The Kamba or Akamba people are a Bantu ethnic group - or tribe - who
live in the semi-arid formerly Eastern Province of
Tsavo and north up to Embu, Kenya. This land is
called Ukambani which constitutes of Makueni County,
Kitui County and
There is also a group of
Kamba people in the
South American country of
Paraguay. There are two groups: Kamba Cuá and Kamba Kokue with
the former being the most famous. Some sources claim that a group
of 250 freed slaves who had kept their Kamba identity arrived in
Paraguay in 1820 in the company of Jose Gervasio Artigas, an exiled
general from Uruguay. Their population is now estimated to be
10,000 people. The Kamba Cuá are famous for their African
traditional ballet that is described as the "central cultural identity
Sources vary on whether Kambas are the third, fourth or fifth largest
ethnic group in Kenya. They make up to 11 percent of Kenya's
population. They speak the Bantu
Kikamba language as a mother
tongue. The Kamba are predominantly based in Machakos, Kitui and
Makueni Counties of Kenya. The total population of the Kamba stands
at approximately 4.1 million. The Kamba are also called Akamba or
5 Early Slave Trade and Chief Kivoi
6 Colonialism and the 19th century
7 Culture and beliefs
7.1 The Akamba family
7.2 Naming and Kamba names
7.3 Kikamba music
7.4 Clothing and costumery
8 Notable Akamba people
11 External link
The Kamba are of Bantu origin. They are closely related in language
and culture to the Kikuyu, Embu, Mbeere and Meru, and are concentrated
in the lowlands of Southeast
Kenya from he vicinity of Mount
The first group of
Kamba people settled in present-day
Mbooni Hills in
Machakos District of
Kenya in the second half of the 17th century
before spreading to the greater Machakos, Makueni and Kitui
Other authorities suggest that they arrived in their present lowlands
east of Mount
Kenya area of inhabitation from earlier settlements
further to the north and east, while others argue that the Kamba,
along with their closely related Eastern Bantu neighbours the Kikuyu,
Embu, Mbeere and Meru moved into
Kenya from points further south.
According to Ethnologue, there are approximately 3,960,000 Kamba
speakers, with the number increasing. They live in Kenya, and are
concentrated in the Machakos, Kitui, Makueni counties and southern
Embu county of the former Eastern Province, Eastern parts of Muranga
and Kiambu counties, Taita -Taveta county and
Kwale County of the
former Coast Province. and also form one of the largest
populations in the urban city - counties of
Nairobi and Mombasa. The
Akamba share borders with the
Maasai people are literally separated by
the Kenya-Uganda railway from Athi to Kibwezi. Up until late 20th
Century the Maasai and the Akamba communities were involved in
persistent cattle-rustling and pasture conflicts especially on the
pasture-rich Konza plains. This attracted the interest of colonial
government who created Cooperative Society and the later the
establishment of Konza, Potha and Malili Ranches where the proposed
Konza Technology City
Konza Technology City sits.
Apart from Kenya,
Kamba people can also be found in Uganda, Tanzania
South American country of Paraguay. The population of Akamba in
Kenya is over 4, 348,000, about 8,280 in Uganda, 110,000 in Tanzania
and about 10,000 in the
South American country of Paraguay.
The Kamba speak the
Kamba language (also known as Kikamba) as a mother
tongue. It belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger-Congo language
family. Interestingly, Kikamba has no letters c, f, j, r, x, q and p
in its alphabet.
Like many Bantus the Akamba were originally hunters and gatherers,
became long distance traders because of their knowledge of the
expansive area they inhabited and good relations with neighbouring
communities as well as excellent communication skills, later adopted
subsitence farming and pastoralism due to the availability of the new
land that they came to occupy.
Today, the Akamba are often found engaged in different professions:
some are agriculturalists, others are traders, while others have taken
up formal jobs.
