Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in
mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political
leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property
at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.
While those definitions apply in general English, definitions specific
to the disciplines of anthropology and feminism differ in some
respects. Most anthropologists hold that there are no known
anthropological societies that are unambiguously matriarchal, but some
authors believe exceptions may exist or may have.
Matriarchies may also be confused with matrilineal, matrilocal, and
matrifocal societies. A few people consider any non-patriarchal system
to be matriarchal, thus including genderally equalitarian systems
(Peggy Reeves Sanday favors redefining and reintroducing the word
matriarchy, especially in reference to contemporary matrilineal
societies such as the Minangkabau ), but most academics exclude
them from matriarchies strictly defined.
In 19th century Western scholarship, the hypothesis of matriarchy
representing an early, mainly prehistoric, stage of human development
gained popularity. Possibilities of so-called primitive societies were
cited and the hypothesis survived into the 20th century, including in
the context of second-wave feminism. This hypothesis was criticized by
some authors such as
Cynthia Eller in The Myth of Matriarchal
Prehistory and remains as a largely unsolved question to this day.
Some older myths describe matriarchies.
Several modern feminists have advocated for matriarchy now or in the
future and it has appeared in feminist literature. In several
theologies, matriarchy has been portrayed as negative.
1 Definitions, connotations, and etymology
2 Related concepts
2.1 Words beginning with gyn-
2.2 Intergenerational relationships
2.3 Words beginning with matri-
3 History and distribution
3.1 By region and culture
3.1.1 Ancient Near East
3.1.4 Native Americans
3.2 By chronology
3.2.1 Earliest prehistory and undated
3.2.3 Bronze Age
Iron Age to Middle Ages
3.2.5 20th–21st centuries
4.3 Celtic myth and society
4.4 South America
5 In feminist thought
6 In religious thought
7 In popular culture
7.1 Ancient theatre
7.4 Fine arts
7.6 Video games
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Definitions, connotations, and etymology
According to the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (OED), matriarchy is a
"form of social organization in which the mother or oldest female is
the head of the family, and descent and relationship are reckoned
through the female line; government or rule by a woman or women." A
popular definition, according to James Peoples and Garrick Bailey, is
"female dominance". Within the academic discipline of cultural
anthropology, according to the OED, matriarchy is a "culture or
community in which such a system prevails" or a "family, society,
organization, etc., dominated by a woman or women." In general
anthropology, according to William A. Haviland, matriarchy is "rule by
women". A matriarchy is a society in which females, especially
mothers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral
authority, and control of property, but does not include a society
that occasionally is led by a female for nonmatriarchal reasons or an
occupation in which females generally predominate without reference to
matriarchy, such as prostitution or women's auxiliaries of
organizations run by men. According to Lawrence A.
Kuzner in 1997, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown argued in 1924 that the
definitions of matriarchy and patriarchy had "logical and empirical
failings .... [and] were too vague to be scientifically
Most academics exclude egalitarian nonpatriarchal systems from
matriarchies more strictly defined. According to Heide
Göttner-Abendroth, a reluctance to accept the existence of
matriarchies might be based on a specific culturally biased notion of
how to define matriarchy: because in a patriarchy men rule over women,
a matriarchy has frequently been conceptualized as women ruling over
men, while she believed that matriarchies are egalitarian.
The word matriarchy, for a society politically led by females,
especially mothers, who also control property, is often interpreted to
mean the genderal opposite of patriarchy, but it is not an
opposite. According to Peoples and Bailey, the view of
anthropologist Peggy Reeves Sanday is that matriarchies are not a
mirror form of patriarchies but rather that a matriarchy "emphasizes
maternal meanings where 'maternal symbols are linked to social
practices influencing the lives of both sexes and where women play a
central role in these practices'". Journalist
Margot Adler wrote,
"literally, ... ["matriarchy"] means government by mothers, or
more broadly, government and power in the hands of women." Barbara
Love and Elizabeth Shanklin wrote, "by 'matriarchy,' we mean a
non-alienated society: a society in which women, those who produce the
next generation, define motherhood, determine the conditions of
motherhood, and determine the environment in which the next generation
is reared." According to Cynthia Eller, "'matriarchy' can be
thought of ... as a shorthand description for any society in
which women's power is equal or superior to men's and in which the
culture centers around values and life events described as
'feminine.'" Eller wrote that the idea of matriarchy mainly rests
on two pillars, romanticism and modern social criticism. The
notion of matriarchy was meant to describe something like a utopia
placed in the past in order to legitimate contemporary social
criticism. With respect to a prehistoric matriarchal
Golden Age, according to Barbara Epstein, "matriarchy ... means a
social system organized around matriliny and goddess worship in which
women have positions of power." According to Adler, in the Marxist
tradition, it usually refers to a pre-class society "where women and
men share equally in production and power."
According to Adler, "a number of feminists note that few definitions
of the word [matriarchy], despite its literal meaning, include any
concept of power, and they suggest that centuries of oppression have
made it impossible for women to conceive of themselves with such
Matriarchy has often been presented as negative, in contrast to
patriarchy as natural and inevitable for society, thus that matriarchy
is hopeless. Love and Shanklin wrote:
When we hear the word "matriarchy", we are conditioned to a number of
responses: that matriarchy refers to the past and that matriarchies
have never existed; that matriarchy is a hopeless fantasy of female
domination, of mothers dominating children, of women being cruel to
men. Conditioning us negatively to matriarchy is, of course, in the
interests of patriarchs. We are made to feel that patriarchy is
natural; we are less likely to question it, and less likely to direct
our energies to ending it.
The Matriarchal Studies school led by Göttner-Abendroth calls for an
even more inclusive redefinition of the term: Göttner-Abendroth
defines Modern Matriarchal Studies as the "investigation and
presentation of non-patriarchal societies", effectively defining
matriarchy as non-patriarchy. She has also defined matriarchy as
characterized by the sharing of power equally between the two
genders. According to Diane LeBow, "matriarchal societies are
often described as ... egalitarian ...", although
anthropologist Ruby Rohrlich has written of "the centrality of women
in an egalitarian society."[a]
Matriarchy is also the public formation in which the woman occupies
the ruling position in a family. For this usage, some scholars now
prefer the term matrifocal to matriarchal. Some,
including Daniel Moynihan, claimed that there is a matriarchy among
Black families in the United States,[b] because a quarter of them
were headed by single women; thus, families composing a
substantial minority of a substantial minority could be enough for the
latter to constitute a matriarchy within a larger non-matriarchal
Etymologically, it is from
Latin māter (genitive mātris), "mother"
and Greek ἄρχειν arkhein, "to rule". The notion of
matriarchy was defined by
Joseph-François Lafitau (1681–1746), who
first named it ginécocratie. According to the OED, the earliest
known attestation of the word matriarchy is in 1885. By contrast,
gynæcocracy, meaning 'rule of women', has been in use since the 17th
century, building on the Greek word γυναικοκρατία found
Aristotle and Plutarch.
Terms with similar etymology are also used in various social sciences
and humanities to describe matriarchal or matriological aspects of
social, cultural and political processes. Adjective
matriological is derived from the noun matriology that comes from
Latin word māter (mother) and Greek word λογος (logos, teaching
about). The term matriology was used in theology and
history of religion as a designation for the study of particular
motherly aspects of various female deities. The term
was subsequently borrowed by other social sciences and humanities and
its meaning was widened in order to describe and define particular
female-dominated and female-centered aspects of cultural and social
life. The male alternative for matriology is
patriology, with patriarchy being the male
alternative to matriarchy[pages needed].
In their works,
Johann Jakob Bachofen
Johann Jakob Bachofen and Lewis Morgan used such terms
and expressions as mother-right, female rule, gyneocracy, and female
authority. All these terms meant the same: the rule by females (mother
or wife). Although Bachofen and Lewis Morgan confined
the "mother right" inside households, it was the basis of female
influence upon the whole society. The authors of the
classics did not think that gyneocracy meant 'female government' in
politics. They were aware of the fact that the sexual
structure of government had no relation to domestic rule and to roles
of both sexes.
Words beginning with gyn-
A matriarchy is also sometimes called a gynarchy, a gynocracy, a
gynecocracy, or a gynocentric society, although these terms do not
definitionally emphasize motherhood. Cultural anthropologist Jules de
Leeuwe argued that some societies were "mainly gynecocratic"
(others being "mainly androcratic").[c]
Gynecocracy, gynaecocracy, gynocracy, gyneocracy, and gynarchy
generally mean 'government by women over women and
men'. All of these words are synonyms in their most
important definitions. While these words all share that principal
meaning, they differ a little in their additional meanings, so that
gynecocracy also means 'women's social supremacy', gynaecocracy
also means 'government by one woman', 'female dominance', and,
derogatorily, 'petticoat government', and gynocracy also means
'women as the ruling class'. Gyneocracy is rarely used in modern
times. None of these definitions are limited to mothers.
Some question whether a queen ruling without a king is sufficient to
constitute female government, given the amount of participation of
other men in most such governments. One view is that it is sufficient.
