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The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
or Åland (Swedish: Åland, IPA: [ˈoːland]; Finnish: Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
belonging to Finland. It is autonomous, demilitarised and is the only monolingually Swedish-speaking region in Finland. It is the smallest region of Finland, constituting 0.49% of its land area and 0.50% of its population. Åland comprises Fasta Åland
Fasta Åland
on which 90% of the population resides[6] and a further 6,500 skerries and islands to its east.[7] Fasta Åland
Fasta Åland
is separated from the coast of Sweden
Sweden
by 38 kilometres (24 mi) of open water to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea. Åland's only land border is located on the uninhabited skerry of Märket, which it shares with Sweden.[8] Åland's autonomous status means that those provincial powers normally exercised by representatives of the central Finnish government are largely exercised by its own government.

Contents

1 Autonomy 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Politics 5 Administration 6 Municipalities 7 Geography 8 Climate 9 Economy 10 Demographics

10.1 Births and deaths

11 Culture

11.1 Ethnicity and language 11.2 Religion 11.3 Sport

12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Autonomy[edit] See also: Special
Special
member state territories and the European Union The autonomous status of the islands was affirmed by a decision made by the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1921 following the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
dispute. It was reaffirmed within the treaty admitting Finland
Finland
to the European Union. By law, Åland is politically neutral and entirely demilitarised, and residents are exempt from conscription to the Finnish Defence Forces. The islands were granted extensive autonomy by the Parliament of Finland
Finland
in the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920, which was later replaced by new legislation by the same name in 1951 and 1991. The constitution of Finland
Finland
defines a "constitution of Åland" by referring to this act. Åland remains exclusively Swedish-speaking by this act.[9] In connection with Finland's admission to the European Union, a protocol was signed concerning the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
that stipulates, among other things, that provisions of the European Community Treaty shall not force a change of the existing restrictions for foreigners (i.e., persons who do not enjoy "home region rights" — hembygdsrätt — in Åland) to acquire and hold real property or to provide certain services.[10] Etymology[edit] Åland's original name was in the Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
*Ahvaland which means "land of water". In Swedish, this first developed into Áland and eventually into Åland, literally "river land"—even though rivers are not a prominent feature of Åland's geography. The Finnish and Estonian names of the island, Ahvenanmaa and Ahvenamaa ("perch land"), are seen to preserve another form of the old name.[11] Another theory suggests that the Finnish Ahvenanmaa would be the original name of the archipelago, from which the Swedish Åland derives.[12] The official name, Landskapet Åland, means "the Region of Åland"; landskap is cognate to English "landscape". History[edit] Main article: History of the Åland Islands

Swedish Map of Åland from before 1667 with shipping lanes, harbors, churches and various boundaries marked

Members of the Neolithic
Neolithic
Comb Ceramic
Comb Ceramic
culture started settling the islands some 7000 years ago, after the islands had begun to re-emerge from the sea after being pushed down by the weight of the continental ice of the latest ice age. Two neolithic cultures met on Åland: Comb Ceramic culture and later Pit-Comb Ware culture which spread from the west.[13] Stone Age
Stone Age
and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
people obtained food by hunting seals and birds, fishing, and gathering plants. They also started agriculture early on. In the Iron Age, contacts to Scandinavia were increasing. From the Viking age there are over 380 documented burial sites and six castle ruins.[13] In the 1200s, Finland
Finland
became part of Sweden.[13] The Åland Islands formed part of the territory ceded to Russia
Russia
by Sweden
Sweden
under the Treaty of Fredrikshamn
Treaty of Fredrikshamn
in September 1809. As a result, they became part of the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. During this process, Sweden
Sweden
failed to secure a provision that the islands not be fortified. The issue was important not only for Sweden but also for the United Kingdom, which was concerned that a military presence on the islands could threaten Britain's military and commercial interests. In 1832, Russia
Russia
started to fortify the islands with the great fortress of Bomarsund. A combined British and French force of warships and marines captured and destroyed the fortress in 1854 as part of the campaign in the Baltic during the Crimean War. The 1856 Treaty of Paris demilitarised the entire Åland archipelago.[14] During the Finnish Civil War, in 1918, Swedish troops intervened as a peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands and "White" and "Red" Finnish troops who came from Finland
Finland
over the frozen sea. (Historians[who?] point out that Sweden
Sweden
may have in reality planned to occupy the islands.) Within weeks, the Swedish troops gave way to German troops who occupied Åland by request of the "White" (conservative) Senate of Finland.

