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The term HYSTRICOMORPHA (from Greek ὕστριξ, hystrix = "porcupine" and Greek μορφή, morphē = "form") has had many definitions throughout its history. In the broadest sense, it refers to any rodent (except dipodoids ) with a hystricomorphous zygomasseteric system . This includes the Hystricognathi , Ctenodactylidae , Anomaluridae , and Pedetidae
Pedetidae
. Molecular and morphological results suggest the inclusion of the Anomaluridae and Pedetidae
Pedetidae
in Hystricomorpha
Hystricomorpha
may be suspect. Based on Carleton "> Skull of a capybara showing the enlarged infraorbital canal present in most members of the Hystricomorpha: This condition is termed hystricomorphy .

The modern definition of Hystricomorpha, also known as ENTODACRYA or CTENOHYSTRICA, is a taxonomic hypothesis uniting the gundis with the hystricognath rodents . Considerable morphological and strong molecular support exists for this relationship . If true, this hypothesis renders the traditional view of Sciurognathi invalid, as it becomes a paraphyletic group.

The hystricomorph rodents, or at least members of Caviomorpha , are sometimes not regarded as rodents. Most molecular and genetic research, however, confirms the monophyly of rodents. Support for rodent polyphyly appears to be a product of long branch attraction .

Hystricomorph rodents appeared in South America in the Eocene, a continent which previously had metatherians , xenarthrans , and meridiungulates as the only resident nonflying mammals. They apparently arrived by rafting across the Atlantic from Africa
Africa
. The same type of migration may have occurred with primates , which also appeared in South America in the Eocene when it was an isolated continent, long before the Great American Interchange . All of this is still controversial, and new scientific discoveries on this subject are published regularly.

FAMILIES

The following list of families is based on the taxonomy of Marivaux et al. 2002 and Marivaux, Vianey-Liaud & Jaeger 2004 , who subjected a number of early fossil rodents to parsimony analysis and recovered support for the Hystricomorpha
Hystricomorpha
or Entodacrya hypothesis. Their results rendered the suborder Sciuravida as defined by McKenna -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ Brandt 1855 * ^ "Hystricomorpha". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved November 2011. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ Carleton & Musser 2005 * ^ Graur, Hide D\'Erchia et al. 1996 ; Reyes, Pesole Kuma Sullivan Robinson-Rechavi, Ponger Lin et al. 2002 ; Reyes et al. 2004 * ^ Bergsten 2005 * ^ Antoine, P.-O.; Marivaux, L.; Croft, D. A.; Billet, G.; Ganerod, M.; Jaramillo, C.; Martin, T.; Orliac, M. J.; et al. (2011). "Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography" . Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1732): 1319–1326. PMC 3282368  . PMID 21993503 . doi :10.1098/rspb.2011.1732 . * ^ Bond, M.; Tejedor, M. F.; Campbell, K. E.; Chornogubsky, L.; Novo, N.; Goin, F. (2015-02-04). " Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys". Nature. doi :10.1038/nature14120 .

