MATRIARCHY is a social system in which females hold primary power,
predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social
privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of men, at
least to a large degree. While those definitions apply in general
English, definitions specific to the disciplines of anthropology and
feminism differ in some respects.
Most anthropologists hold that there are no known societies that are
unambiguously matriarchal, but some authors believe exceptions may
exist or may have. Matriarchies may also be confused with matrilineal
, matrilocal , and matrifocal societies. A few people consider any
non-patriarchal system to be matriarchal, thus including genderally
equalitarian systems (Peggy Reeves Sanday favors redefining and
reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in reference to
contemporary matrilineal societies such as the Minangkabau ), but
most academics exclude them from matriarchies strictly defined.
In 19th century Western scholarship, the hypothesis of matriarchy
representing an early, mainly prehistoric, stage of human development
gained popularity. Possibilities of so-called primitive societies were
cited and the hypothesis survived into the 20th century, including in
the context of second-wave feminism . This hypothesis was criticized
by some authors such as
Cynthia Eller in The Myth of Matriarchal
Prehistory and remains as a largely unsolved question to this day.
Some older myths describe matriarchies. Several modern feminists have
advocated for matriarchy now or in the future and it has appeared in
feminist literature . In several theologies, matriarchy has been
portrayed as negative.
* 1 Definitions, connotations, and etymology
* 2 Related concepts
* 2.1 Words beginning with gyn-
* 2.2 Intergenerational relationships
* 2.3 Words beginning with matri-
* 3 History and distribution
* 3.1 By region and culture
* 3.1.1 African nations
* 3.1.2 Ancient Near East
* 3.1.3 Europe
* 3.1.4 Asia
* 188.8.131.52 Burma
* 184.108.40.206 China
* 220.127.116.11 Indonesia
* 18.104.22.168 Vietnam
* 3.1.5 Native Americans
* 3.2 By chronology
* 3.2.1 Earliest prehistory and undated
Iron Age to
* 3.2.5 20th–21st centuries
* 3.3 Animals
* 4 Mythology
* 4.2 Greece
* 4.3 Celtic myth and society
* 4.4 South America
* 5 In feminist thought
* 6 In religious thought
* 6.1 Exclusionary
* 6.2 Inclusionary
* 7 In popular culture
* 7.1 Ancient theatre
* 7.2 Literature
* 7.3 Film
* 7.4 Fine arts
* 7.5 Television
* 7.6 Video games
* 8 See also
* 9 Further reading
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 11.1 Bibliography
* 12 External links
DEFINITIONS, CONNOTATIONS, AND ETYMOLOGY
According to the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (OED), matriarchy is a
"form of social organization in which the mother or oldest female is
the head of the family, and descent and relationship are reckoned
through the female line; government or rule by a woman or women." A
popular definition, according to James Peoples and Garrick Bailey, is
"female dominance". Within the academic discipline of cultural
anthropology , according to the OED, matriarchy is a "culture or
community in which such a system prevails" or a "family, society,
organization, etc., dominated by a woman or women." In general
anthropology, according to William A. Haviland, matriarchy is "rule by
women". A matriarchy is a society in which females, especially
mothers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral
authority , and control of property, but does not include a society
that occasionally is led by a female for nonmatriarchal reasons or an
occupation in which females generally predominate without reference to
matriarchy, such as prostitution or women\'s auxiliaries of
organizations run by men. According to Lawrence A. Kuzner in 1997, A.
R. Radcliffe-Brown argued in 1924 that the definitions of matriarchy
and patriarchy had "logical and empirical failings .... were too
vague to be scientifically useful".
Most academics exclude egalitarian nonpatriarchal systems from
matriarchies more strictly defined. According to Heide
Göttner-Abendroth , a reluctance to accept the existence of
matriarchies might be based on a specific culturally biased notion of
how to define matriarchy: because in a patriarchy men rule over women,
a matriarchy has frequently been conceptualized as women ruling over
men, while she believed that matriarchies are egalitarian .
The word matriarchy, for a society politically led by females,
especially mothers, who also control property, is often interpreted to
mean the genderal opposite of patriarchy, but it is not an opposite.
According to Peoples and Bailey, the view of anthropologist Peggy
Reeves Sanday is that matriarchies are not a mirror form of
patriarchies but rather that a matriarchy "emphasizes maternal
meanings where 'maternal symbols are linked to social practices
influencing the lives of both sexes and where women play a central
role in these practices'". Journalist
Margot Adler wrote, "literally,
... means government by mothers, or more broadly, government and
power in the hands of women."
Barbara Love and Elizabeth Shanklin
wrote, "by 'matriarchy,' we mean a non-alienated society: a society in
which women, those who produce the next generation, define motherhood,
determine the conditions of motherhood, and determine the environment
in which the next generation is reared." According to
Cynthia Eller ,
"'matriarchy' can be thought of ... as a shorthand description for any
society in which women's power is equal or superior to men's and in
which the culture centers around values and life events described as
'feminine.'" Eller wrote that the idea of matriarchy mainly rests on
two pillars, romanticism and modern social criticism. The notion of
matriarchy was meant to describe something like a utopia placed in the
past in order to legitimate contemporary social criticism. With
respect to a prehistoric matriarchal Golden Age , according to Barbara
Epstein, "matriarchy ... means a social system organized around
matriliny and goddess worship in which women have positions of power."
According to Adler, in the Marxist tradition, it usually refers to a
pre-class society "where women and men share equally in production and
According to Adler, "a number of feminists note that few definitions
of the word , despite its literal meaning, include any concept of
power, and they suggest that centuries of oppression have made it
impossible for women to conceive of themselves with such power."
Matriarchy has often been presented as negative, in contrast to
patriarchy as natural and inevitable for society, thus that matriarchy
is hopeless. Love and Shanklin wrote:
When we hear the word "matriarchy", we are conditioned to a number of
responses: that matriarchy refers to the past and that matriarchies
have never existed; that matriarchy is a hopeless fantasy of female
domination, of mothers dominating children, of women being cruel to
men. Conditioning us negatively to matriarchy is, of course, in the
interests of patriarchs. We are made to feel that patriarchy is
natural; we are less likely to question it, and less likely to direct
our energies to ending it.
The Matriarchal Studies school led by Göttner-Abendroth calls for an
even more inclusive redefinition of the term: Göttner-Abendroth
defines Modern Matriarchal Studies as the "investigation and
presentation of non-patriarchal societies", effectively defining
matriarchy as non-patriarchy. She has also defined matriarchy as
characterized by the sharing of power equally between the two genders.
According to Diane LeBow, "matriarchal societies are often described
as ... egalitarian ...", although anthropologist Ruby Rohrlich has
written of "the centrality of women in an egalitarian society."
Matriarchy is also the public formation in which the woman occupies
the ruling position in a family. For this usage, some scholars now
prefer the term matrifocal to matriarchal. Some, including Daniel
Moynihan , claimed that there is a matriarchy among Black families in
United States , because a quarter of them were headed by single
women; thus, families composing a substantial minority of a
substantial minority could be enough for the latter to constitute a
matriarchy within a larger non-matriarchal society.
Etymologically, it is from
Latin māter (genitive mātris), "mother"
and Greek ἄρχειν arkhein, "to rule". The notion of matriarchy
was defined by
Joseph-François Lafitau (1681–1746), who first named
it ginécocratie. According to the OED , the earliest known
attestation of the word matriarchy is in 1885. By contrast,
gynæcocracy, meaning 'rule of women', has been in use since the 17th
century, building on the Greek word γυναικοκρατία found
Terms with similar etymology are also used in various social sciences
and humanities to describe matriarchal or matriological aspects of
social, cultural and political processes. Adjective matriological is
derived from the noun matriology that comes from
Latin word māter
(mother) and Greek word λογος (logos, teaching about). The term
matriology was used in theology and history of religion as a
designation for the study of particular motherly aspects of various
female deities. The term was subsequently borrowed by other social
sciences and humanities and its meaning was widened in order to
describe and define particular female-dominated and female-centered
aspects of cultural and social life. The male alternative for
matriology is patriology.
In their works,
Johann Jakob Bachofen and Lewis Morgan used such
terms and expressions as mother-right, female rule, gyneocracy, and
female authority. All these terms meant the same: the rule by females
(mother or wife). Although Bachofen and Lewis Morgan confined the
"mother right" inside households, it was the basis of female influence
upon the whole society. The authors of the classics did not think that
gyneocracy meant 'female government' in politics. They were aware of
the fact that the sexual structure of government had no relation to
domestic rule and to roles of both sexes.
WORDS BEGINNING WITH GYN-
A matriarchy is also sometimes called a gynarchy , a gynocracy, a
gynecocracy, or a gynocentric society, although these terms do not
definitionally emphasize motherhood. Cultural anthropologist Jules de
Leeuwe argued that some societies were "mainly gynecocratic" (others
being "mainly androcratic").
Gynecocracy, gynaecocracy, gynocracy, gyneocracy, and gynarchy
generally mean 'government by women over women and men'. All of
these words are synonyms in their most important definitions. While
these words all share that principal meaning, they differ a little in
their additional meanings, so that gynecocracy also means 'women's
social supremacy', gynaecocracy also means 'government by one woman',
'female dominance', and, derogatorily, 'petticoat government', and
gynocracy also means 'women as the ruling class'. Gyneocracy is
rarely used in modern times. None of these definitions are limited to
Some question whether a queen ruling without a king is sufficient to
constitute female government, given the amount of participation of
other men in most such governments. One view is that it is sufficient.
"By the end of Elizabeth's reign, gynecocracy was a fait accompli",
according to historian Paula Louise Scalingi. Gynecocracy is defined
by Scalingi as "government by women", similar to dictionary
definitions (one dictionary adding 'women's social supremacy' to
the governing role). Scalingi reported arguments for and against the
validity of gynocracy and said, "the humanists treated the question
of female rule as part of the larger controversy over sexual
equality." Possibly, queenship, because of the power wielded by men
in leadership and assisting a queen, leads to queen bee syndrome ,
contributing to the difficulty of other women in becoming heads of the
Some matriarchies have been described by historian Helen Diner as "a
strong gynocracy" and "women monopolizing government" and she
Amazons as "an extreme, feminist wing" of
humanity and that North African women "ruled the country politically,"
and, according to Adler, Diner "envision a dominance matriarchy".
Gynocentrism is the 'dominant or exclusive focus on women', is
opposed to androcentrism , and "invert ... the privilege of the ...
binary ... arguing for 'the superiority of values embodied in
traditionally female experience'".
Some people who sought evidence for the existence of a matriarchy
often mixed matriarchy with anthropological terms and concepts
describing specific arrangements in the field of family relationships
and the organization of family life, such as matrilineality and
matrilocality. These terms refer to intergenerational relationships
(as matriarchy may), but do not distinguish between males and females
insofar as they apply to specific arrangements for sons as well as
daughters from the perspective of their relatives on their mother's
side. Accordingly, these concepts do not represent matriarchy as
'power of women over men'.
WORDS BEGINNING WITH MATRI-
Further information: list of matrilineal or matrilocal societies
Anthropologists have begun to use the term matrifocality. There is
some debate concerning the terminological delineation between
matrifocality and matriarchy. Matrifocal societies are those in which
women, especially mothers, occupy a central position. Anthropologist
R. T. Smith refers to matrifocality as the kinship structure of a
social system whereby the mothers assume structural prominence. The
term does not necessarily imply domination by women or mothers. In
addition, some authors depart from the premise of a mother-child dyad
as the core of a human group where the grandmother was the central
ancestor with her children and grandchildren clustered around her in
an extended family.
The term matricentric means 'having a mother as head of the family or
household'. Venus von Willendorf
Matristic: Feminist scholars and archeologists such as Marija
Gerda Lerner , and
Riane Eisler label their notion of a
"woman-centered" society surrounding
Mother Goddess worship during
Neolithic Europe ) and in ancient
civilizations by using the term matristic rather than matriarchal.
Marija Gimbutas states that she uses "the term matristic simply to
avoid the term matriarchy with the understanding that it incorporates
Matrilineality , in which descent is traced through the female line,
is sometimes conflated with historical matriarchy. Sanday favors
redefining and reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in
reference to contemporary matrilineal societies such as the
Minangkabau . The 19th-century belief that matriarchal societies
existed was due to the transmission of "economic and social power ...
through kinship lines" so that "in a matrilineal society all power
would be channeled through women. Women may not have retained all
power and authority in such societies ..., but they would have been in
a position to control and dispense power."
