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Part of a series on Nizari-Ismāʿīli Batiniyya, Hurufiyya, Kaysanites
Kaysanites
and Twelver
Twelver
Shī‘ism

Alevism

Beliefs

Allah Quran Haqq–Muhammad–Ali Prophet Muḥammad ibn `Abd Allāh Muhammad-Ali Islamic prophet Zahir Batin Buyruks Tariqat Haqiqa Marifat Wahdat al-wujud Wahdat al-mawjud Baqaa Fana Haal Ihsan Kashf Nafs Keramat Al-Insān al-Kāmil Lataif Four Doors Manzil Nûr Sulook Yaqeen Devriye Poetry Cosmology Philosophy Psychology

Practices

Zakat Zeyārat Taqiyya Ashura Hıdırellez Nowruz Saya Mawlid Music Düşkünlük Meydanı Fasting Müsahiplik

The Twelve Imams

Ali Hasan Husayn al-Abidin al-Baqir al-Sadiq al-Kadhim ar-Rida al-Taqi al-Naqi al-Askari al-Mahdi

Leadership

Dede Murshid Pir Rehber Babas Dergah Jem Cemevi

Crucial figures and influences

Khadija bint Khuwaylid Fatimah Khidr Salman the Persian Uwais al-Qarani Jābir ibn Hayyān Dhul-Nun al-Misri Bayazid Bastami Ibn al-Rawandi Mansur Al-Hallaj Nasir Khusraw Abu al-Hassan al-Kharaqani Yusuf
Yusuf
Hamdani Khoja Akhmet Yassawi Abdul-Qadir Gilani Ahmed ar-Rifa'i Ibn Arabi Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar Ahi Evren Haji Bektash Veli Rumi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Zahed Gilani Sari Saltik Yunus Emre Safi-ad-din Ardabili Nāimī Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā Imadaddin Nasimi Shah Nimatullah Wali Shaykh
Shaykh
Junayd Shaykh
Shaykh
Haydar Ali
Ali
Mirza Safavi Ismail I Nur- Ali
Ali
Khalifa Kaygusuz Abdal Otman Baba Balım Sultan Gül Baba Fuzûlî Alians Demir Baba Teke Arabati Baba Teḱe Pir Sultan
Pir Sultan
Abdal Kul Nesîmî Sheikh
Sheikh
Bedreddin Börklüce Mustafa Torlak Kemal

Alevi
Alevi
history

Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia Islam Shia in Persia
Persia
before Safavids Shiism in Persia
Persia
after Safavids Umayyad Caliphate Abu Muslim Sunpadh Al-Muqanna Ishaq al-Turk Abbasid Caliphate Babak Khorramdin Maziar Kaykhusraw II Babai revolt Baba Ishak Celali rebellions Bayezid II Persecution of Alevis Nur Ali
Ali
Halife rebellion Şahkulu
Şahkulu
Rebellion Şahkulu Battle of Chaldiran Selim I Abaza rebellion Kuyucu Murad Pasha Auspicious Incident Mahmud II Koçgiri Rebellion Dersim Rebellion Seyid Riza Maraş Massacre Çorum
Çorum
Massacre Sivas
Sivas
Massacre Gazi Quarter riots

Related Muslim
Muslim
tariqah

Malamatiyya Qalandariyya Qadiriyya Akbari Sufis Rifa'i Uwaisi Naqshbandi Mevlevi Order Zahediyeh Safaviyya Khalwati order Bayramiye Jelveti Babai Revolt Hurufism Nuqtavi Chepni
Chepni
people Bektashi
Bektashi
Order Bektashism
Bektashism
and folk religion Jelali revolts Ni'matullāhī Arabati Baba Teḱe Javad Nurbakhsh Galibi Order

Other influential groups

Isma'ilism Nizari Alawites Druze Khurramites Qizilbash Bábism Bahá'í Faith Yazdanī Yarsanism Yazidi Yazidis in Armenia Sabians Ishikism Gnosticism Nabataeans Zoroaster Zoroastrianism Mazdak Zurvanism Mandaeism Manichaeism Shamanism Tengrism Panentheism

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Alevism
Alevism
(/æˈlɛvɪzəm/; Turkish: Alevîlik or Turkish: Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash,[1] or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah)[2] is a syncretic,[3] heterodox,[4] and local traditions,[5] whose adherents follow the mystical (bāṭenī)[2] teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi
Alevi
saint Haji Bektash Veli. Alevis
Alevis
are found primarily in Turkey
Turkey
among ethnic Turks and Kurds,[6] and make up between 10-25% of Turkey's population, the largest belief after Sunni
Sunni
Islam.[5][7] Some of the differences that mark Alevis
Alevis
from mainstream Muslims
Muslims
are the use of cemevi halls rather than mosques; worship ceremonies that feature music and dancing, and where both women and men participate;[8] non-observance of the five daily salat prayers and prostrations (they only bow twice in the presence of their spiritual leader), Ramadan, and the Hajj
Hajj
(considering true pilgrimage to be internal one).[5] Alevis
Alevis
have some links with Twelver
Twelver
Shia Islam
Shia Islam
(such as importance of the Ahl al-Bayt, the day of Ashura, the Mourning of Muharram, commemorating Karbala), but do not follow taqlid towards a Marja'
Marja'
"source of emulation". Some practices of the Alevis
Alevis
are based on Sufi
Sufi
elements of the Bektashi[4] tariqa.[9][10] Some Alevis
Alevis
are also of the view that Alevi
Alevi
belief existed prior mainstream religions. Even though Ja'faris, Nosairis, Yarsanis and Ishik Alevis
Alevis
uses the term "Alevi" (or Alawi
Alawi
term in Arabic) to describe their own faith, they don't share "The Kızılbaş
Kızılbaş
faith" described in this article.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Beliefs

2.1 Allah, Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali 2.2 The Twelve Imams 2.3 Plurality 2.4 The perfect human being 2.5 Interpretation of tafsir 2.6 Creed and jurisprudence

3 Differences with other Muslim
Muslim
sects

3.1 Alawites

4 Practices

4.1 Cem and Cemevi 4.2 Twelve services 4.3 Festivals

4.3.1 Mourning of Muharram 4.3.2 Hıdırellez 4.3.3 Müsahiplik 4.3.4 Folk practices

4.3.4.1 Ziyarat
Ziyarat
to sacred places 4.3.4.2 Almsgiving

5 Society

5.1 Leadership structure 5.2 Position of women 5.3 Relations with other Muslim
Muslim
groups

5.3.1 Sufi
Sufi
elements in Alevism 5.3.2 Relations with majority Sunnis

6 History

6.1 Seljuk period 6.2 Ottoman period 6.3 Republic

7 Demographics

7.1 Population estimates 7.2 Social groups

7.2.1 Bektashi

7.2.1.1 Bektashiyyah
Bektashiyyah
doctrine: Bektashism
Bektashism
and Hurufism

7.2.1.1.1 Wahdat al-Mawjud 7.2.1.1.2 Batiniyya and Ismailism

7.2.2 Qizilbash

7.2.2.1 Qizilbash
Qizilbash
doctrine: Kızılbaşlık

8 Alevi
Alevi
music 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] "Alevi" (/æˈlɛvi/) is generally explained as referring to Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. The name represents a Turkish form of the word ‘ Alawi
Alawi
(Arabic: علوي‎) "of or pertaining to Ali", just as the word Musevi is linked to Musa (Moses), Isevi is linked to Isa (Jesus) and Mevlevi is linked to Mevlana (Rumi). (A minority viewpoint is that of the Ishikists, who assert, "Alevi" was derived from "Alev" ("flame" in Turkish) in reference to fire which is extensively used in Alevi
Alevi
rituals. According to them the use of candles is based on Quran
Quran
chapter 24, verses 35 and 36:

" God
God
is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which there is a lamp, the lamp is encased in a glass, the glass is like a radiant planet, which is lit from a blessed olive tree that is neither of the east nor of the west, its oil nearly gives off light even if not touched by fire. Light upon light, God
God
guides to His light whom He pleases. And God
God
sets forth examples for the people, and God
God
is aware of all things. (Lit is such a Light) in houses, which God
God
has permitted to be raised to honor; for the celebration, in them, of His name: In them is He glorified in the mornings and in the evenings, (again and again).")

Beliefs[edit] Main articles: Faith
Faith
and Iman (concept) According to scholar Soner Cagaptay, Alevism
Alevism
is a "relatively unstructured interpretation of Islam".[11] Journalist Patrick Kingsley states that for some self-described Alevi, their religion is "simply a cultural identity, rather than a form of worship".[5] Some sources (Martin van Bruinessen and Jamal Shah) call Alevi
Alevi
"a blanket term for a large number of different heterodox communities", and includes Arabic speaking Alawites
Alawites
in southern Turkey, and Azarbayjani speaking Turkish in the eastern province of Kars "whose Alevism
Alevism
differs little from the 'orthodox' Twelver
Twelver
Shi`ism of modern Iran".[12] Many groups call themselves as Alevi
Alevi
but they don't share Muslim
Muslim
Alevi
Alevi
faith described in this article. All these people are called Aleviler
Aleviler
in Turkish: Qizilbashes (also known as Turk Alevileri) and Nosairis
Nosairis
(also known as Arab
Arab
Alevileri) are two distinct Muslim sects; Ahl-E Haqq
Ahl-E Haqq
(also known as Kurd
Kurd
Alevileri) and Chinarism (also known as Işık Alevileri) are two distinct Non- Muslim
Muslim
sects. All these groups uses the term Alevi
Alevi
to define their own faith. Nusayris uses the term Alawi
Alawi
(also known as Arab
Arab
Alevileri) instead of Alevi which is a Turkish term. Furthermore, all the Shi'ites
Shi'ites
including Ja'faris, Alavids, Kaysanites, Qarmatians, Fatimid
Fatimid
Ismailis, Nizaris and Pamiris
Pamiris
are called as Aleviler
Aleviler
in Turkish as well. The topic Alevi investigated in this article refers to " Kızılbaş
Kızılbaş
faith". Many teachings are based on an orally transmitted tradition, traditionally kept secret from outsiders (but now widely accessible). The basis for Alevis' most distinctive beliefs is found in the Buyruks (compiled writings and dialogues of Sheikh
Sheikh
Safi-ad-din Ardabili (eponym of the Safavi order), Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
(the Sixth Imam), and other worthies). Also included are hymns (nefes) by figures such as Shah Ismail
Shah Ismail
or Pir Sultan
Pir Sultan
Abdal, stories of Hajji Bektash
Hajji Bektash
and other lore.

"Alevi-Bektashis acknowledge they are from Ahl al Kitab" by stating that the last four holy books (Quran, Gospel, Torah
Torah
and Psalms) has the same degree of importance in guiding people to the Divine
Divine
Truth. This confession is pronounced in Turkish: "Dört kitab'ın Dördü de Hâkk". Four valid books in Islam, namely Psalms, Torah, Gospel, and Qur'an are all the "Righteous"

Quran Gospel Torah Psalms

Quran
Quran
Surah 2 verse 136 says: "We believe in Allah, and in that which has been sent down on us and sent down on Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob, and the Tribes, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus and the Prophets, of their Lord; we make no division between any of them, and to Him we surrender".

Allah, Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali[edit] Main articles: Allah, Muhammad-Ali, and Haqq-Muhammad-Ali Alevis
Alevis
believe in the unity of Allah, Muhammad, and Ali, but this is not a trinity composed of God
God
and the historical figures of Muhammad and Ali. Rather, Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali
Ali
are representations of Allah's light (and not of Allah
Allah
himself), being neither independent from God, nor separate characteristics of Him.

Haqq-Muhammad-Ali

Muhammad-Ali ALLAH

ALI MUHAMMAD

Left side: Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, Center: Muhammad, Right side: Allah. (Reflections of the Qizilbash- Bektashi
Bektashi
belief)

In Alevi
Alevi
writings are many references to the unity of Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali, such as:

A representation of the sword of Ali, the Zulfiqar
Zulfiqar
in an Ottoman emblem.