"By the end of [Queen] Elizabeth's reign, gynecocracy was a fait
accompli", according to historian Paula Louise Scalingi.[d]
Gynecocracy is defined by Scalingi as "government by women",
similar to dictionary definitions (one dictionary adding
'women's social supremacy' to the governing role). Scalingi
reported arguments for and against the validity of gynocracy and
said, "the humanists treated the question of female rule as part of
the larger controversy over sexual equality." Possibly, queenship,
because of the power wielded by men in leadership and assisting a
queen, leads to queen bee syndrome, contributing to the difficulty of
other women in becoming heads of the government.
Some matriarchies have been described by historian Helen Diner as "a
strong gynocracy" and "women monopolizing government" and she
Amazons as "an extreme, feminist wing"[e] of
humanity and that North African women "ruled the country
politically," and, according to Adler, Diner "envision[ed] a
Gynocentrism is the 'dominant or exclusive focus on women', is opposed
to androcentrism, and "invert[s] ... the privilege of
the ... [male/female] binary ...[,] [some feminists] arguing
for 'the superiority of values embodied in traditionally female
Some people who sought evidence for the existence of a matriarchy
often mixed matriarchy with anthropological terms and concepts
describing specific arrangements in the field of family relationships
and the organization of family life, such as matrilineality and
matrilocality. These terms refer to intergenerational relationships
(as matriarchy may), but do not distinguish between males and females
insofar as they apply to specific arrangements for sons as well as
daughters from the perspective of their relatives on their mother's
side. Accordingly, these concepts do not represent matriarchy as
'power of women over men'.
Words beginning with matri-
Further information: list of matrilineal or matrilocal societies
Anthropologists have begun to use the term matrifocality.[citation
needed] There is some debate concerning the terminological delineation
between matrifocality and matriarchy. Matrifocal
societies are those in which women, especially mothers, occupy a
central position. Anthropologist R. T. Smith refers
to matrifocality as the kinship structure of a social system whereby
the mothers assume structural prominence. The term does not
necessarily imply domination by women or mothers. In addition,
some authors depart from the premise of a mother-child dyad as the
core of a human group where the grandmother was the central ancestor
with her children and grandchildren clustered around her in an
The term matricentric means 'having a mother as head of the family or
Venus von Willendorf
Matristic: Feminist scholars and archeologists such as Marija
Gimbutas, Gerda Lerner, and Riane Eisler label their notion of a
"woman-centered" society surrounding
Mother Goddess worship during
Neolithic Europe) and in ancient
civilizations by using the term matristic rather than matriarchal.
Marija Gimbutas states that she uses "the term matristic simply to
avoid the term matriarchy with the understanding that it incorporates
matriliny. l
Matrilineality, in which descent is traced through the female line, is
sometimes conflated with historical matriarchy. Sanday favors
redefining and reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in
reference to contemporary matrilineal societies such as the
Minangkabau. The 19th-century belief that matriarchal societies
existed was due to the transmission of "economic and social
power ... through kinship lines" so that "in a matrilineal
society all power would be channeled through women. Women may not have
retained all power and authority in such societies ..., but they
would have been in a position to control and dispense power."
A matrilocal society defines a society in which a couple resides close
to the bride's family rather than the bridegroom's
History and distribution
Most anthropologists hold that there are no known societies that are
unambiguously matriarchal. According to J. M. Adovasio,
Olga Soffer, and Jake Page, no true matriarchy is known actually to
have existed. Anthropologist Joan Bamberger argued that the
historical record contains no primary sources on any society in which
women dominated. Anthropologist Donald Brown's list of human
cultural universals (viz., features shared by nearly all current human
societies) includes men being the "dominant element" in public
political affairs, which he asserts is the contemporary opinion of
mainstream anthropology. There are some disagreements and possible
exceptions. A belief that women's rule preceded men's rule was,
according to Haviland, "held by many nineteenth-century
intellectuals". The hypothesis survived into the 20th century and
was notably advanced in the context of feminism and especially
second-wave feminism, but the hypothesis is mostly discredited today,
most experts saying that it was never true.
Matriarchs, according to Peoples and Bailey, do exist; there are
"individual matriarchs of families and kin groups."
By region and culture
Ancient Near East
The Cambridge Ancient History (1975) stated that "the predominance
of a supreme goddess is probably a reflection from the practice of
matriarchy which at all times characterized Elamite civilization to a
greater or lesser degree".[f]
Tacitus claimed in his book Germania that in "the nations of the
Sitones a woman is the ruling sex."[g]
Legends of Amazon women originated not from South America, but rather
Scythia (present day Russia).
Possible matriarchies in Burma are, according to Jorgen Bisch, the
Padaungs and, according to Andrew Marshall, the Kayaw.
Mosuo culture, which is in China near Tibet, is frequently
described as matriarchal. The
Mosuo themselves often use this
description and they believe it increases interest in their culture
and thus attracts tourism. The term matrilineal is sometimes used,
and, while more accurate, still doesn't reflect the full complexity of
their social organization. In fact, it is not easy to categorize Mosuo
culture within traditional Western definitions. They have aspects of a
matriarchal culture: Women are often the head of the house,
inheritance is through the female line, and women make business
decisions. However, unlike in a true matriarchy, political power tends
to be in the hands of males.
In India, of communities recognized in the national Constitution as
Scheduled Tribes, "some ... [are] matriarchal and
matrilineal" "and thus have been known to be more
egalitarian". According to interviewer Anuj Kumar, Manipur, India,
"has a matriarchal society", but this may not be a scholarly
Manipur, in north-east India, is not at all a matriarchy. Though
mothers there are in forefront of most of the social activism, the
society has always been a patriarchal. Their women power is visible
because of historical reason.
Manipur was ruled by strong dynasties.
The need for expansions of borders, crushing any outsider threats etc.
engaged the men. And so women had to take charge of
Anthropologist Peggy Reeves Sanday said the Minangkabau society may be
According to William S. Turley, "the role of women in traditional
Vietnamese culture was determined [partly] by ... indigenous
customs bearing traces of matriarchy", affecting "different social
classes" to "varying degrees". According to Peter C. Phan,
that "the first three persons leading insurrections against China were
women ... suggest[s] ... that ancient Vietnam was a
matriarchal society" and "the ancient Vietnamese family system was
most likely matriarchal, with women ruling over the clan or tribe"
until the Vietnamese "adopt[ed] ... the patriarchal system
introduced by the Chinese", although "this patriarchal
system ... was not able to dislodge the Vietnamese women from
their relatively high position in the family and society, especially
among the peasants and the lower classes", with modern "culture
and legal codes ... [promoting more] rights and privileges" for
women than in Chinese culture. According to Chiricosta, the legend
Âu Cơ is said to be evidence of "the presence of an original
North Vietnam and [it] led to the double kinship
system, which developed there .... [and which] combined
matrilineal and patrilineal patterns of family structure and assigned
equal importance to both lines."[h][i] Chiricosta said that other
scholars relied on "this 'matriarchal' aspect of the myth to
differentiate Vietnamese society from the pervasive spread of Chinese
Confucian patriarchy"[j] and that "resistance to China's
colonization of Vietnam ... [combined with] the view that Vietnam
was originally a matriarchy ... [led to viewing] women's
struggles for liberation from (Chinese) patriarchy as a metaphor for
the entire nation's struggle for Vietnamese independence."
According to Keith Weller Taylor, "the matriarchal flavor of the time
is ... attested by the fact that Trung Trac's mother's tomb and
spirit temple have survived, although nothing remains of her
father", and the "society of the Trung sisters" was "strongly
matrilineal". According to Donald M. Seekins, an indication of
"the strength of matriarchal values" was that a woman, Trưng
Trắc, with her younger sister Trưng Nhị, raised an army of "over
80,000 soldiers .... [in which] many of her officers were
women", with which they defeated the Chinese. According to
Seekins, "in [the year] 40, Trung Trac was proclaimed queen, and a
capital was built for her" and modern Vietnam considers the Trung
sisters to be heroines. According to Karen G. Turner, in the 3rd
Lady Triệu "seem[ed] ... to personify the
matriarchal culture that mitigated Confucianized patriarchal
norms .... [although] she is also painted as something of a
freak ... with her ... savage, violent streak."
Girl in the Hopi Reservation
Main article: Native Americans in the
United States (the Gender Roles
The Hopi (in what is now the
Hopi Reservation in northeastern
Arizona), according to Alice Schlegel, had as its "gender
ideology ... one of female superiority, and it operated within a
social actuality of sexual equality." According to LeBow (based on
Schlegel's work), in the Hopi, "gender roles ... are
egalitarian .... [and] [n]either sex is inferior."[k] LeBow
concluded that Hopi women "participate fully in ... political
decision-making."[l] According to Schlegel, "the Hopi no longer
live as they are described here" and "the attitude of female
superiority is fading". Schlegel said the Hopi "were and still are
matrilinial" and "the household ... was matrilocal".