A matrilocal society defines a society in which a couple resides
close to the bride's family rather than the bridegroom's family.
HISTORY AND DISTRIBUTION
Most anthropologists hold that there are no known societies that are
unambiguously matriarchal. According to J. M. Adovasio, Olga
Soffer, and Jake Page, no true matriarchy is known actually to have
existed. Anthropologist Joan Bamberger argued that the historical
record contains no primary sources on any society in which women
dominated. Anthropologist Donald Brown 's list of human cultural
universals (viz., features shared by nearly all current human
societies) includes men being the "dominant element" in public
political affairs, which he asserts is the contemporary opinion of
mainstream anthropology . There are some disagreements and possible
exceptions. A belief that women's rule preceded men's rule was,
according to Haviland, "held by many nineteenth-century
intellectuals". The hypothesis survived into the 20th century and was
notably advanced in the context of feminism and especially second-wave
feminism , but the hypothesis is mostly discredited today, most
experts saying that it was never true.
Matriarchs, according to Peoples and Bailey, do exist; there are
"individual matriarchs of families and kin groups."
BY REGION AND CULTURE
The royal lineage of
Ethiopia , including for the
Kandake , was
passed through the woman only.
Ancient Near East
The Cambridge Ancient History (1975) stated that "the predominance
of a supreme goddess is probably a reflection from the practice of
matriarchy which at all times characterized Elamite civilization to a
greater or lesser degree".
Tacitus noted in his book Germania that in "the nations of the
Sitones a woman is the ruling sex."
Legends of Amazon women originated not from South America, but rather
Scythia (present day
Sarmatians (present day
Ukraine ) are
also considered descendants of the Amazonian women tribe.
Possible matriarchies in Burma are, according to Jorgen Bisch, the
Padaungs and, according to Andrew Marshall, the Kayaw .
Mosuo culture, which is in China near
Tibet , is frequently
described as matriarchal. The
Mosuo themselves often use this
description and they believe it increases interest in their culture
and thus attracts tourism. The term matrilineal is sometimes used,
and, while more accurate, still doesn't reflect the full complexity of
their social organization . In fact, it is not easy to categorize
Mosuo culture within traditional Western definitions. They have
aspects of a matriarchal culture: Women are often the head of the
house, inheritance is through the female line, and women make business
decisions. However, unlike in a true matriarchy, political power tends
to be in the hands of males.
In India, of communities recognized in the national Constitution as
Scheduled Tribes, "some ... matriarchal and matrilineal" "and thus
have been known to be more egalitarian". According to interviewer
Manipur , India, "has a matriarchal society", but this
may not be a scholarly assessment.
In the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka, many societies are
In Kerala, the Nair communities are matrilineal. Descent and
relationship are determined through the female line.
Anthropologist Peggy Reeves Sanday said the Minangkabau society may
be a matriarchy.
According to William S. Turley, "the role of women in traditional
Vietnamese culture was determined by ... indigenous customs bearing
traces of matriarchy", affecting "different social classes" to
"varying degrees". According to
Peter C. Phan , that "the first three
persons leading insurrections against China were women ... suggest ...
that ancient Vietnam was a matriarchal society" and "the ancient
Vietnamese family system was most likely matriarchal, with women
ruling over the clan or tribe" until the Vietnamese "adopt ... the
patriarchal system introduced by the Chinese", although "this
patriarchal system ... was not able to dislodge the Vietnamese women
from their relatively high position in the family and society,
especially among the peasants and the lower classes", with modern
"culture and legal codes ... rights and privileges" for women than in
Chinese culture. According to Chiricosta, the legend of
Âu Cơ is
said to be evidence of "the presence of an original 'matriarchy' in
North Vietnam and led to the double kinship system, which developed
there .... combined matrilineal and patrilineal patterns of family
structure and assigned equal importance to both lines." Chiricosta
said that other scholars relied on "this 'matriarchal' aspect of the
myth to differentiate Vietnamese society from the pervasive spread of
Chinese Confucian patriarchy" and that "resistance to China's
colonization of Vietnam ... the view that Vietnam was originally a
matriarchy ... women's struggles for liberation from (Chinese)
patriarchy as a metaphor for the entire nation's struggle for
Vietnamese independence." According to Keith Weller Taylor, "the
matriarchal flavor of the time is ... attested by the fact that Trung
Trac's mother's tomb and spirit temple have survived, although nothing
remains of her father", and the "society of the Trung sisters" was
"strongly matrilineal". According to Donald M. Seekins, an indication
of "the strength of matriarchal values" was that a woman, Trưng
Trắc , with her younger sister Trưng Nhị , raised an army of
"over 80,000 soldiers .... many of her officers were women", with
which they defeated the Chinese. According to Seekins, "in 40, Trung
Trac was proclaimed queen, and a capital was built for her" and
modern Vietnam considers the Trung sisters to be heroines. According
to Karen G. Turner, in the 3rd century A.D.,
Lady Triệu "seem ... to
personify the matriarchal culture that mitigated Confucianized
patriarchal norms .... she is also painted as something of a freak
... with her ... savage, violent streak."
Girl in the
Hopi Reservation Main article: Native Americans in
United States (the Gender Roles subsection)
The Hopi (in what is now the
Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona
), according to Alice Schlegel, had as its "gender ideology ... one of
female superiority, and it operated within a social actuality of
sexual equality." According to LeBow (based on Schlegel's work), in
the Hopi, "gender roles ... are egalitarian .... either sex is
inferior." LeBow concluded that Hopi women "participate fully in ...
political decision-making." According to Schlegel, "the Hopi no
longer live as they are described here" and "the attitude of female
superiority is fading". Schlegel said the Hopi "were and still are
matrilinial" and "the household ... was matrilocal". Schlegel
explains why there was female superiority as that the Hopi believed in
"life as the highest good ... the female principle ... activated in
women and in Mother Earth ... as its source" and that the Hopi "were
not in a state of continual war with equally matched neighbors" and
"had no standing army" so that "the Hopi lacked the spur to masculine
superiority" and, within that, as that women were central to
institutions of clan and household and predominated "within the
economic and social systems (in contrast to male predominance within
the political and ceremonial systems)", the Clan Mother, for example,
being empowered to overturn land distribution by men if she felt it
was unfair, since there was no "countervailing ... strongly
centralized, male-centered political structure".
Iroquois Confederacy or League , combining 5–6 Native American
Haudenosaunee nations or tribes before the U.S. became a nation,
operated by The Great Binding Law of Peace , a constitution by which
women participated in the League's political decision-making,
including deciding whether to proceed to war, through what may have
been a matriarchy or gyneocracy. According to Doug George-Kanentiio,
in this society, mothers exercise central moral and political roles.
The dates of this constitution's operation are unknown; the League was
formed in approximately 1000–1450, but the constitution was oral
until written in about 1880. The League still exists.
In our society, women are the center of all things. Nature, we
believe, has given women the ability to create; therefore it is only
natural that women be in positions of power to protect this
function....We traced our clans through women; a child born into the
world assumed the clan membership of its mother. Our young women were
expected to be physically strong....The young women received formal
instruction in traditional planting....Since the
absolutely dependent upon the crops they grew, whoever controlled this
vital activity wielded great power within our communities. It was our
belief that since women were the givers of life they naturally
regulated the feeding of our people....In all countries, real wealth
stems from the control of land and its resources. Our Iroquois
philosophers knew this as well as we knew natural law. To us it made
sense for women to control the land since they were far more sensitive
to the rhythms of the Mother Earth. We did not own the land but were
custodians of it. Our women decided any and all issues involving
territory, including where a community was to be built and how land
was to be used....In our political system, we mandated full equality.
Our leaders were selected by a caucus of women before the appointments
were subject to popular review....Our traditional governments are
composed of an equal number of men and women. The men are chiefs and
the women clan-mothers....As leaders, the women closely monitor the
actions of the men and retain the right to veto any law they deem
inappropriate....Our women not only hold the reigns of political and
economic power, they also have the right to determine all issues
involving the taking of human life. Declarations of war had to be
approved by the women, while treaties of peace were subject to their
Earliest Prehistory And Undated
The controversy surrounding prehistoric or "primal" matriarchy began
in reaction to the book by Bachofen, Mother Right: An Investigation of
the Religious and Juridical Character of
Matriarchy in the Ancient
World, in 1861. Several generations of ethnologists were inspired by
his pseudo-evolutionary theory of archaic matriarchy. Following him
Jane Ellen Harrison , several generations of scholars, usually
arguing from known myths or oral traditions and examination of
Neolithic female cult-figures, suggested that many ancient societies
might have been matriarchal, or even that there existed a wide-ranging
matriarchal society prior to the ancient cultures of which we are
aware. According to Uwe Wesel, Bachofen's myth interpretations have
proved to be untenable. The concept was further investigated by Lewis
Morgan. Many researchers studied the phenomenon of matriarchy
afterward, but the basis was laid by the classics of sociology. The
notion of a "woman-centered" society was developed by Bachofen, whose
three-volume Myth, Religion, and Mother Right (1861) impacted the way
classicists such as Harrison,
Arthur Evans ,
Walter Burkert , and
James Mellaart looked at the evidence of matriarchal religion in
pre-Hellenic societies. According to historian
Susan Mann , as of
2000, "few scholars these days find ... persuasive."
The following excerpts from Lewis Morgan's Ancient
explain the use of the terms: "In a work of vast research, Bachofen
has collected and discussed the evidence of female authority,
mother-right, and of female rule, gynecocracy." "Common lands and
joint tillage would lead to joint-tenant houses and communism in
living; so that gyneocracy seems to require for its creation, descent
in the female line. Women thus entrenched in large households,
supplied from common stores, in which their own gens so largely
predominated in numbers, would produce the phenomena of mother right
and gyneocracy, which Bachofen has detected and traced with the aid of
fragments of history and of tradition."
Kurt Derungs is a non-academic author advocating an "anthropology of
landscape" based on allegedly matriarchal traces in toponymy and
Friedrich Engels , in 1884, claimed that, in the earliest stages of
human social development, there was group marriage and that therefore
paternity was disputable, whereas maternity was not, so that a family
could be traced only through the female line, and claimed that this
was connected with the dominance of women over men or a Mutterrecht,
which notion Engels took from Bachofen, who claimed, based on his
interpretations of myths, that myths reflected a memory of a time when
women dominated over men. Engels speculated that the domestication
of animals increased wealth claimed by men. Engels said that men
wanted control over women for use as laborers and because they wanted
to pass on their wealth to their children, requiring monogamy. Engels
did not explain how this could happen in a matriarchal society, but
said that women's status declined until they became mere objects in
the exchange trade between men and patriarchy was established, causing
the global defeat of the female sex and the rise of individualism,
competition, and dedication to achievement. According to Eller, Engels
may have been influenced with respect to women's status by August
Bebel , according to whom this matriarchy resulted in communism while
patriarchy did not.
Austrian writer Bertha Diener, also known as Helen Diner, wrote
Amazons (1930), which was the first work to focus on
women's cultural history. Hers is regarded as a classic of feminist
matriarchal study. Her view is that in the past all human societies
were matriarchal; then, at some point, most shifted to patriarchal and
degenerated. The controversy was reinforced further by the publication
The White Goddess
The White Goddess by
Robert Graves (1948) and his later analysis of
Greek mythology and the vestiges of earlier myths that had
been rewritten after a profound change in the religion of Greek
civilization that occurred within its very early historical times.
From the 1950s,
Marija Gimbutas developed a theory of an Old European
Neolithic Europe which had matriarchal traits, replaced by
the patriarchal system of the
Proto-Indo-Europeans with the spread of
Indo-European languages beginning in the
Bronze Age . According to
Epstein, anthropologists in the 20th century said that "the goddess
worship or matrilocality that evidently existed in many paleolithic
societies was not necessarily associated with matriarchy in the sense
of women's power over men. Many societies can be found that exhibit
those qualities along with female subordination." From the 1970s,
these ideas were taken up by popular writers of second-wave feminism
and expanded with the speculations of
Margaret Murray on witchcraft ,
Goddess movement , and in feminist Wicca , as well as in works
Elizabeth Gould Davis , and
Merlin Stone .