Barter trade with the Kikuyu, Maasai, Meru and Embu
people in the interior and the Mijikenda and
Arab people of the coast
was also practised by the Akamba who straddled the eastern plains of
Over time, the Akamba extended their commercial activity and wielded
economic control across the central part of the land that was later to
be known as
Kenya (from the Kikamba, 'Ki'nyaa', meaning 'the Ostrich
Country' derived from the reference they made to Mount
Kenya and its
snow cap similar to the male Ostrich), from the Indian Ocean in the
Lake Victoria in the west, and all the way up to Lake Turkana
on the northern frontier. The Akamba traded in locally produced goods
such as sugar cane wine, ivory, brass amulets, tools and weapons,
millet, and cattle. The food obtained from trading helped offset
shortages caused by droughts and famines experienced in their Kamba
They also traded in medicinal products known as 'Miti' (literally:
plants), made from various parts of the numerous medicinal plants
found on the Southeast African plains. Maingi Ndonye Mbithi, commonly
referred by his peers and locals as Kanyi, from Kimutwa village in
Machakos was best known for his concoction of herbs mixed with locally
fermented brew (kaluvu) with the ability to heal cancerous boils
(Mi'imu). The Akamba are still known for their fine
work in wood carving, basketry and pottery and the products .
Their artistic inclination is evidenced in the sculpture work that is
on display in many craft shops and galleries in the major cities and
towns of Kenya.
In the mid-eighteenth century, a large number of Akamba pastoral
groups moved eastwards from the
Tsavo and Kibwezi areas to the coast.
This migration was the result of extensive drought and lack of pasture
for their cattle. They settled in the Mariakani, Kinango, Kwale,
Mombasa West (Changamwe and Chaani) and Mombasa North (Kisauni) areas
of the coast of Kenya, creating the beginnings of urban settlement.
They are still found in large numbers in these towns, and have been
absorbed into the cultural, economic and political life of the
modern-day Coast Province. Several notable businessmen and women,
politicians, as well as professional men and women are direct
descendants of these itinerant pastoralists.
Early Slave Trade and Chief Kivoi
Chief Kivoi Mwendwa , 1849
Much of documented pre colonial history about the Kamba people
revolves around Kivoi Mwendwa famously known as 'Chief Kivoi' (born in
the 1780s). He was a Kamba long Distance trader who lived in the
present day Kitui. He is best known for guiding first Europeans to
reach the interior of the area of present day
Kenya where the German
Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann of the Anglican
Church Missionary Society (CMS), in 1849, discovered Mount Kenya.
At that time, Kitui was the home of Kivoi and he had several other
possessions along his caravan route. Kivoi commanded a large following
which included slaves, and it was he who met the missionaries in
Mombasa, and guided them to Kitui where - on December 3, 1849 - they
became the first Europeans to set eyes on Mount Kenya. Back in Europe,
their reports of snow on the equatorial mountain were met with
disbelief and ridicule for many years after.
Chief Kivoi interacted with
Arabs at the coast and Voi town was named
after him because that was one of his stop overs towns where caravans
settled before entered into the coastal town of Mombasa. According
locals of Voi Town, Kivoi settled along Voi River in the mid 1800s.
His actual birth date is unknown as is not recorded but he is believed
to have lived between 1780s to 19th August 1852. His descendants are
not known in historical context but he was adversely mentioned by Dr.
Ludwig Krapf in his Mission to Africa. According to Dr. Ludwig Krapf,
he was killed together with his immediate followers after his caravan
was attacked by robbers during an expedition in Tana River 2 miles
from present day Yatta . According to his diary entry Ludwig Krapf
says, 'This expedition proved most calamitous, and, as already
mentioned, Krapf's "escape with life was a marvel." When within a mile
or two of the Dana, the party was suddenly attacked by robbers. The
greater part of the caravan was instantly dispersed, Kivoi's people
flying in all directions; Kivoi himself was killed with his immediate
followers; Krapf fired his gun twice, but into the air, "for," said
he, "I could not bring myself to shed the blood of man;" and then he
found himself in the bash, separated from both friend and foe, and
flying in what he supposed to be the best direction.' After the death
of Chief Kivoi,
Ludwig Krapf was accused of causing his death and the
Akamba condemned him to die also. At midnight he managed to escape,
and fled in the direction of Yata. His perils were now greater than
before, as he was in an inhabited country, and feared to travel by day
lest he should be detected and murdered, while at night he frequently
missed his way, and in the dense darkness of the forests his compass
was of little use.