Åland (blue) with historical and modern provinces of Finland
Finland
(yellow) juxtaposed.

After 1917 the residents of the islands worked towards having them ceded to Sweden. In 1919 a petition for secession from Finland
Finland
and integration with Sweden
Sweden
was signed by 96.4% of the voters on the islands, with over 95% in favour.[15] Swedish nationalist sentiments had grown strong particularly as a result of the anti-Swedish tendencies in Finland
Finland
and Finnish nationalism fueled by Finland's struggle to retain its autonomy and resistance against Russification. The conflict between the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority on the mainland, prominent in Finnish politics since the 1840s, contributed to the apprehension of the Åland population about its future in Finland. Finland, however, declined to cede the islands and instead offered them an autonomous status. Nevertheless, the residents did not approve the offer, and the dispute over the islands was submitted to the League of Nations. The latter decided that Finland
Finland
should retain sovereignty over the province but that the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
should be made an autonomous territory. Thus Finland
Finland
was obliged to ensure the residents of the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
the right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. At the same time, an international treaty established the neutral status of Åland, prohibiting the placing of military installations or forces on the islands.[16] The combination of disappointment about insufficient support from Sweden
Sweden
in the League of Nations, Swedish disrespect for Åland's demilitarised status in the 1930s, and some feelings of a shared destiny with Finland
Finland
during and after World War II
World War II
has changed the islanders' perception of Åland's relation to Finland
Finland
from "a Swedish province in Finnish possession" to "an autonomous part of Finland".[17] The islanders enjoyed safety at sea during World War II, as their merchant fleet sailed for both the Allied countries and Germany. Consequently, Åland shipping was not generally attacked as each side rarely knew which cargo was being carried to whom. Finland
Finland
marked the 150th anniversary of demilitarisation of the Åland Islands by issuing a high-value commemorative coin, the €5 150th Anniversary of Demilitarisation of Åland Islands
Åland Islands
commemorative coin, minted in 2006. The obverse depicts a pine tree, very typical in the Åland Islands. The reverse design features a boat's stern and rudder, with a dove perched on the tiller, a symbol of 150 years of peace. Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Åland

The Parliament of Åland.

The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
during the Crimean War. It was here that the Battle of Bomarsund was fought.

The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy from Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarised status. The Government of Åland, or Landskapsregering, answers to the Parliament of Åland, or Lagting, in accordance with the principles of parliamentarism.[9] Åland has its own flag, has issued its own postage stamps since 1984,[18] runs its own police force, and is an associate member of the Nordic Council.[19] Since 2005, the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
also have had their own airline, Air Åland.[20] The islands are demilitarised, and the population is exempt from conscription. Although Åland's autonomy preceded the creation of the regions of Finland, the autonomous government of Åland also has responsibility for the functions undertaken by Finland's regional councils. Åland is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation. The islands are considered a separate "nation" for amateur radio purposes and have their own call sign prefix granted by Finland, OH0, OF0 and OG0 (last character is zero).[21] The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
are guaranteed representation in the Finnish parliament, to which they elect one representative. Åland also has a different system of political parties from the mainland (see List of political parties in Finland). Homeschooling, which was effectively banned in Sweden
Sweden
in 2011, is allowed by the Finnish government. Due to the islands' proximity to Sweden
Sweden
and because the islands are Swedish speaking, a number of Swedish homeschooling families have moved from the Swedish mainland to Åland, including Jonas Himmelstrand, the chairman of the Swedish association for homeschooling.[22] Administration[edit]

An Åland license plate.