"A Golden Age of matriarchy" was, according to Epstein, prominently
Charlene Spretnak and "encouraged" by Stone and Eisler,
but, at least for the
Neolithic Age, has been denounced as feminist
wishful thinking in The Inevitability of
Why Men Rule ,
Goddess Unmasked, and
The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory and is not
emphasized in third-wave feminism . According to Eller, Gimbutas had a
large part in constructing a myth of historical matriarchy by
examining Eastern European cultures that she asserts, by and large,
never really bore any resemblance in character to the alleged
universal matriarchy suggested by Gimbutas and Graves. She asserts
that in "actually documented primitive societies" of recent
(historical) times, paternity is never ignored and that the sacred
status of goddesses does not automatically increase female social
status, and believes that this affirms that utopian matriarchy is
simply an inversion of antifeminism .
The original evidence recognized by Gimbutas, however, of Neolithic
societies being more egalitarian than the
Bronze Age Indo-European and
Semitic patriarchies remains valid. Gimbutas herself has not described
these societies as matriarchal, preferring the term woman-centered or
matristic. J.F. del Giorgio insists on a matrifocal, matrilocal,
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According to Rohrlich, "many scholars are convinced that Crete was a
matriarchy, ruled by a queen-priestess" and the "Cretan civilization"
was "matriarchal" before "1500 B.C.," when it was overrun and
Also according to Rohrlich, "in the early Sumerian city-states
'matriarchy seems to have left something more than a trace.'"
One common misconception among historians of the
Bronze Age such as
Stone and Eisler is the notion that the Semites were matriarchal while
the Indo-Europeans practiced a patriarchal system. An example of this
view is found in Stone's
When God Was a Woman , wherein she makes the
case that the worship of
Yahweh was an Indo-European invention
superimposed on an ancient matriarchal Semitic nation. Evidence from
Amorites and pre-Islamic Arabs , however, indicates that the
primitive Semitic family was in fact patriarchal and patrilineal.
Meanwhile, the Indo-Europeans were known to have practiced multiple
succession systems, and there is much better evidence of matrilineal
customs among the Indo-European
Germans than among any
ancient Semitic peoples.
Women were running
Sparta while the men were often away fighting.
Gorgo, Queen of
Sparta , was asked by a woman in
along the lines of, "why are Spartan women the only women in the world
who could rule men?" Gorgo replied, "Because we are the only women who
are mothers of men."
Iron Age To Middle Ages
Arising in the period ranging from the
Iron Age to the
Middle Ages ,
several early northwestern European mythologies from the Irish (e.g.,
Scáthach ), the Brittonic (e.g.,
Rhiannon ), and the
Germanic (e.g., Grendel\'s mother and
Nerthus ) contain ambiguous
episodes of primal female power which have been interpreted as folk
evidence of a real potential for matriarchal attitudes in
Iron Age societies. Often transcribed from a
retrospective, patriarchal, Romanised, and
Catholic perspective, they
hint at an earlier, culturally disturbing, era when female power could
have predominated. The first-century–attested historic British
Boudicca indicates that Brittonnic society permitted
explicit female autocracy or a form of gender equality in a form which
contrasted strongly with the patriarchal structure of Mediterranean
In 1995, in Kenya, according to Emily Wax, Umoja , a village only for
women from one tribe with about 36 residents, was established under a
matriarch. Men of the same tribe established a village nearby from
which to observe the women's village, the men's leader objecting to
the matriarch's questioning the culture and men suing to close the
women's village. The village was still operational in 2005 when Wax
reported on it.
Spokespersons for various indigenous peoples at the United Nations
and elsewhere have highlighted the central role of women in their
societies, referring to them as matriarchies, or as matriarchal in
Matriarchy may also refer to non-human animal species in which
females hold higher status and hierarchical positions, such as among
lions , elephants , and bonobos .
A legendary matriarchy related by several writers was Amazon society.
Phyllis Chesler , "in Amazon societies, women were ...
mothers and their society's only political and religious leaders", as
well as the only warriors and hunters; "queens were elected" and
apparently "any woman could aspire to and achieve full human
Herodotus reported that the
Sarmatians were descendants
Amazons and Scythians, and that their females observed their
ancient maternal customs, "frequently hunting on horseback with their
husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing the very same dress as
the men". Moreover, said Herodotus, "no girl shall wed till she has
killed a man in battle".
Amazons came to play a role in Roman
Julius Caesar spoke of the conquest of large parts of
Semiramis and the Amazons. Although
Strabo was sceptical about
their historicity, the
Amazons were taken as historical throughout
late Antiquity . Several
Church Fathers spoke of the
Amazons as a
real people. Medieval authors continued a tradition of locating the
Amazons in the North,
Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen placing them at the Baltic Sea
Paulus Diaconus in the heart of Germania.
Robert Graves suggested that a myth displaced earlier myths that had
to change when a major cultural change brought patriarchy to replace a
matriarchy. According to this myth, in
Greek mythology ,
Zeus is said
to have swallowed his pregnant lover, the titan goddess Metis , who
was carrying their daughter,
Athena . The mother and child created
havoc inside Zeus. Either
Hephaestus split Zeus's head,
allowing Athena, in full battle armor, to burst forth from his
Athena was thus described as being "born" from Zeus. The
Zeus as it didn't fulfill the prophecy of Themis which
(according to Aeschylus) predicted that
Zeus will one day bear a son
that would overthrow him.
CELTIC MYTH AND SOCIETY
Main article: Ancient Celtic women §
According to Adler, "there is plenty of evidence of ancient societies
where women held greater power than in many societies today. For
Jean Markale 's studies of Celtic societies show that the
power of women was reflected not only in myth and legend but in legal
codes pertaining to marriage, divorce, property ownership, and the
right to rule."
Bamberger (1974) examines several matriarchal myths from South
American cultures and concludes that portraying the women from this
matriarchal period as immoral often serves to restrain contemporary
women in these societies.
IN FEMINIST THOUGHT
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For groups and communities without men, see separatist feminism .
While matriarchy has mostly fallen out of use for the anthropological
description of existing societies, it remains current as a concept in
feminism . Elizabeth Stanton
In first-wave feminist discourse, either
Elizabeth Cady Stanton or
Margaret Fuller (it is unclear who was first) introduced the concept
of matriarchy and the discourse was joined in by Matilda Joslyn Gage
Victoria Woodhull , in 1871, called for men to open the U.S.
government to women or a new constitution and government would be
formed in a year; and, on a basis of equality, she ran to be elected
President in 1872.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Charlotte Perkins Gilman , in 1911 and 1914,
argued for "a woman-centered, or better mother-centered, world" and
described "'government by women'". She argued that a government led
by either sex must be assisted by the other, both genders being
"useful ... and should in our governments be alike used", because men
and women have different qualities.
Cultural feminism includes "matriarchal worship", according to Prof.
In feminist literature , matriarchy and patriarchy are not conceived
as simple mirrors of each other. While matriarchy sometimes means
"the political rule of women", that meaning is often rejected, on the
ground that matriarchy is not a mirroring of patriarchy. Patriarchy
is held to be about power over others while matriarchy is held to be
about power from within,
Starhawk having written on that distinction
and Adler having argued that matriarchal power is not possessive and
not controlling, but is harmonious with nature.
For radical feminists, the importance of matriarchy is that
"veneration for the female principle ... somewhat lightens an
Feminist utopias are a form of advocacy. According to Tineke
Willemsen, "a feminist utopia would ... be the description of a place
where at least women would like to live." Willemsen continues, among
"type of feminist utopias ... stem from feminists who emphasize the
differences between women and men. They tend to formulate their ideal
world in terms of a society where women's positions are better than
men's. There are various forms of matriarchy, or even a utopia that
resembles the Greek myth of the Amazons.... ery few modern utopias
have been developed in which women are absolute autocrats."
A minority of feminists, generally radical , have argued that women
should govern societies of women and men. In all of these advocacies,
the governing women are not limited to mothers:
* In her book Scapegoat: The Jews, Israel, and Women’s Liberation,
Andrea Dworkin stated that she wanted women to have their own country,
"Womenland," which, comparable to Israel, would serve as a "place of
potential refuge". In the Palestine Solidarity Review, Veronica A.
Ouma reviewed the book and argued her view that while Dworkin "pays
lip service to the egalitarian nature of ... societies , she
envisions a state whereby women either impose gender equality or a
state where females rule supreme above males."
Starhawk , in
The Fifth Sacred Thing (1993), fiction, wrote of "a
utopia where women are leading societies but are doing so with the
consent of men."
Phyllis Chesler wrote in Women and Madness (2005 and 1972) that
feminist women must "dominate public and social institutions". She
also wrote that women fare better when controlling the means of
production and that equality with men should not be supported, even
if female domination is no more "just" than male domination. On the
other hand, in 1985, she was "probably more of a feminist-anarchist
... more mistrustful of the organisation of power into large
bureaucratic states ". Between Chesler's 1972 and 2005 editions,
Dale Spender wrote that Chesler "takes a ... stand .... quality is a
spurious goal, and of no use to women: the only way women can protect
themselves is if they dominate particular institutions and can use
them to serve women's interests. Reproduction is a case in point."
Spender wrote Chesler "remarks ... women will be superior".
Monique Wittig authored, as fiction (not as fact), Les
Guérillères , with her description of an asserted "female State".
The work was described by Rohrlich as a "fictional counterpart" to
"so-called Amazon societies". Scholarly interpretations of the
fictional work include that women win a war against men, "reconcil"
with "those men of good will who come to join them", exercise
feminist autonomy through polyandry , decide how to govern, and
rule the men. The women confronting men are, according to Tucker
Farley, diverse and thus stronger and more united and, continued
Farley, permit a "few ... men, who are willing to accept a feminist
society of primitive communism, ... to live." Another interpretation
is that the author created an "'open structure' of freedom".
Mary Daly wrote of hag-ocracy, "the place we govern", and of
reversing phallocratic rule in the 1990s (i.e., when published). She
considered equal rights as tokenism that works against sisterhood,
even as she supported abortion being legal and other reforms. She
considered her book female and anti-male.
Some such advocacies are informed by work on past matriarchy:
* According to Prof. Linda M. G. Zerilli, "an ancient matriarchy ...
the lost object of women's freedom." Prof.
Cynthia Eller found
widespread acceptance of matriarchal myth during feminism\'s second
wave . According to Kathryn Rountree, the belief in a prepatriarchal
"Golden Age" of matriarchy may have been more specifically about a
matrifocal society, although this was believed more in the 1970s than
in the 1990s–2000s and was criticized within feminism and within
archaeology, anthropology, and theological study as lacking a
scholarly basis, and Prof. Harvey C. Mansfield wrote that "the
evidence ... of males ruling over all societies at almost all times".
Eller said that, other than a few separatist radical lesbian
feminists, spiritual feminists would include "a place for men ... in
which they can be happy and productive, if not necessarily powerful
and in control" and might have social power as well.
Jill Johnston envisioned a "return to the former glory and wise
equanimity of the matriarchies" in the future and "imagined lesbians
as constituting an imaginary radical state, and invoked 'the return to
the harmony of statehood and biology....'" Her work inspired efforts
at implementation by the
Lesbian Organization of Toronto (LOOT) in
1976–1980 and in
Los Angeles .
Elizabeth Gould Davis believed that a "matriarchal
counterrevolution patriarchal revolution"] ... is the only hope for
the survival of the human race." She believed that "spiritual force",
"mental and spiritual gifts", and "extrasensory perception" will
be more important and therefore that "woman will ... predominate",
and that it is "about ... the next civilization will ... revolve",
as in the kind of past that she believed existed. According to critic
Prof. Ginette Castro,
Elizabeth Gould Davis used the words matriarchy
and gynocracy "interchangeably" and proposed a discourse "rooted in
the purest female chauvinism" and seemed to support "a feminist
counterattack stigmatizing the patriarchal present", "giv ... in to a
revenge-seeking form of feminism", "build ... her case on the
humiliation of men", and "asserti ... a specifically feminine nature
... morally superior." Castro criticized Elizabeth Gould Davis'
essentialism and assertion of superiority as "sexist" and "treason".
* One organization that was named
The Feminists was interested in
matriarchy and was one of the largest of the radical feminist women's
liberation groups of the 1960s. Two members wanted "the restoration
of female rule", but the organization's founder,
Ti-Grace Atkinson ,
would have objected had she remained in the organization, because,
according to a historian, " had always doubted that women would wield
power differently from men."