REFERENCES

Bergsten, J. (2005). "A review of long-branch attraction". Cladistics. 21 (2): 163–193. doi :10.1111/j.1096-0031.2005.00059.x . Brandt, J. F. (1855). Beitrage zur nahern Kenntniss der Saugethiere Russlands (in German). Cao, Y.; Adachi, J.; Yano, T.; Hasegawa, M. (1994). "Phylogenetic place of guinea pigs: No support of the rodent-polyphyly hypothesis from maximum-likelihood analyses of multiple protein sequences" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 11 (4): 593–604. PMID 8078399 . Carleton, M. D.; Musser, G. G. (2005). "Order Rodentia". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 745–752. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0 . D'Erchia, A.; Gissi, C.; Pesole, G.; Saccone, C.; Arnason, U. (1996). "The guinea-pig is not a rodent". Nature. 381 (6583): 597–600. PMID 8637593 . doi :10.1038/381597a0 . Flynn, J. J.; Wyss, A. R.; Croft, D. A.; Charrier, R. (2003). "The Tinguiririca Fauna, Chile: biochronology, paleoecology, biogeography, and a new earliest Oligocene South American Land Mammal ‘Age’". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology . Elsevier. 195 (3–4): 229–259. ISSN 0031-0182 . doi :10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00360-2 . Graur, D.; Hide, W.; Li, W. (1991). "Is the guinea-pig a rodent?". Nature. 351 (6328): 649–652. PMID 2052090 . doi :10.1038/351649a0 . Kuma, K.; Miyata, T. (1994). "Mammalian phylogeny inferred from multiple protein data" (PDF). Japanese Journal of Genetics. 69 (5): 555–66. PMID 7999372 . doi :10.1266/jjg.69.555 . Lin, Y.-H.; McLenachan, P. A.; Gore, A. R.; Phillips, M. J.; Ota, R.; Hendy, M. D.; Penny, D. (2002). "Four new mitochondrial genomes and the increased stability of evolutionary trees of mammals from improved taxon sampling" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 19 (12): 2060–2070. PMID 12446798 . doi :10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004031 . Marivaux, L.; Vianey-Liaud, M.; Jaeger, J.-J. (2004). "High-level phylogeny of early Tertiary rodents: dental evidence". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 142 (1): 105–134. doi :10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00131.x . Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J.-L.; Vianey-Liaud, M.; Jaeger, J.-J. (2002). "The role of Asia in the origin and diversification of hystricognathous rodents". Zoologica Scripta. 31 (3): 225–239. doi :10.1046/j.1463-6409.2002.00074.x . McKenna, M. C.; Bell, S. K. (1997). "Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level". New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11013-8 . Reyes, A.; Pesole, G.; Saccone, C. (2000). "Long-branch attraction phenomenon and the impact of among-site rate variation on rodent phylogeny". Gene. 259 (1–2): 177–187. PMID 11163975 . doi :10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00438-8 . Reyes, A.; Gissi, C.; Catzeflis, F.; Nevo, E.; Pesole, G.; Saccone, C. (2004). "Congruent mammalian trees from mitochondrial and nuclear genes using Bayesian methods" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (2): 397–403. doi :10.1093/molbev/msh033 . Robinson-Rechavi, M.; Ponger, L.; Mouchiroud, D. (2000). "Nuclear gene LCAT supports rodent monophyly" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 17 (9): 1410–1412. ISSN 0737-4038 . PMID 10960041 . doi :10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026424 . Sullivan, J.; Swofford, D. L. (1997). "Are Guinea Pigs Rodents? The Importance of Adequate Models in Molecular Phylogenetics" (PDF). Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 4 (2): 77–86. ISSN 1064-7554 . doi :10.1023/A:1027314112438 .

* v * t * e

Extant families in order Rodentia

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria * Superorder: Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires

Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha
("Squirrel-like")

* Aplodontiidae (Mountain beaver) * Gliridae (Dormice) * Sciuridae (Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, susliks and prairie dogs)

Castorimorpha ("Beaver-like") Castoroidea Castoridae (Beavers) Geomyoidea Geomyidae (Pocket gophers) Heteromyidae (Kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice)

Myomorpha ("Mouse-like") Dipodoidea Dipodidae
Dipodidae
(Jerboas, jumping mice and birch mice) Muroidea Platacanthomyidae (Oriental dormice) Spalacidae
Spalacidae
(Zokors, bamboo rats, mole rats, blind mole rats) Calomyscidae (Mouse-like hamsters) Nesomyidae (Malagasy rats and relatives) Cricetidae
Cricetidae
(Hamsters and relatives) Muridae
Muridae
(House mouse and relatives)

Anomaluromorpha ("Anomalure-like")

* Anomaluridae (Anomalures) * Pedetidae
Pedetidae
(Springhares)

Hystricomorpha ("Porcupine-like")

* Ctenodactylidae (Gundis) * Diatomyidae (Laotian rock rat) * Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)

Phiomorpha
Phiomorpha
Bathyergidae (Blesmols) Petromuridae
Petromuridae
(Dassie rat) Thryonomyidae
Thryonomyidae
(Cane rats) Caviomorpha (New World hystricognaths) Erethizontidae (New World porcupines) Caviidae (Cavies) Cuniculidae (Pacas) Dasyproctidae (Agoutis and acouchis) Dinomyidae
Dinomyidae
(Pacarana) Capromyidae (Hutias) Ctenomyidae (Tuco-tucos) Echimyidae
Echimyidae
(Spiny rats) Myocastoridae (Coypu, or nutria) Octodontidae (Degus and relatives) Abrocomidae (Chinchilla rats) Chinchillidae (Chinchillas and viscachas)

* v * t * e

Prehistoric families in order Rodentia

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria * Superorder: Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires

SCIUROMORPHA

* Allomyidae * Mylagaulidae * Reithroparamyidae

CASTORIMORPHA

* Eutypomyidae * Rhizospalacidae * Eomyidae * Florentiamyidae * Heliscomyidae

MYOMORPHA

* Armintomyidae * Anomalomyidae * Simimyidae

ANOMALUROMORPHA

* Parapedetidae

HYSTRICOMORPHA

* Tamquammyidae *