The State Department of Åland represents the Finnish central government and performs many administrative duties. It has a somewhat different function from the other Regional Administrative Agencies, owing to its autonomy. Before 2010, the state administration was handled by the Åland State Provincial Office. Åland has its own postal administration but still uses the Finnish five-digit postal code system, using the number range 22000-22999, with the prefix AX. The lowest numbered postal code is for the capital Mariehamn, AX 22100, and the highest AX 22950 for Jurmo. Municipalities[edit] Main article: Municipalities of Åland

Brändö
Brändö
(465) Eckerö
Eckerö
(932) Finström
Finström
(2,529) Föglö
Föglö
(564) Geta (509) Hammarland
Hammarland
(1,521) Jomala
Jomala
(4,646) Kumlinge
Kumlinge
(315) Kökar
Kökar
(243) Lemland
Lemland
(1,991) Lumparland
Lumparland
(390) Mariehamn
Mariehamn
(11,521) Saltvik
Saltvik
(1,827) Sottunga
Sottunga
(99) Sund (1,033) Vårdö
Vårdö
(433)

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Åland

Geographical features and municipalities of the Åland Islands.

Sheep grazing on a small island.

The Åland Islands
Åland Islands
occupy a position of strategic importance, as they command one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm, as well as the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia, in addition to being situated near the Gulf of Finland. The Åland archipelago includes nearly three hundred habitable islands, of which about eighty are inhabited; the remainder are merely some 6,200 skerries and desolate rocks.[7] The archipelago is connected to Åboland
Åboland
archipelago in the east (Finnish: Turunmaan saaristo, Swedish: Åbolands skärgård)—the archipelago adjacent to the southwest coast of Finland. Together they form the Archipelago Sea. To the West from Åland is the Sea of Åland
Sea of Åland
and to the North is the Bothnian Sea. The surface of the islands is generally rocky and the soil thin due to glacial stripping at the end of the most recent ice age.[7] The islands also contain many meadows that are home to many different kinds of insects, such as the Glanville fritillary
Glanville fritillary
butterfly. There are several harbours. The islands' landmass occupies a total area of 1,527 square kilometres (590 sq mi).[23] Ninety percent of the population live on Fasta Åland, which is also the site of the capital town of Mariehamn. Fasta Åland
Fasta Åland
is the largest island in the archipelago. Its area is difficult to estimate due to its irregular shape and coastline, but estimates range from 740 square kilometres[7] to 879 square kilometres[24] to over 1,010 square kilometres, depending on what is included or excluded. During the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
dispute, the parties sought support from different maps of the islands. On the Swedish map, the most densely populated main island dominated, and many skerries were left out. On the Finnish map, many smaller islands or skerries were, for technical reasons, given a slightly exaggerated size. The Swedish map made the islands appear to be closer to the mainland of Sweden
Sweden
than to Finland; the Finnish map stressed the continuity of the archipelago between the main island and mainland Finland, while a greater gap appeared between the islands and the archipelago on the Swedish side. One consequence is the often repeated number of "over 6,000" skerries that was given authority by the outcome of the arbitration.[citation needed] Climate[edit] Åland has a humid continental climate that is influenced by its maritime position, especially in summer. While summers are cooler than on both the Swedish and Finnish mainland, winters see little difference to the adjacent parts of Sweden
Sweden
and are only narrowly milder than in mainland Finland.

Climate data for Mariehamn
Mariehamn
normals 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 10.9 (51.6) 10.5 (50.9) 15.4 (59.7) 21.1 (70) 26.7 (80.1) 29.4 (84.9) 29.9 (85.8) 30.7 (87.3) 24.8 (76.6) 19.0 (66.2) 14.1 (57.4) 10.1 (50.2) 30.7 (87.3)

Average high °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) −0.3 (31.5) 2.3 (36.1) 7.4 (45.3) 13.3 (55.9) 17.2 (63) 20.4 (68.7) 19.4 (66.9) 14.7 (58.5) 9.5 (49.1) 4.6 (40.3) 1.7 (35.1) 9.3 (48.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) −2.5 (27.5) −3.5 (25.7) −0.9 (30.4) 3.5 (38.3) 8.5 (47.3) 12.8 (55) 16.2 (61.2) 15.3 (59.5) 10.9 (51.6) 6.5 (43.7) 2.2 (36) −1.0 (30.2) 5.7 (42.3)