Colonialism and the 19th century
In the latter part of the 19th century the
Arabs took over the coastal
trade from the Akamba, who then acted as middlemen between the Arab
and Swahili traders and the tribes further upcountry. Their trade and
travel made them ideal guides for the caravans gathering elephant
tusks, precious stones and some slaves for the Middle Eastern, Indian,
and Chinese markets. Early European explorers also used them as guides
in their expeditions to explore Southeast Africa due to their wide
knowledge of the land and neutral standing with many of the other
societies they traded with.
During the colonial era, British colonial officials considered the
Kamba to be the premier martial race and sharp-shooters of Africa. The
Kamba themselves appeared to embrace this label by enlisting in the
colonial army in large numbers. After confidently describing the Kamba
serving in the King's African Rifles (the KAR, Britain's East African
colonial army) as loyal "soldiers of the Queen" during the Mau Mau
Emergency, a press release by the East Africa Command went on to
characterize the Kamba as a "fighting race." These sentiments were
echoed by other colonial observers in the early 1950s who deemed the
Kamba a hardy, virile, courageous, and "mechanically-minded tribe."
Considered by many officers to be the "best [soldierly] material in
Africa," the Kamba supplied the KAR with askaris (soldiers) at a rate
that was three to four times their percentage of the overall Kenyan
Kamba people were also very brave and successfully
resisted an attempt by the British colonialists to seize their
livestock in an obnoxious livestock control legislation in 1938. They
peacefully fought the British until the law was repealed. Among the
Akamba people, lack of rain is considered an event requiring ritual
intervention. As a result, they perform a ritual rain making dance
called Kilumi. It is a healing rite designed to restore environmental
balance through spiritual blessings, movement, offering, and prayers.
According to Akamba, Kilumi has been present since the very beginning
of Kamba existence. This ritual emphasizes symbolic dance movements as
a key force in achieving the goal of the ceremony. The heart of the
dance ritual is its spiritual essence; in fact, it is the spiritual
aspect that distinguishes the dances of Africans and their descendants
worldwide. For this reason, it is important to understand the nature
of rituals. Dance rituals take participants on a journey; they are
designed to foster a transformation moving them to different states,
with the ultimate goal of invoking spiritual intervention to resolve
the problem at hand.
Akamba resistance to colonial "pacification" was mostly non-violent in
nature. Some of the best known Akamba resistance leaders to
colonialism were: Syokimau, Syotune wa Kathukye, Muindi Mbingu, and
later Paul Ngei, JD Kali, and Malu of Kilungu. Ngei and Kali were
imprisoned by the colonial government for their anti-colonial
protests. Syotune wa Kathukye led a peaceful protest to recover cattle
confiscated by the British colonial government during one of their
raiding expeditions on the local populations.
Muindi Mbingu was arrested for leading another protest march to
recover stolen land and cattle around the Mua Hills in Masaku
district, which the British settlers eventually appropriated for
themselves. JD Kali, along with Paul Ngei, joined the
Mau Mau movement
Kenya for the
Kenyan people. This movement took place
between 1952-1960. He was imprisoned in
Kapenguria during the
fighting between the then government and the freedom fighters.
Culture and beliefs
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2014)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Mythology (Creation Story) Like all other Bantu, communities, the
Akamba have a story of origin that differs greatly from that of the
Kikuyu. It goes like: "In the beginning, Mulungu created a man and a
woman. This was the couple from heaven and he proceeded to place them
on a rock at Nzaui where their foot prints, including those of their
livestock can be seen to this day. Mulungu then caused a great
rainfall. From the many anthills around, a man and a woman came out.
