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Matriarch
Matriarchy
Matriarchy
is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree. While those definitions apply in general English, definitions specific to the disciplines of anthropology and feminism differ in some respects. Most anthropologists hold that there are no known anthropological societies that are unambiguously matriarchal, but some authors believe exceptions may exist or may have. Matriarchies may also be confused with matrilineal, matrilocal, and matrifocal societies
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Gynecocracy (novel)
Gynecocracy: A Narrative of the Adventures and Psychological Experiences of Julian Robinson is a Victorian pornographic novel in the form of an autobiography by the pseudonymous "Viscount Ladywood", in three volumes, published in 1893. Its psychological insights were praised by Magnus Hirschfeld. The author recounts his punishment as a boy at the hands of the governess to whom he is sent, along with three female cousins, after having taken indecent liberties with a household maid
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Moka Exchange
The Moka is a highly ritualized system of exchange in the Mount Hagen area, Papua New Guinea, that has become emblematic of the anthropological concepts of "gift economy" and of "Big man" political system. Moka are reciprocal gifts of pigs through which social status is achieved. Moka refers specifically to the increment in the size of the gift; giving more brings greater prestige to the giver. However, the reciprocal gift giving may be confused with profit-seeking, as the lending and borrowing of money at interest.[1] This gift exchange system was analyzed by anthropologist Marshall Sahlins as a means of distinguishing between the exchange principles of reciprocity and redistribution on the one hand, and the associated political principles of status and rank on the other
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E. E. Evans-Pritchard
Sir Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, FBA (21 September 1902 – 11 September 1973), known as E. E. Evans-Pritchard, was an English anthropologist who was instrumental in the development of social anthropology. He was Professor of Social Anthropology
Anthropology
at the University of Oxford
Oxford
from 1946 to 1970.Contents1 Education and field work 2 Later theories 3 Life and family 4 Honours 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Bibliography 8 References 9 External linksEducation and field work[edit] Evans-Pritchard was educated at Winchester College
Winchester College
and studied history at Exeter College, Oxford, where he was influenced by R. R. Marett, and then as a postgraduate at the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
(LSE)
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Robert L. Carneiro
Robert Leonard Carneiro (born in New York City on June 4, 1927) is a prominent American anthropologist and curator of the American Museum of Natural History. Carneiro earned a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
from the University of Michigan in 1957.[1] One of the most important social evolutionists of the present (see, e.g., Sanderson, S. K. 2007. Evolutionism and its Critics: Deconstructing and Reconstructing an Evolutionary Interpretation of Human Society. Boulder, CO: Paradigm. P.161-171), he is especially known for his theory of the state formation ("Carneiro's Circumscription Theory") that explains how the constraints of the environment interact with population pressures and warfare to form states (Carneiro, R. L. 1970. A Theory of the Origin of the State. Science 169: 733–738). He has also made important contributions to the general theory of cultural evolution
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Georges Balandier
Georges Balandier
Georges Balandier
(21 December 1920 – 5 October 2016) was a French sociologist, anthropologist and ethnologist noted for his research in Sub-Saharan Africa. Balandier was born in Aillevillers-et-Lyaumont. He was a professor at the Sorbonne (Université René Descartes, Paris-V), and is a member of the Center for African Studies (Centre d'études africaines [Ceaf]), a research center of the École pratique des hautes études (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences). He held for many years the Editorship of Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie (previously held by his mentor Georges Gurvitch) and edited the series Sociologie d'Aujourd'hui at Presses Universitaires de France. He died on 5 October 2016 at the age of 95.[1] Bibliography[edit]2009, Le dépaysement contemporain : L’Immédiat et l'essentiel, Paris, PUF, 216 p. 2008, Fenêtres sur un nouvel âge 2006-2007, Paris, Fayard (Collection Documents), 287 p. 2006 (3e éd
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Political Economy In Anthropology
Political Economy in anthropology is the application of the theories and methods of Historical Materialism
Historical Materialism
to the traditional concerns of anthropology, including, but not limited to, non-capitalist societies. Political Economy introduced questions of history and colonialism to ahistorical anthropological theories of social structure and culture. Most anthropologists moved away from modes of production analysis typical of structural Marxism, and focused instead on the complex historical relations of class, culture and hegemony in regions undergoing complex colonial and capitalist transitions in the emerging world system.[1] Political Economy was introduced in American anthropology primarily through the support of Julian Steward, a student of Kroeber. Steward’s research interests centered on “subsistence” — the dynamic interaction of man, environment, technology, social structure, and the organization of work
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Europe And The People Without History
