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The ÅLAND ISLANDS or ÅLAND (Swedish : Åland, IPA: ; Finnish : Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland . It is autonomous , demilitarised and is the only monolingually Swedish-speaking region in Finland. It is the smallest region of Finland , constituting 0.49% of its land area and 0.50% of its population.

Åland comprises Fasta Åland on which 90% of the population resides and a further 6,500 skerries and islands to its east. Fasta Åland is separated from the coast of Sweden
Sweden
by 38 kilometres (24 mi) of open water to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago Sea . Åland's only land border is located on the uninhabited skerry of Märket , which it shares with Sweden.

Åland's autonomous status means that those provincial powers normally exercised by representatives of the central Finnish government are largely exercised by its own government .

CONTENTS

* 1 Autonomy * 2 Etymology * 3 History * 4 Politics * 5 Administration * 6 Municipalities * 7 Geography * 8 Climate * 9 Economy

* 10 Demographics

* 10.1 Births and deaths * 10.2 Ethnicity and language * 10.3 Religion

* 11 Sport * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

AUTONOMY

See also: Special
Special
member state territories and the European Union

The autonomous status of the islands was affirmed by a decision made by the League of Nations in 1921 following the Åland crisis . It was reaffirmed within the treaty admitting Finland to the European Union . By law, Åland is politically neutral and entirely demilitarised, and residents are exempt from conscription to the Finnish Defence Forces . The islands were granted extensive autonomy by the Parliament of Finland in the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920, which was later replaced by new legislation by the same name in 1951 and 1991. Åland remains exclusively Swedish-speaking by this act.

In connection with Finland's admission to the European Union, a protocol was signed concerning the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
that stipulates, among other things, that provisions of the European Community Treaty shall not force a change of the existing restrictions for foreigners (i.e., persons who do not enjoy "home region rights" (hembygdsrätt) in Åland) to acquire and hold real property or to provide certain services.

ETYMOLOGY

Åland's original name was in the Proto-Norse language *Ahvaland which means "Land of Water". In Swedish, this first developed into ÁLAND and eventually into Åland, literally "river land"—even though rivers are not a prominent feature of Åland's geography. The Finnish and Estonian names of the island, Ahvenanmaa and Ahvenamaa ("perch land"), are seen to preserve another form of the old name.

Another theory suggests that the Finnish Ahvenanmaa would be the original name of the archipelago, from which the Swedish Åland derives.

The official name, Landskapet Åland, means "the Region of Åland"; landskap is cognate to English "landscape".

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Åland Islands
History of the Åland Islands
Swedish Map of Åland from before 1667 with shipping lanes, harbors, churches and various boundaries marked

Members of the Neolithic Comb Ceramic culture started settling the islands some 7000 years ago, after the islands had begun to re-emerge from the sea after being pushed down by the weight of the continental ice of the latest ice age . Two neolithic cultures met on Åland: Comb Ceramic culture and later Pit-Comb Ware culture which spread from the west.

Stone Age and Bronze Age people obtained food by hunting seals and birds, fishing, and gathering plants. They also started agriculture early on. In the Iron Age , contacts to Scandinavia were increasing. From the Viking age there are over 380 documented burial sites and six castle ruins.

In the 1200s, Finland became part of Sweden. The Åland Islands formed part of the territory ceded to Russia
Russia
by Sweden
Sweden
under the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in September 1809. As a result, they became part of the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland .

During this process, Sweden
Sweden
failed to secure a provision that the islands not be fortified. The issue was important not only for Sweden but also for the United Kingdom, which was concerned that a military presence on the islands could threaten Britain's military and commercial interests.

In 1832, Russia
Russia
started to fortify the islands with the great fortress of Bomarsund . A combined British and French force of warships and marines captured and destroyed the fortress in 1854 as part of the campaign in the Baltic during the Crimean War . The 1856 Treaty of Paris demilitarised the entire Åland archipelago.

During the Finnish Civil War , in 1918, Swedish troops intervened as a peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands and "White" and "Red" Finnish troops who came from Finland over the frozen sea. (Historians point out that Sweden
Sweden
may have in reality planned to occupy the islands.) Within weeks, the Swedish troops gave way to German troops who occupied Åland by request of the "White" (conservative) Senate of Finland . Åland (blue) with historical and modern provinces of Finland (yellow) juxtaposed.