Ali
Ali
Muhammed'dir uh dur fah'ad, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali, ( Ali
Ali
is Muhammad, Muhammad
Muhammad
is Ali) Gördüm bir elmadır, el-Hamdû'liLlâh. (I've seen an apple, all praise is for God)[13]

The phrase "For the love of God-Muhammad-Ali" (Hakk-Muhammed-Ali aşkına) is common to several Alevi
Alevi
prayers. For some, the linking of the three seems polytheistic and not in line with monotheistic Islamic teachings, but Alevis
Alevis
counter that such people do not understand the bāṭenī[2] (mystical) meaning of the Alevi
Alevi
equation of Allah-Muhammed-Ali.[citation needed] The Twelve Imams[edit] Main article: The Twelve Imams The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams
are part of another common Alevi
Alevi
belief. Each Imam represents a different aspect of the Universe. They are realised as twelve services or On İki Hizmet which are performed by members of the Alevi
Alevi
community. Each Imam is believed to be a reflection of Ali ibn Abu Talib, the first Imam of the Shi'ites, and there are references to the "First Ali" (Birinci Ali), Imam Hasan the "Second 'Ali" (İkinci Ali), and so on up to the "Twelfth 'Ali" (Onikinci Ali), Imam Mehdi. The Twelfth Imam is hidden and represents the Messianic Age.[citation needed] Plurality[edit] There are two sides to creation, one from a spiritual centre to plurality, another from plurality to the spiritual centre. Plurality is the separation of pure consciousness from the divine source. It is seen as a curtain alienating creation from the divine source and an illusion which called the Zāherī or the Exoteric side to reality. The hidden or true nature of creation is called the bāṭenī[2] or the esoteric. The fact of plurality in nature is attributed to the infinite potential energy of Kull-i Nafs
Nafs
when it takes corporeal form as it descends into being from Allah. During the Cem ceremony, the cantor or aşık sings:

"All of us alive or lifeless are from one, this is ineffable, Sultan. For to love and to fall in love has been my fate from time immemorial."

This is sung as a reminder that the reason for creation is love, so that the followers may know themselves and each other and that they may love that which they know.[citation needed]

The Ja'far al-Sadiq's historical tomb of Al-Baqi'
Al-Baqi'
before being destroyed in 1926.

The perfect human being[edit] Main article: Al-Insān al-Kāmil Linked to the concept of the Prototypal Human is that of the "Perfect Human Being" (Insan-i Kamil). Although it is common to refer to Ali and Haji Bektash Veli
Haji Bektash Veli
or the other Alevi
Alevi
saints as manifestations of the perfect human being, the Perfect Human Being is also identified with our true identity as pure consciousness, hence the Qur'anic concept of human beings not having original sin, consciousness being pure and perfect.[citation needed] The human task is to fully realise this state while still in material human form. The perfect human being is also defined in practical terms, as one who is in full moral control of his or her hands, tongue and loins (eline diline beline sahip); treats all kinds of people equally (yetmiş iki millete aynı gözle bakar); and serves the interests of others. One who has achieved this kind of enlightenment is also called "eren" or "münevver" (mūnavvar).[citation needed]

Sheikh
Sheikh
Safi-ad-din Ardabili
Safi-ad-din Ardabili
Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble.

Interpretation of tafsir[edit] According to The President of the Islamic- Alevi
Alevi
Religious Services Dede İzzettin Doğan, "Alevism" is simply a tasawwufī-bāṭenī[2] interpretation (tafsir) of Islam.[14]

“ What's Alevism, what's the understanding of Islam
Islam
in Alevism? The answers to these questions, instead of the opposite of what's known by many people is that the birthplace of Alevism
Alevism
was never in Anatolia. This is an example of great ignorance, that is, to tell that the Alevism
Alevism
was emerged in Anatolia. Searching the source of Alevism
Alevism
in Anatolia
Anatolia
arises from unawareness. Because there was not even one single Muslim
Muslim
or Turk in Anatolia
Anatolia
before a specific date. The roots of Alevism
Alevism
stem from Turkestan
Turkestan
– Central Asia. Islam
Islam
was brought to Anatolia
Anatolia
by Turks in 10th and 11th centuries by a result of migration for a period of 100–150 years. Before this event took place, there were no Muslim
Muslim
and Turks in Anatolia. Anatolia
Anatolia
was then entirely Christian.[15] We Turks brought Islam
Islam
to Anatolia
Anatolia
from Turkestan. —Professor İzzettin Doğan, The President of Alevi- Islam
Islam
Religion Services ”

Asādʿullāh: Nickname given by Muhammad
Muhammad
to describe his kinsman Ali. Asadullah means " Lion
Lion
of Allah", which is also well known as " Ismāʿīlī
Ismāʿīlī
Lion". Alevism, Bektashism
Bektashism
and Sufism
Sufism
consider Ali
Ali
as the holder of the divine secrets and esoteric meaning of Islam, transmitted to him by Muhammad. "I am the city of knowledge, Ali
Ali
is its gate." —Muhammad.

Alevi
Alevi
used to be grouped as Kızılbaş
Kızılbaş
("redheads"), a generic term used by Sunni
Sunni
Muslims
Muslims
in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for the various Shia sects from the 15th century. Many other names exist (often for subgroupings), among them Tahtacı "Woodcutters", Abdal
Abdal
"Bards" and Çepni.[citation needed] Creed and jurisprudence[edit] See also: Kaysanites
Kaysanites
Shia, Muhammerah, Khurramites, Qarmatians, Batiniyya, and Hurufism Sources differ on how important formal doctrine is among contemporary Alevi. According to scholar Russell Powell there is a tradition of informal "Dede" courts within the Alevi
Alevi
society, but regarding Islamic jurisprudence or fiqh there has been "little scholarship on Alevi influences" in it.[16] Other sources put more emphasis on creed and doctrine. Alevīs follow Tasawwufī- Batiniyya aqidah (creed) of Maymūn’al-Qāddāhī according to one source ( Dede İzzettin Doğan).[17][18] In contrast the Sunni
Sunni
majority of Turkey's population follows Maturidi
Maturidi
aqidah of the Hanafi
Hanafi
fiqh and Ash'ari
Ash'ari
aqidah of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
fiqh.According to another source, Alevi
Alevi
aqidah (creed or theological convictions) is based upon a syncretic fiqh system called as Batiniyya-Sufism/Ismailism[19] which incorporates some sentiments of Sevener-Qarmatians, originally introduced by Abu’l-Khāttāb Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Zaynab al-Asadī,[20][21] and later developed by "Maymun al-Qāddāh" and his son "ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maymun",[22] and Mu'tazila
Mu'tazila
with a strong belief in the Twelve Imams.

"The Alevi-Turks" has a unique belief system tracing back to Kaysanites
Kaysanites
and Khurramites
Khurramites
which are considered Ghulat
Ghulat
Shia Islam
Shia Islam
by some. According to Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli, the Qizilbash
Qizilbash
(Red-Heads) of the 16th century – a religious and political movement in Azerbaijan that helped to establish the Safavid dynasty – were spiritual descendants of the Khurramites.[23] Among the members of the "Qizilbash-Tariqa" who are considered as a sub-sect of the Alevis, two figures firstly Abu Muslim Khorasani, who assisted Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
to beat the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
but later eliminated and murdered by Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
and secondly Babak Khorramdin who incited a rebellion against Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and consequently was killed by Caliph
Caliph
al-Mu'tasim, are highly respected. This belief provides strong clues about their Kaysanites Shia
Kaysanites Shia
and Khurramites
Khurramites
origins. In addition, Safaviyya
Safaviyya
Tariqa
Tariqa
leader Shāh Ismāʿīl is a highly regarded individual in the belief of Alevi-Qizilbash- Tariqa
Tariqa
associating them with the Imamah (Shia Twelver doctrine) conviction of Twelver
Twelver
Shia Islam. On the other hand, Bektashis has a conviction of Batiniyya Ismailism[19] and Hurufism
Hurufism
with a strong belief in the Twelve Imams. Qizilbash-Alevi-Bektashis differ from followers of Ja'fari jurisprudence, in their Batiniyya- Hurufism
Hurufism
and Qarmatian-Isma'ilism sentiments.[24]

Differences with other Muslim
Muslim
sects[edit] Qizilbash
Qizilbash
and the Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
shared common religious beliefs and practices becoming intermingled as Alevis
Alevis
in spite of many local variations. Isolated from both the Sunni
Sunni
Ottomans and the Twelver Shi`a Safavids, Alevis
Alevis
developed traditions, practices, and doctrines by the early 17th century which marked them as a closed autonomous religious community. As a result of the immense pressures to conform to Sunni
Sunni
Islam, Alevis
Alevis
developed a tradition of opposition to all forms of external religion.[25] Some of the differences that mark Alevis
Alevis
from mainstream Twelver
Twelver
Shias and Sunnis are the use of wine for religious ceremonial functions; non-observance of the five daily Salat prayers and prostrations (they only bow twice in the presence of their spiritual leader), fixed ritual donation for Zakat, Ramadan, and the Hajj
Hajj
(they consider the pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
an external pretense, the real pilgrimage being internal in one's heart); and non-attendance of mosques.[25] Some beliefs of Shamanism
Shamanism
still are common amongst the Qizilbash-Alevi-Turks in villages. Alevis
Alevis
accept Twelver
Twelver
Shi‘a beliefs about Ali
Ali
and the Twelve Imams. Moreover, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
decreed Alevis
Alevis
to be part of the Shia fold in the 1970s.[26] There are, however, Alevi
Alevi
philosophies, customs, and rituals that are appreciably different than those of Twelver
Twelver
Shias in Iraq, Iran, Lebanon. In particular, much of mystical language in the Alevi
Alevi
tradition is inspired by Sufi
Sufi
traditions. Some sources link Alevism
Alevism
in particular to the heterodox syncretic[4] Sufi group known as the Bektashi
Bektashi
Order, which was Sunni. Furthermore, during the period of Ottoman Empire, Alevis
Alevis
were forbidden to proselytise, and Alevism
Alevism
regenerated itself internally by paternal descent. To prevent penetration by hostile outsiders, the Alevis
Alevis
insisted on strict endogamy which eventually made them into a quasi-ethnic group.[27] Alevi
Alevi
taboos limited interaction with the dominant Sunni
Sunni
political-religious centre. Excommunication was the ultimate punishment threatening those who married outsiders, cooperated with outsiders economically, or ate with outsiders. It was also forbidden to use the state (Sunni) courts.[25] Further information: Antinomianism Alawites[edit] Similarities with the Alawite
Alawite
sect adjacent to Turkey
Turkey
in Syria has been noted. Both are heterodox, syncretic Islamic minorities, whose names both mean "devoted to Ali," (the son-in-law and cousin of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and fourth caliph following Muhammad
Muhammad
as leader of the Muslims), and are located primarily in the Eastern Mediterranean, Neither pray in mosques or support clerics, and both have a loathing of Sunni
Sunni
Islamist extremism. Like mainstream Shia they are known as "Twelvers" as they both recognizes the Twelve Imams or religious guides, beginning with "Imam Ali".[7] Unlike mainstream Shia both they consider Imam Ali
Ali
"as embodying the divine", not just a noble human being.[7] How the two minorities relate is disputed. According to scholar Marianne Aringberg-Laanatza, "the Turkish Alevis... do not relate themselves in any way to the Alawites
Alawites
in Syria."[7] However journalist Jeffrey Gettlemand claims that both Alevi
Alevi
and the less than one million Alawite
Alawite
minority in Turkey
Turkey
"seem to be solidly behind Syria’s embattled strongman, Bashar al-Assad" and leary of Syrian Sunni
Sunni
rebels.[28] DW journalist Dorian Jones states that "many" Turkish Alevis
Alevis
are suspicious of the anti-Al-Assad uprising in Syria. "They are worried of the repercussions for Alawites
Alawites
there, as well as for themselves."[29] Some sources (Martin van Bruinessen and Jamal Shah) consider Alawites living in Turkey
Turkey
to be Alevis
Alevis
(calling Alevis
Alevis
"a blanket term for a large number of different heterodox communities"),[12] but others do not, giving a list of the differences between the two groups. These include their liturgical languages (Turkish or Kurdish for Alevi, Arabic for Alawites). Opposing political nationalisms, with Alawites supporting their ruling dictatorship and considering Turks (including Alevis) an "opponent" of its Arab
Arab
"historic interests".[7] (Even Kurdish and Balkan Alevi
Alevi
populations pray in Turkish.)[11] Unlike Alevis, Alawites
Alawites
not only traditionally do not have mosques but do not maintain their own places for worship, except for shrines to their leaders.[7] They consider women inferior and exclude them from sacred observances, while Alevi
Alevi
pride themselves in their gender equality. Alawite
Alawite
religious literature is believed to be limited to the Koran and the collected sermons of Imam Ali
Ali
with some teachings passed on to selected disciples and kept secret even from other Alawites.[7] Alevi "possess an extensive and widely-read religious literature, mainly composed of spiritual songs, poems, and epic verse." Their origins are also different: The Alawite
Alawite
faith was founded in the ninth century by Abu Shuayb Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Nusayr. Alevis
Alevis
began among 14th century mystical Islamic dissenters in Central Asia, and is "more a movement than a sect".[7] Practices[edit] Main article: Four Doors The Alevi
Alevi
spiritual path (yol) is commonly understood to take place through four major life-stages, or "gates". These may be further subdivided into "four gates, forty levels" (Dört Kapı Kırk Makam). The first gate (religious law) is considered elementary (and this may be perceived as subtle criticism of other Muslim
Muslim
traditions). The following are major crimes that cause an Alevi
Alevi
to be declared düşkün (shunned):[30]

killing a person committing adultery divorcing one’s wife stealing backbiting/gossiping

Most Alevi
Alevi
activity takes place in the context of the second gate (spiritual brotherhood), during which one submits to a living spiritual guide (dede, pir, mürşid). The existence of the third and fourth gates is mostly theoretical, though some older Alevis
Alevis
have apparently received initiation into the third.[31] Further information: Pir (Sufism), Dedes, and Murshid Cem and Cemevi[edit] Main articles: Jem (Alevism)
Jem (Alevism)
and Cemevi

Bağlama.