These were the initiators of the ‘spirits clan’- the Aimo. It so
happened that the couple from heaven had only sons while the couple
from the anthill had only daughters. Naturally, the couple from heaven
paid dowry for the daughters of the couple from the anthill. The
family and their cattle greatly increased in numbers. With this
prosperity, they forgot to give thanks to their creator. Mulungu
punished them with a great famine. This led to dispersal as the family
scattered in search of food. Some became the Kikuyu, others the Meru
while some remained as the original people, the Akamba." The Akamba
are not specific about the number of children that each couple had
The Akamba believe in a monotheistic, invisible and transcendental
Ngai or Mulungu, who lives in the sky (yayayani or ituni).
Another venerable name for God is Asa, or the Father. He is also known
Ngai Mumbi (God the Creator) na Mwatuangi (God the finger-divider).
He is perceived as the omnipotent creator of life on earth and as a
merciful, if distant, entity. The traditional Akamba perceive the
spirits of their departed ones, the Aimu or Maimu, as the intercessors
between themselves and
Ngai Mulungu. They are remembered in family
rituals and offerings / libations at individual altars.
The Akamba family
Chief Kivoi Mwendwa , 1850s
In Akamba culture, the family (Musyi) plays a central role in the
community. The Akamba extended family or clan is called mbai. The man,
who is the head of the family, is usually engaged in an economic
activity popular among the community like trading, hunting,
cattle-herding or farming. He is known as Nau, Tata, or Asa.
The woman, whatever her husband's occupation, works on her plot of
land, which she is given upon joining her husband's household. She
supplies the bulk of the food consumed by her family. She grows maize,
millet, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, beans, pigeon peas, greens, arrow
root, cassava, and yam in cooler regions like Kangundo, Kilungu and
Mbooni. It is the mother's role to bring up the children. Even
children that have grown up into adults are expected to never
contradict the mother's wishes. The mother is known as Mwaitu ('our
Very little distinction is made between one's children and nieces and
nephews. They address their maternal uncle as inaimiwa and maternal
aunts as mwendya and for their paternal uncle and aunt as mwendw'au.
They address their paternal cousins as wa-asa or wa'ia (for men is
mwanaasa or mwanaa'ia, and for women is mwiitu wa'asa or mwiitu
wa'ia), and the maternal cousins (mother's side) as wa mwendya (for
men mwanaa mwendya; for women mwiitu wa mwendya). Children often move
from one household to another with ease, and are made to feel at home
by their aunts and uncles who, while in charge of their
nephews/nieces, are their de facto parents.
Grandparents (Susu or Usua (grandmother), Umau or Umaa (grandfather))
help with the less strenuous chores around the home, such as
rope-making, tanning leather, carving of beehives, three-legged wooden
stools, cleaning and decorating calabashes, making bows and arrows,
etc. Older women continue to work the land, as this is seen as a
source of independence and economic security. They also carry out
trade in the local markets, though not exclusively. In the modern
Akamba family, the women, especially in the urban regions, practice
professions such as teaching, law, medicine, nursing, secretarial
work, management, tailoring and other duties in accordance with
Kenya's socioeconomic evolution. The Kamba clans are: Anzauni, Aombe,
Akitondo, Amwei (Angwina), Atwii, Amumui, Aethanga, Atangwa, Amutei,
Aewani, Akitutu, Ambua, Aiini, Asii, Akiimi.
Naming and Kamba names
Basket-weaving, one of the traditional skills of the Kamba.
Naming of children is an important aspect of the Akamba people. In
most but not all cases, the first four children, two boys and two
girls, are named after the grandparents on both sides of the family.