Robin Morgan wrote of women fighting for and creating a
* Adler reported, "if feminists have diverse views on the
matriarchies of the past, they also are of several minds on the goals
for the future. A woman in the coven of Ursa Maior told me, 'right now
I am pushing for women's power in any way I can, but I don't know
whether my ultimate aim is a society where all human beings are equal,
regardless of the bodies they were born into, or whether I would
rather see a society where women had institutional authority.'"
Some fiction caricatured the current gender hierarchy by describing a
matriarchal alternative without advocating for it. According to Karin
Schönpflug, "Gerd Brantenberg's Egalia's Daughters is a caricature of
powered gender relations which have been completely reversed, with the
female sex on the top and the male sex a degraded, oppressed group";
"gender inequality is expressed through power inversion" and "all
gender roles are reversed and women rule over a class of intimidated,
effeminate men". "Egalia is not a typical example of gender
inequality in the sense that a vision of a desirable matriarchy is
created; Egalia is more a caricature of male hegemony by twisting
gender hierarchy but not really offering a 'better world.'"
On egalitarian matriarchy,
Heide Göttner-Abendroth 's International
Academy for Modern Matriarchal Studies and Matriarchal Spirituality
(HAGIA) organized conferences in
Luxembourg in 2003 and
2005, with papers published. Göttner-Abendroth argued that
"matriarchies are all egalitarian at least in terms of gender—they
have no gender hierarchy .... or many matriarchal societies, the
social order is completely egalitarian at both local and regional
levels", that, "for our own path toward new egalitarian societies, we
can gain ... insight from ... matriarchal patterns", and that
"matriarchies are not abstract utopias, constructed according to
philosophical concepts that could never be implemented."
According to Eller, "a deep distrust of men's ability to adhere to"
future matriarchal requirements may invoke a need "to retain at least
some degree of female hegemony to insure against a return to
patriarchal control", "feminists ... the understanding that female
dominance is better for society—and better for men—than the
present world order", as is equalitarianism. On the other hand, Eller
continued, if men can be trusted to accept equality, probably most
feminists seeking future matriarchy would accept an equalitarian
"Demographic", "feminist matriarchalists run the gamut" but
primarily are "in white, well-educated, middle-class circles"; many
of the adherents are "religiously inclined" while others are "quite
Biology as a ground for holding either males or females superior over
the other has been criticized as invalid, such as by
and by Robin Morgan. A claim that women have unique characteristics
that prevent women's assimilation with men has been apparently
rejected by Ti-Grace Atkinson. On the other hand, not all advocates
based their arguments on biology or essentialism.
A criticism by Mansfield of choosing who governs according to gender
or sex is that the best qualified people should be chosen, regardless
of gender or sex. On the other hand, Mansfield considered merit
insufficient for office, because a legal right granted by a sovereign
(e.g., a king), was more important than merit.
Diversity within a proposed community can, according to Becki L.
Ross, make it especially challenging to complete forming the
community. However, some advocacy includes diversity, in the views of
Dworkin and Farley.
Prof. Christine Stansell, a feminist, wrote that, for feminists to
achieve state power, women must democratically cooperate with men.
"Women must take their place with a new generation of brothers in a
struggle for the world's fortunes. Herland, whether of virtuous
matrons or daring sisters, is not an option.... he well-being and
liberty of women cannot be separated from democracy's survival."
(Herland was feminist utopian fiction by
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Charlotte Perkins Gilman in
1911, featuring a community entirely of women except for three men who
seek it out, strong women in a matriarchal utopia expected to last
for generations, although
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Charlotte Perkins Gilman was herself a
feminist advocate of society being gender-integrated and of women's
Other criticisms of superiority are that it is reverse sexism or
discriminatory against men, it is opposed by most people including
most feminists, women do not want such a position, governing takes
women away from family responsibilities, women are too likely to be
unable to serve politically because of menstruation and pregnancy,
public affairs are too sordid for women and would cost women their
respect and femininity (apparently including fertility), superiority
is not traditional, women lack the political capacity and authority
men have, it is impractical because of a shortage of women with the
ability to govern at that level of difficulty as well as the desire
and ability to wage war, women are less aggressive, or less often
so, than are men and politics is aggressive, women legislating would
not serve men's interests or would serve only petty interests, it
is contradicted by current science on genderal differences, it is
unnatural, and, in the views of a playwright and a novelist,
"women cannot govern on their own." On the other hand, another view
is that "women have 'empire' over men" because of nature and "men ...
are actually obeying" women.
Pursuing a future matriarchy would tend to risk sacrificing
feminists' position in present social arrangements, and many feminists
are not willing to take that chance, according to Eller. "Political
feminists tend to regard discussions of what utopia would look like as
a good way of setting themselves up for disappointment", according to
Eller, and argue that immediate political issues must get the highest
"Matriarchists", as typified by comic character Wonder
Kathie Sarachild ,
Carol Hanisch , and some others.
IN RELIGIOUS THOUGHT
Some theologies and theocracies limit or forbid women from being in
civil government or public leadership or forbid them from voting,
effectively criticizing and forbidding matriarchy. Within none of the
following religions is the respective view necessarily universally
Islam , some Muslim scholars hold that female political
leadership is prohibited, according to Anne Sofie Roald. The
prohibition has been attributed to a hadith of
Muhammad , the
founder and last prophet of Islam. The hadith says, according to
Roald, "a people which has a woman as leader will never prosper."
The hadith's transmission, context, and meaning have been questioned,
wrote Roald. According to Roald, the prohibition has also been
attributed as an extension of a ban on women leading prayers "in mixed
gatherings" (which has been challenged) and to a restriction on women
traveling (an attribution also challenged). Possibly, Roald noted,
the hadith applies only against being head of state and not other high
office. One source, wrote Roald, would allow a woman to "occupy every
position except that of khalīfa (the leader of all Muslims)." One
exception to the head-of-state prohibition was accepted without a
general acceptance of women in political leadership, Roald reported.
Political activism at lower levels may be more acceptable to Islamist
women than top leadership positions, said Roald. The Muslim
Brotherhood has stated that women may not be president or head of
state but may hold other public offices but, "as for judiciary office,
.... he majority of jurispudents ... have forbidden it completely."
In a study of 82 Islamists in Europe, according to Roald, 80% said
women could not be state leaders but 75% said women could hold other
high positions. In 1994, the
Muslim Brotherhood said that "social
circumstances and traditions" may justify gradualism in the exercise
of women's right to hold office (below head of state). Whether the
Muslim Brothers still support that statement is unclear. As reported
in 1953, Roald reported later, "Islamic organizations held a
conference in the office of the Muslim Brothers .... claim ... that
it had been proven that political rights for women were contrary to
religion". Some nations have specific bans. In Iran at times,
according to Elaheh Rostami Povey, women have been forbidden to fill
some political offices because of law or because of judgments made
under the Islamic religion. As to Saudi Arabia , according to Asmaa
Al-Mohamed, "Saudi women ... are ... not allowed to enter parliament
as anything more than advisors; they cannot vote, much less serve as
representatives". According to
Steven Pinker , in a 2001–2007
Gallup poll of 35 nations having 90% of the world's Muslims,
"substantial majorities of both sexes in all the major Muslim
countries say that women should be allowed to vote without influence
from men ... and to serve in the highest levels of government."
Judaism , among orthodox leaders, a position, beginning before
Israel became a modern state, has been that for women to hold public
Israel would threaten the state's existence, according to
Tova Hartman , who reports the view has "wide consensus".
Israel ratified the international women's equality agreement
known as CEDAW , according to Marsha Freeman, it reserved
nonenforcement for any religious communities that forbid women from
sitting on religious courts. According to Freeman, "the tribunals
that adjudicate marital issues are by religious law and by custom
entirely male." "'Men's superiority' is a fundamental tenet in
Judaism", according to Irit Umanit. According to Freeman,
-led "governments have been less than hospitable to women's high-level
Buddhism , according to Karma Lekshe Tsomo, some hold that "the
Buddha allegedly hesitated to admit women to the Saṅgha ...." "In
certain Buddhist countries—Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, and
Thailand—women are categorically denied admission to the Saṅgha,
Buddhism's most fundamental institution", according to Tsomo. Tsomo
wrote, "throughout history, the support of the Saṅgha has been
actively sought as a means of legitimation by those wishing to gain
and maintain positions of political power in Buddhist countries."
* Among Hindus in
India , the
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh , "India's
most extensive all-male
Hindu nationalist organization," has debated
whether women can ever be
Hindu nationalist political leaders but
without coming to a conclusion, according to Paola Bacchetta. The
Rashtriya Sevika Samiti , a counterpart organization composed of
women, believes that women can be
Hindu nationalist political leaders
and has trained two in Parliament , but considers women only as
exceptions, the norm for such leadership being men.
* In Protestant Christianity , considered only historically, in
John Knox (
Maria Stuart 's subject) wrote The First Blast of the
Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women . According to
Scalingi, the work is "perhaps the best known analysis of gynecocracy"
and Knox was "the most notorious" writer on the subject. According
to an 1878 edition, Knox's objection to any women reigning and having
"empire" over men was theological and it was against nature for
women to bear rule, superiority, dominion, or empire above any realm,
nation, or city. Susan M. Felch said that Knox's argument was partly
grounded on a statement of the apostle Paul against women teaching or
usurping authority over men. According to Maria Zina Gonçalves de
Abreu, Knox argued that a woman being a national ruler was unnatural
and that women were unfit and ineligible for the post. Kathryn M.
Brammall said Knox "considered the rule of female monarchs to be
anathema to good government" and that Knox "also attacked those who
obeyed or supported female leaders", including men. Robert M. Healey
said that Knox objected to women's rule even if men accepted it. On
whether Knox personally endorsed what he wrote, according to Felch,
Jasper Ridley , in 1968, argued that even Knox may not have personally
believed his stated position but may have merely pandered to popular
sentiment, itself a point disputed by
W. Stanford Reid . On the
popularity of Knox's views, Patricia-Ann Lee said Knox's "fierce
attack on the legitimacy of female rule ... he said ... little that
was unacceptable ... to most of his contemporaries", although Judith
M. Richards disagreed on whether the acceptance was quite so
widespread. According to David Laing's Preface to Knox's work, Knox's
views were agreed with by some people at the time, the Preface saying,
" views were in harmony with those of his colleagues ... ". Writing
in agreement with Knox was
Christopher Goodman , who, according to
Lee, "considered the woman ruler to be a monster in nature, and used
... scriptural argument to prove that females were barred ... from any
political power", even if, according to Richards, the woman was
"virtuous". Some views included conditionality; while John Calvin
said, according to Healey, "that government by a woman was a deviation
from the original and proper order of nature, and therefore among the
punishments humanity incurred for original sin", nonetheless Calvin
would not always question a woman's right to inherit rule of a realm
Heinrich Bullinger , according to Healey, "held that
rule by a woman was contrary to God's law but cautioned against using
that reason to oppose such rule". According to Richards, Bullinger
said women were normally not to rule. Around 1560, Calvin, in
disagreeing with Knox, argued that the existence of the few women who
were exceptions showed that theological ground existed for their
exceptionalism. Knox's view was much debated in Europe at the time,
the issue considered complicated by laws such as on inheritance and
since several women were already in office, including as Queens,
according to de Abreu. Knox's view is not said to be widely held in
Protestantism among leadership or laity.
Main articles: thealogy and
Feminist thealogy , according to Eller, conceptualized humanity as
beginning with "female-ruled or equalitarian societies", until
displaced by patriarchies, and that in the millennial future
"'gynocentric,' life-loving values" will return to prominence. This,
according to Eller, produces "a virtually infinite number of years of
female equality or superiority coming both at the beginning and end of
Among criticisms is that a future matriarchy, according to Eller, as
a reflection of spirituality, is conceived as ahistorical, and thus
may be unrealistic, unreachable, or even meaningless as a goal to
IN POPULAR CULTURE
* Apparently as criticism, about 2,400 years ago, in 390 BC,
Aristophanes wrote a play, Ecclesiazusae , about women gaining
legislative power and governing
Athens , Greece, on a limited
principle of equality. In the play, according to Mansfield, Praxagora,
a character, argues that women should rule because they are superior
to men, not equal, and yet she declines to assert publicly her right
to rule, although elected and although acting in office. The play,
Mansfield wrote, also suggests that women would rule by not allowing
politics, in order to prevent disappointment, and that affirmative
action would be applied to heterosexual relationships. In the play,
as Mansfield described it, written when
Athens was a male-only
democracy where women could not vote or rule, women were presented as
unassertive and unrealistic, and thus not qualified to govern. The
play, according to Sarah Ruden, was a fable on the theme that women
should stay home.