The central Alevi
Alevi
corporate worship service is the Cem ceremony. Alevi worship and other social activities take place in assembly houses (Cemevi). The ceremony's prototype is the Muhammad's nocturnal ascent into heaven, where he beheld a gathering of forty saints (Kırklar Meclisi), and the Divine
Divine
Reality
Reality
made manifest in their leader, Ali. The Cem ceremony features music, singing, and dancing (Samāh) in which both women and men participate. Rituals are performed in Turkish, Zazaki, Kurmanji
Kurmanji
and other local languages.

Bağlama

Main article: Bağlama During the Cem ceremony the ashik plays the Bağlama
Bağlama
whilst singing spiritual songs, some of which are centuries old and well known amongst Alevis. Every song, called a Nefes, has spiritual meaning and aims to teach the participants important lessons. One such song goes thus:

"Learn from your mistakes and be knowlegable, Don't look for faults in others, Look at 73 different people in the same way, God
God
loves and created them all, so don't say anything against them."

Samāh

A family of ritual dances characterized by turning and swirling, is an inseparable part of any cem. Samāh is performed by men and women together, to the accompaniment of the Bağlama. The dances symbolize (for example) the revolution of the planets around the Sun
Sun
(by man and woman turning in circles), and the putting off of one’s self and uniting with God.

Görgü Cemi

The Rite of Integration (görgü cemi) is a complex ritual occasion in which a variety of tasks are allotted to incumbents bound together by extrafamilial brotherhood (müsahiplik), who undertake a dramatization of unity and integration under the direction of the spiritual leader (dede).

Dem

The love of the creator for the created and vice versa is symbolised in the Cem ceremony by the use of fruit juice and/or red wine [Dem] which represents the intoxication of the lover in the beloved. During the ceremony Dem is one of the twelve duties of the participants. (see above)

Sohbet

At the closing of the cem ceremony the Dede who leads the ceremony engages the participants in a discussion (chat), this discussion is called a sohbet. Twelve services[edit] There are twelve services (Turkish: On İki hizmet) performed by the twelve ministers of the cem.

Dede: This is the leader of the Cem who represents Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali. The Dede receives confession from the attendees at the beginning of the ceremony. He also leads funerals, Müsahiplik, marriage ceremonies and circumcisions. The status of Dede is hereditary and he must be a descendant of Ali
Ali
and Fatima. Rehber: This position represents Husayn. The Rehber is a guide to the faithful and works closely with the Dede in the community. Gözcü: This position represents Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. S/he is the assistant to the Rehber. S/he is the Cem keeper responsible for keeping the faithful calm. Çerağcı: This position represents Jabir ibn Abd- Allah
Allah
and s/he is the light-keeper responsible for maintaining the light traditionally given by a lamp or candles. Zakir: This position represents Bilal ibn al-Harith. S/he plays the bağlama and recites songs and prayers. Süpürgeci: This position represents Salman the Persian. S/he is responsible for cleaning the Cemevi
Cemevi
hall and symbolically sweeping the carpets during the Cem. Meydancı: This position represents Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman. Niyazcı: this position represents Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Maslamah. S/he is responsible for distributing the sacred meal. İbrikçi: this position represents Kamber. S/he is responsible for washing the hands of the attendees. Kapıcı: this position represents Ghulam Kaysan. S/he is responsible for calling the faithful to the Cem. Peyikçi: this position represents Amri Ayyari. Sakacı: represents Ammar ibn Yasir. Responsible for the distribution of water, sherbet (sharbat), milk etc..

Festivals[edit]

10th of Muharrem
Muharrem
- The Day
Day
of Ashura: Huseyn bin Ali
Ali
was murdered at Kerbela. Mourning of Muharram
Mourning of Muharram
and the remembrance of this event by Jafaris, Alevis
Alevis
and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire. Painted by Fausto Zonaro.

Main articles: Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
and Nowruz Newruz "New Day" is the Persian New Year observed on 21 March (the Spring equinox) as a celebration of newness and reconciliation. It is celebrated by many modern Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
as well. Apart from the original beliefs of the Zoroastrians regarding the New Year, Alevis also celebrate and commemorate the birth of Ali, his wedding with Fatima, the rescue of Yusuf
Yusuf
from the well, and the creation of the world on this day. Various cem ceremonies and special programs are held. Mourning of Muharram[edit]

The grave of Husayn at Karbala.

Main article: Mourning of Muharram The Muslim
Muslim
month of Muharram
Muharram
begins 20 days after Eid ul-Adha
Eid ul-Adha
(Kurban Bayramı). Alevis
Alevis
observe a fast for the first twelve days. This is called "Turkish: Muharrem
Muharrem
Mâtemi", "Turkish: Yâs-ı Muharrem" or "Turkish: Mâtem Orucu" (Mourning of Muharram). This culminates in the festival of Ashura (Aşure), which commemorates the martyrdom of Husayn at Karbala. The fast is broken with a special dish (also called aşure) prepared from a variety (often twelve) of fruits, nuts, and grains. Many events are associated with this celebration, including the salvation of Husayn's son Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn from the massacre at Karbala, thus allowing the bloodline of the family of Muhammad
Muhammad
to continue. The solstice and equinox celebrations and their confusion with historical and human incarnations are very well mirrored in Christian religious, and even political, celebrations, e.g. May Day
Day
and Christmas, and more closely still with Celtic traditions. Hıdırellez[edit]

A Persian miniature
Persian miniature
depicting Elijah
Elijah
and al-Khiḍr (A miniature version of Stories of the Prophets).

Main articles: Hıdırellez and Khidr Hıdırellez honors the mysterious figure Khidr
Khidr
(Turkish: Hızır) who is sometimes identified with Elijah
Elijah
(Ilyas), and is said to have drunk of the water of life. Some hold that Khidr
Khidr
comes to the rescue of those in distress on land, while Elijah
Elijah
helps those at sea; and that they meet at a rose tree in the evening of every 6 May. The festival is also celebrated in parts of the Balkans by the name of "Erdelez," where it falls on the same day as Đurđevdan
Đurđevdan
or St. George's Day. Khidr
Khidr
is also honored with a three-day fast in mid-February called Hızır Orucu. In addition to avoiding any sort of comfort or enjoyment, Alevis
Alevis
also abstain from food and water for the entire day, though they do drink liquids other than water during the evening. Note that the dates of the Khidr
Khidr
holidays can differ among Alevis, most of whom use a lunar calendar, but some a solar calendar. Müsahiplik[edit] Main article: Müsahiplik Müsahiplik
Müsahiplik
(roughly, "Companionship") is a covenant relationship between two men of the same age, preferably along with their wives. In a ceremony in the presence of a dede the partners make a lifelong commitment to care for the spiritual, emotional, and physical needs of each other and their children. The ties between couples who have made this commitment is at least as strong as it is for blood relatives, so much so that müsahiplik is often called spiritual brotherhood (manevi kardeşlik). The children of covenanted couples may not marry.[32] Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi reports that the Tahtacı identify müsahiplik with the first gate (şeriat), since they regard it as a precondition for the second (tarikat). Those who attain to the third gate (marifat, "gnosis") must have been in a müsahiplik relationship for at least twelve years. Entry into the third gate dissolves the müsahiplik relationship (which otherwise persists unto death), in a ceremony called Öz Verme Âyini ("ceremony of giving up the self"). The value corresponding to the second gate (and necessary to enter the third) is âşinalık ("intimacy," perhaps with God). Its counterpart for the third gate is called peşinelik; for the fourth gate (hâkikat, Ultimate Truth), cıngıldaşlık or cengildeşlik (translations uncertain).[33] Folk practices[edit] Main articles: Eyüp
Eyüp
Sultan Mosque, Ziyarat, Dua, and Lokma

It's a common Alevi- Sunni
Sunni
tradition to distribute lokma publicly in Turkey.

Many folk practices may be identified, though few of them are specific to the Alevis. In this connection, scholar Martin van Bruinessen notes a sign from Turkey's Ministry of Religion, attached to Istanbul's shrine of Eyüp
Eyüp
Sultan, which presents

...a long list of ‘superstitious’ practices that are emphatically declared to be non-Islamic and objectionable, such as lighting candles or placing ‘wishing stones’ on the tomb, tying pieces of cloth to the shrine or to the trees in front of it, throwing money on the tomb, asking the dead directly for help, circling seven times around the trees in the courtyard or pressing one’s face against the walls of the türbe in the hope of a supernatural cure, tying beads to the shrine and expecting supernatural support from them, sacrificing roosters or turkeys as a vow to the shrine. The list is probably an inventory of common local practices the authorities wish to prevent from re-emerging.[34]

Other, similar practices include kissing door frames of holy rooms; not stepping on the threshold of holy buildings; seeking prayers from reputed healers; and making lokma and sharing it with others. Ziyarat
Ziyarat
to sacred places[edit]

Holy ziyarat places

The tomb of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
is a place of ziyarat at the Eyüp Sultan Mosque
Mosque
in Eyüp, Istanbul.

Karacaahmet Cemetery
Karacaahmet Cemetery
in Istanbul, Turkey.

Main articles: Hacıbektaş, Battal Gazi, Karacaahmet Cemetery, and Şahkulu While some Alevis
Alevis
do not recognize an obligation to go on pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
(and some do, but not according to Sunni
Sunni
orthodox rituals), performing ziyarat and du'a at the tombs of Alevi- Bektashi
Bektashi
saints or pirs is quite common. Some of the most frequently visited sites are the shrines of Şahkulu
Şahkulu
and Karacaahmet (both in Istanbul), Abdal
Abdal
Musa (Antalya), Battal Gazi (Eskişehir), the annual celebrations held at Hacıbektaş
Hacıbektaş
(16 August) and Sivas
Sivas
(the Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
Kültür Etkinlikleri, 23–24 June). In contrast with the traditional secrecy of the Cem ceremony ritual, the events at these cultural centers and sites are open to the public. In the case of the Hacibektaş celebration, since 1990 the activities there have been taken over by Turkey's Ministry of Culture in the interest of promoting tourism and Turkish patriotism rather than Alevi spirituality. Some Alevis
Alevis
make pilgrimages to mountains and other natural sites believed to be imbued with holiness. Further information: Pir (Sufism)
Pir (Sufism)
and Pir Sultan
Pir Sultan
Abdal Almsgiving[edit] Main articles: Dergah, Vakıf, and Zakat Alevis
Alevis
are not expected to give Zakat
Zakat
in the Orthodox-Islamic mode, and there is no set formula or prescribed amount for annual charitable donation as there is in Sunnism (2.5% of possessions above a certain minimum). Rather, they are expected to give the 'excess' according to Qur'an
Qur'an
verse 2:219. A common method of Alevi
Alevi
almsgiving is through donating food (especially sacrificial animals) to be shared with worshippers and guests. Alevis
Alevis
also donate money to be used to help the poor, to support the religious, educational and cultural activities of Alevi
Alevi
centers and organizations (dergâh, vakıf, dernek), and to provide scholarships for students. Society[edit] Leadership structure[edit] In contrast to the Bektashi
Bektashi
tariqa, which like other Sufi
Sufi
orders is based on a silsila "initiatory chain or lineage" of teachers and their students, Alevi
Alevi
leaders succeed to their role on the basis of family descent. Perhaps ten percent of Alevis
Alevis
belong to a religious elite called ocak "hearth", indicating descent from Ali
Ali
and/or various other saints and heroes. Ocak members are called ocakzades or "sons of the hearth". This system apparently originated with Safavid Persia. Alevi
Alevi
leaders are variously called murshid, pir, rehber or dede. Groups that conceive of these as ranks of a hierarchy (as in the Bektashi
Bektashi
tariqa) disagree as to the order. The last of these, dede "grandfather", is the term preferred by the scholarly literature. Ocakzades may attain to the position of dede on the basis of selection (by a father from among several sons), character, and learning. In contrast to Alevi
Alevi
rhetoric on the equality of the sexes, it is generally assumed that only males may fill such leadership roles. Traditionally Dedes
Dedes
did not merely lead rituals, but led their communities, often in conjunction with local notables such as the ağas (large landowners) of the Dersim Region. They also acted as judges or arbiters, presiding over village courts called Düşkünlük Meydanı. Ordinary Alevi
Alevi
would owe allegiance to a particular dede lineage (but not others) on the basis of pre-existing family or village relations. Some fall instead under the authority of Bektashi
Bektashi
dargah (lodges). In the wake of 20th century urbanization (which removed young laborers from the villages) and socialist influence (which looked upon the Dedes
Dedes
with suspicion), the old hierarchy has largely broken down. Many Dedes
Dedes
now receive salaries from Alevi
Alevi
cultural centers, which arguably subordinates their role. Such centers no longer feature community business or deliberation, such as the old ritual of reconciliation, but emphasize musical and dance performance to the exclusion of these.[35] Dedes
Dedes
are now approached on a voluntary basis, and their role has become more circumscribed – limited to religious rituals, research, and giving advice.