The first boy is named after the paternal grandfather and the second
after the maternal grandfather. Girls are similarly named. Because of
the respect that the
Kamba people observe between the varied
relationships, there are people with whom they cannot speak in "first
The father and the mother in-law on the husband's side, for instance,
can never address their daughter in-law by her first name. Neither can
she address them by their first names. Yet she has to name her
children after them. To solve this problem, a system of naming is
adopted that gave names which were descriptive of the quality or
career of the grandparents. Therefore, when a woman is married into a
family, she is given a family name (some sort of baptismal name), such
as "Syomunyithya/ng'a Mutunga," that is, "she who is to be the mother
Her first son is to be called by this name. This name Munyithya was
descriptive of certain qualities of the paternal grandfather or of his
career. Thus, when she is calling her son, she would indeed be calling
her father in-law, but at the same time strictly observing the
cultural law of never addressing her in-laws by their first names.
After these four children are named, whose names were more or less
predetermined, other children could be given any other names,
sometimes after other relatives and / or family friends on both sides
of the family. Occasionally, children were given names that were
descriptive of the circumstances under which they were born:
"Nduku/Katuku" (girl) and "Mutuku/Kituku" (boy) meaning born at night,
"Kiloko" (girl) and "Kioko" (boy) born in the morning,
"Mumbua/Syombua" (girl) and "Wambua/Mbua" (boy) for the time of rain,
"Wayua" (girl) for the time of famine,
"Makau" (boy) for the time of war,
"Musyoka/Kasyuko/Musyoki" (boy) and "Kasyoka/Kasyoki" (girl) as a
re-incarnation of a dead family member,
"Mutua/Mutui" (boy) and "Mutuo/Mwikali" (girl) as indicative of the
long duration the parents had waited for this child, or a lengthy
period of gestation.
"Munyao" (boy) for the time of famine
"Mueni/Waeni" (girl) for the time of visitors
"Maundu" (boy) for the time of multiple activities/things
"Muthami/Muthama" (boy) for the time of migration
Children were also given affectionate names as expressions of what
their parents wished them to be in life. Such names would be like
"Muthui" (the rich one),
"Ngumbau" (hero, the brave one)
"Kitonga" (wealthy one)
Of course, some of these names could be simply expressive of the
qualities displayed by the man or woman after whom they were named.
Very rarely, a boy may be given the name "Musumbi" (meaning "king"). I
say very rarely because the
Kamba people did not speak much in terms
of royalty; they did not have a definite monarchical system. They were
ruled by a council of elders called kingole. There is a prophecy of a
man, who traces his ancestry to where the sun sets (west) (in the
present day county of Kitui) who will bear this name.
A girl could be called "Mumbe" meaning beautiful one or "Mwende"
(beloved); Wild animal names like Nzoka (snake), Mbiti (hyena), Mbuku
(hare), Munyambu (lion), or Mbiwa (fox); or domesticated animal names
like Ngiti (dog), Ng'ombe (cow), or Nguku (chicken), were given to
children born of mothers who started by giving stillbirths. This was
done to wish away the bad omen and allow the new child to survive.
Sometimes the names were used to preserve the good names for later
children. There was a belief that a woman's later children had a
better chance of surviving than her first ones.
The Akamba people's love of music and dance is evidenced in their
spectacular performances at many events in their daily lives or on
occasions of regional and national importance. In their dances they
display agility and athletic skills as they perform acrobatics and
body movements. The Akamba dance techniques and style resemble those
Rwanda-Burundi and the
Aembu of Kenya. The earliest,
most famous and respected traditional Kamba soloist who can be
documented was Mailu Mboo (Grand Father to Influx Swaggaa top Kenyan
Artiste) and came from "Kwa Vara" Now mwingi.
The following are some of the varieties of traditional dance styles of
the Akamba community:
Mwali (plural Myali), a dance accompanying a song, the latter which is
usually made to criticise anti-social behaviour.
Kilumi and Ngoma, religious dances, performed at healing and
Mwilu is a circumcision dance;
Mbalya or Ngutha is a dance for young people who meet to entertain
themselves after the day's chores are done.
Kamandiko, or the modern disco usually held after a wedding party.
Dances are usually accompanied by songs composed for the occasion
(marriage, birth, nationally important occasion), and reflect the
traditional structure of the Kikamba song, sung on a pentatonic scale.