Elizabeth Burgoyne Corbett 's New Amazonia: A Foretaste of the
Future is an early feminist utopian novel (published 1889), which is
matriarchal in that all political leadership roles in
New Amazonia are
required to be held by women, according to Duangrudi Suksang.
Roquia Sakhawat Hussain
Roquia Sakhawat Hussain 's Sultana\'s Dream is an early feminist
utopia (published 1905) based on advanced science and technology
developed by women, set in a society, Ladyland, run by women, where
"the power of males is taken away and given to females," and men are
secluded and primarily attend to domestic duties, according to Seemin
Robert Merle 's 1974 novel Les hommes protégés (Published in
US as The Virility Factor in 1977) an infectious disease affects only
men with active spermatogenesis and wipes almost all of them out; only
a minority survives in carefully guarded sites. Women gain all kind of
control, primarily political, and consecutively build two types of
matriarchy. At first, they establish a segregationist heterophobic
society. By the end of the novel, heterosexual women conduct a
revolution and establish a more balanced but still highly matriarchal
Marion Zimmer Bradley 's book, The Ruins of
Isis (1978), is,
according to Batya Weinbaum, set within a "female supremacist world".
Marion Zimmer Bradley 's book,
The Mists of Avalon (1983),
Avalon is an island with a matriarchal culture, according to Ruben
Speaker for the Dead
Speaker for the Dead (1986) and its sequels, the alien
pequenino species in every forest are matriarchal.
Sheri S. Tepper 's book, The Gate to Women\'s Country (1988),
the only men who live in Women's Country are the "servitors," who are
servants to the women, according to Peter Fitting.
* The short novel by Russian writer Alexander Bushkov "Anastasia"
(Анастасия) (1989) describes a postapocalyptic world where a
mutation made women in
Siberia physically much stronger then men.
Their country, Happy Empire, is a feudal society with reversed gender
* The first novel in
The Dark Elf Trilogy by
R. A. Salvatore ,
Homeland (1990), is set in fictional underground city inhabited by
dark elves (Drow ) living in matriarchal society.
L. E. Modesitt, Jr. 's Saga of Recluce series (1991–),
Westwind is a matriarchal society.
Élisabeth Vonarburg 's book,
Chroniques du Pays des Mères (1992)
(translated into English as In the Mothers' Land) is set in a
matriarchal society where, due to a genetic mutation, women outnumber
men by 70 to 1.
Melanie Rawn 's
Exiles Trilogy (1994–) is set in a matriarchal
L. E. Modesitt, Jr. 's Corean Chronicles series (2002–),
Madrien is a matriarchal society.
N. Lee Wood 's book Master of None (2004) is set in a "closed
matriarchal world where men have no legal rights", according to
Publishers Weekly .
Wen Spencer 's book A Brother's Price (2005) is set in a world
where, according to Page Traynor, "women are in charge," "boys are
rare and valued but not free," and "boys are kept at home to do the
cooking and child caring until the time they marry".
Elizabeth Bear 's Carnival (2006) introduces New Amazonia, a
colony planet with a matriarchal and largely lesbian population who
eschew the strict and ruthless population control and environmentalism
instituted on Earth. The Amazonians are aggressive, warlike and
subjugate the few men they tolerate for reproduction and service, but
they are also pragmatic and defensive of their freedom from the
male-dominated Coalition that seeks to conquer them.
* In the film
Ghosts of Mars
Ghosts of Mars , human society on Mars has a "ruling
matriarchy", according to O'Brien Stanley, Nicki L. Michalski, and
Ruth J. H. Stanley.
* In the 2015 space opera film
Jupiter Ascending , all the Universes
(particularly The Earth) were ruled by the "Matriarch of the House of
Verbotenes Land ("Forbidden Land"), 1936
* In 20th-century modernism, matriarchal archeology and psychology
found only few defenders. One of the major exponents was the Austrian
Wolfgang Paalen who, in his painting Pays interdit
("Forbidden Land") draws an apocalyptic landscape dominated by a
female goddess and, as symbols of the male gods, fallen,
Gene Roddenberry 's
Planet Earth (TV pilot) (1974) features a
matriarchal society called the Sisters of Ruth, where the men are
drugged through their food, according to Jeff Bond.
* In the British/German television series,
Star Maidens (1976), the
planet Medusa has a "matriarchal structure" where "all of the women
perform fulfilling, non-menial work, all are educated, childcare is a
non-issue as children are cared for (offscreen) by men, and women
possess technology that keeps male aggression in check", according to
* In the Space: 1999 episode "Devil\'s Planet " (1977), Entra is a
prison planet where the rulers and wardens are all women, and the
prisoners are all men, who are "political dissidents who spoke against
* In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "
Angel One " (1988),
Angel One "has a matriarchal society because biologically
women are the stronger sex (they are taller and physically stronger)
and men are treated as second class citizens", according to Laura
Red Dwarf episode "Parallel Universe " depicts a society where
male and female gender roles are swapped with women taking powerful
positions and men fighting for equality.
* The American television series Xena: Warrior Princess featured a
recurring group of "Amazons", who practiced a matriarchal culture,
with female spiritual and political leaders governing a group of
militaristic women who lived separately from men and expelled male
children from the group soon after birth.
* In the "Raising Gazorpazorp" episode of
Rick and Morty , a planet
named Gazorpazorp is dominated by females.
* In the
South Park episode "The End of Serialization as We Know It
Eric Cartman has visions of a future society on Mars that is
dominated by females, with the men kept only for reproductive purposes
and for writing jokes.
Steven Universe , Homeworld is run by four female gems.
* In the science-fiction PC game Operation:
Matriarchy , set in the
year 2350, a virus breaks out on a human colonized planet known as
Velia targeting only females in the population and transforming them
into killing-machines while males are enslaved for use as sustenance
or as subjects for genetic experiments. Having evolved into an
aggressive hive mind, the Velians turn on the Federation of Earth
instigating a brutal war.
Çatalhöyük (denials of matriarchy)
Female cosmetic coalitions
Female cosmetic coalitions
The Hebrew Goddess
History of feminism
History of feminism
* Patriarchs (Bible) § Matriarchs
* Sociology portal
* Politics portal
* Religion portal
* Czaplicka, Marie Antoinette , Aboriginal Siberia, a Study in
Anthropology (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914)
* Finley, M.I., The World of Odysseus (London: Pelican Books, 1962)
* Gimbutas, Marija, The Language of the Goddess (1991)
* Goldberg, Steven , Why Men Rule: A Theory of Male Dominance (rev.
ed. 1993 (ISBN 0-8126-9237-3 ))
* Hutton, Ronald, The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles
(1993 (ISBN 0-631-18946-7 ))
* Lapatin, Kenneth, Mysteries of the Snake Goddess: Art, Desire, and
the Forging of History (2002 (ISBN 0-306-81328-9 ))
* Lerner, Gerda, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness: From the
Middle Ages to Eighteen-Seventy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993
(ISBN 0-19-509060-8 ))
* Lerner, Gerda, The Creation of
Patriarchy (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1986 (ISBN 0-19-505185-8 ))
* Schiavoni, Giulio, Bachofen in-attuale? (chapter), in Il
matriarcato. Ricerca sulla ginecocrazia del mondo antico nei suoi
aspetti religiosi e giuridici (Turin, Italy: Giulio Einaudi editore,
Johann Jakob Bachofen , editor) (ISBN 978-88-06-229375 )
* Shorrocks, Bryan, The Biology of African Savannahs (Oxford
University Press, 2007 (ISBN 0-19-857066-X ))
* Stearns, Peter N., Gender in World History (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000
(ISBN 0-415-22310-5 ))
* Raman, Sukumar, A Brief Review of the Status, Distribution and
Biology of Wild Asian Elephants Elephas Maximus, in International Zoo
Yearbook, vol. 40, no. 1 (2006), pp. 1–8
* Yoshamya, Mitjel, -webkit-column-width: 32em; column-width: 32em;
Feminist anthropology , an approach to anthropology that tries
to reduces male bias in the field
Black matriarchy , the cultural phenomenon of many Black
families being headed by mothers with fathers absent
Androcracy , form of government ruled by males, especially
* ^ Queen Elizabeth I , queen regnant of England and Ireland in
Amazon feminism , feminism that emphasizes female physical
prowess toward the goal of gender equality
* ^ Elamite civilization , an ancient civilization in part of what
is now Iran
Sitones , a Germanic or Finnic people who lived in Northern
Europe in the 1st century AD
North Vietnam , sovereign state until merged with South Vietnam
* ^ Patrilineal , belonging to the father's lineage, generally for
Confucianism , ethics and philosophy derived from Confucius
Gender role , set of norms for a gender in social relationships
* ^ Clan Mothers , elder matriarchs of certain Native American
clans, who were typically in charge of appointing tribal chiefs
* ^ Adler wrote a matriarchy is "a realm where female things are
valued and where power is exerted in non-possessive, non-controlling,
and organic ways that are harmonious with nature."
Anarcha-feminism , a philosophy combining anarchism and
* ^ For another definition of hag by Mary Daly, see Daly, Mary,
with Jane Caputi, Websters' First New Intergalactic Wickedary of the
English Language (London, Great Britain: Women's Press, 1988 (ISBN
0-7043-4114-X )), p. 137.
Extrasensory perception (ESP), perception sensed by the mind
but not originating through recognized physical senses
Chauvinism , partisanship that is extreme and unreasoning and
in favor of a group
* ^ "Women do not run for office as readily as men do, nor do most
women, it seems, call on them to run. It seems that they do not have
the same desire to 'run' things as men, to use the word in another
political sense that like the first includes standing out in front....
Women are partisan, like men; hence they are political, like men. But
not to the same degree. They will readily sail into partisan conflict,
but they are not so ready to take the lead and make themselves targets
of partisan hostility (though they do write provocative books)."
"study .... traces the gender gap ... to 'participatory factors,' such
as education and income, that give men greater advantages in civic
skills, enabling them to participate politically" "n politics and in
other public situations, he willingly takes responsibility when
others hang back.... His wife and children ... are weaker",
"manliness ... is aggression that develops an assertion, a cause it
espouses"... "a woman .... may have less ambition or a different
ambition, but being a political animal like a man, she too likes to
rule, if in her way". See also Schaub (2006) .
* ^ "Athenians were extreme, but almost no Greeks or Romans thought
women should participate in government. There was no approved public
forum for any kind of women's self-expression, not even in the arts
and religion ."
* ^ "
Aristotle .... s women do not have the authority, the
political capacity, of men, they are, as it were, elbowed out of
politics and ushered into the household.... Meanwhile the male rules
because of his greater authority".
* ^ "ability to fight .... is an important claim to rule ..., and
it is the culmination of the aggressive manly stereotype we are
considering", "who can reasonably deny that women are not as
accomplished as men in battle either in spirit or in physique? ....
Conservatives say that this proves that women are not the same as
men", & "manliness is best shown in war, the defense of one's country
at its most difficult and dangerous" "there might come a point when
... stronger persons would have to be fought rather than merely told
off.... The very great majority of women would take a pass on the
opportunity to be GI Jane. In the
NATO countries where women are
allowed in combat units they form only 1 percent of the complement....
Whatever their belief about equality, women might reasonably decide
they are needed more elsewhere than in combat"
* ^ GI Jane is 'a female member of a military'.
NATO , North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which provides
collective military defense for member nations
* ^ "Mrs. Woodhull offers herself in apparent good faith as a
candidate, and perhaps she has a remote impression, or rather hope,
that she may be elected, but it seems that she is rather in advance of
her time. The public mind is not yet educated to the pitch of
universal woman's rights" ... "At present man, in his affection for
and kindness toward the weaker sex, is disposed to accord her any
reasonable number of privileges. Beyond that stage he pauses, because
there seems to him to be something which is unnatural in permitting
her to share the turmoil, the excitement, the risks of competition for
the glory of governing."