Part of a series on Islam Sufism
Sufism
and Tariqat

Ideas

Abdal Al-Insān al-Kāmil Baqaa Dervish Dhawq Fakir Fanaa Haal Haqiqa Ihsan Irfan Ishq Keramat Kashf Lataif Manzil Marifa Nafs Nūr Qalandar Qutb Silsila Sufi
Sufi
cosmology Sufi
Sufi
metaphysics Sufi
Sufi
philosophy Sufi
Sufi
poetry Sufi
Sufi
psychology Salik Tazkiah Wali Yaqeen

Practices

Anasheed Dhikr Haḍra Muraqaba Qawwali Sama Whirling Ziyarat

Sufi
Sufi
orders

Akbari Alians Ashrafia Azeemia Ba 'Alawi Bayrami Bektashi Burhaniyya Chishti Galibi Gulshani Haqqani Anjuman Hurufi Idrisi Issawiyya Jelveti Jerrahi Khalidi

İskenderpaşa İsmailağa

Khalwati Kubrawi Madari Meivazhi Malamati Mevlevi Mouridi Noorbakshia Naqshbandi Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Haqqani Nasuhi Ni'matullāhī Nuqtavi Qadiri Qalandari Rifa'i Safavi Saifia Shadhili Shattari Suhrawardi Sunbuli Sülaymaniyya Tijani Ussaki Uwaisi Zahedi Zikris

List of sufis

Notable early Notable modern Singers

Topics in Sufism

Tawhid Sharia Tariqa Haqiqa Ma'rifa Art History Music Shrines Texts

Portal

v t e

Ali, Hasan and Husayn in Hagia Sophia

Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Talib at right and Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
at left in Hagia Sophia.

Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
in Hagia Sophia.

Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
in Hagia Sophia.

Position of women[edit] According to John Shindeldecker " Alevis
Alevis
are proud to point out that they are monogamous, Alevi
Alevi
women worship together with men, Alevi women are free to dress in modern clothing, Alevi
Alevi
women are encouraged to get the best education they can, and Alevi
Alevi
women are free to go into any occupation they choose. In the view of Australian anthropologist Sevgi Kilic, while Alevi women do not experience gender segregation in the private and public domain they are subject to traditional male values about women's sexuality and constructed within the honor/shame paradigm. This ethnography is the first on Alevi
Alevi
women in Turkey
Turkey
and argues that Alevi
Alevi
identity is complex, diverse and rich in its theory and practice. According to Kilic, while rural Alevi
Alevi
women subscribe to traditional conservative views about women's status in the family, these ideas are rapidly changing within an urban environment. Alevi
Alevi
women are not required to wear a headscarf or other bodily coverings. According to Kilic this is because Alevi
Alevi
identity is very much focused on the internal rather than the external representation and covering women's hair or concealing the female body in and of itself cannot legitimize women's moral, social, political and economic worth. Thus an unveiled Alevi
Alevi
woman cannot impugn her honour or her communities'. Alevi women's bodies are what Kilic calls paradoxically 'neutral' and acts as an "ideology of difference." Relations with other Muslim
Muslim
groups[edit] Alevis
Alevis
are classified as a sect of Shia Islam,[36] as Alevis
Alevis
accept Twelver
Twelver
Shi‘a beliefs about Ali
Ali
and the Twelve Imams, and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
decreed Alevis
Alevis
to be part of the Shia fold in the 1970s.[26] There are, however, Alevi
Alevi
philosophies, customs, and rituals that are appreciably different than those of Twelver
Twelver
Shias in Iraq
Iraq
and Iran. According to more orthodox Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, Alevis
Alevis
are labeled as "ghulat" groups, since Alevis
Alevis
praise Ali
Ali
beyond what mainstream Muslims
Muslims
expect. He and Muhammad
Muhammad
are likened to the two sides of a coin, or the two halves of an apple. Sufi
Sufi
elements in Alevism[edit] Further information: Qalandariyya
Qalandariyya
and Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar Despite this essentially Shi‘i orientation, much of Aleviness' mystical language is inspired by Sufi
Sufi
traditions. For example, the Alevi
Alevi
concept of God
God
is derived from the philosophy of Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
and involves a chain of emanation from God, to spiritual man, earthly man, animals, plants, and minerals. The goal of spiritual life is to follow this path in the reverse direction, to unity with God, or Haqq (Reality, Truth). From the highest perspective, all is God
God
(see Wahdat-ul-Wujood). Alevis
Alevis
admire Mansur Al-Hallaj, a 10th-century Sufi who was accused of blasphemy and subsequently executed in Baghdad
Baghdad
for saying "I am the Truth" (Ana al-Haqq). There is some tension between folk tradition Aleviness and the Bektashi
Bektashi
Order, which is a Sufi
Sufi
order founded on Alevi
Alevi
beliefs.[37] In certain Turkish communities other Sufi
Sufi
orders ( the Halveti-Jerrahi and some of the Rifa'i) have incorporated significant Alevi
Alevi
influence. Relations with majority Sunnis[edit] The relationship between Alevis
Alevis
and Sunnis is one of mutual suspicion and prejudice dating back to the Ottoman period. Hundreds of Alevis were murdered in sectarian violence in the years that preceded the 1980 coup, and as late as the 1990s dozens were killed with impunity.[5] While pogroms have not occurred since them, the Erdogan has declared “a cemevi is not a place of worship, it is a center for cultural activities. Muslims
Muslims
should only have one place of worship.”[5] Sunnis have accused Alevis
Alevis
of heresy, heterodoxy, rebellion, betrayal and immorality. Alevis, on the other hand, have argued that the Quran does not demand five prayers, nor mosque attendance, nor pilgrimage, and that the Sunnis distorted early Islam
Islam
by omitting, misinterpreting, or changing the meaning of verses from the Quran
Quran
with fabricated hadith, especially those dealing with Ali
Ali
and ritual practice.[38] Alevis
Alevis
claim that they have been subject to intolerant Sunni "nationalism" that has been unwilling to recognize Alevi "uniqueness."[39] Alevis
Alevis
use Sunnism as the "Other", the opposite pole to Alevism, by which they identify themselves. The Alevis
Alevis
claim that they have kept Islam
Islam
in its pure form, fulfilling his demands for moral purity, love of humanity, and faith in one God, and only they can claim to be the "true Islam." Alevis
Alevis
see themselves in contrast to Sunnis as tolerant and not aggressive xenophobic chauvinists. Sunni
Sunni
nationalism is seen as intolerant, domineering, unwilling to recognise Alevi uniqueness.[25] Alevis
Alevis
traditionally saw themselves as belonging to the "community of the saved", a chosen people who possess the divine secret knowledge and are allegedly superior to the "misled" Sunnis in their zeal for externals. They trace their roots to the original true revelation of Islam
Islam
to Muhammad
Muhammad
in Arabia, and stress that it was a religion of freedom, equality, and justice. They profess that Ali
Ali
is Muhammad's only true successor and the most perfect of Muslims
Muslims
carried on true Islam
Islam
and was the representative of the poor and the marginalised. All great Alevi
Alevi
leaders have the typical Alevi
Alevi
characteristics of justice, egalitarianism, humility, and peacefulness. They all were revolutionaries aiming at radical change in society, loyal to ideals, fighting for the final triumph of good over evil. According to the Alevis, good Alevism
Alevism
was forced to an underground existence of dissimulation and retreat due to a powerful onslaught of evil.[25] History[edit] Main article: Alevi
Alevi
history According to one source, "little research" has been done on the religion or ethnic and historical background of the Alevis, but what is available, suggests that they are "of peoples predating the Turkish invasion of Anatolia".[40] Alevis
Alevis
have been victims of pogroms during both Ottoman times and under the Turkish republic up until the 1990.[5][41][42] Seljuk period[edit] Main articles: Nusairi, Yarsani, Êzidî, Yazdânism, and Zoroastrian During the great Turkish expansion from Central Asia
Central Asia
into Iran
Iran
and Anatolia
Anatolia
in the Seljuk period (11-12th centuries), Turkmen nomad tribes accepted a Sufi
Sufi
and pro- Ali
Ali
form of Islam
Islam
that co-existed with some of their pre-Islamic customs. These tribes dominated central and eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
for centuries with their religious warriors (ghazi) spearheading the drive against Byzantines and Slavs. Further information: Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
and Kara Koyunlu Ottoman period[edit] Further information: Ottoman persecution of Alevis, Kızılbaş, Şahkulu, and Shahkulu Uprising The Ottomans had accepted Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
in the 13th century as a means to unifying their empire, and later proclaimed themselves its defenders against the Safavid Shia state and related sects. This created a gap between the Sunni
Sunni
Ottoman ruling elite and the Alevi Anatolian population. Anatolia
Anatolia
became a battlefield between Safavids and Ottomans, each determined to include it in their empire. Republic[edit] According to Eren Sarı, Alevi
Alevi
saw Kemal Ataturk as a Mahdi
Mahdi
"savior sent to save them from the Sunni
Sunni
Ottoman yoke".[27] However, pogroms against Alevi
Alevi
did not cease after the establishment of Ataturk's republic. In attacks against leftists in the 1970s, ultranationalists and reactionaries killed many Alevis. Malatya in 1978, Maraş in 1979, and Çorum
Çorum
in 1980 witnessed the murder of hundreds of Alevis, the torching of hundreds of homes, and lootings.[41][42] When he came to power in 2003, then Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan initially promised to strengthen the rights of minorities. In 2007 he began an “ Alevi
Alevi
opening,” and has protected Alevi
Alevi
from massacres.[5] But the Erdogan government also emphasizes the teaching of Sunni
Sunni
doctrine in public schools,[5] has placed few Alevis
Alevis
in government positions such as governor or police chief; and while it spends large sums for the construction of Sunni
Sunni
mosques, refuses to classify cemevis as official places of worship, let alone pay for their construction.[5] In October 2013, tens of thousands of Alevis protested the lack of Alevi
Alevi
rights in a series of reforms introduced by Erdoğan.[6] In 2015 a cemevi was confiscated and repurposed as a mosque, despite the presence of another mosque a few hundred metres away.[5] In 2016 the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
(ECHR) found that Alevis
Alevis
in Turkey
Turkey
"were subjected to a difference in treatment for which there was no objective and reasonable justification."[43] Demographics[edit]

Distribution of Alevi
Alevi
population in Turkey. Red = Anatolian Alevis (Turks, Kurds
Kurds
and Zazas). Dark red = Alawites
Alawites
(Arabs) in Southern Turkey.