After 1917 the residents of the islands worked towards having them ceded to Sweden. In 1919 a petition for secession from Finland and integration with Sweden
Sweden
was signed by 96.4% of the voters on the islands, with over 95% in favour. Swedish nationalist sentiments had grown strong particularly as a result of the anti-Swedish tendencies in Finland and Finnish nationalism fueled by Finland's struggle to retain its autonomy and resistance against Russification . The conflict between the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority on the mainland, prominent in Finnish politics since the 1840s, contributed to the apprehension of the Åland population about its future in Finland.

Finland, however, declined to cede the islands and instead offered them an autonomous status. Nevertheless, the residents did not approve the offer, and the dispute over the islands was submitted to the League of Nations . The latter decided that Finland should retain sovereignty over the province but that the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
should be made an autonomous territory. Thus Finland was obliged to ensure the residents of the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
the right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. At the same time, an international treaty established the neutral status of Åland, prohibiting the placing of military installations or forces on the islands.

The combination of disappointment about insufficient support from Sweden
Sweden
in the League of Nations, Swedish disrespect for Åland's demilitarised status in the 1930s, and some feelings of a shared destiny with Finland during and after World War II
World War II
has changed the islanders' perception of Åland's relation to Finland from "a Swedish province in Finnish possession" to "an autonomous part of Finland". The islanders enjoyed safety at sea during World War II, as their merchant fleet sailed for both the Allied countries and Germany. Consequently, Åland shipping was not generally attacked as each side rarely knew which cargo was being carried to whom.

Finland marked the 150th anniversary of demilitarisation of the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
by issuing a high-value commemorative coin, the €5 150th Anniversary of Demilitarisation of Åland Islands
Åland Islands
commemorative coin , minted in 2006. The obverse depicts a pine tree, very typical in the Åland Islands. The reverse design features a boat's stern and rudder, with a dove perched on the tiller, a symbol of 150 years of peace.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Åland The Parliament of Åland . The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
during the Crimean War . It was here that the Battle of Bomarsund was fought.

The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy from Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarised status. The Government of Åland , or Landskapsregering, answers to the Parliament of Åland , or Lagting, in accordance with the principles of parliamentarism .

Åland has its own flag, has issued its own postage stamps since 1984, runs its own police force, and is an associate member of the Nordic Council . Since 2005 the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
also have had their own airline, Air Åland . The islands are demilitarised, and the population is exempt from conscription . Although Åland's autonomy preceded the creation of the regions of Finland , the autonomous government of Åland also has responsibility for the functions undertaken by Finland's regional councils. Åland is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation . The islands are considered a separate "nation" for amateur radio purposes and have their own callsign prefix granted by Finland, OH0 OF0 and OG0 (last character is zero).

The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
are guaranteed representation in the Finnish parliament , to which they elect one representative. Åland also has a different system of political parties from the mainland (see List of political parties in Finland ).

Homeschooling , which was effectively banned in Sweden
Sweden
in 2011, is allowed by the Finnish government. Due to the islands' proximity to Sweden
Sweden
and because the islands are Swedish speaking, a number of Swedish homeschooling families have moved from the Swedish mainland to Åland, including Jonas Himmelstrand, the chairman of the Swedish association for homeschooling.

ADMINISTRATION

An Åland license plate.

The State Department of Åland represents the Finnish central government and performs many administrative duties. It has a somewhat different function from the other Regional Administrative Agencies, owing to its autonomy. Prior to 2010, the state administration was handled by the Åland State Provincial Office .

Åland has its own postal administration but still uses the Finnish five-digit postal code system, using the number range 22000-22999, with the prefix AX. The lowest numbered postal code is for the capital Mariehamn, AX 22100, and the highest AX 22950 for Jurmo.