Average low °C (°F) −5.3 (22.5) −6.6 (20.1) −4.1 (24.6) −0.5 (31.1) 3.7 (38.7) 8.2 (46.8) 11.8 (53.2) 11.1 (52) 7.1 (44.8) 3.5 (38.3) −0.2 (31.6) −3.7 (25.3) 2.1 (35.8)

Record low °C (°F) −32.3 (−26.1) −32.9 (−27.2) −25.0 (−13) −18.9 (−2) −6.5 (20.3) −2.2 (28) 1.2 (34.2) 0.5 (32.9) −6.7 (19.9) −11.8 (10.8) −20.0 (−4) −28.9 (−20) −32.9 (−27.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 49.7 (1.957) 31.4 (1.236) 33.4 (1.315) 28.6 (1.126) 33.4 (1.315) 52.3 (2.059) 55.6 (2.189) 75.1 (2.957) 60.0 (2.362) 68.1 (2.681) 66.5 (2.618) 56.5 (2.224) 610.5 (24.035)

Source #1: Météo Climat[25]

Source #2: Météo Climat[26]

Economy[edit]

Ferry port in Överö, Föglö.

Åland's economy is heavily dominated by shipping, trade and tourism. Shipping represents about 40% of the economy, with several international carriers owned and operated off Åland. Most companies aside from shipping are small, with fewer than ten employees. Farming and fishing are important in combination with the food industry. A few high-profile technology companies contribute to a prosperous economy. Wind power is rapidly developing, aiming at reversing the direction in the cables to the mainland in coming years. In December 2011, wind power accounted for 31.48% of Åland's total electricity usage.[citation needed] The main ports are Mariehamn
Mariehamn
(south), Berghamn (west) and Långnäs
Långnäs
on the eastern shore of the Main Island. Mariehamn
Mariehamn
was the base for the last large oceanic commercial sailing ships in the world. Their final tasks were bringing Australian wheat to Great Britain, on which Åland shipowner Gustaf Erikson
Gustaf Erikson
kept going until after WW2, 1947 being his last year. The ships latterly made only one round-trip from South Australia to Britain per year, (the grain race), after each marathon voyage going back to Mariehamn
Mariehamn
to lay up for a few months. The ship Pommern, now a museum in Mariehamn, was one of these last vessels. The abolition of tax-free sales on ferry boats travelling between destinations within the European Union
European Union
made Finland
Finland
demand an exception for the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
on the European Union
European Union
value added tax rules. The exception allows for maintained tax-free sales on the ferries between Sweden
Sweden
and Finland
Finland
(provided they stop at Mariehamn
Mariehamn
or Långnäs) and at the airport, but has also made Åland a different tax-zone, meaning that tariffs must be levied on goods brought to the islands. Unemployment was 3.9% in January 2014[27] The Finnish State collects taxes, duties and fees also in Åland. In return, the Finnish Government places a sum of money at the disposal of the Åland Parliament. The sum is 0.45% of total Government income, excluding Government loans. If the sum paid to the Finnish state exceeds 0.5%, then any amount above that will go back to the Parliament of Åland
Parliament of Åland
as "diligence money".[28] In 2010, the amount of taxes paid by Åland Islanders was 0.65% of the total taxes paid in Finland.[29] According to Eurostat, in 2006 Åland was the 20th wealthiest of the EU's 268 regions, and the wealthiest in Finland, with a GDP per inhabitant 47% above the EU mean.[30][31] While the official currency is the Euro, the Swedish krona
Swedish krona
is unofficially accepted by most businesses in Åland.[32] Demographics[edit] Births and deaths[edit] Births and deaths:[33]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)