Schlegel explains why there was female superiority as that the Hopi
believed in "life as the highest good ... [with] the female
principle ... activated in women and in Mother Earth ... as
its source" and that the Hopi "were not in a state of continual
war with equally matched neighbors" and "had no standing army"
so that "the Hopi lacked the spur to masculine superiority" and,
within that, as that women were central to institutions of clan and
household and predominated "within the economic and social systems (in
contrast to male predominance within the political and ceremonial
systems)", the Clan Mother, for example, being empowered to
overturn land distribution by men if she felt it was unfair, since
there was no "countervailing ... strongly centralized,
male-centered political structure".
Iroquois Confederacy or League, combining 5–6 Native American
Haudenosaunee nations or tribes before the U.S. became a nation,
operated by The Great Binding Law of Peace, a constitution by which
women participated in the League's political decision-making,
including deciding whether to proceed to war, through what may
have been a matriarchy or gyneocracy. According to Doug
George-Kanentiio, in this society, mothers exercise central moral and
political roles. The dates of this constitution's operation are
unknown; the League was formed in approximately 1000–1450, but the
constitution was oral until written in about 1880. The League
In our society, women are the center of all things. Nature, we
believe, has given women the ability to create; therefore it is only
natural that women be in positions of power to protect this
function....We traced our clans through women; a child born into the
world assumed the clan membership of its mother. Our young women were
expected to be physically strong....The young women received formal
instruction in traditional planting....Since the
absolutely dependent upon the crops they grew, whoever controlled this
vital activity wielded great power within our communities. It was our
belief that since women were the givers of life they naturally
regulated the feeding of our people....In all countries, real wealth
stems from the control of land and its resources. Our Iroquois
philosophers knew this as well as we knew natural law. To us it made
sense for women to control the land since they were far more sensitive
to the rhythms of the Mother Earth. We did not own the land but were
custodians of it. Our women decided any and all issues involving
territory, including where a community was to be built and how land
was to be used....In our political system, we mandated full equality.
Our leaders were selected by a caucus of women before the appointments
were subject to popular review....Our traditional governments are
composed of an equal number of men and women. The men are chiefs and
the women clan-mothers....As leaders, the women closely monitor the
actions of the men and retain the right to veto any law they deem
inappropriate....Our women not only hold the reigns of political and
economic power, they also have the right to determine all issues
involving the taking of human life. Declarations of war had to be
approved by the women, while treaties of peace were subject to their
Earliest prehistory and undated
The controversy surrounding prehistoric or "primal" matriarchy began
in reaction to the book by Bachofen, Mother Right: An Investigation of
the Religious and Juridical Character of
Matriarchy in the Ancient
World, in 1861. Several generations of ethnologists were inspired by
his pseudo-evolutionary theory of archaic matriarchy. Following him
and Jane Ellen Harrison, several generations of scholars, usually
arguing from known myths or oral traditions and examination of
Neolithic female cult-figures, suggested that many ancient societies
might have been matriarchal, or even that there existed a wide-ranging
matriarchal society prior to the ancient cultures of which we are
aware. According to Uwe Wesel, Bachofen's myth interpretations have
proved to be untenable. The concept was further investigated by
Lewis Morgan. Many researchers studied the phenomenon of
matriarchy afterward, but the basis was laid by the classics of
sociology. The notion of a "woman-centered" society was developed by
Bachofen, whose three-volume Myth, Religion, and Mother Right (1861)
impacted the way classicists such as Harrison, Arthur Evans, Walter
Burkert, and James Mellaart looked at the evidence of matriarchal
religion in pre-Hellenic societies. According to historian Susan
Mann, as of 2000, "few scholars these days find ... [a "notion of
a stage of primal matriarchy"] persuasive."
The following excerpts from Lewis Morgan's Ancient
explain the use of the terms: "In a work of vast research, Bachofen
has collected and discussed the evidence of female authority,
mother-right, and of female rule, gynecocracy."[page needed]
"Common lands and joint tillage would lead to joint-tenant houses and
communism in living; so that gyneocracy seems to require for its
creation, descent in the female line. Women thus entrenched in large
households, supplied from common stores, in which their own gens so
largely predominated in numbers, would produce the phenomena of mother
right and gyneocracy, which Bachofen has detected and traced with the
aid of fragments of history and of tradition."[page needed]
Kurt Derungs is a non-academic author advocating an "anthropology of
landscape" based on allegedly matriarchal traces in toponymy and
Friedrich Engels, in 1884, claimed that, in the earliest stages of
human social development, there was group marriage and that therefore
paternity was disputable, whereas maternity was not, so that a family
could be traced only through the female line, and claimed that this
was connected with the dominance of women over men or a Mutterrecht,
which notion Engels took from Bachofen, who claimed, based on his
interpretations of myths, that myths reflected a memory of a time when
women dominated over men. Engels speculated that the
domestication of animals increased wealth claimed by men.[citation
needed] Engels said that men wanted control over women for use as
laborers and because they wanted to pass on their wealth to their
children, requiring monogamy. Engels did not explain
how this could happen in a matriarchal society, but said that women's
status declined until they became mere objects in the exchange trade
between men and patriarchy was established, causing
the global defeat of the female sex and the rise of
individualism, competition, and dedication to
achievement. According to Eller, Engels may have been
influenced with respect to women's status by August Bebel,
according to whom this matriarchy resulted in communism while
patriarchy did not.
Austrian writer Bertha Diener, also known as Helen Diner, wrote
Amazons (1930), which was the first work to focus on
women's cultural history. Hers is regarded as a classic of feminist
matriarchal study. Her view is that in the past all human
societies were matriarchal; then, at some point, most shifted to
patriarchal and degenerated. The controversy was reinforced further by
the publication of
The White Goddess
The White Goddess by
Robert Graves (1948) and his
later analysis of classical
Greek mythology and the vestiges of
earlier myths that had been rewritten after a profound change in the
religion of Greek civilization that occurred within its very early
historical times. From the 1950s,
Marija Gimbutas developed a theory
Old European culture in
Neolithic Europe which had matriarchal
traits, replaced by the patriarchal system of the Proto-Indo-Europeans
with the spread of
Indo-European languages beginning in the Bronze
Age. According to Epstein, anthropologists in the 20th century said
that "the goddess worship or matrilocality that evidently existed in
many paleolithic societies was not necessarily associated with
matriarchy in the sense of women's power over men. Many societies can
be found that exhibit those qualities along with female
subordination." From the 1970s, these ideas were taken up by
popular writers of second-wave feminism and expanded with the
Margaret Murray on witchcraft, by the Goddess
movement, and in feminist Wicca, as well as in works by Eisler,
Elizabeth Gould Davis, and Merlin Stone.
"A Golden Age of matriarchy" was, according to Epstein, prominently
Charlene Spretnak and "encouraged" by Stone and
Eisler, but, at least for the
Neolithic Age, has been denounced
as feminist wishful thinking in The Inevitability of Patriarchy, Why
Men Rule, Goddess Unmasked, and The Myth of Matriarchal
Prehistory and is not emphasized in third-wave feminism. According to
Eller, Gimbutas had a large part in constructing a myth of historical
matriarchy by examining Eastern European cultures that she asserts, by
and large, never really bore any resemblance in character to the
alleged universal matriarchy suggested by Gimbutas and Graves. She
asserts that in "actually documented primitive societies" of recent
(historical) times, paternity is never ignored and that the sacred
status of goddesses does not automatically increase female social
status, and believes that this affirms that utopian matriarchy is
simply an inversion of antifeminism.
J.F. del Giorgio insists on a matrifocal, matrilocal, matrilineal
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According to Rohrlich, "many scholars are convinced that Crete was a
matriarchy, ruled by a queen-priestess" and the "Cretan
civilization" was "matriarchal" before "1500 B.C.," when it was
overrun and colonized.
Also according to Rohrlich, "in the early Sumerian city-states
'matriarchy seems to have left something more than a trace.'"
One common misconception among historians of the
Bronze Age such as
Stone and Eisler is the notion that the Semites were matriarchal while
the Indo-Europeans practiced a patriarchal system. An example of this
view is found in Stone's When God Was a Woman,[page needed]
wherein she makes the case that the worship of
Yahweh was an
Indo-European invention superimposed on an ancient matriarchal Semitic
nation. Evidence from the
Amorites and pre-Islamic Arabs, however,
indicates that the primitive Semitic family was in fact patriarchal
However, not all scholars agree. Anthropologist and Biblical scholar
Raphael Patai writes in
The Hebrew Goddess that the Jewish religion,
far from being pure monotheism, contained from earliest times strong
polytheistic elements, chief of which was the cult of Asherah, the
mother goddess. A story in the Biblical Book of Judges places the
worship of Asherah in the 12th century B.C.E. Originally a Canaanite
goddess, her worship was adopted by Hebrews who intermarried with
Canaanites. She was worshipped in public and was represented by carved
wooden poles. Numerous small nude female figurines of clay were found
all over ancient Palestine and a 7th C. Hebrew text invokes her aid
for a woman giving birth.
