "Utopia, the City and the Machine". Daedalus.
94 (2): 271–292. JSTOR 20026910. (Subscription required
^ Hartmann, Anna-Maria (2015). "The Strange Antiquity of Francis
Bacon's New Atlantis".
Renaissance Studies. 29 (3): 375–393.
^ The frame story in
Critias tells about an alleged visit of the
Solon (c. 638 BC – 558 BC) to Egypt, where he was
Atlantis story that supposedly occurred 9,000 years before
^ Feder, Kenneth (2011). "Lost: One
Continent - Reward". Frauds,
Myths, and Mysteries: Science and
Pseudoscience in Archaeology
(Seventh ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 141–164.
^ Clay, Diskin (2000). "The Invention of Atlantis: The Anatomy of a
Fiction". In Cleary, John J.; Gurtler, Gary M. Proceedings of the
Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy. 15. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
pp. 1–21. ISBN 90-04-11704-0.
^ "As Smith discusses in the opening article in this theme issue, the
lost island-continent was – in all likelihood – entirely Plato’s
invention for the purposes of illustrating arguments around Grecian
polity. Archaeologists broadly agree with the view that
quite simply 'utopia' (Doumas, 2007), a stance also taken by classical
philologists, who interpret
Atlantis as a metaphorical rather than an
actual place (Broadie, 2013; Gill, 1979; Nesselrath, 2002). One might
consider the question as being already reasonably solved but despite
the general expert consensus on the matter, countless attempts have
been made at finding Atlantis." (Dawson & Hayward, 2016)
^ Laird, A. (2001). "Ringing the Changes on Gyges: Philosophy and the
Fiction in Plato's Republic". Journal of Hellenic
Studies. 121: 12–29. JSTOR 631825.
^ a b c Luce, John V. (1978). "The Literary Perspective". In Ramage,
Edwin S. Atlantis, Fact or Fiction?. Indiana University Press.
p. 72. ISBN 0-253-10482-3.
^ Griffiths, J. Gwyn (1985). "
Atlantis and Egypt". Historia. 34 (1):
3–28. JSTOR 4435908.
^ Görgemanns, Herwig (2000). "Wahrheit und Fiktion in Platons
Atlantis-Erzählung". Hermes. 128 (4): 405–419.
^ Zangger, Eberhard (1993). "Plato's
Atlantis Account – A Distorted
Recollection of the Trojan War". Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 12
(1): 77–87. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0092.1993.tb00283.x.
^ Gill, Christopher (1979). "Plato's
Atlantis Story and the Birth of
Fiction". Philosophy and Literature. 3 (1): 64–78.
^ Naddaf, Gerard (1994). "The
Atlantis Myth: An Introduction to
Plato's Later Philosophy of History". Phoenix. 48 (3): 189–209.
^ a b Morgan, K. A. (1998). "Designer History: Plato's
and Fourth-Century Ideology". JHS. 118 (1): 101–118.
^ Plato's Timaeus is usually dated 360 BC; it was followed by his
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^ Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
^ "Atlantis—Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com.
^ Also it has been interpreted that
Plato or someone before him in the
chain of the oral or written tradition of the report, accidentally
changed the very similar Greek words for "bigger than" ("meson") and
"between" ("mezon") – Luce, J.V. (1969). The End of
Atlantis – New
Light on an Old Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 224.
^ The name is a back-formation from Gades, the Greek name for Cadiz.
Plato (360 BCE). "Timaeus". Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Retrieved
16 August 2016.
^ Castleden 2001, p. 164
^ Castleden 2001, pp. 156–158.
^ Rudberg, G. (1917/2012).
Atlantis och Syrakusai, 1917; English:
Atlantis and Syracuse, 2012. ISBN 978-3-8482-2822-5
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Sailors through the Deep-blue Mere no More: The Greeks and the Western
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^ Timaeus 24a: τὰ γράμματα λαβόντες.
^ Cameron 2002[full citation needed]
^ Castleden 2001, p,168
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Bibliotheca historica –
Diodorus Siculus 4.56.4: "And the
writers even offer proofs of these things, pointing out that the Celts
who dwell along the ocean venerate the
Dioscori above any of the gods,
since they have a tradition handed down from ancient times that these
gods appeared among them coming from the ocean. Moreover, the country
which skirts the ocean bears, they say, not a few names which are
derived from the
Argonauts and the Dioscori."
^ T. Franke,
Aristotle and Atlantis, 2012; pp. 131–133
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^ See Tillett, Gregory John
Charles Webster Leadbeater
Charles Webster Leadbeater (1854-1934), a
biographical study. PhD Thesis. University of Sydney, Department of
Religious Studies, Sydney, 1986 – p. 985.
^ Cayce, Edgar Evans (1968).
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^ Runnels, Curtis; Murray, Priscilla (2004). Greece Before History: An
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^ J. Annas, Plato: A Very Short Introduction (OUP 2003), p.42
(emphasis not in the original)
^ Timaeus 25e, Jowett translation.