1951

340 279 61

1952

362 221 141

1953

382 260 122

1954

331 244 87

1955

303 200 103

1956

330 209 121

1957

327 248 79

1958

330 217 113

1959

313 226 87

1960

328 250 78

1961

317 237 80

1962

297 229 68

1963

293 222 71

1964

315 264 51

1965

331 229 102

1966

324 226 98

1967

338 223 115

1968

314 244 70

1969

298 262 36

1970

283 225 58

1971

302 228 74

1972

296 219 77

1973

299 229 70

1974

283 255 28

1975

296 219 77 13.3 9.9 3.4

1976

275 203 72

1977

247 202 45

1978

268 215 53

1979

262 192 70

1980 22,700 300 236 64 13.2 10.4 2.8

1981 22,900 267 214 53 11.7 9.4 2.3

1982 23,100 287 214 73 12.4 9.3 3.2

1983 23,300 281 246 35 12.0 10.5 1.5

1984 23,500 273 230 43 11.6 9.8 1.8

1985 23,600 287 241 46 12.2 10.2 1.9

1986 23,600 272 213 59 11.5 9.0 2.5

1987 23,700 276 220 56 11.6 9.3 2.4

1988 23,900 345 216 129 14.4 9.0 5.4

1989 24,100 323 297 26 13.4 12.3 1.1

1990 24,400 362 226 136 14.8 9.3 5.6

1991 24,700 324 256 68 13.1 10.4 2.8

1992 24,900 325 278 47 13.0 11.2 1.9

1993 25,000 329 241 88 13.1 9.6 3.5

1994 25,100 303 261 42 12.1 10.4 1.7

1995 25,200 338 258 80 13.4 10.2 3.2

1996 25,200 290 281 9 11.5 11.1 0.4

1997 25,300 286 241 45 11.3 9.5 1.8

1998 25,500 311 237 74 12.2 9.3 2.9

1999 25,700 287 297 −10 11.2 11.6 −0.4

2000 25,700 258 247 11 10.0 9.6 0.4

2001 25,900 283 228 55 10.9 8.8 2.1

2002 26,100 269 236 33 10.3 9.0 1.3

2003 26,300 262 268 −6 10.0 10.2 −0.2

2004 26,400 281 262 19 10.6 9.9 0.7

2005 26,600 268 259 9 10.1 9.7 0.3

2006 26,800 295 257 38 11.0 9.6 1.4

2007 27,000 286 249 37 10.6 9.2 1.4

2008 27,300 294 250 44 10.8 9.2 1.6

2009 27,600 267 247 20 9.7 9.0 0.7

2010 28,007 286 255 31 10.2 9.1 1.1

2011 28, 355

2012 28,502 292 323 −31 10.3 11.4 −1.1

2013 28, 666 287 269 18 10.0 9.4 0.6

2014 29, 013 282 251 31 9.8 8.7 1.1

2015

275 285 −10 9.5 9.8 −0.3

2016

293 296 −3 10.1 10.2 −0.1

A mock wedding in Jomala. This event, a reenactment of an 1800s farmer's wedding (bondbröllop) is held annually, mostly as a tourist attraction.

Culture[edit] Ethnicity and language[edit] See also: Languages of Åland Most inhabitants speak Swedish (the sole official language) as their first language: 90.2% in 2009, while 5.0% spoke Finnish. The language of instruction in publicly financed schools is Swedish (In the rest of Finland, bilingual municipalities provide schooling both in Finnish and in Swedish). (See Åland Swedish
Åland Swedish
for information about the dialect.) The issue of the ethnicity of the Ålanders, and the correct linguistic classification of their language, remains somewhat sensitive and controversial. They may be considered either ethnic Swedes
Swedes
or Swedish-speaking Finns, but their language is closer to the Uppländska dialect of Sweden
Sweden
than to Finland
Finland
Swedish. See Languages of Sweden. Regional citizenship or the right of domicile (hembygdsrätt) is a prerequisite for voting, standing as a candidate for the Legislative Assembly, or owning and holding real estate situated in unplanned areas of Åland.[9] Religion[edit]

The St. Olaf's Church, Jomala, is the oldest in Finland.