Europe and the People Without History is a book by anthropologist Eric Wolf. First published in 1982, it focuses on the expansion of European societies in the Modern Era. "Europe and the people without history" is history written on a global scale, tracing the connections between communities, regions, peoples and nations that are usually treated as discrete subjects.[1] A global history[edit] The book begins in 1400 with a description of the trade routes a world traveller might have encountered, the people and societies they connected, and the civilizational processes trying to incorporate them. From this, Wolf traces the emergence of Europe as a global power, and the reorganization of particular world regions for the production of goods now meant for global consumption. Wolf differs from World Systems theory in that he sees the growth of Europe until the late eighteenth century operating in a tributory framework, and not capitalism
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Negara
Negara may refer to:Negara, Bali, a city in Bali Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali, a book by anthropologist Clifford Geertz. Negara Brunei Darussalam, a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo. Negara Islam Indonesia, an Islamist group in Indonesia
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African Political Systems
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Social Status
Social status
Social status
is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.[1][2] At its core, status is about who is thought to be comparatively better.[3] These beliefs about who is better or worse are broadly shared among members of a society.[4] As such, status hierarchies decide who gets to "call the shots," who is worthy, and who deserves access to valuable resources. In so doing, shared cultural beliefs uphold systems of social stratification by making inequality in society appear natural and fair.[5] Status hierarchies appear to be universal across human societies, affording valued benefits to those who occupy the higher rungs, such as better health, social approval, resources, influence, and freedom.[2] Status hierarchies depend primarily on the possession and use of status symbols
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Ascribed Status
Ascribed status is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned.[1][2] These rigid social designators remain fixed throughout an individual's life and are inseparable from the positive or negative stereotypes that are linked with one's ascribed statuses. The practice of assigning such statuses to individuals exists cross-culturally within all societies and is based on gender, race, family origins, and ethnic backgrounds.[3] For example, a person born into a wealthy family has a high ascribed status based solely on the social networks and economic advantages that one gains from being born into a family with more resources than others. In contrast, an achieved status is a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects both personal ability and merit
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Cargo Cult
A cargo cult is a millenarian movement first described in Melanesia which encompasses a range of practices and occurs in the wake of contact with more technologically advanced societies. The name derives from the belief which began among Melanesians
Melanesians
in the late 19th and early 20th century that various ritualistic acts such as the building of an airplane runway will result in the appearance of material wealth, particularly highly desirable Western goods (i.e., "cargo"), via Western airplanes.[1][2] Cargo
Cargo
cults often develop during a combination of crises. Under conditions of social stress, such a movement may form under the leadership of a charismatic figure
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Carneiro's Circumscription Theory
Carneiro's Circumscription Theory is a theory of the role of warfare in state formation in political anthropology, created by anthropologist Robert Carneiro (1927- ). The theory has been summarized in one sentence by Schacht: “In areas of circumscribed agricultural land, population pressure led to warfare that resulted in the evolution of the state”.[1][2] The more circumscribed is an agricultural area, Carneiro argues, the sooner it politically unifies.Contents1 Outline of the theory 2 Primary and secondary state development 3 Criticism 4 Later development and revision 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksOutline of the theory[edit] The theory begins with some assumptions. Warfare usually disperses people rather than uniting them. Environmental circumscription occurs when an area of productive agricultural land is surrounded by a less productive area such as the mountains, desert, or sea
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Left–right Paradigm
The left–right paradigm is a concept from political sciences and anthropology which proposes that societies have a tendency to divide themselves into ideological opposites. Important contributions to the theory of the paradigm were made by British social anthropologist Rodney Needham, who saw it as a basic human classifying device. It shares affinity with the cultural "romantic-classic" paradigm.[1] The term is used to analyze political discourse since the 19th century
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State Formation
State formation
State formation
is the process of the development of a centralized government structure in a situation where one did not exist prior to its development. State formation
State formation
has been a study of many disciplines of the social sciences for a number of years, so much so that Jonathan Haas writes that "One of the favorite pastimes of social scientists over the course of the past century has been to theorize about the evolution of the world's great civilizations."[1] The term state formation is most commonly used to describe the long-term processes which led to the genesis of modern political domination in form of the territorial sovereign state. In a few works, the terms state-building, nation-building, or institution-building are used synonymously with state formation
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