Shekinah is the name of the feminine holy spirit who embodies both
divine radiance and compassion. She comforts the sick and dejected,
accompanies the Jews whenever they are exiled, and intercedes with God
to exercise mercy rather than to inflict retribution on sinners. While
not a creation of the Hebrew Bible, Shekinah appears in a slightly
later Aramaic translation of the Bible in the first or second century
C.E., according to Patai. Initially portrayed as the presence of God,
she later becomes distinct from God, taking on more physical
Meanwhile, the Indo-Europeans were known to have practiced multiple
succession systems, and there is much better evidence of matrilineal
customs among the Indo-European
Germans than among any
ancient Semitic peoples.
Women were running
Sparta while the men were often away fighting.
Gorgo, Queen of Sparta, was asked by a woman in
Attica something along
the lines of, "why are Spartan women the only women in the world who
could rule men?" Gorgo replied, "Because we are the only women who are
mothers of men."
Iron Age to Middle Ages
Arising in the period ranging from the
Iron Age to the Middle Ages,
several early northwestern European mythologies from the Irish (e.g.,
Macha and Scáthach), the Brittonic (e.g., Rhiannon), and the Germanic
Grendel's mother and Nerthus) contain ambiguous episodes of
primal female power which have been interpreted as folk evidence of a
real potential for matriarchal attitudes in pre-Christian European
Iron Age societies. Often transcribed from a retrospective,
patriarchal, Romanised, and
Catholic perspective, they hint at an
earlier, culturally disturbing, era when female power could have
predominated. The first-century–attested historic British figure of
Boudicca indicates that Brittonnic society permitted explicit female
autocracy or a form of gender equality in a form which contrasted
strongly with the patriarchal structure of Mediterranean
In 1995, in Kenya, according to Emily Wax, Umoja, a village only for
women from one tribe with about 36 residents, was established under a
matriarch. Men of the same tribe established a village nearby
from which to observe the women's village, the men's leader
objecting to the matriarch's questioning the culture and men
suing to close the women's village. The village was still
operational in 2005 when Wax reported on it.
Spokespersons for various indigenous peoples at the
United Nations and
elsewhere have highlighted the central role of women in their
societies, referring to them as matriarchies, or as matriarchal in
Matriarchy may also refer to non-human animal species in which females
hold higher status and hierarchical positions, such as among
lions, elephants, and bonobos.
A legendary matriarchy related by several writers was Amazon society.
According to Phyllis Chesler, "in Amazon societies, women
were ... mothers and their society's only political and religious
leaders", as well as the only warriors and hunters; "queens
were elected" and apparently "any woman could aspire to and
achieve full human expression."
Herodotus reported that the
Sarmatians were descendants of
Amazons and Scythians, and that their
females observed their ancient maternal customs, "frequently hunting
on horseback with their husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing
the very same dress as the men". Moreover, said
Herodotus, "no girl shall wed till she has killed a man in
Amazons came to play a role in Roman
Julius Caesar spoke of the conquest of large parts of
Semiramis and the Amazons. Although Strabo
was sceptical about their historicity, the
Amazons were taken as
historical throughout late Antiquity. Several Church Fathers
spoke of the
Amazons as a real people. Medieval
authors continued a tradition of locating the
Amazons in the North,
Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen placing them at the
Baltic Sea and
Paulus Diaconus in
the heart of Germania.
Robert Graves suggested that a myth displaced earlier myths that had
to change when a major cultural change brought patriarchy to replace a
matriarchy. According to this myth, in Greek
Zeus is said to have swallowed his pregnant lover, the
titan goddess Metis, who was carrying their daughter, Athena. The
mother and child created havoc inside Zeus. Either
Hephaestus split Zeus's head, allowing Athena, in full battle armor,
to burst forth from his forehead.
Athena was thus described as being
"born" from Zeus. The outcome pleased
Zeus as it didn't fulfill the
prophecy of Themis which (according to Aeschylus) predicted that Zeus
will one day bear a son that would overthrow him.
Celtic myth and society
Main article: Ancient Celtic women § Matriarchy
According to Adler, "there is plenty of evidence of ancient societies
where women held greater power than in many societies today. For
example, Jean Markale's studies of Celtic societies show that the
power of women was reflected not only in myth and legend but in legal
codes pertaining to marriage, divorce, property ownership, and the
right to rule."
Bamberger (1974) examines several matriarchal myths from South
American cultures and concludes that portraying the women from this
matriarchal period as immoral often serves to restrain contemporary
women in these societies.[clarification needed] 
In feminist thought
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For groups and communities without men, see separatist feminism.
While matriarchy has mostly fallen out of use for the anthropological
description of existing societies, it remains current as a concept in
In first-wave feminist discourse, either
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton or
Margaret Fuller (it is unclear who was first) introduced the concept
of matriarchy and the discourse was joined in by Matilda Joslyn
Gage. Victoria Woodhull, in 1871, called for men to open the U.S.
government to women or a new constitution and government would be
formed in a year; and, on a basis of equality, she ran to be
elected President in 1872. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in 1911
and 1914, argued for "a woman-centered, or better
mother-centered, world" and described "'government by
women'". She argued that a government led by either sex must be
assisted by the other, both genders being "useful ... and
should in our governments be alike used", because men and women
have different qualities.
Cultural feminism includes "matriarchal worship", according to Prof.
In feminist literature, matriarchy and patriarchy are not conceived as
simple mirrors of each other. While matriarchy sometimes means
"the political rule of women", that meaning is often rejected, on
the ground that matriarchy is not a mirroring of patriarchy.
Patriarchy is held to be about power over others while matriarchy is
held to be about power from within,
Starhawk having written on
that distinction and Adler having argued that matriarchal
power is not possessive and not controlling, but is harmonious with
For radical feminists, the importance of matriarchy is that
"veneration for the female principle ... somewhat lightens an
Feminist utopias are a form of advocacy. According to Tineke
Willemsen, "a feminist utopia would ... be the description of a
place where at least women would like to live." Willemsen
continues, among "type[s] of feminist utopias[,] ... [one]
stem[s] from feminists who emphasize the differences between women and
men. They tend to formulate their ideal world in terms of a society
where women's positions are better than men's. There are various forms
of matriarchy, or even a utopia that resembles the Greek myth of the
Amazons.... [V]ery few modern utopias have been developed in which
women are absolute autocrats."
A minority of feminists, generally radical, have argued that
women should govern societies of women and men. In all of these
advocacies, the governing women are not limited to mothers:
In her book Scapegoat: The Jews, Israel, and Women’s Liberation,
Andrea Dworkin stated that she wanted women to have their own country,
"Womenland," which, comparable to Israel, would serve as a "place
of potential refuge". In the Palestine Solidarity Review,
Veronica A. Ouma reviewed the book and argued her view that while
Dworkin "pays lip service to the egalitarian nature of ...
[stateless] societies [without hierarchies], she envisions a state
whereby women either impose gender equality or a state where females
rule supreme above males."
The Fifth Sacred Thing
The Fifth Sacred Thing (1993), fiction, wrote of "a
utopia where women are leading societies but are doing so with the
consent of men."
Phyllis Chesler wrote in Women and Madness (2005 and 1972) that
feminist women must "dominate public and social institutions".
She also wrote that women fare better when controlling the means of
production and that equality with men should not be
supported, even if female domination is no more "just" than
male domination. On the other hand, in 1985, she was "probably
more of a feminist-anarchist ... more mistrustful of the
organisation of power into large bureaucratic states [than she was in
1972]".[n] Between Chesler's 1972 and 2005 editions, Dale Spender
wrote that Chesler "takes [as] a ... stand [that] ....
[e]quality is a spurious goal, and of no use to women: the only way
women can protect themselves is if they dominate particular
institutions and can use them to serve women's interests. Reproduction
is a case in point." Spender wrote Chesler "remarks ...
women will be superior".
Monique Wittig authored, as fiction (not as fact), Les
Guérillères, with her description of an asserted "female
State". The work was described by Rohrlich as a "fictional
counterpart" to "so-called Amazon societies". Scholarly
interpretations of the fictional work include that women win a war
against men, "reconcil[e]" with "those men of good will
who come to join them", exercise feminist autonomy through
polyandry, decide how to govern, and rule the men. The
women confronting men are, according to Tucker Farley, diverse
and thus stronger and more united and, continued Farley, permit a
"few ... men, who are willing to accept a feminist society of
primitive communism, ... to live." Another interpretation is
that the author created an "'open structure' of freedom".
Mary Daly wrote of hag-ocracy, "the place we ["women traveling into
feminist time/space"] govern",[o] and of reversing phallocratic
rule in the 1990s (i.e., when published). She considered
equal rights as tokenism that works against sisterhood, even as she
supported abortion being legal and other reforms. She considered
her book female and anti-male.
Some such advocacies are informed by work on past matriarchy:
According to Prof. Linda M. G. Zerilli, "an ancient
matriarchy ... [was "in early second-wave feminism"] the lost
object of women's freedom." Prof.
Cynthia Eller found widespread
acceptance of matriarchal myth during feminism's second wave.