Most Alevi
Alevi
live in Turkey, where they are a minority and Sunni
Sunni
Muslims the majority. The size of the Alevi
Alevi
population is likewise disputed, but most estimates place them somewhere between 8 and 10 million people.[44][45] Estimates of the percentage of Turkey's population that are Alevi
Alevi
include between 10-20%,[5] 25%,[7] 33%,[46] and as much as 40%.[46] Scattered minorities live in Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Caucasus, Greece, Iran
Iran
and the Turkish Diaspora.[47][48] Most Alevis
Alevis
come from Kizilbash
Kizilbash
or Bektashi
Bektashi
origin, according to Minorityrights.org. The Alevis
Alevis
(Kizilbash) are traditionally predominantly rural and acquire identity by parentage. Bektashis, however, are predominantly urban, and formally claim that membership is open to any Muslim. The groups are separately organized, but subscribe to "virtually the same system of beliefs".[46] Population estimates[edit] The Alevi
Alevi
population has been estimated as follows:

12,521,000 according to Sabahat Akkiraz, a MP from CHP.[49] "approx. 15 million..." —Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi.[50] In Turkey, 15% of Turkey's population (approx. 10.6 million) —David Shankland[51] "Most Alevi
Alevi
writers and spokespersons claim that Turkey's population today is one-third Alevi-Bektashi, or more than 20 million. Lower estimates range from 10 to 12 million." —John Schindeldecker.[52] "The Alevi
Alevi
constitute the second-largest religious community in Turkey (following the Sunnis), and number some 25% (15 million) of the total population ( Alevis
Alevis
claim 30%–40%). Most (?) Alevis
Alevis
are ethnic and linguistic Turks, mainly of Turkmen descent from Central and Eastern Anatolia. Some 20% of Alevis
Alevis
are Kurds
Kurds
(though most Kurds
Kurds
are Sunni), and some 25% of Kurds
Kurds
in Turkey
Turkey
are Alevi
Alevi
( Kurmanji
Kurmanji
and Zaza speakers)." —David Zeidan.[53] "15 to 20 million..." —Olli Rehn, from the 1996 (Camiel) "Eurlings Report" to the European Commission (on the suitability of Turkish accession to the EU). "...a world total of between 15 and 25 million adherents. There is no independent data for their numbers, so these statistics are estimates or conjectures." —"Alevism," from The Encyclopedia of the Orient. In June 2008, several Turkish newspapers reported that the Turkish military had commissioned three universities to research the ethnic demography of Turkey. The study was done in 2000 and included all ethnic groupings. According to the results, the Alevi
Alevi
population of Turkey, including those who currently reside in Europe, is around 10 million. Conglomeration of syncretic beliefs: A wide variety of academic sources define Alevism
Alevism
as a syncretic religion, combining diverse religious beliefs,[54][55][56] which developed from Islam, Buddhist-influenced Turkic shamanism, and some elements of Christianity.[57][58][59] According to Turkish university research conducted in 2005 by a researcher named Soner Cagaptay, 44% of respondents who called themselves "Alevis" self-identify as Muslim
Muslim
and 56% do not.[60] Nevertheless, one should be aware of the fact that the university survey which was conducted at a specific location may not reflect the accurate results all the time, and there exists a high probability that the group who had been surveyed might belong to the non- Muslim
Muslim
Ishikists. Moreover, one should always bear in mind that some members of the non-muslim communities like Kurdish Yâresân (Ahl-i Haqq) and Ishik- Alevis
Alevis
define/identify themselves under the title of Alawism
Alawism
as well. Henceforth, it is always possible either to enlarge or to shrink the borders of the Alevism
Alevism
with respect to which of these definitions are going to be used. Alevis
Alevis
have been subjected to persecution (often deadly) for centuries. Due to this fact, some have been assimilated. It is not clear how effective the above study is in including those who might be more timid about advertising their Alevi
Alevi
origins. Some of the Kurdish Alevis
Alevis
speak Kurmanji
Kurmanji
or Zazaki. Some Alevis
Alevis
are Azeris.[61] Despite universalist rhetoric and in contrast with Islam in general, or the Bektashi
Bektashi
order, Alevi
Alevi
communities do not generally acknowledge the possibility of conversion to Aleviness. Alevi
Alevi
communities are concentrated in central Anatolia, in a belt from Çorum
Çorum
in the west to Muş
Muş
in the east. The only province within Turkey
Turkey
with an Alevi
Alevi
majority is Tunceli, formerly known as Dersim. Beginning in the 1960s, many Alevis
Alevis
have migrated to the large cities of western and southern Turkey
Turkey
– and to western Europe, especially Germany – and are now heavily urbanized. There is also a native 3000 Alevi
Alevi
community in Western Thrace, Greece.[62]

The founder of the Bektashiyyah
Bektashiyyah
Sufi
Sufi
order Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli (Ḥājjī Baktāsh Walī), a murid of Malāmatī-Qalāndārī Sheikh Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar, who introduced the Ahmad Yasavi's doctrine of " Four Doors
Four Doors
and Forty Stending" into his tariqah.

Social groups[edit] A Turkish scholar working in France has distinguished four main groups among contemporary Alevis, which cautiously show their distinctive features in modern Turkey.[63]

Calligraphic
Calligraphic
hat in Alevi-Bektashism.

The first congregation is mainly represented by the urban area population and emerged during the period of the Republic of Turkey. For many decades, this group of people belonged to the political left and presumed the Aleviness just as an outlook on the individual human life rather than a religious conviction by persistently renouncing the ties of the Batiniyya- Alevism
Alevism
with Twelver
Twelver
political branch of Shia Islam. The followers of this congregation, who later turned out to be the very stern defenders of the Erdoğan Çınar hold ritual unions of a religious character and have established cultural associations named after Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
as well. According to their philosophy, human being should enjoy a central role reminiscent of the doctrine of Khurramites, and as illustrated by Hurufi
Hurufi
phrase of God
God
is Man quoted above in the context of the Trinity.[63]

The second group, who adopted smg to the philosophy developed by this congregation, Christian
Christian
mystic St Francis of Assisi
St Francis of Assisi
and Hindu
Hindu
Mahatma Gandhi are supposedly considered better believers of God
God
than many Muslims.[63]

The third group regards themselves as true Muslims
Muslims
and are prepared to cooperate with the state. It adheres to the way of Jafar as-Sadiq, the sixth Imam. Its concept of God
God
is closer to that of orthodox Islam, but like the two groups already mentioned it considers the Quran
Quran
to have been manipulated by the early Sunni
Sunni
Caliphs in order to eliminate Ali.[63]

The fourth is said to be under active influence from official Iranian Shi'a to be confirmed adherents to Twelver
Twelver
and to reject Bektashism and folk religion. It follows Sharia
Sharia
and opposes secular state power.[citation needed]

Bektashi[edit] Main article: Bektashiyyah The Bektashiyyah
Bektashiyyah
is a Shia Sufi
Sufi
order founded in the 13th century by Haji Bektash Veli, a dervish who escaped Central Asia
Central Asia
and found refuge with the Seljuks in Anatolia
Anatolia
at the time of the Mongol invasions (1219–23). This order gained a great following in rural areas and it later developed in two branches: the Celebi clan, who claimed to be physical descendants of Haji Bektash Veli, were called Bel evladları (children of the loins), and became the hereditary spiritual leaders of the rural Alevis; and the Babağan, those faithful to the path (yol evladları - children of the way) who dominated the official Bektashi Sufi
Sufi
order with its elected leadership.[25] Bektashiyyah
Bektashiyyah
doctrine: Bektashism
Bektashism
and Hurufism[edit] Main articles: Mysticism, Four Doors, Hajji Bektash
Hajji Bektash
Wali, Sharia, Tariqa, Haqiqa, and Marifa The Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
is a Sufi
Sufi
order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as the need for an experienced spiritual guide – called a baba in Bektashi
Bektashi
parlance – as well as the doctrine of "the four gates that must be traversed": the "Sharia" (religious law), "Tariqah" (the spiritual path), "Marifa" (true knowledge), "Haqiqah" (truth). Wahdat al-Mawjud[edit] Main article: Wahdat al-Mawjud

Four Spiritual Stations in Bektashiyyah: Sharia, tariqa, haqiqa, and the fourth station, marifa, which is considered "unseen", is actually the center of the haqiqa region. Marifa
Marifa
is the essence of all four stations.

Bektashism
Bektashism
places much emphasis on the concept of Wahdat al-Mawjud وحدة الوجود, the "Unity of Being" that was formulated by Ibn Arabi. This has often been labeled as pantheism, although creation explained like Wahdat al-wujud panentheism. It becomes Wahdat al-Mawjud the unity of Haqq-Kosmos-Human . Bektashism
Bektashism
is also heavily permeated with Shiite concepts, such as the marked veneration of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and the ritual commemoration of Ashurah marking the Battle of Karbala. The old Persian holiday of Nowruz
Nowruz
is celebrated by Bektashis as Imam Ali's birthday. In keeping with the central belief of Wahdat Al-Mawjud the Bektashi see reality contained in Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, a single unified entity. Bektashi
Bektashi
do not consider this a form of trinity. There are many other practices and ceremonies that share similarity with other faiths, such as a ritual meal (muhabbet) and yearly confession of sins to a baba (magfirat-i zunub مغفرة الذنوب). Bektashis base their practices and rituals on their non-orthodox and mystical interpretation and understanding of the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the prophetic practice (Sunnah). They have no written doctrine specific to them, thus rules and rituals may differ depending on under whose influence one has been taught. Bektashis generally revere Sufi
Sufi
mystics outside of their own order, such as Ibn Arabi, Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
and Jelalludin Rumi who are close in spirit to them. Batiniyya and Ismailism[edit]

Part of a series on Shīa Islam Isma‘ilism

Concepts

Qur'an Ẓāhir Bātin Nūr Pīr Ginans 'Aql ʿIlm Hujja Dā'ī Dawah Taqiya Numerology Panentheism Reincarnation

Seven Pillars

Love of Mohammad and Ahl_al-Bayt Purity Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage StrivingStruggle

Mustā‘lī & Nizari
Nizari
History

Shuʿayb Nabi Shu'ayb Seveners Qarmatians Abū Saʿīd al-Jannābī Abū Tāhir al-Jannābī Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili state Baghdad
Baghdad
Manifesto Qāżi Noʿmān Nasir Khusraw al-Sulayhi Zoeb bin Moosa Nizari Mustā‘lī Hafizi Batiniyya Hassan-i Sabbah Assassins Alamut Lambsar Castle Alamut
Alamut
Castle Masyaf Castle Rashid ad-Din Sinan Satpanth Pir Sadardin Böszörmény Aga Khan Jama'at Khana Du'a

Early Imāms

Ali Hasan Husayn as-Sajjad al-Baqir Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar al-Mubārak Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismāʿīl ash-Shākir ʿAbadu l-Lāh (al-Wāfī Ahmad) Ahmad (al-Taqī Muhammad) Ḥusayn (ar-Raḍī ʿAbdillāh) ʿAbdu l-Lāh al-Mahdī bi l-Lāh al-Qāʾim al-Manṣūr al-Muʿizz al-ʿAzīz al-Ḥākim al-Ẓāhir al-Mustanṣir bi l-Lāh Nizār al-Muṣṭafā li-Dīn’il-Lāh / Aḥmadu l-Mustāʿlī bi l-Lāh Manṣūr al-Āmir bi-Aḥkām’il-Lāh Abu l-Qāsim al-Tayyib

Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili & Taiyabi Da'is 

Nizārī
Nizārī
Ismā'īlī Aga Khan
Aga Khan
IV

Taiyabi-Musta’li Ismailis

Dawoodi Bohra Mufaddal Saifuddin

Sulaymani Al-Fakhri Abdullah

Alavi Bohra Haatim Zakiyuddin

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Cenotaph
Cenotaph
for the Bektashi
Bektashi
dervish Gül Baba
Gül Baba
at his türbe in Buda.

Main articles: Batiniyya and Ismailism Bektashis hold that the Qur'an
Qur'an
has two levels of meaning: an outer (Zāher ظاهر) and an inner (bāṭen باطن).[2] They hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity, which is a view that can also be found in Ismailism
Ismailism
and Batiniyya.[19] Bektashism
Bektashism
is also initiatic and members must traverse various levels or ranks as they progress along the spiritual path to the Reality. First level members are called aşıks عاشق. They are those who, while not having taken initiation into the order, are nevertheless drawn to it. Following initiation (called nasip) one becomes a mühip محب. After some time as a mühip, one can take further vows and become a dervish. The next level above dervish is that of baba. The baba (lit. father) is considered to be the head of a tekke and qualified to give spiritual guidance (irshad إرشاد). Above the baba is the rank of halife-baba (or dede, grandfather). Traditionally there were twelve of these, the most senior being the dedebaba (great-grandfather). The dedebaba was considered to be the highest ranking authority in the Bektashi
Bektashi
Order. Traditionally the residence of the dedebaba was the Pir Evi (The Saint's Home) which was located in the shrine of Hajji Bektash
Hajji Bektash
Wali
Wali
in the central Anatolian town of Hacıbektaş
Hacıbektaş
(Solucakarahüyük). Further information: Bektashism
Bektashism
and Hurufism

Shah Ismail
Shah Ismail
I, the Sheikh
Sheikh
of the Safavi tariqa, founder of the Safavid Dynasty of Iran, and the Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
of the Kızılbaş
Kızılbaş
armies.