MUNICIPALITIES

Main article: Municipalities of Åland
Municipalities of Åland

* Brändö
Brändö
(465) * Eckerö (932) * Finström
Finström
(2,529) * Föglö (564) * Geta (509) * Hammarland (1,521) * Jomala (4,646) * Kumlinge (315) * Kökar (243) * Lemland (1,991) * Lumparland (390) * Mariehamn
Mariehamn
(11,521) * Saltvik (1,827) * Sottunga (99) * Sund (1,033) * Vårdö (433)

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Åland
Geography of Åland
Geographical features and municipalities of the Åland Islands. Sheep grazing on a small island.

The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
occupy a position of strategic importance, as they command one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm
Stockholm
, as well as the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia , in addition to being situated near the Gulf of Finland .

The Åland archipelago includes nearly three hundred habitable islands, of which about eighty are inhabited; the remainder are merely some 6,200 skerries and desolate rocks. The archipelago is connected to Åboland
Åboland
archipelago in the east (Finnish : Turunmaan saaristo, Swedish : Åbolands skärgård)—the archipelago adjacent to the southwest coast of Finland. Together they form the Archipelago Sea . To West from Åland is Sea of Åland and to North the Bothnian Sea .

The surface of the islands is generally rocky and the soil thin due to glacial stripping at the end of the most recent ice age. There are several harbours.

The islands' landmass occupies a total area of 1,527 square kilometres (590 sq mi). Ninety percent of the population live on Fasta Åland , which is also the site of the capital town of Mariehamn . Fasta Åland is the largest island in the archipelago. Its area is difficult to estimate due to its irregular shape and coastline, but estimates range from 740 square kilometres to 879 square kilometres to over 1,010 square kilometres, depending on what is included or excluded.

During the Åland crisis , the parties sought support from different maps of the islands. On the Swedish map, the most densely populated main island dominated, and many skerries were left out. On the Finnish map, many smaller islands or skerries were, for technical reasons, given a slightly exaggerated size. The Swedish map made the islands appear to be closer to the mainland of Sweden
Sweden
than to Finland; the Finnish map stressed the continuity of the archipelago between the main island and mainland Finland , while a greater gap appeared between the islands and the archipelago on the Swedish side. One consequence is the often repeated number of "over 6,000" skerries that was given authority by the outcome of the arbitration.

CLIMATE

Åland has a humid continental climate that is influenced by its maritime position, especially in summer. While summers are cooler than on both the Swedish and Finnish mainland, winters see little difference to the adjacent parts of Sweden
Sweden
and are only narrowly milder than in mainland Finland.

CLIMATE DATA FOR MARIEHAMN NORMALS 1981–2010

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 10.9 (51.6) 10.5 (50.9) 15.4 (59.7) 21.1 (70) 26.7 (80.1) 29.4 (84.9) 29.9 (85.8) 30.7 (87.3) 24.8 (76.6) 19.0 (66.2) 14.1 (57.4) 10.1 (50.2) 30.7 (87.3)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) −0.3 (31.5) 2.3 (36.1) 7.4 (45.3) 13.3 (55.9) 17.2 (63) 20.4 (68.7) 19.4 (66.9) 14.7 (58.5) 9.5 (49.1) 4.6 (40.3) 1.7 (35.1) 9.3 (48.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −2.5 (27.5) −3.5 (25.7) −0.9 (30.4) 3.5 (38.3) 8.5 (47.3) 12.8 (55) 16.2 (61.2) 15.3 (59.5) 10.9 (51.6) 6.5 (43.7) 2.2 (36) −1.0 (30.2) 5.7 (42.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −5.3 (22.5) −6.6 (20.1) −4.1 (24.6) −0.5 (31.1) 3.7 (38.7) 8.2 (46.8) 11.8 (53.2) 11.1 (52) 7.1 (44.8) 3.5 (38.3) −0.2 (31.6) −3.7 (25.3) 2.1 (35.8)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −32.3 (−26.1) −32.9 (−27.2) −25.0 (−13) −18.9 (−2) −6.5 (20.3) −2.2 (28) 1.2 (34.2) 0.5 (32.9) −6.7 (19.9) −11.8 (10.8) −20.0 (−4) −28.9 (−20) −32.9 (−27.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 49.7 (1.957) 31.4 (1.236) 33.4 (1.315) 28.6 (1.126) 33.4 (1.315) 52.3 (2.059) 55.6 (2.189) 75.1 (2.957) 60.0 (2.362) 68.1 (2.681) 66.5 (2.618) 56.5 (2.224) 610.5 (24.035)

Source #1: Météo Climat

Source #2: Météo Climat

ECONOMY

Ferry port in Överö , Föglö .

