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Rodent
Anomaluromorpha Castorimorpha Hystricomorpha
Hystricomorpha
(inc. Caviomorpha
Caviomorpha
) Myomorpha Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha
Combined range of all rodent species (not including introduced populations)RODENTS (from Latin
Latin
rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order RODENTIA, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws . About 40% of all mammal species are rodents; they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica
Antarctica
. They are the most diversified mammalian order and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats , including human-made environments
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata
Vertebrata
, which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
, comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Megaannum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Holocene
The HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history , development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Suborder
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Habitat
A HABITAT is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal , plant , or other type of organism . The term typically refers to the zone in which the organism lives and where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population . A habitat is made up of physical factors such as soil , moisture , range of temperature , and light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators . Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are very specific in their requirements
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Antarctica
ANTARCTICA (UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/ , US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ ( listen )) is Earth
Earth
's southernmost continent . It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region of the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, almost entirely south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle , and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean . At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica
Antarctica
is nearly twice the size of Australia
Australia
. About 98% of Antarctica
Antarctica
is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula
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Jaw
The JAW is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth , typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term jaws is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of most animals. CONTENTS * 1 Arthropods * 2 Vertebrates * 2.1 Fish
Fish
* 2.2 Amphibians, reptiles, and birds * 2.3 Mammals * 3 Sea urchins * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ARTHROPODS Further information: Mandible (arthropod mouthpart) and Mandible (insect mouthpart) The mandibles of a bull ant In arthropods , the jaws are chitinous and oppose laterally, and may consist of mandibles or chelicerae . These jaws are often composed of numerous mouthparts . Their function is fundamentally for food acquisition, conveyance to the mouth, and/or initial processing (mastication or chewing)
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Late Paleocene
The THANETIAN is, in the ICS Geologic timescale
Geologic timescale
, the latest age or uppermost stratigraphic stage of the Paleocene
Paleocene
Epoch or series . It spans the time between 59.2 and 56 Ma. The Thanetian is preceded by the Selandian age and followed by the Ypresian age (part of the Eocene ). The Thanetian is sometimes referred to as the Late Paleocene
Paleocene
. CONTENTS * 1 Stratigraphic definition * 2 Palaeontology * 3 See also * 3.1 Notes * 3.2 Literature * 4 External links STRATIGRAPHIC DEFINITIONThe Thanetian was established by Swiss geologist Eugène Renevier in 1873
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Thomas Edward Bowdich
THOMAS EDWARD BOWDICH (20 June 1791 – 10 January 1824) was an English traveller and author. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links LIFEBowdich was born at Bristol
Bristol
and educated at Bristol
Bristol
Grammar School . In 1813, he married Sarah Wallis , who shared his subsequent career. In 1814, through his uncle, J. Hope-Smith, governor of the British Gold Coast settlements, he obtained a writership in the service of the African Company of Merchants and was sent to Cape Coast
Cape Coast
. In 1817, he was sent, with two companions, William Hutchison and Henry Tedlie, to Kumasi
Kumasi
on a mission to the king of Ashanti , and chiefly through his skillful diplomacy the mission succeeded in its object of securing British control over the coast natives
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Devonian
The DEVONIAN is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic , spanning 60 million years from the end of the