Qizilbash[edit] Main articles: Qizilbash
Qizilbash
and Safavids The Kizilbash
Kizilbash
(red-heads) were Turkmen tribes who adhered to the Safavid Sufi
Sufi
Order, whose Sheikhs claimed descent from Ali. Under Isma`il (d. 1524) they became dominant in Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
and conquered Azerbaijan with its capital Tabriz, where Isma`il named himself Shah in 1501 and went on to conquer all of Iran. His missionaries spread a message of revolt against the Sunni
Sunni
Ottomans in Anatolia, claiming that Isma`il was the awaited mahdi (messiah), and Anatolia
Anatolia
became the scene of protracted warfare between Ottomans and Safavids.[25] Qizilbash
Qizilbash
doctrine: Kızılbaşlık[edit] Qizilbash
Qizilbash
and Bektashi
Bektashi
tariqah shared common religious beliefs and practices becoming intermingled as Alevis
Alevis
in spite of many local variations. Isolated from both the Sunni
Sunni
Ottomans and the Twelver Shi`a Safavids, Qizilbash
Qizilbash
and Bektashi
Bektashi
developed traditions, practices, and doctrines by the early 17th century which marked them as a closed autonomous religious community. As a result of the immense pressures to conform to Sunni
Sunni
Islam, all members of Alevism
Alevism
developed a tradition of opposition (ibāḥa) to all forms of external religion.[25] The doctrine of Qizilbashism is well explained in the following poem written by the Shaykh
Shaykh
of Safaviyya
Safaviyya
tariqah Ismail I:

من داها نسنه بيلمه زه م / Mən daha nəsnə bilməzəm, // I don't know any other object, آللاه بير محممد على́دير / Allah
Allah
bir Məhəmməd Əlidir. // Allah
Allah
is unique Muhammad-Ali. اؤزوم غوربتده سالمازام / Özüm qürbəttə salmazam, // I can't let out my own essence to places far from my homeland, آللاه بير محممد على́دير / Allah
Allah
bir Məhəmməd Əlidir. // Allah
Allah
is unique Muhammad-Ali. اونلار بيردير، بير اولوبدور / Onlar birdir, bir olubdur, // They are unique, a single one, i.e. Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, يئردن گؤيه نور اولوبدور / Yerdən göyə nur olubdur, // It's a nūr from Earth
Earth
to Sky, دؤرد گوشه ده سيرر اولوبدور، / Dörd guşədə sirr olubdur, // It's a mysterious occult secret in every corner of the square, آللاه بير محممد على́دير / Allah
Allah
bir Məhəmməd Əlidir. // Allah
Allah
is unique Muhammad-Ali. ختايى بو يولدا سردير / Xətai bu yolda sirdir, // Khatai
Khatai
in this tariqah is a mysterious occult secret, سرين وئره نلر ده اردير / Sirrin verənlər də ərdir, // Those reveal their own secret are private as well, آيدا سيردير، گونده نوردور / Ayda sirdir, gündə nurdur, // Secret
Secret
on Moon, nūr on Sun, آللاه بير محممد على́دير / Allah
Allah
bir Məhəmməd Əlidir. // Allah
Allah
is unique Muhammad-Ali.

The lines of poetry above may easily be judged as an act of "Shirk" (polytheism) by the Sunni
Sunni
Ulama, but they have a bāṭenī[2] taʾwīl (inner explanation) in Qizilbashism. Further information: Khatai, Muhammad-Ali, and Haqq-Muhammad-Ali Alevi
Alevi
music[edit]

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Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu.

Alevi
Alevi
religious services, referred to collectively as cem or âyîn, include spiritual exercises that incorporate elements of zikr ("remembrance" or recitation of God's names, in this case without controlled breathing, but with some elements of body posturing) and sema (ritual dance). The latter is accompanied by sung mystical poetry in the vernacular, and by the sacred ritual instrument known as bağlama or saz (a plucked folk lute with frets). Such music is performed by specialists known as zâkir, aşık, sazende or güvende, depending on regional usage. They are recruited from Alevi
Alevi
communities and descended from dede lineages. Many are also known to be poet/minstrels (aşık, ozan) who perpetuate the tradition of dervish-lodge (tekke) poets such as Yunus Emre
Yunus Emre
(13th century), Nesîmî
Nesîmî
(14th century), Pir Sultan
Pir Sultan
Abdal, Hatâ'î and Genç Abdal (16th century) and Kul Himmet and Kul Hüseyn (17th century). The poetry was composed in the Turkish vernacular and follows the principles of folk prosody known as hece vezne in which the focus is the number of syllables.

The tomb of Ruhi Su
Ruhi Su
at Zincirlikuyu Mezarlığı
Zincirlikuyu Mezarlığı
in Istanbul.

The specialized sacred musical repertoire of Alevi
Alevi
musicians includes

Deyiş (songs of mystical love) Nefes (hymns concerning the mystical experience) Düvaz or dıwes imâm (hymns in honor of the 12 Alid imams) Mersiye (laments concerning the martyrdom of Imam Huseyn at Karbala) Miraçlama (songs about the ascent of the Muhammad
Muhammad
to heaven) Sema
Sema
(ritual dance accompanied by folk lutes and sung poetry)

The dances are performed by couples, and choreographies employ circle and line formations as well as arrangements where couples face one another, thus synchronizing their movements more closely. As the tempo of the music increases, the figures become more complex and intense. There are many regional variants of sema, but the most widespread and important are the Dance of the Forty (Kırklar Semahı) and the Dance of the Cranes (Turnalar Semahı). The âyîn-î-cem can be heard on the JVC CD Turkey
Turkey
- An Esoteric Sufi Ceremony. The recording was made in Istanbul
Istanbul
in 1993, and the ceremony includes in an order typical of a cem: a deyiş that reiterates the line of descent of the sect in a historical framework, two divas (one based on the poetry of Hatâ'î, and the other on the poetry of Kul Himmet), prayer formulas, the ill-Âllâh genre that incorporates the tahlîl formula into the poem to create an atmosphere of zikr while sect members create rhythmic intensity by hitting their knees in time to the music and sway their bodies slightly, the Dance of the Forty (Kırklar Semah), the Dance of the Cranes (Turnalar Semahı) and prayer formulas. Alevis
Alevis
have a significant role in Turkish music and poetry. Pir Sultan Abdal, a 16th-century Alevi
Alevi
poet whose poems and songs often contain spiritual themes, is revered as a saint and hero. Important figures are the Sufi
Sufi
poet Yunus Emre, widely regarded as having been Alevi, and Kaygusuz Abdal. Their poems shape Turkish culture up to now, and are also performed by modern artists. Songs attributed to these poets have been embraced by left-wingers in the 20th century. The aşık bards are also influenced by Alevi
Alevi
tradition. Many of the major traditional musicians in Turkey
Turkey
are Alevi, including Arif Sağ, Musa Eroğlu, Neşet Ertaş,[64] Erdal Erzincan, Aşık Mahzuni Şerif, Aşık Feyzullah Çınar, Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu, Ali
Ali
Ekber Çiçek, Sabahat Akkiraz, Belkıs Akkale, and Ulaş Özdemir. Other non-Alevis, such as Ruhi Su, have recorded many Alevi songs. Mercan Dede, an artist whose music combines electronic and traditional Sufi
Sufi
elements, has made some songs involving Alevi
Alevi
themes in cooperation with singer Sabahat Akkiraz.

The historical emergence of the Alevī Ṭarīqah

The schematic history of the development of the Imāmī- Alevism
Alevism
from other Shī‘ah
Shī‘ah
Muslim
Muslim
sects

Wahb

Barrah

Fatimah

Abdul-Muttalib

Natīla

Aminah bint Wahab

ʿAbd Allāh

Asad ibn Hashim

Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Qays

‘Abbas

Khadija bint Khuwaylid

Muhammad (Family tree)

Abi Talib

Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad

ʿAbd Allāh

Fatima Zahra

Ali
Ali
al Murtaza (Family tree)

Khawlah b. Ja'far al-Hanafiyyah

ʿ Ali
Ali
bin ʿAbd Allāh b. ‘Abbas

Hasan al Mujtaba

Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
(Family)

Shahr Banu

Ibn al-Hanifiyyah

Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Hasan

Zayn al-'Abidin

Jayda al-Sindhi

Kaysanites (Al-Mukhtar)

Farwah bint Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir

Zayd ash-Shahīd (Zaydiyyah)

First Sufi Abu Hashim
Abu Hashim
(Hashimiyya)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ja'far al-Sadiq

Yemen-Fivers

Zaydi-Alavids

Muhammad
Muhammad
"al-Imām"

Isma'il ibn Jafar

 

Al-Aftah (Aftahiyya)

 

Al-Dibaj (Sumaytiyya)

 

 

Musa al-Kadhim

 

Ibrāhim ibn Ali
Ali
ibn ′Abd Allah

 

 

 

 

Imāmī
Imāmī
Ismā'īlīsm

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Aftah

Ibrāhim ibn Mūsā

Imāmī
Imāmī
Athnā‘ashariyyah

Muslim’īyyah (Sīnbād)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Maktūm (Mubārakʾiyya)

Seveners

Fātimā al-Ma‘sūmah

Ali
Ali
al-Rida

Ishaq al-Turk

ʿAbadullāh (Wafī Aḥmad)

 

Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ'l-ʾAšʿaṯ

 

 

Al-Tustari (Taṣawwuf)

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Taqī (Jawad)

 

Muhammerah
Muhammerah
(Muqanna)

 

 

 

 

 

Aḥmad (Taqī Muhammad)

Abū Sa'id

Mūsā al-Mūbārraqā

Ali
Ali
al Hadi

Khurrāmīyah (Pāpak, Maziar)

Ḥusayn (Raḍī ʿAbdillāh)

Abū-Tāhir

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali
Ali
al-Hadi

Hasan al-Askari

Kızılbaş

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ubayd Allāh (Fatimids)

 

Qarmatis

 

 

Nāimī-Ḥurūfīs

 

 

 

Ibn Nusayr
Ibn Nusayr
(‘Ulyāʾiyya)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

al-Qāʾim

ʿAlī Al-Aʿlā (Baktāsh’īyyah)

Muhammad (Imām Zāmān)

Al-Khaṣībī
Al-Khaṣībī
(Nusairis)

al-Manṣūr

Pasīkhānī (Nuktawiyya)

Imamiyyah
Imamiyyah
(Twelvers)

Balım Sultan
Balım Sultan
(Baktāshīs)

al-Muʿizz

 

Nasīmī

 

Ja'faris

 

Alevis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

al-ʿAzīz

Akhbaris

Shaykhis

Usulis

al-Ḥākim

Safavids
Safavids
(Safavī Iran)

Nuqta-yi Ula
Nuqta-yi Ula
(Bábis)

Velayat-e-faqih
Velayat-e-faqih
(Iran, Islamic Rep.)

al-Ẓāhir

Durzis (Al-Muqtana)

Mírzá Yaḥyá (Azalis)

Mírzá Ḥusayn (Bahá'ís)

Other Alevis
Alevis
(Bektashism)

Al-Mustanṣir

Nasir Khusraw

Badakhshan
Badakhshan
& Afgan Pamiris

Yarsanis (Sultan Sahak)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Musta'li
Al-Musta'li
(Musta'lis)

 

Muḥammad ibn Abū Tamīm

 

Al-Nizār (Nizārīs)

 

Ostad Elahi (‘Ali-Ilahis)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Āmir

 

 

 

 

Hashshashins
Hashshashins
(Ḥ. bin Sabbah)

 

Işık Alevis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At-Tayyib (Tayyibis)

Al-Ḥāfīz (Hafizis)

Ḥasan ʿAlā (Alamūt Nizārīs)

Alians
Alians
(Demir &Otman Babas)

Harabatis (Baba Rexheb)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arwa al-Sulayhi

Zoeb Musa (Dawoodis)

Agha Khans ( Nizārī
Nizārī
Ismā'īlīs)

Chepnis

Sulayman (Sulaymanis)

Ali
Ali
bin Ibrāhim (Alavi Bohra)

Hebtiahs Bohra

A . Hussain Jivaji (Atba-i-Malak)

Jafari Bohras
Jafari Bohras
(Syed Jafar Ahmad Shirazi)

Progressive Dawoodis (Asghar Ali)

Atba-i-Malak
Atba-i-Malak
Vakil (A. Qadir Ebrahimji)

Atba-i-Malak
Atba-i-Malak
Badar (Ghulam Hussain Miya Khan)

Alevism
Alevism
and Shiat-ul-Ali

See also[edit]

Nesimi Qizilbash Bektashism Qalandariyya Bektashi
Bektashi
Order Mansur Al-Hallaj Religious humanism

References[edit]