* ^ "Koranic verse 4: 34 ... has been used to denounce female
leadership" ("4: 34" spaced so in original), but the verse may apply
to family life rather than to politics. Roald (2001) , pp. 189–190
cites, respectively, Badawi, Jamal, Gender Equity in Islam: Basic
Principles (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1995), p. 38 &
perhaps passim, and Roald, Anne Sofie, -webkit-column-width: 21em;
column-width: 21em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ Peggy Reeves Sanday, anthropologist, Women at the Center: Life
in a Modern Matriarchy, Cornell University Press, 2002.
* ^ A B C D E
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (online), entry matriarchy,
as accessed November 3, 2013 (subscription may be required or content
may be available in libraries).
* ^ A B Peoples & Bailey (2012) , p. 259
* ^ A B Haviland, William A.,
Anthropology (Ft. Worth: Harcourt
Brace College Publishers, 8th ed. 1997 (ISBN 0-15-503578-9 )), p. 579.
* ^ Kuznar, Lawrence A., Reclaiming a Scientific Anthropology
(Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press (div. of Sage Publications),
pbk. 1997 (ISBN 0-7619-9114-X )).
* ^ A B Göttner-Abendroth, Heide . "Matriarchal Society: Definition
and Theory". Archived from the original on 19 April 2013.
See also Sanday, Peggy Reeves, Women at the Center: Life in a
Matriarchy (Cornell University Press, 2002) ("matriarchies are
not a mirror form of patriarchies but rather ... a matriarchy
"emphasizes maternal meanings where 'maternal symbols are linked to
social practices influencing the lives of both sexes and where women
play a central role in these practices'"). * ^
Göttner-Abendroth, Heide (2017). "Matriarchal studies: Past debates
and new foundations". Asian Journal of Women\'s Studies . Taylor and
Francis . 23 (1): 2–6. doi :10.1080/12259276.2017.1283843 .
* ^ Lepowsky, M. A., Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an
Society (U.S.: Columbia University Press, 1993).
* ^ Compare, in
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (online), entry
patriarchy to entry matriarchy, both as accessed November 3, 2013.
(Subscription may be required or content may be available in
* ^ Eller (1995) , pp. 161–162 & 184 & n. 84 (p. 184 n. 84
probably citing Spretnak, Charlene, ed., Politics of Women's
Spirituality: Essays on the Rise of Spiritual Power Within the
Feminist Movement (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1982), p. xiii
(Spretnak, Charlene, Introduction)).
* ^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009a) , pp. 1–2
* ^ Peoples & Bailey (2012) , pp. 258-259
* ^ Adler (2006) , p. 193 (italics so in original)
* ^ Love ">
* ^ Epstein (1991) , p. 173 and see p. 172
* ^ A B Adler (2006) , p. 194
* ^ Love & Shanklin (1983)
* ^ Introduction, in Second World Congress on Matriarchal Studies.
* ^ DeMott, Tom, The Investigator (review of Bennholdt-Thomsen,
Veronika, Cornelia Giebeler, Brigitte Holzer, & Marina Meneses,
Juchitán, City of Women (Mexico: Consejo Editorial, 1994)), as
accessed Feb. 6, 2011.
* ^ LeBow (1984)
* ^ Rohrlich (1977) , p. 37
* ^ Office of Policy Planning and Review (Daniel Patrick Moynihan,
principal author), The Negro Family: The Case For National Action
(U.S. Department of Labor, 1965), esp. Chapter IV. The Tangle of
Pathology, authorship per History at the Department of Labor: In-Depth
Research, all as accessed November 2, 2013.
* ^ Donovan (2000) , p. 171, citing Moynihan, Daniel, The Negro
Family: The Case for National Action (1965) ("In this analysis
Moynihan asserted that since a fourth of black families were headed by
single women, black society was a matriarchy .... his situation
undermined the confidence and 'manhood' of black men, and therefore
prevented their competing successfully in the white work world.") and
citing hooks, bell , either Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism
(Boston: South End, 1981) or Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center
(Boston: South End, 1984) (probably former), pp. 181–187 ("freedom
came to be seen by some black militants as a liberation from the
oppression caused by black women"), hooks, bell, pp. 180–181 ("many
black men 'absorbed' the Moynihan ideology, and this misogyny itself
became absorbed into the black freedom movement" and included this,
"Moynihan's view", as a case of "American neo-Freudian revisionism
where women who evidenced the slightest degree of independence were
perceived as 'castrating' threats to the male identity"), and see
hooks, bell, p. 79.
* ^ "matriarchy".
Online Etymology Dictionary
Online Etymology Dictionary .
Edvard Westermarck (1921), The History of Human Marriage, Vol.
3, London: Macmillan, p. 108.
* ^ Liddell, Henry George, & Robert Scott, An Intermediate
Greek–English Lexicon, for γυναικοκρατία.
* ^ Liddell, Henry George, & Robert Scott, A Greek–English
Lexicon, for γυ^ναικο-κρα^τέομαι.
* ^ A B Leeuwe, Jules de, untitled comment (November 18, 1977)
(emphases so in original), as a response to and with Leacock, Eleanor
, Women's Status in
Egalitarian Society: Implications for Social
Evolution, in Current Anthropology, vol. 33, no. 1, supp. Inquiry and
Debate in the Human Sciences: Contributions from Current Anthropology,
1960–1990 (February, 1992 (ISSN 0011-3204 & E-ISSN 1537-5382)), p.
* ^ OED (1993) , entries gynaecocracy, gynocracy, gynarchy &
* ^ A B Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English
Language Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam (Merriam-Webster), 1966), entries
gynecocracy, gynocracy, & gynarchy.
* ^ A B The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
(Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 3d ed. 1992 (ISBN 0-395-44895-6 )),
entries gynecocracy, gynocracy, & gynarchy.
* ^ A B Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (N.Y.: Random
House, 2d ed. 2001 (ISBN 0-375-42566-7 )), entries gynecocracy &
* ^ A B Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English
Language Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam (Merriam-Webster), 1966), entry
* ^ OED (1993) , gynaecocracy
* ^ OED (1993) , gynocracy
* ^ OED (1993) , gyneocracy
* ^ Scalingi (1978) , p. 72
* ^ Scalingi (1978) , p. 59
* ^ Scalingi (1978) , p. 60 & passim
* ^ A B C D Scalingi (1978) , p. 60
* ^ A B Diner (1965) , p. 173
* ^ Diner (1965) , p. 136
* ^ Diner (1965) , p. 123 and see p. 122
* ^ Adler (2006) , p. 195
* ^ Latter quotation: Davis, Debra Diane (2000). Breaking up
totality: A rhetoric of laughter. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern
Illinois University Press. p. 137 and see pp. 136–137 & 143. ISBN
0809322285 . (brackets in title so in original) & quoting: Young,
Iris Marion (1985). "Humanism, gynocentrism, and feminist politics".
Women\'s Studies International Forum .
Elsevier . 8 (3): 173. doi
* ^ Ferraro, Gary, Wenda Trevathan, ">
* ^ A B Smith, R.T., Matrifocality, in Smelser ">(PDF). The Journal
of Archaeomythology. 7: 43.
* ^ A B Adovasio, J. M., Olga Soffer, & Jake Page, The Invisible
Sex: Uncovering the True Roles of Women in Prehistory (Smithsonian
* ^ A B Eller (1995) , p. 152 and see pp. 158–161
* ^ Young, Katherine (2010). Sanctifying Misandry: Goddess Ideology
and the Fall of Man. Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp.
33–34. ISBN 978-0-7735-3615-9 .
* ^ Goldberg, Steven, The Inevitability of
* ^ Eller (2000)
* ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica describes this view as "consensus",
listing matriarchy as a hypothetical social system: Encyclopædia
Britannica (2007), entry Matriarchy.
* ^ Bamberger, Joan, The Myth of Matriarchy:
Why Men Rule in
Primitive Society, in M. Rosaldo "> * ^ Bisch, Jorgen, Why Buddha
Smiles, p. 71 (Ahu Ho Gong, Padaung chief: "no man can be chief over
women. I am chief of the men. But women, well! Women only do what they
themselves wish" & "it is the same with women all over the world", pp.
* ^ Marshall, Andrew, The Trouser People: A Story of Burma in the
Shadow of the Empire (ISBN 1-58243-120-5 ), p. 213 ("Kayaw societies
are strictly matriarchal.").
* ^ MacKinnon, Mark, In China, a
Matriarchy Under Threat, in The
Globe and Mail (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), August 15, 2011, 11:55p.
* ^ Lugu Lake
Mosuo Cultural Development Association, The Mosuo:
Matriarchal/Matrilineal Culture (2006), retrieved July 10, 2011.
* ^ Mukherjee, Sucharita Sinha, Women's Empowerment and Gender Bias
in the Birth and Survival of Girls in Urban India, in Feminist
Economics, vol. 19, no. 1 (January, 2013) (doi
:10.1080/13545701.2012.752312 ), p. 9, citing Srinivas, Mysore
Narasimhachar, The Cohesive Role of Sanskritization and Other Essays
(Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989), & Agarwal, Bina, A Field of
One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1994).
* ^ Mukherjee, Sucharita Sinha, Women's Empowerment and Gender Bias
in the Birth and Survival of Girls in Urban India, in Feminist
Economics, vol. 19, no. 1 (January, 2013) (doi
:10.1080/13545701.2012.752312 ), p. 9.
* ^ Kumar, Anuj, Let\'s Anger Her! (sic), in The Hindu, July 25,
2012, as accessed September 29, 2012 (whether statement was by Kumar
or Kom is unknown).
* ^ , as accessed May 11, 2017.
* ^ Fortunato, Laura (2012-10-17). "The evolution of matrilineal
kinship organization". Proceedings of the Royal
Society of London B:
Biological Sciences: rspb20121926. ISSN 0962-8452 . PMC 3497236 .
PMID 23075837 . doi :10.1098/rspb.2012.1926 .
* ^ Sanday, Peggy Reeves, Women at the Center: Life in a Modern
Matriarchy (Cornell University Press, 2002).
* ^ A B C Turley, William S., Women in the Communist Revolution in
Vietnam, in Asian Survey, vol. 12, no. 9, September, 1972, p. 793 n. 1
(DOI 10.2307/2642829) (subscription may be required or content may be
available in libraries).
* ^ Phan (2005) , p. 12 and see pp. 13 & 32 (the "three persons"
apparently being the sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi in A.D. 40, per
p. 12, & Trieu Au in A.D. 248, per p. 13).
* ^ A B C Phan (2005) , p. 32
* ^ Phan (2005) , p. 33
* ^ Chiricosta, Alessandra, Following the Trail of the Fairy-Bird:
The Search For a Uniquely Vietnamese Women's Movement, in Roces &
Edwards (2010) , pp. 125, 126 (single quotation marks so in original).
* ^ Roces & Edwards (2010) , p. 125 (single quotation marks so in
* ^ Roces & Edwards (2010) , p. 125 (parentheses so in original).
* ^ Taylor (1983) , p. 39 (n. 176 omitted).
* ^ Both quotations: Taylor (1983) , p. 338
* ^ A B C D E Seekins, Donald M., Trung Sisters, Rebellion of
(39–43), in Sandler, Stanley, ed., Ground Warfare: An International
Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara California: ABC-Clio, hardcover 2002 (ISBN
1-57607-344-0 )), vol. 3, p. 898.
* ^ Turner, Karen G., "Vietnam" as a Women's War, in Young, Marilyn
B., & Robert Buzzanco, eds., A Companion to the Vietnam War (Malden,
Massachusetts: Blackwell, hardback 2002 (ISBN 0-631-21013-X )), pp.
95–96 but see p. 107.
* ^ Schlegel (1984) , p. 44 and see pp. 44–52
* ^ LeBow (1984) , p. 8
* ^ LeBow (1984) , p. 18
* ^ A B Schlegel (1984) , p. 44 n. 1
* ^ A B Schlegel (1984) , p. 45
* ^ A B C Schlegel (1984) , p. 50
* ^ A B C D Schlegel (1984) , p. 49
* ^ Jacobs (1991) , pp. 498–509
* ^ Jacobs (1991) , pp. 506–507
* ^ Jacobs (1991) , pp. 505 & 506, quoting Carr, L., The Social and
Political Position of Women Among the Huron-
Iroquois Tribes, Report of
the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology, p. 223 (1884).