The singing is lively and tuneful. Songs are composed satirising
deviant behaviour, anti-social activity, etc. The Akamba have famous
work songs, such as Ngulu Mwelela, sung while work, such as digging,
is going on. Herdsmen and boys have different songs, as do young
people and old. During the Mbalya dances the dance leader will compose
love songs and satirical numbers, to tease and entertain his/her
Clothing and costumery
The Akamba of the modern times, like most people in Kenya, dress
rather conventionally in western / European clothing. The men wear
trousers and shirts. Young boys will, as a rule, wear shorts and
short-sleeved shirts, usually in cotton, or tee-shirts. Traditionally,
Akamba men wore leather short kilts made from animal skins or tree
bark. They wore copious jewellery, mainly of copper and brass. It
consisted of neck-chains, bracelets, and anklets.
The women in modern Akamba society also dress in the European fashion,
taking their pick from dresses, skirts, trousers, jeans and shorts,
made from the wide range of fabrics available in Kenya. Primarily,
however, skirts are the customary and respectable mode of dress. In
the past, the women were attired in knee-length leather or bark
skirts, embellished with bead work. They wore necklaces made of beads,
these obtained from the Swahili and
Arab traders. They shaved their
heads clean, and wore a head band intensively decorated with beads.
The various kilumi or dance groups wore similar colours and patterns
on their bead work to distinguish themselves from other groups.
Traditionally, both men and women wore leather sandals especially when
they ventured out of their neighbourhoods to go to the market or on
visits. While at home or working in their fields, however, they
School children, male and female, shave their heads to maintain the
spirit of uniformity and equality. Currently the most popular Kamba
artist include; Ken Wamaria, Kativui, Kitunguu etc. Ken Wamaria is
rated as the top artist in Ukambani and the richest
Notable Akamba people
Kitili Maluki Mwendwa - The first black Chief Justice of independent
Nyiva Mwendwa - first female Cabinet Minister in
Kenya and wife to
Kitili Maluki Mwendwa
Syokimau - Prophetess and a great Healer
Kivutha Kibwana - Former cabinet minister, former Dean of Law Faculty
Nairobi and current Governor Makueni
Kiema Kilonzo - The first
Kenyan ambassador to Turkey
Mutula Kilonzo (2 July 1948 – 27 April 2013), was Senior Counsel,
former Cabinet Minister and first Senator of
Makueni County and was
succeeded by his son
Mutula Kilonzo Jr.
Francis Kimanzi - Former
Harambee Stars head coach
Nzamba Kitonga - Former President of the
East Africa Law Society and
COMESA Court of Justice
Samuel Kivuitu (1939 – 25 February 2013)-was the chairman of the now
defunct Electoral Commission of Kenya
Boniface Lele - Catholic Archbishop (Emeritus) Mombasa Archdiocese
Irene Koki Mutungi - She was the first female on the African continent
to become certified as a Captain of the
Boeing 787 "Dreamliner"
aircraft. She flies for
Kenya Airways, the national airline of Kenya.
Patrick Makau Musyoki
Patrick Makau Musyoki - Former world record holder in marathon
Julius Malombe - Former Governor of Kitui County
Benson Masya (14 May 1970 – 24 September 2003)- long distance runner
and marathon serial winner
Muindi Mbingu (sv) (1893–1953) was a
Kenyan political leader
who led an insurgency in the late 1930s under the slogan No Kikuu ("As
Agreed"); this was one of the harbingers of the
Mau Mau Uprising of
the 1950s. His uprising and subsequently the formation of the Mau Mau
started against colonialists as a result of the need for more grazing
land for the blacks to feed their cattle.
John Samuel Mbiti (born 30 November 1931), Theologian, Philosopher,
Priest, Emeritus professor at University of Bern, Parish minister in
Burgdorf, Switzerland. His is the one who translated the
Greek language into Kikamba. Some of his publications
include; Concepts of God in Africa, and New Testament Eschatology
in an African Background.