^ Anadolu Kızılbaşlığı or simply Kızılbaşlık would better represent the majority of their members. ^ a b c d e f g Radtke, B. "Bāṭen". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 9 July 2014.  ^ "The Alevis". www.guidetomuslimdiversity.com.au. Retrieved 2017-07-27.  ^ a b c "BEKTĀŠĪYA". Archived from the original on 17 May 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l KINGSLEY, PATRICK (22 July 2017). "Turkey's Alevis, a Muslim
Muslim
Minority, Fear a Policy of Denying Their Existence". New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ a b "Alevism". Harvard Divinity
Divinity
School Religious Literacy Project. Retrieved 2017-07-31.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Schwartz, Stephen Suleyman (August 17, 2012). " Alawites
Alawites
in Syria and Alevis
Alevis
in Turkey: Crucial Differences". Gatestone Institute. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ Introduction to the Modern Middle East, History, Religion, Political ... CTI Reviews. Retrieved 27 July 2017. [non-tertiary source needed] ^ "Excerpts from Baba Rexheb's The Mysticism
Mysticism
of Islam
Islam
& Bektashism – The Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
of Dervishes". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Alevitisme: De vijf zuilen? (met NL ondertiteling)". YouTube. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b Cagaptay, Soner (17 April 2012). "Are Syrian Alawites
Alawites
and Turkish Alevis
Alevis
the same?". CNN. Retrieved 2017-07-28.  ^ a b van Bruinessen, Martin (c. 1995). "Kurds, Turks, and the Alevi Revival in Turkey". islam.uga.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-31.  ^ These and many other quotations may be found in John Shindeldecker's Turkish Alevis
Alevis
Today. ^ "Aleviliğin doğuş yeri Anadolu değildir". Alevi
Alevi
İslam Din Hizmetleri Başkanlığı. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Alevi- Islam
Islam
Religious Services – The message of İzzettin Doğan, Zafer Mah. Ahmet Yesevi
Ahmet Yesevi
Cad. No: 290, Yenibosna / Istanbul, Turkey. ^ Powell, Russell (2016). Shariʿa in the Secular State: Evolving Meanings of Islamic Jurisprudence in ... Routledge. p. 35. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ " Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Āliyy’ūl Cillī aqidah" of "Maymūn ibn Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh" (Sūlaiman Affandy, Al-Bākūrat’ūs Sūlaiman’īyyah - Family tree
Family tree
of the Nusayri
Nusayri
Tariqat, pp. 14–15, Beirut, 1873.) ^ Both Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Āliyy’ūl Cillī and Maymūn ibn Abu’l-Qāsim’at-Tabarānī were the murids of Al-Khaṣībī, the founder of the Nusayri
Nusayri
tariqat. ^ a b c Halm, H. "BĀṬENĪYA". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 1 May 2015.  ^ "Abu'l-Khāttāb Asadī". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "ḴAṬṬĀBIYA". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "ʿABDALLĀH B. MAYMŪN AL-QADDĀḤ". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Roger M. Savory (ref. Abdülbaki Gölpinarli), Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kizil-Bash", Online Edition 2005 ^ Öztürk, Yaşar Nuri, En-el Hak İsyanı (The Anal Haq Rebellion) – Hallâc-ı Mansûr (Darağacında Miraç – Miraç on Gallows), Vol 1 and 2, Yeni Boyut, 2011. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Alevi
Alevi
of Anatolia". angelfire.com. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ a b Nasr, V: "The Shia Revival," page 1. Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc, 2006 ^ a b Sarı, Eren (2017). The Alevi
Alevi
Of Anatolia: During the great Turkish expansion from Central Asia
Central Asia
. noktaekitap. p. 16. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (2012-08-04). "Turkish Alawites
Alawites
Fear Spillover of Violence From Syria". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-07-28.  ^ Jones, Dorian (22 March 2012). " Alevi
Alevi
Turks concerned for Alawi 'cousins' in Syria Globalization DW". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2017-07-28.  ^ Also see, Öztürk, ibid, pp. 78-81. In the old days, marrying a Sunni
Sunni
[Yezide kuşak çözmek] was also accepted as an offense that led to the state of düşkün. See Alevi
Alevi
Buyruks ^ Kristina Kehl-Bordrogi reports this among the Tahtacı. See her article "The significance of müsahiplik among the Alevis" in Synchronistic Religious Communities in the Near East (co-edited by her, with B. Kellner-Heinkele & A. Otter-Beaujean), Brill 1997, p. 131 ff. ^ Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi. 1988. Die Kizilbash/Aleviten, pp. 182-204. ^ See again "The significance of müsahiplik among the Alevis" in Synchronistic Religious Communities in the Near East (co-edited by her, with B. Kellner-Heinkele & A. Otter-Beaujean), Brill 1997, p. 131 ff. ^ Religious practices in the Turco-Iranian World, 2005. ^ See Martin Stokes' study. ^ Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009). "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population, Pew Research Center" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2009-10-08.  ^ Ataseven, I: "The Alevi-Bektasi Legacy: Problems of Acquisition and Explanation", page 1. Coronet Books Inc, 1997 ^ Karin Vorhoff. 1995. Zwischen Glaube, Nation und neuer Gemeinschaft: Alevitische Identitat in der Türkei der Gegenwart, pp. 107-108. ^ Karin Vorhoff. 1995. Zwischen Glaube, Nation und neuer Gemeinschaft: Alevitische Identitat in der Türkei der Gegenwart, pp. 95-96. ^ "Alevi". Lexicorient. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ a b " Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
Monument and Festival". memorializeturkey.com. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ a b Rana Birden Çorbacıoğlu, Zeynep Alemdar. "ALEVIS AND THE TURKISH STATE" (PDF). turkishpolicy.com. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ Hallam, Mark (26 April 2016). " Turkey
Turkey
discriminates against Alevi faith, ECHR rules". DW. Retrieved 31 July 2017.  ^ "Turkey: International Religious Freedom Report 2007". State.gov. Retrieved 9 August 2011.  ^ "Turkey's Alevi
Alevi
strive for recognition". Asia Times Online. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2011.  ^ a b c " Turkey
Turkey
- Alevis". World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. Retrieved 27 July 2017.  ^ Massicard, Elise. The Alevis
Alevis
in Turkey
Turkey
and Europe: Identity and Managing Territorial Diversity. googlebooks.com. Google Books. Retrieved 5 June 2014.  ^ Tore Kjeilen. "Alevi". LookLex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Sabahat Akkiraz'dan Alevi
Alevi
raporu". haber.sol.org.tr. Retrieved 25 June 2014.  ^ From the introduction of Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East edited by her, B. Kellner-Heinkele, & A. Otter-Beaujean. Leiden: Brill, 1997. ^ Structure and Function in Turkish Society. Isis Press, 2006, p. 81. ^ From his Turkish Alevis
Alevis
Today. ^ "The Alevi
Alevi
of Anatolia," 1995. ^ Formation of Alevi
Alevi
Sycretism, Ceren Selmanpakoglu, 2006 ^ " Alevism
Alevism
" Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ The making of world society; Anghel, Gerharz et al.; Transaction Publishers; 2008; page 106 ^ "Are Syrian Alawites
Alawites
and Turkish Alevis
Alevis
the Same?". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Soner Cagaptay, The Rise of Turkey: The Twenty-First Century's First Muslim
Muslim
Power, p. 85. Date=? ^ Struggling for recognition, Sokefeld, Berghahn books, 2008, page 103 ^ Soner Cagaptay, The Rise of Turkey: The Twenty-First Century's First Muslim
Muslim
Power, p.90. Date=?, Publisher=? ^ David Zeidan: The Alevi
Alevi
of Anatolia, 1995. ^ Μποζανίνου Τάνια. "ΤΟ ΒΗΜΑ - Αλεβίτες, οι άγνωστοι "συγγενείς" μας - κόσμος". Tovima.gr. Retrieved 2012-11-22.  ^ a b c d Bilici, F: "The Function of Alevi- Bektashi
Bektashi
Theology
Theology
in Modern Turkey", seminar. Swedish Research Institute, 1996 ^ https://t24.com.tr/haber/neset-ertasi-camiden-yolcu-ederek-sevap-mi-islediniz,214123

Further reading[edit]

General introductions

Engin, Ismail & Franz, Erhard (2000). Aleviler
Aleviler
/ Alewiten. Cilt 1 Band: Kimlik ve Tarih / Identität und Geschichte. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient Institut (Mitteilungen Band 59/2000). ISBN 3-89173-059-4 Engin, Ismail & Franz, Erhard (2001). Aleviler
Aleviler
/ Alewiten. Cilt 2 Band: İnanç ve Gelenekler / Glaube und Traditionen. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient Institut (Mitteilungen Band 60/2001). ISBN 3-89173-061-6 Engin, Ismail & Franz, Erhard (2001). Aleviler
Aleviler
/ Alewiten. Cilt 3 Band: Siyaset ve Örgütler / Politik und Organisationen. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient Institut (Mitteilungen Band 61/2001). ISBN 3-89173-062-4 Kehl-Bodrogi, Krisztina (1992). Die Kizilbas/Aleviten. Untersuchungen uber eine esoterische Glaubensgemeinschaft in Anatolien. Die Welt des Islams, (New Series), Vol. 32, No. 1. Kitsikis, Dimitri (1999). Multiculturalism in the Ottoman Empire : The Alevi
Alevi
Religious and Cultural Community, in P. Savard & B. Vigezzi eds. Multiculturalism and the History of International Relations Milano: Edizioni Unicopli. Kjeilen, Tore (undated). "Alevism," in the (online) Encyclopedia of the Orient. Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis
Alevis
in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Curzon Press. Shindeldecker, John (1996). Turkish Alevis
Alevis
Today. Istanbul: Sahkulu. White, Paul J., & Joost Jongerden (eds.) (2003). Turkey’s Alevi Enigma: A Comprehensive Overview. Leiden: Brill. Yaman, Ali
Ali
& Aykan Erdemir (2006). Alevism-Bektashism: A Brief Introduction, London: England Alevi
Alevi
Cultural Centre & Cem Evi. ISBN 975-98065-3-3 Zeidan, David (1999) "The Alevi
Alevi
of Anatolia." Middle East Review of International Affairs 3/4.

Kurdish Alevis

Bumke, Peter (1979). "Kizilbaş-Kurden in Dersim (Tunceli, Türkei). Marginalität und Häresie." Anthropos 74, 530-548. Gezik, Erdal (2000), Etnik Politik Dinsel Sorunlar Baglaminda Alevi Kurtler, Ankara. Van Bruinessen, Martin (1997). "Aslını inkar eden haramzadedir! The Debate on the Kurdish Ethnic Identity of the Kurdish Alevis." In K. Kehl-Bodrogi, B. Kellner-Heinkele, & A. Otter-Beaujean (eds), Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East (Leiden: Brill). Van Bruinessen, Martin (1996). Kurds, Turks, and the Alevi
Alevi
revival in Turkey. Middle East Report, No. 200, pp. 7–10. (NB: The online version is expanded from its original publication.) White, Paul J. (2003), "The Debate on the Identity of ‘Alevi Kurds’." In: Paul J. White/Joost Jongerden (eds.) Turkey’s Alevi Enigma: A Comprehensive Overview. Leiden: Brill, pp. 17–32.

Alevi
Alevi
/ Bektashi
Bektashi
history

Birge, John Kingsley (1937). The Bektashi
Bektashi
order of dervishes, London and Hartford. Brown, John P. (1868), The Dervishes; or, Oriental Spiritualism. Küçük, Hülya (2002) The Roles of the Bektashis in Turkey’s National Struggle. Leiden: Brill. Mélikoff, Irène (1998). Hadji Bektach: Un mythe et ses avatars. Genèse et évolution du soufisme populaire en Turquie. Leiden: Islamic History and Civilization, Studies and Texts, volume 20, ISBN 90-04-10954-4. Shankland, David (1994). "Social Change and Culture: Responses to Modernization in an Alevi
Alevi
Village in Anatolia."In C.N. Hann, ed., When History Accelerates: Essays on Rapid Social Change, Complexity, and Creativity. London: Athlone Press. Yaman, Ali
Ali
(undated). " Kizilbash
Kizilbash
Alevi
Alevi
Dedes." (Based on his MA thesis for Istanbul
Istanbul
University.)

Ghulat
Ghulat
sects in general

Halm, H. (1982). Die Islamische Gnosis: Die extreme Schia und die Alawiten. Zurich. Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi, Krisztina, & Barbara Kellner-Heinkele, Anke Otter-Beaujean, eds. (1997) Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East. Leiden: Brill, pp. 11-18. Moosa, Matti (1988). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat
Ghulat
Sects, Syracuse University Press. Van Bruinessen, Martin (2005). "Religious practices in the Turco-Iranian world: continuity and change." French translation published as: "Les pratiques religieuses dans le monde turco-iranien: changements et continuités", Cahiers d'Études sur la Méditerranée Orientale et le Monde Turco-Iranien, no. 39-40, 101-121.

Alevi
Alevi
Identity

Erdemir, Aykan (2005). "Tradition and Modernity: Alevis' Ambiguous Terms and Turkey's Ambivalent Subjects", Middle Eastern Studies, 2005, vol.41, no.6, pp. 937–951. Koçan, Gürcan/Öncü, Ahmet (2004) "Citizen Alevi
Alevi
in Turkey: Beyond Confirmation and Denial." Journal of Historical Sociology, 17/4, pp. 464–489. Olsson, Tord & Elizabeth Özdalga/Catharina Raudvere, eds. (1998). Alevi
Alevi
Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives. Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute. Stokes, Martin (1996). "Ritual, Identity and the State: An Alevi (Shi’a) Cem Ceremony."In Kirsten E. Schulze et al. (eds.), Nationalism, Minorities and Diasporas: Identities and Rights in the Middle East,, pp. 194-196. Vorhoff, Karin (1995). Zwischen Glaube, Nation und neuer Gemeinschaft: Alevitische Identität in der Türkei der Gegenwart. Berlin.