The majority of the population, 75.9%, belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland.[34] The Åland islands contain Finland's oldest Christian churches, including St. Olaf's Church, Jomala, which dating from the late 13th century is likely to be the oldest in Finland. The Åland Islands' largest church is the Church of St. George in Sund, dating from shortly after.[35] Sport[edit]

The sailing ship Linden (center) in Östra Hamnen, Mariehamn's eastern port.

Åland competes in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1991 and 2009. Åland United
Åland United
and IFK Mariehamn
Mariehamn
are the islands' leading football clubs.

Åland Stags is the islands' only Rugby Union club. See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe
Europe
portal Finland
Finland
portal

Outline of the Åland Islands Index of Åland-related articles Bibliography of the Åland Islands

Åland Islands
Åland Islands
dispute Åland Islands
Åland Islands
official football team Åland Swedish · Coat of arms of Åland Languages of Åland Flag of Åland Government of Åland Provincial Governors of Finland Public holidays in Åland Transport on the Åland Islands

References[edit]

^ Tim Vickery, Associated Press (18 July 2004) Deseret News. ^ Hurst Hannum (1993). "Agreement between Sweden
Sweden
and Finland
Finland
Relating to Guarantees in the Law of 7 May 1920 on the Autonomy of the Aaland Islands". Basic Documents on Autonomy and Minority Rights. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 141. ISBN 0-7923-1977-X.  ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, helmikuu.2016". Pxnet2.stat.fi. Retrieved 31 March 2016.  ^ "Välkommen till ÅSUB! - Ålands statistik- och utredningsbyrå". Asub.ax. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "Human Development Report 2007". Asub.ex. 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "The Aland Islands". Osterholm.info. 9 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b c d Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 3. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.  ^ An account of the border on Märket
Märket
and how it was redrawn in 1985 appears in Hidden Europe
Europe
Magazine, 11 (November 2006) pp. 26–29, ISSN 1860-6318 ^ a b c "Act on the Autonomy of Åland" (PDF). Finlex. 1991. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ "Åland in the European Union
European Union
p.7". Europe
Europe
Information. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ Virrankoski, Pentti (2001). Suomen historia. Ensimmäinen osa. SKS. ISBN 951-746-321-9. p. 59. ^ Lars Hulden (2001) Finlandssvenska bebyggelsenamn; Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. ISBN 951-583-071-0. ^ a b c "åland, the history". Aland Museum. Retrieved 2016-01-15.  ^ "Uneasy Sweden
Sweden
and the Menace of Prussianism; An Analysis of the Scandinavian Situation in View of Kaiser's Reported Ambition to Make the Baltic a German Lake". Query.nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ ch, Beat Müller, beat (at-sign) sudd (dot). "Åland-Inseln (Finnland), ??. Juni 1919 : Anschluss an Schweden -- [in German]". Sudd.ch. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ Elgán, Elisabeth (2015). Historical Dictionary of Sweden. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 26. ISBN 9781442250710.  ^ The recognition of states: law and practice in debate and evolution, Thomas D. Grant, illustrated, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0-275-96350-0, ISBN 978-0-275-96350-7, pg. 129–130 ^ "Product catalogue". Aland Stamps. Retrieved 10 February 2017.  ^ "The 2007 Session of the Nordic Council". European Tribune. 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2017.  ^ "Air Åland". Airaland.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "International Prefixes". Radio Society of Great Britain. Retrieved 10 February 2017.  ^ "Allt fler hemundervisare flyttar till Åland". Ålandstidningen. Retrieved 12 August 2015.  ^ "Statistical Yearbook of Finland
Finland
2016" (PDF). Stat.fi. p. 505. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.  ^ Europe, Council of (2012-01-01). Biodiversity and Climate Change: Reports and Guidance Developed Under the Bern Convention. Council of Europe. p. 251. ISBN 9789287170590.  ^ " Finland
Finland
climate averages 1981–2010". Météo Climat.  ^ "Extreme values for Jomala
Jomala
Maarianahaminan Lentoansema". Météo Climat. March 19, 2017.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.  ^ "Lagtingets uppgifter". Lagtinget.ax. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 20 August 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Ahvenanmaa on EU:n 20. vaurain alue". Helsingin Sanomat. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.  ^ Symington, Andy; Bain, Carolyn; Bonetto, Cristian; Ham, Anthony & Kaminski, Anna (2013), Scandinavia, Lonely Planet  ^ "Välkommen till ÅSUB! - Ålands statistik- och utredningsbyrå". Asub.ax. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Churches in Åland". Muuka.com. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Åland (category)