According to Kathryn Rountree, the belief in a prepatriarchal "Golden
Age" of matriarchy may have been more specifically about a matrifocal
society, although this was believed more in the 1970s than in the
1990s–2000s and was criticized within feminism and within
archaeology, anthropology, and theological study as lacking a
scholarly basis, and Prof. Harvey C. Mansfield wrote that "the
evidence [is] ... of males ruling over all societies at almost
all times". Eller said that, other than a few separatist radical
lesbian feminists, spiritual feminists would include "a place for
men ... in which they can be happy and productive, if not
necessarily powerful and in control" and might have social power
Jill Johnston envisioned a "return to the former glory and wise
equanimity of the matriarchies" in the future and "imagined
lesbians as constituting an imaginary radical state, and invoked 'the
return to the harmony of statehood and biology....'" Her work
inspired efforts at implementation by the Lesbian Organization of
Toronto (LOOT) in 1976–1980 and in Los Angeles.
Elizabeth Gould Davis believed that a "matriarchal counterrevolution
[replacing "a[n old] patriarchal revolution"] ... is the only
hope for the survival of the human race." She believed that
"spiritual force", "mental and spiritual gifts", and
"extrasensory perception"[p] will be more important and therefore
that "woman will ... predominate", and that it is
"about ... ["woman" that] the next civilization will ...
revolve", as in the kind of past that she believed existed.
According to critic Prof. Ginette Castro,
Elizabeth Gould Davis used
the words matriarchy and gynocracy "interchangeably" and proposed
a discourse "rooted in the purest female chauvinism"[q] and
seemed to support "a feminist counterattack stigmatizing the
patriarchal present", "giv[ing] ... in to a revenge-seeking
form of feminism", "build[ing] ... her case on the
humiliation of men", and "asserti[ng] ... a specifically
feminine nature ... [as] morally superior." Castro
criticized Elizabeth Gould Davis' essentialism and assertion of
superiority as "sexist" and "treason".
One organization that was named
The Feminists was interested in
matriarchy and was one of the largest of the radical feminist
women's liberation groups of the 1960s. Two members wanted "the
restoration of female rule", but the organization's founder,
Ti-Grace Atkinson, would have objected had she remained in the
organization, because, according to a historian, "[she] had always
doubted that women would wield power differently from men."
Robin Morgan wrote of women fighting for and creating a "gynocratic
Adler reported, "if feminists have diverse views on the matriarchies
of the past, they also are of several minds on the goals for the
future. A woman in the coven of Ursa Maior told me, 'right now I am
pushing for women's power in any way I can, but I don't know whether
my ultimate aim is a society where all human beings are equal,
regardless of the bodies they were born into, or whether I would
rather see a society where women had institutional authority.'"
Some fiction caricatured the current gender hierarchy by describing a
matriarchal alternative without advocating for it. According to Karin
Schönpflug, "Gerd Brantenberg's Egalia's Daughters is a caricature of
powered gender relations which have been completely reversed, with the
female sex on the top and the male sex a degraded, oppressed
group"; "gender inequality is expressed through power
inversion" and "all gender roles are reversed and women rule over
a class of intimidated, effeminate men". "Egalia is not a typical
example of gender inequality in the sense that a vision of a desirable
matriarchy is created; Egalia is more a caricature of male hegemony by
twisting gender hierarchy but not really offering a 'better
On egalitarian matriarchy, Heide Göttner-Abendroth's
International Academy for Modern Matriarchal Studies and Matriarchal
Spirituality (HAGIA) organized conferences in
Luxembourg in 2003
Texas in 2005, with papers published.
Göttner-Abendroth argued that "matriarchies are all egalitarian at
least in terms of gender—they have no gender hierarchy .... [,
that, f]or many matriarchal societies, the social order is completely
egalitarian at both local and regional levels", that, "for our
own path toward new egalitarian societies, we can gain ...
insight from ... ["tested"] matriarchal patterns", and that
"matriarchies are not abstract utopias, constructed according to
philosophical concepts that could never be implemented."
According to Eller, "a deep distrust of men's ability to adhere
to" future matriarchal requirements may invoke a need "to retain
at least some degree of female hegemony to insure against a return to
patriarchal control", "feminists ... [having] the
understanding that female dominance is better for society—and better
for men—than the present world order", as is equalitarianism.
On the other hand, Eller continued, if men can be trusted to accept
equality, probably most feminists seeking future matriarchy would
accept an equalitarian model.
"Demographic[ally]", "feminist matriarchalists run the
gamut" but primarily are "in white, well-educated, middle-class
circles"; many of the adherents are "religiously inclined"
while others are "quite secular".
Biology as a ground for holding either males or females superior over
the other has been criticized as invalid, such as by Andrea
Dworkin and by Robin Morgan. A claim that women have unique
characteristics that prevent women's assimilation with men has been
apparently rejected by Ti-Grace Atkinson. On the other hand, not
all advocates based their arguments on biology or essentialism.
A criticism by Mansfield of choosing who governs according to gender
or sex is that the best qualified people should be chosen, regardless
of gender or sex. On the other hand, Mansfield considered merit
insufficient for office, because a legal right granted by a sovereign
(e.g., a king), was more important than merit.
Diversity within a proposed community can, according to Becki L. Ross,
make it especially challenging to complete forming the community.
However, some advocacy includes diversity, in the views of
Dworkin and Farley.
Prof. Christine Stansell, a feminist, wrote that, for feminists to
achieve state power, women must democratically cooperate with men.
"Women must take their place with a new generation of brothers in a
struggle for the world's fortunes. Herland, whether of virtuous
matrons or daring sisters, is not an option.... [T]he well-being and
liberty of women cannot be separated from democracy's survival."
(Herland was feminist utopian fiction by
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Charlotte Perkins Gilman in
1911, featuring a community entirely of women except for three men who
seek it out, strong women in a matriarchal utopia expected
to last for generations, although
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Charlotte Perkins Gilman was
herself a feminist advocate of society being gender-integrated and of
Other criticisms of superiority are that it is reverse sexism or
discriminatory against men, it is opposed by most people including
most feminists, women do not want such a position,[r] governing takes
women away from family responsibilities, women are too likely to be
unable to serve politically because of menstruation and
pregnancy, public affairs are too sordid for women and would
cost women their respect and femininity (apparently including
fertility), superiority is not traditional,[s] women lack
the political capacity and authority men have,[t] it is impractical
because of a shortage of women with the ability to govern at that
level of difficulty as well as the desire and ability to wage
war,[u][v][w] women are less aggressive, or less often so, than are
men and politics is aggressive, women legislating would not
serve men's interests or would serve only petty
interests, it is contradicted by current science on genderal
differences, it is unnatural,[x] and, in the views
of a playwright and a novelist, "women cannot govern on their
own." On the other hand, another view is that "women have
'empire' over men" because of nature and "men ... are
actually obeying" women.
Pursuing a future matriarchy would tend to risk sacrificing feminists'
position in present social arrangements, and many feminists are not
willing to take that chance, according to Eller. "Political
feminists tend to regard discussions of what utopia would look like as
a good way of setting themselves up for disappointment", according to
Eller, and argue that immediate political issues must get the
"Matriarchists", as typified by comic character Wonder
criticized by Kathie Sarachild, Carol Hanisch, and some others.
In religious thought
Some theologies and theocracies limit or forbid women from being in
civil government or public leadership or forbid them from voting,
effectively criticizing and forbidding matriarchy. Within none of the
following religions is the respective view necessarily universally
In Islam, some Muslim scholars hold that female political leadership
is prohibited, according to Anne Sofie Roald. The prohibition has
been attributed to a hadith of Muhammad,[y] the founder and last
prophet of Islam. The hadith says, according to Roald, "a people which
has a woman as leader will never prosper."[z] The hadith's
transmission, context, and meaning have been questioned, wrote
Roald. According to Roald, the prohibition has also been
attributed as an extension of a ban on women leading prayers "in mixed
gatherings" (which has been challenged) and to a restriction on
women traveling (an attribution also challenged). Possibly, Roald
noted, the hadith applies only against being head of state and not
other high office. One source, wrote Roald, would allow a woman
to "occupy every position except that of khalīfa (the leader of all
Muslims)." One exception to the head-of-state prohibition was
accepted without a general acceptance of women in political
leadership, Roald reported. Political activism at lower levels
may be more acceptable to Islamist women than top leadership
positions, said Roald. The
Muslim Brotherhood has stated that
women may not be president or head of state but may hold other public
offices but, "as for judiciary office, .... [t]he majority of
jurispudents ... have forbidden it completely." In a study
of 82 Islamists in Europe, according to Roald, 80% said women could
not be state leaders but 75% said women could hold other high
positions. In 1994, the
Muslim Brotherhood said that "social
circumstances and traditions" may justify gradualism in the exercise
of women's right to hold office (below head of state). Whether
the Muslim Brothers still support that statement is unclear. As
reported in 1953, Roald reported later, "Islamic organizations held a
conference in the office of the Muslim Brothers .... [and]
claim[ed] ... that it had been proven that political rights for
women were contrary to religion". Some nations have specific
bans. In Iran at times, according to Elaheh Rostami Povey, women have
been forbidden to fill some political offices because of law or
because of judgments made under the Islamic religion. As to Saudi
Arabia, according to Asmaa Al-Mohamed, "Saudi women ...
are ... not allowed to enter parliament as anything more than
advisors; they cannot vote, much less serve as representatives".