Åland's economy is heavily dominated by shipping, trade and tourism . Shipping represents about 40% of the economy, with several international carriers owned and operated off Åland. Most companies aside from shipping are small, with fewer than ten employees. Farming and fishing are important in combination with the food industry. A few high-profile technology companies contribute to a prosperous economy. Wind power is rapidly developing, aiming at reversing the direction in the cables to the mainland in coming years. In December 2011 wind power accounted for 31.48% of Åland's total electricity usage.

The main ports are Mariehamn
Mariehamn
(south), Berghamn (west) and Långnäs on the eastern shore of the Main Island.

Mariehamn
Mariehamn
was the base for the last large oceanic commercial sailing ships in the world. Their final tasks were bringing Australian wheat to Great Britain, on which Åland shipowner Gustaf Erikson
Gustaf Erikson
kept going until after WW2, 1947 being his last year. The ships latterly made only one round-trip from South Australia to Britain per year, (the grain race ), after each marathon voyage going back to Mariehamn
Mariehamn
to lay up for a few months. The ship Pommern , now a museum in Mariehamn, was one of these last vessels.

The abolition of tax-free sales on ferry boats travelling between destinations within the European Union made Finland demand an exception for the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
on the European Union value added tax rules . The exception allows for maintained tax-free sales on the ferries between Sweden
Sweden
and Finland (provided they stop at Mariehamn
Mariehamn
or Långnäs) and at the airport , but has also made Åland a different tax-zone, meaning that tariffs must be levied on goods brought to the islands.

Unemployment was 3.9% in January 2014

The Finnish State collects taxes, duties and fees also in Åland. In return, the Finnish Government places a sum of money at the disposal of the Åland Parliament. The sum is 0.45% of total Government income, excluding Government loans. If the sum paid to the Finnish state exceedes 0.5%, then any amount above that will go back to the Parliament of Åland as "diligence money". In 2010, the amount of taxes paid by Åland Islanders was 0.65% of the total taxes paid in Finland.

According to Eurostat , in 2006 Åland was the 20th wealthiest of the EU's 268 regions, and the wealthiest in Finland, with a GDP per inhabitant 47% above the EU mean.

While the official currency is the Euro
Euro
, the Swedish krona is unofficially accepted by most businesses in Åland.

DEMOGRAPHICS

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

Births and deaths:

AVERAGE POPULATION LIVE BIRTHS DEATHS NATURAL CHANGE CRUDE BIRTH RATE (PER 1000) CRUDE DEATH RATE (PER 1000) NATURAL CHANGE (PER 1000)