Wikimedia Atlas of Åland Åland official site (in English) Government of Åland
Government of Åland
(in Swedish) B7 Baltic Islands Network The example of Åland, autonomy as a minor protector The Åland example: autonomy protects a minority Ålandstidningen (local newspaper).

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Regions of Finland

Regions

Åland Central Finland Central Ostrobothnia Kainuu Kymenlaakso Lapland North Karelia Northern Ostrobothnia Northern Savonia Ostrobothnia Päijänne Tavastia Pirkanmaa Satakunta South Karelia Southern Ostrobothnia Southern Savonia Southwest Finland Tavastia Proper Uusimaa

Former regions

Eastern Uusimaa

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Nordic countries

Countries

 Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden

Dependencies

 Åland Islands  Faroe Islands  Greenland

Climate of the Nordic countries Comparison of the Nordic countries Nordic Council Nordic Cross flag Subdivisions of the Nordic countries

v t e

Former provinces of Finland

In parentheses are years when provinces were established and disestablished.

1634–1775

Turku and Pori (1634) Nyland and Tavastehus (1634) Ostrobothnia (1634–1775) Viborg and Nyslott (1634–1721) Kexholm (1634–1721) Kymmenegård and Nyslott (1721–1747) Savolax and Kymmenegård (1747–1775)

1775–1831

Turku and Pori (1634) Nyland and Tavastehus (1634–1831) Vaasa (1775) Oulu (1775) Kymmenegård (1775–1831) Savolax and Karelia (1775–1831) Viipuri (1812)

1831–1918

Turku and Pori (1634) Vaasa (1775) Oulu (1775) Viipuri (1812) Häme (1831) Uusimaa
Uusimaa
(1831) Mikkeli (1831) Kuopio (1831)

1918–1997

Turku and Pori (1634–1997) Vaasa (1775–1997) Oulu (1775) Viipuri (1812–1945) Häme (1831–1997) Uusimaa
Uusimaa
(1831–1997) Mikkeli (1831–1997) Kuopio (1831–1997) Åland (1918) Petsamo (1921–1921) Lapland (1938) Kymi (1945–1997) Central Finland
Finland
(1960–1997) Northern Karelia (1960–1997)

1997–2009

Oulu (1775–2009) Åland (1918–2009) Lapland (1938–2009) Southern Finland
Finland
(1997–2009) Western Finland
Finland
(1997–2009) Eastern Finland
Finland
(1997–2009)

v t e

Inhabited islands in the Baltic Sea

Denmark

Bornholm Ertholmene Falster Lolland Møn

Estonia

Abruka Aegna Hiiumaa Kassari Kesselaid Kihnu Kõinastu Manilaid Mohni Muhu Naissaar Prangli Osmussaar Ruhnu Saaremaa Väike-Pakri Vilsandi Vormsi

Finland

Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Islands (Åland Islands) Hailuoto Kimitoön Laajasalo Lauttasaari Replot Suomenlinna

Germany

Dänholm Fehmarn Hiddensee Poel Rügen Ummanz Usedom

Poland

Uznam Wolin

Russia

Kotlin

Sweden

Blekinge archipelago Fårö Gotland Stora Karlsö Stockholm
Stockholm
archipelago Öland

v t e

Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

Dependencies

Denmark

Faroe Islands1

autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia2

Sovereign Base Areas

Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122565375 ISNI: 0000 0001 1219 5448 GND: 4079677-2 BNF:

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