^ Feder, KL. Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience
in Archaeology, Mountain View, Mayfield 1999, p. 164
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^ Valente Poddighe, Paolo. Atlantide Sardegna: Isola dei Faraoni
Atlantis Sardinia: Island of the Pharaohs). Stampacolor
^ Frau, Sergio. Le Colonne d'Ercole. Un'inchiesta. La prima geografia.
Tutt'altra storia. Nur Neon 2002
Sardinia home to the mythical civilisation of Atlantis? - The
^ Zangger, Eberhard, The Flood from Heaven: Deciphering the Atlantis
legend, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1993
^ James, Peter; Thorpe, Nick (1999). Ancient Mysteries. New York City,
New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 16–41.
Atlantis in South Morocco?". Asalas.org.
^ The wave that destroyed
Atlantis Harvey Lilley, BBC News Online, 20
April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
^ Bruins, Hendrik J.; et al. (2008). "Geoarchaeological tsunami
deposits at Palaikastro (Crete) and the Late Minoan IA eruption of
Santorini" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Science. 35 (1):
^ Afonso, Leoncio (1980). "El mito de la Atlántida". Geografía
física de Canarias: Geografía de Canarias (in Spanish). Editorial
Interinsular Canaria. p. 11. ISBN 978-84-85543-15-1.
^ Rodríguez Hernández, María Jesús (2011). Imágenes de Canarias
1764–1927. Historia y ciencia (in Spanish). Fundación Canaria
Orotava. p. 38. ISBN 978-84-614-5110-4.
^ a b Sweeney, Emmet (2010). Atlantis: The Evidence of Science. Algora
Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-87586-771-7.
^ a b Vidal-Naquet, Pierre (2005). L'Atlantide: Petite histoire d'un
mythe platonicien (in French). Belles Lettres. p. 92.
^ Menendez, I., P.G. Silva, M. Martín-Betancor, F.J. Perez-Torrado,
H. Guillou, and S. Scaillet, 2009, Fluvial dissection, isostatic
uplift, and geomorphological evolution of volcanic islands (Gran
Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain) Geomorphology. v. 102, no.1, pp.
^ Meco J., S. Scaillet, H. Guillou, A. Lomoschitz, J.C. Carracedo, J.
Ballester, J.-F. Betancort, and A. Cilleros, 2007, Evidence for
long-term uplift on the
Canary Islands from emergent Mio–Pliocene
littoral deposits. Global and Planetary Change. v. 57, no. 3-4, pp.
222 – 234.
^ Huang, T.C., N.D. Watkins, and L. Wilson, 1979, Deep-sea tephra from
Azores during the past 300,000 years: eruptive cloud height and
ash volume estimates. Geological Society of America Bulletin. vol. 90,
no. 2, pp. 131-133.
^ Dennielou, B. G.A. Auffret, A. Boelaert, T. Richter, T. Garlan, and
R. Kerbrat, 1999, Control of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Gulf
Stream over Quaternary sedimentation on the
Azores Plateau. Comptes
Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série II. Sciences de la Terre et
des Planètes. v. 328, no. 12, pp. 831-837.,
^ a b Kühne, Rainer W. (June 2004). "A location for Atlantis?".
Antiquity. Department of Archaeology, University of York. 78 (300).
ISSN 0003-598X. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
^ Lovgren, Stefan (19 August 2004). "
Atlantis "Evidence" Found in
Spain and Ireland". National Geographic.
^ "Finding Atlantis". National Geographic Channel. Archived from the
original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
^ Howard, Zach (12 March 2011). "Lost city of Atlantis, swamped by
tsunami, may be found". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15
March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
^ Ivar Lissner (1962). The Silent Past: Mysterious and forgotten
cultures of the world. Putnam. p. 156.
^ Zoe Fox (14 March 2011). "Science Lost No Longer? Researchers Claim
to Have Found 'Atlantis' in Spain". Time. Retrieved 14 March
^ Francisco Ruiz; Manuel Abad; et al. (2008). "The Geological Record
of the Oldest Historical Tsunamis in Southwestern Spain" (PDF).
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. Università degli
Studi di Milano. 114 (1): 145–154. ISSN 0035-6883. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-20.
^ Owen, Edward (14 March 2011). "Lost city of
Atlantis 'buried in
Spanish wetlands'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 18 March
^ Schulten, Adof (1927). "
Tartessos und Atlantis". Petermanns
Geographische Mitteilungen (in German). 73: 284–288.
Atlantis Blueprint: Unlocking the Ancient Mysteries of a
Long-Lost Civilization. Delta; Reprint edition. 28 May 2002.
^ Earth's shifting crust: A key to some basic problems of earth
science. Pantheon Books. 1958. ASIN B0006AVEEU.