* ^ A B George-Kanentiio, Doug,
Iroquois Culture & Commentary (New
Mexico: Clear Light Publishers, 2000), pp. 53–55.
* ^ Jacobs (1991) , p. 498 ">
* ^ Morgan, L., Ancient
Society Or Researches in the Lines of Human
Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization.
* ^ Ruether, Rosemary Radford, Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A
Western Religious History, p. 15.
* ^ Bachofen, Johann Jakob, Myth, Religion, and Mother Right.
* ^ Mann, Susan, Presidential Address: Myths of Asian Womanhood, in
The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 59, no. 4 (November, 2000), p. 839
and see p. 842 but see p. 839 ">
* ^ Bachofen, Johann Jakob, Das Mutterrecht. Eine Untersuchung
über die Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und
rechtlichen Natur. Eine Auswahl herausgegeben von Hans-Jürgen
Heinrichs (Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1975 ).
* ^ Engels (1984) , p. 70
* ^ Engels (1984) , p. 204
* ^ Eller (2011) , p. 115
* ^ Bebel, August, Die Frau und der Sozialismus. Als Beitrag zur
Emanzipation unserer Gesellschaft, bearbeitet und kommentiert von
Monika Seifert (Stuttgart: Dietz, 1974 (1st published 1879)), p. 63.
* ^ Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party:
Heritage Floor: Helen Diner (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Museum, last
updated March 27, 2007), as accessed March, 2008, Sheaffer, R.,
Skeptical Inquirer (1999) (review).
* ^ del Giorgio, J.F., The Oldest Europeans (A.J.Place, 2006 (ISBN
* ^ Rohrlich (1977) , p. 36 and see p. 37 ("Minoan matriarchate"
(subquoting, at p. 37 n. 7, Thomson, George, The Prehistoric Aegean
(N.Y.: Citadel Press, 1965), p. 450)), Baruch, Elaine Hoffman,
Introduction, in Pt. Four (Visions of Utopia), in Rohrlich & Baruch
(1984) , p. 207 ("matriarchal societies, particularly Minoan Crete"),
and Rohrlich (1984) , p. 6 ("the Minoan matriarchy" & "Minoan Crete").
* ^ Three quotations: Rohrlich (1977) , p. 37
* ^ Rohrlich (1977) , p. 39, quoting Thomson, George, The
Prehistoric Aegean (N.Y.: Citadel Press, 1965), p. 160.
* ^ A B C Wax, Emily, A Place Where Women Rule, in The Washington
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* ^ A B Wax, Emily, A Place Where Women Rule, in The Washington
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* ^ Tamang, Stella, Indigenous Affairs, vols. 1–2, no. 4, p. 46.
* ^ Six Nations Women's Traditional Council Fire Report to CEDAW,
* ^ Schaller , p. 37.
* ^ Sukumar , pp. 175–79.
* ^ Angier, Natalie (September 10, 2016). "Beware the Bonds of
New York Times
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* ^ Chesler (2005) , pp. 335–336 (italics omitted).
* ^ Chesler (2005) , pp. 335–336
* ^ Chesler (2005) , p. 336
* ^ Chesler (2005) , p. 336 (italics omitted)
Strabo , 5.504.
* ^ Ukert, F. A. , Die Amazonen (Abhandlungen der
philosophisch-philologischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen
Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1849), 63.
* ^ Adler (2006) , p. 196 (italics so in original; p. 196 n. 20
citing Markale, Jean, Women of the
Celts (London: Gordon Cremonesi,
* ^ Bamberger, Joan, The Myth of Matriarchy:
Why Men Rule in
Primitive Society, in M. Rosaldo & L. Lamphere, Women, Culture, and
Society (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1974), p. 279.
* ^ A B Weisberg, D. Kelly, ed., Applications of Feminist Legal
Theory to Women's Lives: Sex, Violence, Work, and Reproduction
(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996 (ISBN 1-56639-423-6 )),
p. 9 ("women must organize against patriarchy as a class") but see p.
11 ("some radical feminists ... opt ... for anarchistic, violent
* ^ A B Dale, Jennifer, ">'") and see pp. 52–53 (political
* ^ Donovan (2000) , p. 55 with Reminiscences of the Matriarchate
(Watertown, Mass.: Persephone Press, 1980 (1893)), p. 21.
* ^ A Lecture on Constitutional Equality, also known as The Great
Secession Speech, speech to Woman's Suffrage Convention, New York, May
11, 1871, excerpt quoted in Gabriel (1998) , pp. 86–87.
* ^ Gabriel (1998) , passim, esp. pp. 54–57
* ^ Underhill, Lois Beachy, The
Woman Who Ran for President: The
Many Lives of
Victoria Woodhull (Bridgehampton, N.Y.: Bridge Works,
1st ed. 1995 (ISBN 1-882593-10-3 ), passim, esp. ch. 8.
* ^ The dates are those of two original editions of the same work,
both cited herein.
* ^ Donovan (2000) , p. 61, citing Gilman (2001) , passim
* ^ Donovan (2000) , p. 62, citing Gilman (2001) , p. 190
* ^ Gilman (2001) , p. 177 and see p. 153.
* ^ Gilman (2001) , p. 153
* ^ Gilman (2001) , pp. 153, 177
* ^ Penner, James, Pinks, Pansies, and Punks: The Rhetoric of
Masculinity in American Literary Culture (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana
University Press, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-253-22251-0 )), p. 235.
* ^ A B C Eller (1991) , p. 287
* ^ Eller (2000) , p. 12
* ^ Eller (2000) , p. 12 (quoting also
Mary Daly ("matriarchy 'was
not patriarchy spelled with an "m."'", probably – per Eller (2000) ,
p. 12 n. 3 – in Daly, Mary, Beyond God the Father, p. 94)).
* ^ Starhawk, Dreaming the Dark: Magic, Sex, and Politics (Boston,
Mass.: Beacon Press, 15th Anniversary ed. 1997 (original 1982) (ISBN
0-8070-1037-5 )), ch. 1 (original 1982 ed. cited in Eller (1991) , p.
* ^ Adler (1979) , p. 187, as quoted in Eller (1991) , p. 287.
* ^ Castro (1990) , p. 42
* ^ Willemsen (1997) , p. 5
* ^ Willemsen (1997) , p. 6. See also Poldervaart (1997) , p. 182
("Tineke Willemsen distinghuishes in her article three large classes
of utopias: ... 2) feminists who emphasize the difference ; in these
utopias women have a better position than men or feminine qualities
are more valued than masculine ones").
* ^ A B C Quotation: Take No Prisoners, in The Guardian, May 13,
2000, as accessed Sep. 6, 2010.
* ^ Other than quotation: Dworkin, Andrea, Scapegoat: The Jews,
Israel, and Women's Liberation (N.Y.: Free Press, 2000 (ISBN
0-684-83612-2 )), p. 246 and see pp. 248 & 336.
* ^ Ouma, Veronica A., Dworkin\'s Scapegoating, in Palestine
Solidarity Review (PSR), Fall 2005 Archived December 8, 2010, at the
Wayback Machine ., as accessed Oct. 21, 2010 (PSR was challenged on
its reliability, in Frantzman, Seth J., Do Arabs and Jews Realize How
Much They Look Alike?, in The Jerusalem Post, Jun. 10, 2009, 11:43
p.m. (op-ed opinion), as accessed May 15, 2011.)
* ^ Schönpflug (2008) , p. 22
* ^ Chesler (2005) , p. 347 (italics so in original) and see pp.
296, 335–336, 337–338, 340, 341, 345, 346, 347, & 348–349 and
see also pp. 294–295
* ^ Chesler (2005) , p. 337 and see p. 340
* ^ A B C Chesler (2005) , p. 338
* ^ Chesler, Phyllis, in Spender (1985) , p. 214 (reply from
Phyllis Chesler to Dale Spender).
* ^ Spender (1985) , p. 151 (emphasis in original).
* ^ Spender (1985) , p. 151
* ^ Wittig (1985) , passim and see pp. 114–115, 127, 131, &
* ^ Wittig (1985) , pp. 114–115
* ^ Both quotations: Rohrlich (1984) , p. xvii.
* ^ Moi, Toril, Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory
(London: Routledge, 2d ed., 2002 (ISBN 0-415-28012-5 )), p. 78.
* ^ Auerbach, Nina, Communities of Women: An Idea in Fiction
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978 (ISBN 0-674-15168-2 )),
* ^ A B C D Porter (1992) , p. 267
* ^ Wittig (1985) , p. 112
* ^ Zerilli (2005) , p. 80, quoting Porter (1992) , p. 261
* ^ Farley (1984) , pp. 237–238
* ^ Farley (1984) , p. 238 and see Baruch, Elaine Hoffman,
Introduction, in Pt. Four (Visions of Utopia), in Rohrlich & Baruch
(1984) , p. 205.
* ^ Farley (1984) , p. 238
* ^ Zerilli (2005) , p. 80, purportedly quoting within the
quotation Porter (1992) , p. 261.
* ^ Daly (1990) , p. 15
* ^ Daly (1990) , p. xxvi
* ^ Daly (1990) , p. xxxiii
* ^ Daly (1990) , p. 375 & fnn. and see p. 384
* ^ Daly (1990) , p. 29
* ^ Zerilli (2005) , p. 101
* ^ Eller (2000) , p. 3
* ^ Rountree (2001) , p. 6
* ^ Rountree (2001) , pp. 5–9 & passim
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 72
* ^ Eller (1995) , pp. 183–184
* ^ Eller (1995) , p. 184
* ^ A B Johnston, Jill, Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution
(N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1973 (SBN (not ISBN) 671-21433-0)), p. 248
and see pp. 248–249.
* ^ Franklin, Kris, & Sara E. Chinn, Lesbians, Legal Theory and
Other Superheroes, in Review of Law & Social Change, vol. XXV, 1999,
pp. 310–311, as accessed (at a prior URL) October 21, 2010 (citing
in n. 45 Lesbian Nation, p. 15).
* ^ Ross (1995) , passim, esp. pp. 8 & 15–16 & also pp. 19, 71,
111, 204, 205, 212, 219 & 231
* ^ Ross (1995) , p. 204, citing McCoy, Sherry, & Maureen Hicks, A
Psychological Retrospective on Power in the Contemporary
Lesbian-Feminist Community, in Frontiers, vol. 4, no. 3 (1979), p. 67.
* ^ Davis (1971) , p. 18
* ^ A B C D E F Davis (1971) , p. 339
* ^ A B C D E F G Castro (1990) , p. 35 and see pp. 26, 27,
32–36, & 42.
* ^ Castro (1990) , p. 36
* ^ Echols (1989) , pp. 183–184
* ^ Tong, Rosemarie Putnam, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive
Introduction (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2d ed. 1998 (ISBN
0-8133-3295-8 )), p. 23.
* ^ Echols (1989) , p. 184, quoting Barbara Mehrhof and Pam Kearon.
Full names per Echols (1989) , pp. 407, 409 & memberships per Echols
(1989) , pp. 388, 383 foundership per Echols (1989) , p. 388
* ^ Morgan, Robin, Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a
Feminist (N.Y.: Random House, 1st ed. 1977 (ISBN 0-394-48227-1 )), p.
187 (italics so in original).
* ^ Adler (2006) , p. 198 ("Maior" so in original)
* ^ Schönpflug (2008) , p. 108, citing
Gerd Brantenberg , Egalia's
Daughters (Norwegian original published in 1977).
* ^ Schönpflug (2008) , p. 19
* ^ A B Schönpflug (2008) , p. 20
* ^ Egalia's Daughters as fiction: WorldCat entry, as accessed
August 29, 2012.
* ^ Matriarchal Studies (International Academy HAGIA), as accessed
January 30, 2011.
* ^ 1st World Congress on Matriarchal Studies, also known as
Societies in Balance, both as accessed January 29, 2011.
* ^ Societies of Peace: 2nd World Congress on Matriarchal Studies
(home page), as accessed January 29, 2011.
* ^ For a review of the conferences, esp. that of 2005, by a
participant, see Mukhim, Patricia, Khasi Matriliny Has Many Parallels,
October 15, 2005, as accessed February 6, 2011 (also published in The
Statesman (India), October 15, 2005).
* ^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009a) , passim
* ^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009b) , p. 23
* ^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009b) , p. 25 and see p. 24 and, in
Goettner-Abendroth (2009a) , Introduction & pts. I & VIII
* ^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009b) , p. 25 (emphasis so in original).
