CAVIOMORPHA is the rodent infraorder or parvorder that unites all NEW
WORLD HYSTRICOGNATHS . It is supported by both fossil and molecular
* 1 Origin * 2 Diversity * 3 Families * 4 References * 5 See also
The first known rodent fossils in
South America are represented by
the three taxa _Cachiyacuy contamanensis_, _C. kummeli_, and
_Canaanimys maquiensis_, as well as teeth from _Eobranisamys_ sp.
(Dasyproctidae) and _Eospina_ sp., the latter two found also in the
Santa Rosa fauna from the late
Eocene or early
During this time, South America was isolated from all other continents . Several hypotheses have been proposed as to how hystricognath rodents colonized this island continent. Most require that a small group of these rodents traveled across ocean bodies atop a raft of mangroves or driftwood .
The most common hypothesis suggests that the ancestor to all modern
caviomorphs rafted across the
Atlantic Ocean (then narrower) from
The principal alternative hypothesis is that the caviomorph ancestor
Alternatively, the caviomorphs may have originated in Asia, but
traveled through Africa,
New World monkeys appear to have colonized South America from Africa at a similar time.
Caviomorphs went on to colonize the West Indies as far as the Bahamas , reaching the Greater Antilles by the early Oligocene. This is commonly viewed as another example of oceanic dispersal, although a role for a possible land bridge has also been considered.
Caviomorph rodents underwent an explosive diversification upon arrival into South America. They managed to outcompete other animals in rodent-like niches such as certain South American marsupials . Retaining predominantly herbivorous diets, they expanded their sizes to encompass a range from rat -sized echimyids to the bison -sized _ Phoberomys _. Their ecologies included burrowing gopher -like forms such as tuco-tucos , arboreal forms such as porcupines and certain spiny rats , running forms such as maras , and aquatic forms such as the capybara and nutria (Vassallo and Antenucci, 2015). Habitats range from grasslands (maras), high mountains (chinchillas and chinchilla rats ), forest edges (prehensile-tailed porcupines ) and dense tropical forests (pacas and acouchis ).
Although many species of caviomorphs have migrated into Central
America since the
Great American Interchange
* INFRAORDER CAVIOMORPHA - NEW WORLD HYSTRICOGNATHS
* †_Luribayomys _ - _incertae sedis _
* Superfamily Erethizontoidea
* Family Erethizontidae - New World porcupines
* Superfamily Cavioidea
* Superfamily Octodontoidea
* †_Caviocricetus _ - _incertae sedis_ * †_Dicolpomys _ - _incertae sedis_ * †_Morenella _ - _incertae sedis_ * †_Plateomys _ - _incertae sedis_ * †_Tainotherium _ Turvey, Grady ">
* ^ _A_ _B_ Vélez-Juarbe, J.; Martin, T.; Macphee, R. D. E.;
Ortega-Ariza, D. (January 2014). "The earliest
* Huchon, D. E. J. P. Douzery. 2001. "From the Old World to the New World: A molecular chronicle of the phylogeny and biogeography of hystricognath rodents". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 20:238-251. * Jenkins, P. D., C. W. Kilpatrick, M. F. Robinson, and R. J. Timmins. 2004. "Morphological and molecular investigations of a new family, genus and species of rodent (Mammalia: Rodentia: Hystricognatha) from Lao PDR". Systematics and Biodiversity, 2:419-454. * Lavocat, R. 1969. "La systématique des rongeurs hystricomorphes et la dérive des continents". C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sér. D., 269:1496-1497. * Marivaux, L. M. Vianey-Liaud, and J.-J. Jaeger. 2004. "High-level phylogeny of early Tertiary rodents: dental evidence". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 142:105-134. * McKenna, Malcolm C., and Bell, Susan K. 1997. _Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level._ Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8 * Opazo, J. C. 2005. A molecular timescale for Caviomorph rodents (Mammalia, Hystricognathi). "Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution", 37:932-937. * Vassallo, A. I., and C. D. Antenucci. 2015. Biology of Caviomorph Rodents: Diversity and Evolution. Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos (SAREM) Series A Mammalogical Research. * Wood, A. E. 1985. The relationships, origin, and dispersal of hystricognath rodents. pp 475–513 in _Evolutionary relationships among rodents, a multidisciplinary approach_ (W. P. Luckett and J.-R. Hartenberger, eds.). Plenum Press, New York.
* v * t * e
Extant families in order Rodentia
* Aplodontiidae (Mountain beaver) * Gliridae (Dormice) * Sciuridae (Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, susliks and prairie dogs)
Myomorpha ("Mouse-like") Dipodoidea Dipodidae (Jerboas, jumping mice and birch mice) Muroidea Platacanthomyidae (Oriental dormice) Spalacidae (Zokors, bamboo rats, mole rats, blind mole rats) Calomyscidae (Mouse-like hamsters) Nesomyidae (Malagasy rats and relatives) Cricetidae (Hamsters and relatives) Muridae (House mouse and relatives)
* Anomaluridae (Anomalures) * Pedetidae (Springhares)