^ Ballingrud, David (17 November 2002). "Underwater world: Man's doing
or nature's?". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
Atlantis – The Lost
Continent Finally Found Santos, Arysio;
Atlantis Publications, August 2005, ISBN 0-9769550-0-8.
^ Ramaswamy, Sumathi (2005). The lost land of Lemuria: fabulous
geographies, catastrophic histories. University of California Press.
ISBN 978-0-520-24440-5. Retrieved 28 September 2010
^ Smith, O. D. (2016). "The
Atlantis Story: An Authentic Oral
Tradition?". Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island
Cultures. 10(2): 10-17.
^ Mauro Tulli, “The
Atlantis poem in the Timaeus-Critias”, in The
Platonic Art of Philosophy, Cambridge University 2013, pp. 269–282
^ "The following papyrus, 1359, which Grenfell and Hunt identified as
also from the Catalogue, is regarded by C. Robert as part of a
separate epic, which he calls Atlantis." Bell, H. Idris,
Egypt A. Papyri (1915-1919)", The Journal
of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Apr., 1920), pp. 119-146.
^ P.Oxy. 1359. See Carl Robert (1917): Eine epische Atlantias, Hermes,
Vol. 52, No. 3 (Jul., 1917), pp. 477-79.
^ Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 7=35.
^ Nesselrath, HG (1998). 'Theopomps
Meropis und Platon: Nachahmung und
Parodie', Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 1,
^ University of Michigan
^ Archived online
^ Nováková, Soňa, pp.121-6 “Sex and Politics: Delarivier
Manley’s New Atalantis”
^ Online edition
^ Boris Thomson, Lot's Wife and the Venus of Milo: Conflicting
Attitudes to the
Cultural Heritage in Modern Russia, Cambridge
University 1978, pp.77–8
^ Archived online
^ Robert Hughes, Barcelona, London 1992, pp.341-3
^ Isidor Cònsul, “The translations of Verdaguer
^ Obras Poeticas, pp.151-166; there is a translation of canto 8 by
Elijah Clarence Hills
^ Latin American Anthology, p.1
^ Joensen, Leyvoy. “Atlantis, Bábylon, Tórshavn: The Djurhuus
Brothers and William Heinesen in Faroese Literary History”.
Scandinavian Studies 74.2 (2002), pp.192-4
^ Black Cat poems
^ Google Books p.11
^ Gary Catalano, Heaven of Rags, Sydney 1982, Australian Poetry
^ Poem Hunter
^ Bonnie Costello, “Setting out for Atlantis”, from Auden at Work,
Palgrave Macmillan 2015, pp. 133–53
^ In two parts at Black Cat Poems; part 1 and part 2
^ Google Books
^ Archived online, pp.7-127
^ Archived online
^ Hathi Trust
^ Madeleine Pichler,
Atlantis als Motiv in der russischen Literatur
des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vienna University 2013, pp.27-30
^ Madeleine Pichler, pp.37-40
^ There is a performance on You Tube
^ Symphony 4, of which there is a performance on You Tube
^ Symphony 1, “Atlantis, the sunken city", recorded by the London
Philharmonic Orchestra during the 1990s
^ A performance on You Tube
^ Presto Classical
^ The Heritage Encyclopedia of Band Music by William H. Rehrig, ed. by
Paul Bierley. Westerville OH: Integrity Press, 1991. vol. 2, pp.
^ Pamela Davidson, “
Cultural Memory and Survival”, London 2009,
Cultural Memory FINAL REVISED VERSION.pdf
^ View online
^ Meštrović, Matthew, “Meštrović's American Experience”,
Journal of Croatian Studies, XXIV, 1983
^ Meštrović Gallery
^ Kunstbus article quoting “Luk van Soom”
^ Artist’s site
^ Dia Beacon Gallery
^ Artist’s site
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Atlantis.
Look up atlantis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Plato, Timaeus, translated by
Benjamin Jowett at Project Gutenberg;
alternative version with commentary.
Plato, Critias, translated by
Benjamin Jowett at Project Gutenberg;
alternative version with commentary.
Calvo, T., ed. (1997). Interpreting the Timaeus-Critias, Proceedings
of the IV. Symposium Platonicum in Granada September 1995. Academia
St. Augustin. ISBN 3-89665-004-1.
Castleden, Rodney (2001).
Atlantis Destroyed. London: Routledge.
Forsyth, P. Y. (1980). Atlantis: The Making of Myth. Montreal:
McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-0355-2.
Gill, C. (1980). Plato, The
Atlantis Story: Timaeus 17-27 Critias.
Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 0-906515-59-9.
Jordan, P. (1994). The
Atlantis Syndrome. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.
Ramage, E. S., ed. (1978). Atlantis: Fact or Fiction?. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-10482-3.
Vidal-Naquet, Pierre (2007). The
Atlantis Story: A Short History of
Plato's Myth. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
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