1951

340 279 61

1952

362 221 141

1953

382 260 122

1954

331 244 87

1955

303 200 103

1956

330 209 121

1957

327 248 79

1958

330 217 113

1959

313 226 87

1960

328 250 78

1961

317 237 80

1962

297 229 68

1963

293 222 71

1964

315 264 51

1965

331 229 102

1966

324 226 98

1967

338 223 115

1968

314 244 70

1969

298 262 36

1970

283 225 58

1971

302 228 74

1972

296 219 77

1973

299 229 70

1974

283 255 28

1975

296 219 77 13.3 9.9 3.4

1976

275 203 72

1977

247 202 45

1978

268 215 53

1979

262 192 70

1980 22,700 300 236 64 13.2 10.4 2.8

1981 22,900 267 214 53 11.7 9.4 2.3

1982 23,100 287 214 73 12.4 9.3 3.2

1983 23,300 281 246 35 12.0 10.5 1.5

1984 23,500 273 230 43 11.6 9.8 1.8

1985 23,600 287 241 46 12.2 10.2 1.9

1986 23,600 272 213 59 11.5 9.0 2.5

1987 23,700 276 220 56 11.6 9.3 2.4

1988 23,900 345 216 129 14.4 9.0 5.4

1989 24,100 323 297 26 13.4 12.3 1.1

1990 24,400 362 226 136 14.8 9.3 5.6

1991 24,700 324 256 68 13.1 10.4 2.8

1992 24,900 325 278 47 13.0 11.2 1.9

1993 25,000 329 241 88 13.1 9.6 3.5

1994 25,100 303 261 42 12.1 10.4 1.7

1995 25,200 338 258 80 13.4 10.2 3.2

1996 25,200 290 281 9 11.5 11.1 0.4

1997 25,300 286 241 45 11.3 9.5 1.8

1998 25,500 311 237 74 12.2 9.3 2.9

1999 25,700 287 297 −10 11.2 11.6 −0.4

2000 25,700 258 247 11 10.0 9.6 0.4

2001 25,900 283 228 55 10.9 8.8 2.1

2002 26,100 269 236 33 10.3 9.0 1.3

2003 26,300 262 268 −6 10.0 10.2 −0.2

2004 26,400 281 262 19 10.6 9.9 0.7

2005 26,600 268 259 9 10.1 9.7 0.3

2006 26,800 295 257 38 11.0 9.6 1.4

2007 27,000 286 249 37 10.6 9.2 1.4

2008 27,300 294 250 44 10.8 9.2 1.6

2009 27,600 267 247 20 9.7 9.0 0.7

2010 28,007 286 255 31 10.2 9.1 1.1

2011 28, 355

2012 28,502

2013 28, 666

2013 29, 013

A mock wedding in Jomala . This event, a reenactment of an 1800s farmer's wedding (bondbröllop) is held annually, mostly as a tourist attraction.

ETHNICITY AND LANGUAGE

See also: Languages of Åland

Most inhabitants speak Swedish (the sole official language ) as their first language : 90.2% in 2009, while 5.0% spoke Finnish . The language of instruction in publicly financed schools is Swedish (In the rest of Finland, bilingual municipalities provide schooling both in Finnish and in Swedish). (See Åland Swedish for information about the dialect.)

The issue of the ethnicity of the Ålanders, and the correct linguistic classification of their language, remains somewhat sensitive and controversial. They may be considered either ethnic Swedes or Swedish-speaking Finns , but their language is closer to the Uppländska dialect of Sweden
Sweden
than to Finland Swedish . See Languages of Sweden
Sweden
.

Regional citizenship or the right of domicile (hembygdsrätt) is a prerequisite for voting, standing as a candidate for the Legislative Assembly, or owning and holding real estate situated in unplanned areas of Åland.

RELIGION

The St. Olaf\'s Church, Jomala , is the oldest in Finland.

The majority of the population, 75.9%, belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland . The Åland islands contain Finland's oldest Christian churches, including St. Olaf\'s Church, Jomala , which dating from the late 13th century is likely to be the oldest in Finland. The Åland Islands' largest church is the Church of St. George in Sund , dating from shortly after.

SPORT

The sailing ship Linden (center) in Östra Hamnen, Mariehamn's eastern port.

* Åland competes in the biennial Island Games , which it hosted in 1991 and 2009. * Åland United and IFK Mariehamn
Mariehamn
are the islands' leading football clubs.

Åland Stags are the islands' only Rugby Union club.

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Europe
Europe
portal * Finland portal

* Outline of the Åland Islands * Index of Åland Islands-related articles * Bibliography of the Åland Islands * * Åland crisis * Åland Islands national football team * Åland Swedish · Languages of Åland * Flag of Åland * Government of Åland * Heraldry of Åland * Provincial Governors of Finland * Public holidays in Åland * Transport on the Åland Islands

REFERENCES

* ^ Tim Vickery, Associated Press (18 July 2004) Deseret News. * ^ Hurst Hannum (1993). "Agreement between Sweden
Sweden
and Finland Relating to Guarantees in the Law of 7 May 1920 on the Autonomy of the Aaland Islands". Basic Documents on Autonomy and Minority Rights. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 141. ISBN 0-7923-1977-X . * ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, helmikuu.2016". Pxnet2.stat.fi. Retrieved 31 March 2016. * ^ "Välkommen till ÅSUB! - Ålands statistik- och utredningsbyrå". Asub.ax. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ "Human Development Report 2007". Asub.ex. 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ "The Aland Islands". Osterholm.info. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2017. * ^ A B C D Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of Am