According to Steven Pinker, in a 2001–2007 Gallup poll of 35 nations
having 90% of the world's Muslims, "substantial majorities of both
sexes in all the major Muslim countries say that women should be
allowed to vote without influence from men ... and to serve in
the highest levels of government."
In Judaism, among orthodox leaders, a position, beginning before
Israel became a modern state, has been that for women to hold public
Israel would threaten the state's existence, according to
educator Tova Hartman, who reports the view has "wide
Israel ratified the international women's
equality agreement known as CEDAW, according to Marsha Freeman, it
reserved nonenforcement for any religious communities that forbid
women from sitting on religious courts. According to Freeman,
"the tribunals that adjudicate marital issues are by religious law and
by custom entirely male." "'Men's superiority' is a fundamental
tenet in Judaism", according to Irit Umanit. According to
Likud party-led "governments have been less than hospitable
to women's high-level participation."
In Buddhism, according to Karma Lekshe Tsomo, some hold that "the
Buddha allegedly hesitated to admit women to the
Saṅgha ...." "In certain Buddhist countries—Burma,
Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Thailand—women are categorically
denied admission to the Saṅgha, Buddhism's most fundamental
institution", according to Tsomo. Tsomo wrote, "throughout
history, the support of the Saṅgha has been actively sought as a
means of legitimation by those wishing to gain and maintain positions
of political power in Buddhist countries."
Among Hindus in India, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, "India's most
Hindu nationalist organization,"[aa] has
debated whether women can ever be
Hindu nationalist political
leaders but without coming to a conclusion, according to Paola
Bacchetta. The Rashtriya Sevika Samiti, a counterpart
organization composed of women, believes that women can be Hindu
nationalist political leaders and has trained two in
Parliament, but considers women only as exceptions, the norm
for such leadership being men.
In Protestant Christianity, considered only historically, in 1558,
John Knox (Maria Stuart's subject) wrote The First Blast of the
Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. According to
Scalingi, the work is "perhaps the best known analysis of
gynecocracy" and Knox was "the most notorious" writer on the
subject. According to an 1878 edition, Knox's objection to any
women reigning and having "empire"[ab] over men was theological
and it was against nature for women to bear rule, superiority,
dominion, or empire above any realm, nation, or city.[ac] Susan M.
Felch said that Knox's argument was partly grounded on a statement of
the apostle Paul against women teaching or usurping authority over
men. According to Maria Zina Gonçalves de Abreu, Knox argued
that a woman being a national ruler was unnatural and that women
were unfit and ineligible for the post. Kathryn M. Brammall said
Knox "considered the rule of female monarchs to be anathema to good
government" and that Knox "also attacked those who obeyed or
supported female leaders", including men. Robert M. Healey
said that Knox objected to women's rule even if men accepted it.
On whether Knox personally endorsed what he wrote, according to Felch,
Jasper Ridley, in 1968, argued that even Knox may not have personally
believed his stated position but may have merely pandered to popular
sentiment, itself a point disputed by W. Stanford Reid. On
the popularity of Knox's views, Patricia-Ann Lee said Knox's "fierce
attack on the legitimacy of female rule ... [was one in which] he
said ... little that was unacceptable ... to most of his
contemporaries", although Judith M. Richards disagreed on whether
the acceptance was quite so widespread. According to David
Laing's Preface to Knox's work, Knox's views were agreed with by some
people at the time, the Preface saying, "[Knox's] views were in
harmony with those of his colleagues ... [Goodman, Whittingham,
and Gilby]". Writing in agreement with Knox was Christopher
Goodman, who, according to Lee, "considered the woman ruler to be a
monster in nature, and used ... scriptural argument to prove that
females were barred ... from any political power", even if,
according to Richards, the woman was "virtuous". Some views
included conditionality; while
John Calvin said, according to Healey,
"that government by a woman was a deviation from the original and
proper order of nature, and therefore among the punishments humanity
incurred for original sin",[ad] nonetheless Calvin would not
always question a woman's right to inherit rule of a realm or
principality. Heinrich Bullinger, according to Healey, "held that
rule by a woman was contrary to God's law but cautioned against
[always] using that reason to oppose such rule". According to
Richards, Bullinger said women were normally not to rule. Around
1560, Calvin, in disagreeing with Knox, argued that the existence of
the few women who were exceptions showed that theological ground
existed for their exceptionalism. Knox's view was much debated in
Europe at the time, the issue considered complicated by laws such
as on inheritance and since several women were already in office,
including as Queens, according to de Abreu. Knox's view is not
said to be widely held in modern
Protestantism among leadership or
Main articles: thealogy and Goddess movement
Feminist thealogy, according to Eller, conceptualized humanity as
beginning with "female-ruled or equalitarian societies", until
displaced by patriarchies, and that in the millennial future
"'gynocentric,' life-loving values" will return to
prominence. This, according to Eller, produces "a virtually
infinite number of years of female equality or superiority coming both
at the beginning and end of historical time".
Among criticisms is that a future matriarchy, according to Eller, as a
reflection of spirituality, is conceived as ahistorical, and thus
may be unrealistic, unreachable, or even meaningless as a goal to
In popular culture
Apparently as criticism, about 2,400 years ago, in 390 BC,
Aristophanes wrote a play, Ecclesiazusae, about women gaining
legislative power and governing Athens, Greece, on a limited principle
of equality. In the play, according to Mansfield, Praxagora, a
character, argues that women should rule because they are superior to
men, not equal, and yet she declines to assert publicly her right to
rule, although elected and although acting in office. The play,
Mansfield wrote, also suggests that women would rule by not allowing
politics, in order to prevent disappointment, and that affirmative
action would be applied to heterosexual relationships. In the
play, as Mansfield described it, written when
Athens was a male-only
democracy where women could not vote or rule, women were presented as
unassertive and unrealistic, and thus not qualified to govern.
The play, according to Sarah Ruden, was a fable on the theme that
women should stay home.
Elizabeth Burgoyne Corbett's New Amazonia: A Foretaste of the Future
is an early feminist utopian novel (published 1889), which is
matriarchal in that all political leadership roles in
New Amazonia are
required to be held by women, according to Duangrudi Suksang.
Roquia Sakhawat Hussain's
Sultana's Dream is an early feminist utopia
(published 1905) based on advanced science and technology developed by
women, set in a society, Ladyland, run by women, where "the power of
males is taken away and given to females," and men are secluded and
primarily attend to domestic duties, according to Seemin Hasan.
In Robert Merle's 1974 novel Les hommes protégés (Published in US as
The Virility Factor in 1977) an infectious disease affects only men
with active spermatogenesis and wipes almost all of them out; only a
minority survives in carefully guarded sites. Women gain all kind of
control, primarily political, and consecutively build two types of
matriarchy. At first, they establish a segregationist heterophobic
society. By the end of the novel, heterosexual women conduct a
revolution and establish a more balanced but still highly matriarchal
Marion Zimmer Bradley's book,
The Ruins of Isis (1978), is, according
to Batya Weinbaum, set within a "female supremacist world".
In Marion Zimmer Bradley's book,
The Mists of Avalon
The Mists of Avalon (1983), Avalon is
an island with a matriarchal culture, according to Ruben
In Orson Scott Card's
Speaker for the Dead
Speaker for the Dead (1986) and its sequels, the
alien pequenino species in every forest are matriarchal.
In Sheri S. Tepper's book,
The Gate to Women's Country
The Gate to Women's Country (1988), the
only men who live in Women's Country are the "servitors," who are
servants to the women, according to Peter Fitting.
The short novel by Russian writer Alexander Bushkov "Anastasia"
(Анастасия) (1989) describes a postapocalyptic world where a
mutation made women in
Siberia physically much stronger then men.
Their country, Happy Empire, is a feudal society with reversed gender
The first novel in
The Dark Elf Trilogy
The Dark Elf Trilogy by R. A. Salvatore, Homeland
(1990), is set in fictional underground city inhabited by dark elves
(Drow) living in matriarchal society.
In L. E. Modesitt, Jr.'s Saga of Recluce series (1991–), Westwind is
a matriarchal society.
Élisabeth Vonarburg's book,
Chroniques du Pays des Mères
Chroniques du Pays des Mères (1992)
(translated into English as In the Mothers' Land) is set in a
matriarchal society where, due to a genetic mutation, women outnumber
men by 70 to 1.
Exiles Trilogy (1994–) is set in a matriarchal
In L. E. Modesitt, Jr.'s Corean Chronicles series (2002–), Madrien
is a matriarchal society.
N. Lee Wood's book Master of None (2004) is set in a "closed
matriarchal world where men have no legal rights", according to
Wen Spencer's book A Brother's Price (2005) is set in a world where,
according to Page Traynor, "women are in charge", "boys are rare and
valued but not free", and "boys are kept at home to do the cooking and
child caring until the time they marry".