Alevism
Alevism
in Europe

Geaves, Ron (2003) "Religion and Ethnicity: Community Formation in the British Alevi
Alevi
Community." Koninklijke Brill NV 50, pp. 52– 70. Kosnick, Kira (2004) "‘Speaking in One’s Own Voice’: Representational Strategies of Alevi
Alevi
Turkish Migrants on Open-Access Television in Berlin." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30/5, pp. 979-994. Massicard, Elise (2003) "Alevist Movements at Home and Abroad: Mobilization Spaces and Disjunction." New Perspective on Turkey, 28, pp. 163–188. Rigoni, Isabelle (2003) " Alevis
Alevis
in Europe: A Narrow Path towards Visibility." In: Paul J. White/Joost Jongerden (eds.) Turkey’s Alevi Enigma: A Comprehensive Overview, Leiden: Brill, pp. 159–173. Sökefeld, Martin (2002) " Alevi
Alevi
Dedes
Dedes
in the German Diaspora: The Transformation of a Religious Institution." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 127, pp. 163–189. Sökefeld, Martin (2004) " Alevis
Alevis
in Germany and the Question of Integration" paper presented at the Conference on the Integration of Immigrants from Turkey
Turkey
in Austria, Germany and Holland, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, February 27–28, 2004. Sökefeld, Martin & Suzanne Schwalgin (2000). "Institutions and their Agents in Diaspora: A Comparison of Armenians in Athens and Alevis
Alevis
in Germany." Paper presented at the 6th European Association of Social Anthropologist Conference, Krakau. Thomä-Venske, Hanns (1990). "The Religious Life of Muslim
Muslim
in Berlin." In: Thomas Gerholm/Yngve Georg Lithman (eds.) The New Islamic Presence in Western Europe, New York: Mansell, pp. 78–87. Wilpert, Czarina (1990) "Religion and Ethnicity: Orientations, Perceptions and Strategies among Turkish Alevi
Alevi
and Sunni
Sunni
Migrants in Berlin." In: Thomas Gerholm/Yngve Georg Lithman (eds.) The New Islamic Presence in Western Europe. New York: Mansell, pp. 88–106. Zirh, Besim Can (2008) "Euro-Alevis: From Gasterbeiter to Transnational Community." In: Anghel, Gerharz, Rescher and Salzbrunn (eds.) The Making of World Society: Perspectives from Transnational Research. Transcript; 103-130.

Bibliographies

Vorhoff, Karin. (1998), "Academic and Journalistic Publications on the Alevi
Alevi
and Bektashi
Bektashi
of Turkey." In: Tord Olsson/Elizabeth Özdalga/Catharina Raudvere (eds.) Alevi
Alevi
Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives, Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute, pp. 23–50.

Turkish-language works

Ata, Kelime. (2007), Alevilerin İlk Siyasal Denemesi: (Türkiye Birlik Partisi) (1966–1980). Ankara: Kelime Yayınevi. Aydın, Ayhan. (2008), Abidin Özgünay: Yazar Yayıncı ve Cem Dergisi Kurucusu. İstanbul: Niyaz Yayınları. Balkız, Ali. (1999), Sivas’tan Sydney’e Pir Sultan. Ankara: İtalik. Balkız, Ali. (2002), Pir Sultan’da Birlik Mücadelesi (Hızır Paşalar’a Yanıt). Ankara: İtalik. Bilgöl, Hıdır Ali. (1996), Aleviler
Aleviler
ve Canlı Fotoğraflar, Alev Yayınları. Coşkun, Zeki (1995) Aleviler, Sünniler ve … Öteki Sivas, Istanbul: İletişim Yayınları. Dumont, Paul. (1997), "Günümüz Türkiye’sinde Aleviliğin Önemi" içinde Aynayı Yüzüme Ali
Ali
Göründü Gözüme: Yabancı Araştırmacıların Gözüyle Alevilik, editör: İlhan Cem Erseven. İsntabul: Ant, 141-161. Engin, Havva ve Engin, Ismail (2004). Alevilik. Istanbul: Kitap Yayınevi. Gül, Zeynel. (1995), Yol muyuz Yolcu muyuz? İstanbul: Can Yayınları. Gül, Zeynel. (1999), Dernekten Partiye: Avrupa Alevi
Alevi
Örgütlenmesi. Ankara: İtalik. Güler, Sabır. (2008), Aleviliğin Siyasal Örgütlenmesi: Modernleşme, Çözülme ve Türkiye Birlik Partisi. Ankara: Dipnot. İrat, Ali
Ali
Murat. (2008), Devletin Bektaşi
Bektaşi
Hırkası / Devlet, Aleviler
Aleviler
ve Ötekiler. İstanbul: Chiviyazıları. Kaleli, Lütfü. (2000), "1964-1997 Yılları Arasında Alevi Örgütleri" içinde Aleviler/Alewiten: Kimlik ve Tarih/ Indentität und Geschichte, editörler: İsmail Engin ve Erhard Franz. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient-Institut, 223-241. Kaleli, Lütfü. (2000), Alevi
Alevi
Kimliği ve Alevi
Alevi
Örgütlenmeri. İstanbul: Can Yayınları. Kaplan, İsmail. (2000), "Avrupa’daki Alevi
Alevi
Örgütlenmesine Bakış" içinde Aleviler/Alewiten: Kimlik ve Tarih/ Indentität und Geschichte, editörler: İsmail Engin ve Erhard Franz. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient-Institut, 241-260. Kaplan, İsmail. (2009), Alevice: İnancımız ve Direncimiz. Köln: AABF Yayınları. Kocadağ, Burhan. (1996), Alevi
Alevi
Bektaşi
Bektaşi
Tarihi. İstanbul: Can Yayınları. Massicard, Elise. (2007), Alevi
Alevi
Hareketinin Siyasallaşması. İstanbul: İletişim. Melikoff, Irene. (1993), Uyur İdik Uyardılar. İstanbul: Cem Yayınevi. Okan, Murat. (2004), Türkiye’de Alevilik / Antropolojik Bir Yaklaşım. Ankara: İmge. Özerol, Süleyman. (2009), Hasan Nedim Şahhüseyinoğlu. Ankara: Ürün. Şahhüseyinoğlu, H. Nedim. (2001), Hızır Paşalar: Bir İhracın Perde Arkası. Ankara: İtalik. Şahhüseyinoğlu, Nedim. (1997), Pir Sultan
Pir Sultan
Kültür Derneği’nin Demokrasi Laiklik ve Özgürlük Mücadelesi. Ankara: PSAKD Yayınları. Şahhüseyinoğlu, Nedim. (2001), Alevi
Alevi
Örgütlerinin Tarihsel Süreci. Ankara: İtalik. Salman, Meral. 2006, Müze Duvarlarına Sığmayan Dergah: Alevi
Alevi
Bektaşi
Bektaşi
Kimliğinin Kuruluş Sürecinde Hacı Bektaş Veli Anma Görenleri. Ankara: Kalan. Saraç, Necdet. (2010), Alevilerin Siyasal Tarihi. İstanbul: Cem. Şener, Cemal ve Miyase İlknur. (1995), Şeriat ve Alevilik: Kırklar Meclisi’nden Günümüze Alevi
Alevi
Örgütlenmesi. İstanbul: Ant. Tosun, Halis. (2002), Alevi
Alevi
Kimliğiyle Yaşamak. İstanbul: Can Yayınları. Vergin, Nur (2000, [1981]), Din, Toplum ve Siyasal Sistem, İstanbul: Bağlam. Yaman, Ali
Ali
(2000) "Anadolu Aleviliği’nde Ocak Sistemi Ve Dedelik Kurumu." Alevi
Alevi
Bektaşi. Zırh, Besim Can. (2005), "Avro-Aleviler: Ziyaretçi İşçilikten Ulus-aşırı Topluluğa" Kırkbudak 2: 31-58. Zırh, Besim Can. (2006), "Avrupa Alevi
Alevi
Konfederasyonu Turgut Öker ile Görüşme" Kırkbudak 2: 51-71.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alevism.

Official Alevi- Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
of Derwishes website (in English) A Sufi
Sufi
Metamorphosis: Imam Ali History of Sufism
Sufism
/ Islamic Mysticism
Mysticism
and the importance of Ali Alevis
Alevis
(in English) Alevi
Alevi
Bektaşi
Bektaşi
Research Site (in Turkish) Semah from a TV show (YouTube) Semah - several samples (YouTube)

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Nafs
Nafs
al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh
Shaykh
Tusi Sheikh
Sheikh
Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism
Bektashism
and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Theology: Outline

Conceptions of God

Theism

Forms

Deism Dystheism Henotheism Hermeticism Kathenotheism Nontheism Monolatry Monotheism Mysticism Panentheism Pandeism Pantheism Polydeism Polytheism Spiritualism Theopanism

Concepts

Deity Divinity Gender of God
God
and gods

Male deity Goddess

Numen

Singular god theologies

By faith

Abrahamic religions

Judaism Christianity Islam

the Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism

Concepts

Absolute Brahman Emanationism Logos Supreme Being

God
God
as

the Devil Sustainer Time

Trinitarianism

Athanasian Creed Comma Johanneum Consubstantiality Homoousian Homoiousian Hypostasis Perichoresis Shield of the Trinity Trinitarian formula Trinity Trinity
Trinity
of the Church Fathers Trinitarian Universalism

Eschatology

Afterlife Apocalypticism Buddhist Christian Heaven Hindu Islamic Jewish Taoist Zoroastrian

Feminist

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Mormonism Goddesses

Other concepts

The All Aristotelian view Attributes of God
God
in Christianity / in Islam Binitarianism Demiurge Divine
Divine
simplicity Divine
Divine
presence Egotheism Exotheology Holocaust Godhead in Christianity

Latter Day
Day
Saints

Great Architect of the Universe Great Spirit Apophatic theology Olelbis Open theism Personal god Phenomenological definition Philo's view Process Tian Unmoved mover

Names of God
God
in

Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism

By Faith

Christian

History Outline Biblical canon Glossary Christology Cosmology Ecclesiology Ethics Hamartiology Messianism Nestorianism Philosophy Practical Sophiology Soteriology

Hindu

Ayyavazhi theology Krishnology

Islamic

Oneness of God Prophets Holy Scriptures Angels Predestination Last Judgment

Jewish

Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations Kabbalah Philosophy

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Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim
Muslim
history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

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Turkey articles

History

Pre-Turkish era

Prehistory of Anatolia
Anatolia
& Thrace Classical Anatolia
Anatolia
& Thrace Neo-Assyrian Empire Byzantine Anatolia

Seljuq era

Sultanate of Rum Mongol invasions of Anatolia Ilkhanate

Ottoman era

Osman's Dream Rise

Interregnum Conquest of Constantinople

Classical Age Transformation

Sultanate of Women Köprülü era

Old Regime

Tulip period

Decline and modernization

Tanzimat First Constitutional Era

Defeat and dissolution

Second Constitutional Era Partition

Republican era

War of Independence One-party period Multi-party period

By topic

Ancient Anatolians Constitutional Economic Military Thracians Timeline of Turkish history Turkic migration

Geography

Capes Cities Districts Earthquakes Environmental issues Gulfs and bays Islands Lakes Metropolitan municipalities Mountains Peninsulas Provinces Regions Rivers

Places

Anatolia Thrace (Eastern) Turkish Riviera Çukurova

Politics

Cabinet Elections Foreign relations Military Parliament President Prime Minister

Legal system

Constitution Constitutional Court Law enforcement Official gazette

Controversies

Deep state Conspiracy theories in Turkey EU accession Kemalism Neo-Ottomanism Ottomanism Political parties Secularism Northern Syria Security Belt Northern Cyprus

Economy

Banks

central bank

Borsa Istanbul
Istanbul
(stock exchange) Companies EU Customs Union Industries Lira (currency) Southeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
Project Tourism Transport

aviation railways

Rankings

Society

Crime Education Languages

Turkish

Culture

Architecture

Ottoman architecture

Art Cinema Cuisine

wine

Dance Drama (TV) Festivals Folklore Human rights

LGBT

Literature Media

newspapers radio stations TV

Music Names Public holidays Religion

Islam

Smoking Sport Theatre

Demographics

Turkish people

list

Population

diaspora immigration Muhacir

Minorities

Arabs Armenians Bosniaks Circassians Kurds

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag Motto Presidential seal

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Turkey
Turkey
portal Religion portal Islam
Islam
portal

Authority control

GN

.