* ^ A B C Eller (1991) , p. 290
* ^ A B C Eller (1991) , p. 291
* ^ A B C D E Eller (2000) , p. 10 (whether author's data global
* ^ Dworkin, Andrea, Biological Superiority: The World\'s Most
Dangerous and Deadly Idea (1977), from Dworkin, Andrea, Letters From a
War Zone: Writings 1976–1989, Pt. III, Take Back the Day, as
accessed December 25, 2010 (first published in Heresies No. 6 on Women
and Violence, vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer 1978)).
* ^ Morgan, Robin, The Demon Lover: On the Sexuality of Terrorism
(N.Y.: Norton, 1989 (ISBN 0-393-30677-1 ) (rev. ed. 2000 (ISBN
0-7434-5293-3 ))), p. 27 (pagination per edition at Amazon.com).
* ^ Badinter, Elisabeth, trans. Julia Borossa, Dead End Feminism
(Polity, 2006 (ISBN 0-7456-3381-1 Amazon Continues Odyssey, in off our
backs, December, 1979 (interview) (mentioning "female nationalism"
(relevant herein insofar as the female nationalism is matriarchal)
Atkinson, Ti-Grace, Amazon Odyssey (N.Y.: Links, 1974 (SBN (not ISBN)
0-8256-3023-1)) (may preclude female nationalism (relevant herein
insofar as female nationalism is matriarchal)); also there exists (not
read by this editor) Atkinson, Ti-Grace, Le Nationalisme
Feminin, in Nouvelle Questions Feministes 6–7, Spring 1984, pp.
35–54 (French) (Eng. trans., Female Nationalism (unpublished), was
held by author) (relevant herein insofar as female nationalism is
matriarchal) (cited by Ringelheim, Joan, Women and the Holocaust: A
Reconsideration of Research, in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and
Society, vol. 10, no. 4 (Summer, 1985) (Communities of Women), pp.
741–761 ( Viewpoint) (also in Rittner, Carol, & John K. Roth, eds.,
Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust (N.Y.: Paragon House, 1993),
pp. 373–418) & by Weiss, Penny A., & Marilyn Friedman,
Community (Temple University Press, 1995 (ISBN 1-56639-277-2 & ISBN
978-1-56639-277-8 )), p. 330.
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , pp. 241–242, citing Plato, Republic.
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , pp. 173–174 & nn. 14, 16–17, & 19,
citing Hobbes, Leviathan, ch. 10, 14–15, & 21, Tuck, Richard,
Natural Rights Theories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979),
ch. 6, & Tarcov, Nathan, Locke's Education for Liberty (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1984), p. 38.
* ^ Ross (1995) , p. 208
* ^ Farley (1984) , p. 238 (respecting Wittig, Monique, Les
* ^ Stansell, Christine, The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present
(N.Y.: Modern Library (Random House), 1st ed. 2010 (ISBN
978-0-679-64314-2 )), p. 394.
* ^ Bartkowski, Frances, Feminist Utopias (Lincoln: University of
Nebraska Press, 1989 (ISBN 0-8032-1205-4 )), ch. 1.
* ^ Donovan (2000) , p. 48
* ^ Schönpflug (2008) , p. 21 and see p. 20–21.
* ^ Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, What is "Feminism"?, in The Sunday
Herald, vol. CXL, no. 65, September 3, 1916 (Extra ed.), Magazine, p.
, of The Boston Herald (Boston, Mass.) (on genderal integration:
"essential duty of the female is ... in choosing a father for her
children" & "women will always love men", both per col. 2, on freedom:
" full economic independence.... freedom now allowed our girls", per
col. 1, "freedom" (several references), per col. 2, & "feminism ....
set free four-fifths of its labor" & "comparative freedom of action
possible to women today ", both per col. 3) (microfilm (Bell &
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , pp. 80–81
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , pp. 79–80
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 17
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 49 and see also pp. 170–171 & 204–206
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 161
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 195
* ^ Donovan (2000) , p. 30, citing Grimké, Sarah M. , Letters on
Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of
Woman (N.Y.: Burt Franklin,
1970 (1838)), p. 81 (objecting to women "participating in government",
"reflecting perhaps the Victorian notion that public affairs were too
sordid for women").
* ^ A B C D Herzog (1998) , pp. 424–425
* ^ Richards (1997) , p. 120, but see pp. 120–121.
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 72 ("the evidence ... of males ruling
over all societies at almost all times" & "males ... have dominated
all politics we know of") & 58 ("every previous society, including our
democracy up to now, has been some kind of patriarchy, permeated by
stubborn, self-insistent manliness" (italics omitted)) and see p. 66
(patriarchy as "based on manliness, not merely those governments
staffed by males", applicability depending on the antecedent for
* ^ Ruden (2010) , p. 80 (emphasis in original)
* ^ Athenians discussed in the context of play by Aristophanes,
Ruden (2010) , pp. 78–80
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 210
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 75
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 76
* ^ Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang (N.Y.:
Random House, 1st ed. 1994 (ISBN 0-394-54427-7 )), vol. 1, p. 892,
col. 2 (earliest example dated 1944).
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , pp. 63–64
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 62
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 269
* ^ Not absolutely but relatively so: Mansfield (2006) , p. 80 n.
51 ("successful ambition in women makes them more womanish in the
sense of representing women's views").
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , p. 50 ("our science rather clumsily confirms
the stereotype about manliness, the stereotype that stands stubbornly
in the way of the gender-neutral society") and see pp. 43–49.
* ^ Mansfield (2006) , pp. 205–206
* ^ Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth, The Praxis of Coequal
Discipleship, in Horsley, Richard A., ed., Paul and Empire: Religion
and Power in Roman Imperial
Society (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity
Press Intntl., 1997 (ISBN 1-56338-217-2 )), pp. 238–239 (probably
from Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth, In Memory of Her (Crossroad
Publishing, 1983) because as women they find a full measure of duties,
cares and responsibilities and are unwilling to bear additional
burdens unsuited to their physical organization.", a "signed ...
petition against female suffrage" (January, 1871), in Gabriel (1998) ,
p. 83, citing The Press—Philadelphia, January 14, 1871, p. 8.
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 185
* ^ A B Roald (2001) , pp. 186–187
* ^ Roald (2001) , pp. 189–190
* ^ A B Roald (2001) , p. 190
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 188
* ^ Roald (2001) , pp. 186–189
* ^ A B Roald (2001) , p. 196
* ^ Roald (2001) , pp. 196–197
* ^ Roald (2001) , pp. 185–186
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 186 & ch. 8, passim
* ^ Ikhwan web,
Muslim Brotherhood on Muslim women in Islamic
Society (October 29, 2005) (trans.), as accessed March 5, 2011, The
Woman's Right to Vote, Be Elected and Occupy Public and Governmental
Posts., Thirdly, Women's Holding of Public Office.
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 198 (for study details, see Roald (2001) ,
ch. 3, e.g., quantity of 82 per p. 64).
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 197, quoting The Muslim Brotherhood, The Role
of Women in Islamic
Society According to the Muslim Brotherhood
(London: International Islamic Forum, 1994), 14.
* ^ The document stating it was not available at its official
English-language website advanced search page, as accessed March 5,
2011 (search for "Role of Women in Islamic Society" without quotation
marks yielding no results), but a document with similar relevant
effect is Ikhwan web,
Muslim Brotherhood on Muslim women in Islamic
Society (October 29, 2005) (trans.), as accessed March 5, 2011
("social circumstances and traditions" as justifying gradualism, per
A General Remark).
* ^ Roald (2001) , p. 34, citing Shafiq, Duriyya, al-Kitab
al-abiyad lil-huquq al-mar'a al-misriyya (The White Paper on the
Rights of the Egyptian Woman) (Cairo: n.p., 1953) (bibliographic
information partly per Roald (2001) , p. 25 n. 27)
* ^ Rostami Povey, Elaheh, Feminist Contestations of Institutional
Domains in Iran, in Feminist Review, no. 69, pp. 49 "a significant
spiritual leader of the ", Hartman (2007) , p. 101, citing, at Hartman
(2007) , pp. 101–102, Kook, Rav, Open Letter to the Honorable
Committee of the "Mizrahi" Association (1919) ("In the Torah, in the
Prophets and in the Writings, in the Halacha and in the Aggadah, we
hear ... that the duty of fixed public service falls upon men.").
* ^ Hartman (2007) , p. 106
* ^ Freeman (2003) , pp. 59 & 65
* ^ Freeman (2003) , p. 65 (the tribunals are discussed in the
context of "the marital law regime in each religion", including
* ^ Umanit (2003) , p. 133
* ^ Freeman (2003) , p. 60
* ^ Tsomo (1999) , pp. 6–7
* ^ A B Tsomo (1999) , p. 5
* ^ Bacchetta (2002) , p. 157
* ^ A B C D E Bacchetta (2002) , p. 168
* ^ Bacchetta (2002) , p. 168 (the 2 being Uma Bharati and Sadhvi
Rithambara , both associated with the
Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)),
all according to Bacchetta.
* ^ Bacchetta (2002) , p. 168 & n. 76, citing Kelkar, Kakshmibai,
Stri-Ek Urja Kendra: Strivishayak Vicharon Ka Sankalan (Nagpur: Sevika
Prakashan, n.d.), ch. 2.
* ^ de Abreu (2003) , p. 167
* ^ Knox (1878) (italicization and boldface, if any, removed).
* ^ A B Knox (1878)
* ^ Felch (1995) , p. 806
* ^ A B de Abreu (2003) , p. 169
* ^ Brammall (1996) , p. 19
* ^ A B Brammall (1996) , p. 20
* ^ Healey (1994) , p. 376
* ^ Ridley, Jasper,
John Knox (N.Y.: Oxford University Press,
1968), p. 267, as cited in Felch (1995) , p. 805
* ^ Reid, W. Stanford, Trumpeter of God: A Biography of John Knox
(N.Y.: Scribner, 1974), p. 145, as cited in Felch (1995) , p. 805
* ^ Lee (1990) , p. 242
* ^ A B Richards (1997) , p. 116
* ^ Laing, David, Preface (from extract), in Knox (1878)
* ^ Lee (1990) , pp. 250, 249, citing Goodman, Christopher, How
Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyd (N.Y.: reprint, 1931, originally
1558) (chap. on gynecocracy).
* ^ Richards (1997) , p. 117
* ^ Healey (1994) , pp. 372, 373
* ^ Healey (1994) , pp. 372–373
* ^ Healey (1994) , p. 373
* ^ Richards (1997) , p. 115
* ^ "There were occasionally women so endowed, that the singular
good qualities which shone forth in them made it evident that they
were raised up by Divine authority". Calvin, letter to William Cecil
(on or after January 29, 1559 (probably 1560)), in Knox (1878)
(citing, at Preface, n. 1, for letter, Zurich Letters (2d ser.), p.
35) (Calvin reviser, Commentaries on Isaiah (sometime in 1551–1559)
* ^ de Abreu (2003) , pp. 168, 170–171, e.g., citing Aylmer
(AElmer), John, An Harborowe for Faithfull and Trewe Subiects agaynst
the late blowne Blast, concerninge the Gouernment of Wemen wherin be
confuted all such reasons as a straunger of late made in that behalfe,
with a briefe exhortation to obedience (1559).
* ^ de Abreu (2003) , p. 170
* ^ Eller (1991) , p. 281 and see pp. 282 & 287
* ^ A B C Eller (1991) , p. 281
* ^ Eller (1991) , p. 282
* ^ A B C Mansfield (2006) , pp. 73–74 ">' in Science Fiction
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* ^ Valdes-Miyares, Ruben, Morgan's Queendom: The Other Arthurian
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of the Arthurian Myth (Peter Lang International Academic Publishers,
* ^ Bright Hub Education (book summary).
* ^ Fitting, Peter, Reconsiderations of the Separatist Paradigm in
Recent Feminist Science Fiction, in Science Fiction Studies, vol. 19,
no. 1 (March, 1992), pp. 32–48 (available via JStor).
* ^ Vonarburg (1992)
Publishers Weekly (book review (reviewed September 27, 2004)).
* ^ Traynor, Page, A Brother\'s Price, in RT Book Reviews (review).
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* Engels, Friedrich (1984). Der Ursprung der Familie, des
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* Farley, Tucker (1984). "Realities and fictions: lesbian visions of
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