Elizabeth Bear's Carnival (2006) introduces New Amazonia, a colony
planet with a matriarchal and largely lesbian population who eschew
the strict and ruthless population control and environmentalism
instituted on Earth. The Amazonians are aggressive, warlike and
subjugate the few men they tolerate for reproduction and service, but
they are also pragmatic and defensive of their freedom from the
male-dominated Coalition that seeks to conquer them.
In the film Ghosts of Mars, human society on Mars has a "ruling
matriarchy", according to O'Brien Stanley, Nicki L. Michalski, and
Ruth J. H. Stanley.
In the 2015 space opera film Jupiter Ascending, all the Universes
(particularly The Earth) were ruled by the "Matriarch of the House of
Verbotenes Land ("Forbidden Land"), 1936
In 20th-century modernism, matriarchal archeology and psychology found
only few defenders. One of the major exponents was the Austrian
Wolfgang Paalen who, in his painting Pays interdit
("Forbidden Land") draws an apocalyptic landscape dominated by a
female goddess and, as symbols of the male gods, fallen,
Gene Roddenberry's Planet Earth (1974) features a matriarchal society
called the Sisters of Ruth, where the men are drugged through their
food, according to Jeff Bond.
In the British/German television series,
Star Maidens (1976), the
planet Medusa has a "matriarchal structure" where "all of the women
perform fulfilling, non-menial work, all are educated, childcare is a
non-issue as children are cared for (offscreen) by men, and women
possess technology that keeps male aggression in check", according to
In the Space: 1999 episode "Devil's Planet" (1977), Entra is a prison
planet where the rulers and wardens are all women, and the prisoners
are all men, who are "political dissidents who spoke against female
In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Angel One" (1988), the
Angel One "has a matriarchal society because biologically women
are the stronger sex (they are taller and physically stronger) and men
are treated as second class citizens", according to Laura Nadine
Red Dwarf episode "Parallel Universe" depicts a society where male
and female gender roles are swapped with women taking powerful
positions and men fighting for equality.
The American television series Xena: Warrior Princess featured a
recurring group of "Amazons", who practiced a matriarchal culture,
with female spiritual and political leaders governing a group of
militaristic women who lived separately from men and expelled male
children from the group soon after birth.
In the "Raising Gazorpazorp" episode of Rick and Morty, a planet named
Gazorpazorp is dominated by females.
South Park episode "The End of Serialization as We Know It",
Eric Cartman has visions of a future society on Mars that is dominated
by females, with the men kept only for reproductive purposes and for
In Steven Universe, Homeworld is run by four female gems.
In the science-fiction PC game Operation: Matriarchy, set in the year
2350, a virus breaks out on a human colonized planet known as Velia
targeting only females in the population and transforming them into
killing-machines while males are enslaved for use as sustenance or as
subjects for genetic experiments. Having evolved into an aggressive
hive mind, the Velians turn on the Federation of Earth instigating a
In the video game Horizon Zero Dawn, the Nora tribe is based upon a
Çatalhöyük (denials of matriarchy)
Female cosmetic coalitions
The Hebrew Goddess
History of feminism
Patriarchs (Bible) § Matriarchs
^ Feminist anthropology, an approach to anthropology that tries to
reduces male bias in the field
^ Black matriarchy, the cultural phenomenon of many Black families
being headed by mothers with fathers absent
^ Androcracy, form of government ruled by males, especially fathers
^ Queen Elizabeth I, queen regnant of England and Ireland in
^ Amazon feminism, feminism that emphasizes female physical prowess
toward the goal of gender equality
^ Elamite civilization, an ancient civilization in part of what is now
^ Sitones, a Germanic or Finnic people who lived in Northern Europe in
the 1st century AD
^ North Vietnam, sovereign state until merged with South Vietnam in
^ Patrilineal, belonging to the father's lineage, generally for
^ Confucianism, ethics and philosophy derived from Confucius
^ Gender role, set of norms for a gender in social relationships
^ Clan Mothers, elder matriarchs of certain Native American clans, who
were typically in charge of appointing tribal chiefs
^ Adler wrote a matriarchy is "a realm where female things are valued
and where power is exerted in non-possessive, non-controlling, and
organic ways that are harmonious with nature."
^ Anarcha-feminism, a philosophy combining anarchism and feminism
^ For another definition of hag by Mary Daly, see Daly, Mary, with
Jane Caputi, Websters' First New Intergalactic Wickedary of the
English Language (London, Great Britain: Women's Press, 1988
(ISBN 0-7043-4114-X)), p. 137.
Extrasensory perception (ESP), perception sensed by the mind but not
originating through recognized physical senses
^ Chauvinism, partisanship that is extreme and unreasoning and in
favor of a group
^ "Women do not run for office as readily as men do, nor do most
women, it seems, call on them to run. It seems that they do not have
the same desire to 'run' things as men, to use the word in another
political sense that like the first includes standing out in front....
Women are partisan, like men; hence they are political, like men. But
not to the same degree. They will readily sail into partisan conflict,
but they are not so ready to take the lead and make themselves targets
of partisan hostility (though they do write provocative books)."
[A] "study .... traces the gender gap ... to 'participatory
factors,' such as education and income, that give men greater
advantages in civic skills, enabling them to participate
politically" "[I]n politics and in other public situations, he
["the manly man"] willingly takes responsibility when others hang
back.... His wife and children ... are weaker",
"manliness ... is aggression that develops an assertion, a cause
it espouses"... "a woman .... may have less ambition or a
different ambition, but being a political animal like a man, she too
likes to rule, if in her way". See also Schaub (2006).
^ "Athenians were extreme, but almost no Greeks or Romans thought
women should participate in government. There was no approved public
forum for any kind of women's self-expression, not even in the arts
and religion [perhaps except "priestesses"]."
^ "[according to] Aristotle ....[,] [a]s women do not have the
authority, the political capacity, of men, they are, as it were,
elbowed out of politics and ushered into the household.... Meanwhile
the male rules because of his greater authority".
^ "ability to fight .... is an important claim to rule ...,
and it is the culmination of the aggressive manly stereotype we are
considering", "who can reasonably deny that women are not as
accomplished as men in battle either in spirit or in
physique? .... Conservatives say that this proves that women are
not the same as men", & "manliness is best shown in war, the
defense of one's country at its most difficult and dangerous"
"there might come a point when ... stronger persons would have to
be fought [by women] rather than merely told off.... The very great
majority of women would take a pass on the opportunity to be GI Jane.
NATO countries where women are allowed in combat units they
form only 1 percent of the complement.... Whatever their belief about
equality, women might reasonably decide they are needed more elsewhere
than in combat"
^ GI Jane is 'a female member of a military'.
^ NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which provides collective
military defense for member nations
^ "Mrs. Woodhull offers herself in apparent good faith as a candidate,
and perhaps she has a remote impression, or rather hope, that she may
be elected, but it seems that she is rather in advance of her time.
The public mind is not yet educated to the pitch of universal woman's
rights" ... "At present man, in his affection for and kindness toward
the weaker sex, is disposed to accord her any reasonable number of
privileges. Beyond that stage he pauses, because there seems to him to
be something which is unnatural in permitting her to share the
turmoil, the excitement, the risks of competition for the glory of
^ "Koranic verse 4: 34 ... has been used to denounce female
leadership" ("4: 34" spaced so in original), but the verse may
apply to family life rather than to politics. Roald (2001),
pp. 189–190 cites, respectively, Badawi, Jamal, Gender Equity
in Islam: Basic Principles (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications,
1995), p. 38 & perhaps passim, and Roald, Anne Sofie, &
Pernilla Ouis, Lyssna på männen: att leva i en patriarkalisk
muslimsk kontext, in Kvinnovetenskaplig Tidskrift, pp. 91–108
^ Another translation is, "a people which has a woman as a leader will
not succeed." The 2001 author's paraphrase of the hadith, "the
people who have a female leader will not succeed", is at Roald (2001),
India is majority Hindu, it is officially secular, per
Bacchetta (2002), p. 157.
^ "I am assured that God hath reueled to some in this our age, that it
is more then a monstre in nature, that a woman shall reigne and haue
empire aboue man."
^ "To promote a woman to beare rule, superioritie, dominion or empire
aboue any realme, nation, or citie, is repugnant to nature, contumelie
to God, a thing most contrarious to his reueled will and approued
ordinance, and finallie it is the subuersion of good order, of all
equitie and iustice[.]"
^ Original sin, in Christianity, a state of sin, or violation of God's
will, due to Adam's rebellion in the Garden of Eden
^ Peggy Reeves Sanday, anthropologist, Women at the Center: Life in a
Modern Matriarchy, Cornell University Press, 2002.
^ a b c d e
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (online), entry matriarchy, as
accessed November 3, 2013 (subscription may be required or
content may be available in libraries).
^ a b Peoples & Bailey (2012), p. 259
^ a b Haviland, William A.,
Anthropology (Ft. Worth: Harcourt Brace
College Publishers, 8th ed. 1997 (ISBN 0-15-503578-9)),
^ Kuznar, Lawrence A., Reclaiming a Scientific
Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press (div. of Sage Publications), pbk. 1997
^ a b Göttner-Abendroth, Heide. "Matriarchal Society: Definition and
Theory". Archived from the original on 19 April 2013.