Jacob "Ghost" Mulee - Former
Harambee Stars head coach
Mutava Musyimi, MP - Former Member of Parliament Gachoka constituency
now Mbeere South Constituency in Embu County, Former Secretary
General, National Council of Churches, Kenya
Kalonzo Musyoka - Former
Kenyan Vice President and party leader of
Wiper Democratic Party
Alfred Mutua- Former
Kenya government Spokesman and current Governor
of Machakos County
Eric Mutua - Former chairman of the Law Society of
Kenya and treasurer
of the East Africa Law Society
Makau W. Mutua - is a
Kenyan born professor of law and the dean of the
University at Buffalo Law School
University at Buffalo Law School and a member of the Council on
Willy Mutunga - Former Chief Justice of Kenya
Onesmus Kimweli Mutungi - First
Kenyan to get a doctorate degree in
Caleb Ndiku -
Kenyan middle and long-distance runner.
John Nzau Mwangangi -
Kenyan long distance runner and the gold
medalist at the 2011 African Cross Country Championships
Benjamin Nzimbi - Retired Archbishop and Primate of the Anglican
Church of Kenya
Mwatu wa Ngoma A legendary precolonial Kamba warrior (Ngumbau ya
Philip Waki Judge Court of appeal Kenya, a
Kenyan judge. He is best
known for heading the 2008 Commission of Inquiry into Post-Election
Violence, also known as the Waki Commission. In April 2012, the Kenya
Judges and Magistrates Vetting Board cleared Justice Waki suitable to
continue holding office.
Musili Wambua - Associate Dean of the University of
Nairobi Faculty of
Law and Chancellor of University of Embu
Philomena Mwilu - the Deputy Chief Justice of Kenya
Wavinya Ndeti - A former Member of Parliament for Kathiani. She was
also appointed assistant minister of Youth and Sports by former
Kenya Mwai Kibaki. She was a WDM-K candidate for Machakos
Governor in 2017.
Chief Kivoi Mwendwa - He was a long distance slave trader and one who
Ludwig Krapf to Mount Kenya.
^ "KNBS 2009 Census". Archived from the original on 21 November 2013.
^ a b "Akamba people in Paraguay".
^ a b c "Appreciating the Akamba of
Paraguay in South America -
Investment News". investmentnews.co.ke.
^ "The Kamba of
Paraguay - Owaahh". 16 February 2017.
^ "The kamba tribe".
kenya-information-guide.com/kamba-tribe.html. Missing or empty
url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help)
^ "Kamba of Kenya". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
^ "Kenya: The Kamba tribe, including its traditions and beliefs; the
religion practised; and whether female genital mutilation is
practised". UNHCR. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
^ a b Joseph Bindloss, Tom Parkinson, Matt Fletcher, Lonely Planet
Kenya, (Lonely Planet: 2003), p.35.
^ a b Kaplan, Irving (1984). Kenya, a country study. Foreign Area
Studies, American University. p. 8.
^ Arnold Curtis, Kenya: a visitor's guide, (Evans Brothers: 1985),
^ a b c "
Ethnologue – Kamba". Ethnologue.com. 1999-02-19. Retrieved
^ "Kamba Tribe - Kenya's Bantu Tribe: Their History and Culture".
Kenya-information-guide.com. 2015-05-13. Retrieved 2015-11-13.
Mau Mau (1952-1960)". Retrieved 11 March 2015.
^ London: SPCK (April 1970). ISBN 0-281-02347-6
^ Oxford University Press (March 1971). ISBN 0-19-821659-9
Kioko, D. (2012). The Akamba people and music. Nairobi: Mvule
The Kamba on bluegekco, Tribes of Kenya
Ethnology of A-Kamba and Other Cb Author; C. W. Hobley
Members Of The 10th Parliament
Hitoshi Ueda (1971), Witchcraft and sorcery in Kitui of Kamba tribe,
[Nairobi]: University of Nairobi, Institute of African Studies
Media related to
Kamba people at Wikimedia Commons
Ethnic groups in Kenya
Source: Population and Housing Census - Ethnic Affiliation