See also Sanday, Peggy Reeves, Women at the Center: Life in a Modern
Matriarchy (Cornell University Press, 2002) ("matriarchies are not a
mirror form of patriarchies but rather ... a matriarchy "emphasizes
maternal meanings where 'maternal symbols are linked to social
practices influencing the lives of both sexes and where women play a
central role in these practices'").[page needed]
^ Göttner-Abendroth, Heide (2017). "Matriarchal studies: Past debates
and new foundations". Asian Journal of Women's Studies. Taylor and
Francis. 23 (1): 2–6. doi:10.1080/12259276.2017.1283843.
^ Lepowsky, M. A., Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an Egalitarian
Society (U.S.: Columbia University Press, 1993).
^ Compare, in
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (online), entry patriarchy to
entry matriarchy, both as accessed November 3,
2013. (Subscription may be required or content may be available
^ Eller (1995), pp. 161–162 & 184 & n. 84
(p. 184 n. 84 probably citing Spretnak, Charlene, ed.,
Politics of Women's Spirituality: Essays on the Rise of Spiritual
Power Within the Feminist Movement (Garden City, New York: Anchor
Books, 1982), p. xiii (Spretnak, Charlene, Introduction)).
^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009a), pp. 1–2
^ Peoples & Bailey (2012), pp. 258-259
^ Adler (2006), p. 193 (italics so in original)
^ Love & Shanklin (1983), p. 275
^ Eller (2000), pp. 12–13
^ Eller (2011)[page needed]
^ Epstein (1991), p. 173 and see p. 172
^ a b Adler (2006), p. 194
^ Love & Shanklin (1983)
^ Introduction, in Second World Congress on Matriarchal Studies.
^ DeMott, Tom, The Investigator (review of Bennholdt-Thomsen,
Veronika, Cornelia Giebeler, Brigitte Holzer, & Marina Meneses,
Juchitán, City of Women (Mexico: Consejo Editorial, 1994)), as
accessed Feb. 6, 2011.
^ LeBow (1984)
^ Rohrlich (1977), p. 37
^ Office of Policy Planning and Review (Daniel Patrick Moynihan,
principal author), The Negro Family: The Case For National Action
(U.S. Department of Labor, 1965) Archived April 28, 2014, at the
Wayback Machine., esp. Chapter IV. The Tangle of Pathology, authorship
per History at the Department of Labor: In-Depth Research, all as
accessed November 2, 2013.
^ Donovan (2000), p. 171, citing Moynihan, Daniel, The Negro
Family: The Case for National Action (1965) ("In this analysis
Moynihan asserted that since a fourth of black families were headed by
single women, black society was a matriarchy .... [and t]his
situation undermined the confidence and 'manhood' of black men, and
therefore prevented their competing successfully in the white work
world.") and citing hooks, bell, either Ain't I a Woman: Black Women
Feminism (Boston: South End, 1981) or Feminist Theory: From Margin
to Center (Boston: South End, 1984) (probably former),
pp. 181–187 ("freedom came to be seen by some black militants
as a liberation from the oppression caused by black women"), hooks,
bell, pp. 180–181 ("many black men 'absorbed' the Moynihan
ideology, and this misogyny itself became absorbed into the black
freedom movement" and included this, "Moynihan's view", as a case of
"American neo-Freudian revisionism where women who evidenced the
slightest degree of independence were perceived as 'castrating'
threats to the male identity"), and see hooks, bell, p. 79.
^ "matriarchy". Online Etymology Dictionary.
Edvard Westermarck (1921), The History of Human Marriage, Vol. 3,
London: Macmillan, p. 108.
^ Liddell, Henry George, & Robert Scott, An Intermediate
Greek–English Lexicon, for γυναικοκρατία.
^ Liddell, Henry George, & Robert Scott, A Greek–English
Lexicon, for γυ^ναικο-κρα^τέομαι.
^ Grafton, Anthony (2013). The Classical Tradition. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press. ISBN 9781782684039.
^ a b Leeuwe, Jules de, untitled comment (November 18, 1977) (emphases
so in original), as a response to and with Leacock, Eleanor, Women's
Egalitarian Society: Implications for Social Evolution, in
Current Anthropology, vol. 33, no. 1, supp. Inquiry and
Debate in the Human Sciences: Contributions from Current Anthropology,
1960–1990 (February, 1992 (ISSN 0011-3204 & E-ISSN
1537-5382)), p. 241.
^ OED (1993), entries gynaecocracy, gynocracy, gynarchy &
^ a b Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English
Language Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam (Merriam-Webster), 1966),
entries gynecocracy, gynocracy, & gynarchy.
^ a b The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
(Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 3d ed. 1992
(ISBN 0-395-44895-6)), entries gynecocracy, gynocracy, &
^ a b Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (N.Y.: Random
House, 2d ed. 2001 (ISBN 0-375-42566-7)), entries gynecocracy
^ a b Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English
Language Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam (Merriam-Webster), 1966),
^ OED (1993), gynaecocracy
^ OED (1993), gynocracy
^ OED (1993), gyneocracy
^ Scalingi (1978), p. 72
^ Scalingi (1978), p. 59
^ Scalingi (1978), p. 60 & passim
^ a b c d Scalingi (1978), p. 60
^ a b Diner (1965), p. 173
^ Diner (1965), p. 136
^ Diner (1965), p. 123 and see p. 122
^ Adler (2006), p. 195
^ Latter quotation: Davis, Debra Diane (2000). Breaking up [at]
totality: A rhetoric of laughter. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern
Illinois University Press. p. 137 and see pp. 136–137
& 143. ISBN 0809322285. (brackets in title so in
original) & quoting: Young, Iris Marion (1985). "Humanism,
gynocentrism, and feminist politics". Women's Studies International
Forum. Elsevier. 8 (3): 173. doi:10.1016/0277-5395(85)90040-8.
^ Ferraro, Gary, Wenda Trevathan, & Janet Levy, Anthropology: An
Applied Perspective (Minneapolis: West Publishing Co., 1992),
p. 360.[title or year verification needed]
^ a b Smith, R.T., Matrifocality, in Smelser & Baltes, eds.,
International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences
(2002), vol. 14, p. 9416 ff.
^ Ruether, Rosemary Radford, Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A
Western Religious History, p. 18.
^ Eisler, Riane, The Chalice and the Blade, as cited at the author's
website Archived February 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., as
accessed Jan. 26, 2011.
^ Spretnak, Charlene (2011). "Anatomy of a Backlash: Concerning the
Work of Marija Gimbutas" (PDF). The Journal of Archaeomythology. 7:
^ a b Adovasio, J. M., Olga Soffer, & Jake Page, The Invisible
Sex: Uncovering the True Roles of Women in Prehistory (Smithsonian
Books & Collins (HarperCollinsPublishers), 1st Smithsonian Books
ed. 2007 (ISBN 978-0-06-117091-1)), pp. 251–255, esp.
^ Sanday, Peggy Reeves,
Woman at the Center: Life in a Modern
Matriarchy (Cornell University Press, 2004
(ISBN 0-8014-8906-7)).[page needed]
^ a b Eller (1995), p. 152 and see pp. 158–161
^ Young, Katherine (2010). Sanctifying Misandry: Goddess Ideology and
the Fall of Man. Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press.
pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-7735-3615-9.
^ Goldberg, Steven, The Inevitability of
Patriarchy (William Morrow
& Co., 1973).[page needed]
^ Eller (2000)[page needed]
^ Encyclopaedia Britannica describes this view as "consensus", listing
matriarchy as a hypothetical social system: Encyclopædia Britannica
(2007), entry Matriarchy.
^ Bamberger, Joan, The Myth of Matriarchy:
Why Men Rule in Primitive
Society, in M. Rosaldo & L. Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society
(Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1974), p. 263.
^ Brown, Donald E., Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University
Press, 1991), p. 137.
^ a b "The view of matriarchy as constituting a stage of cultural
development now is generally discredited. Furthermore, the consensus
among modern anthropologists and sociologists is that a strictly
matriarchal society never existed." Encyclopædia Britannica (2007),
^ The Cambridge Ancient History (reprinted 2000, © 1975), vol. 2, pt.
2, p. 400.
^ Tacitus, Cornelius, Germania (A.D. 98), as accessed June 8, 2013,
Paragraph 45:6: Suionibus Sithonum gentes continuantur, cetera similes
uno differunt, quod femina dominatur: in tantum non modo a libertate,
sed etiam a servitute degenerant. Hic Suebiae finis.
^ Bisch, Jorgen, Why Buddha Smiles, p. 71 (Ahu Ho Gong, Padaung
chief: "no man can be chief over women. I am chief of the men. But
women, well! Women only do what they themselves wish" & "it is the
same with women all over the world", pp. 52–53, & "no man
can rule over women. They just do what they themselves
^ Marshall, Andrew, The Trouser People: A Story of Burma in the Shadow
of the Empire (ISBN 1-58243-120-5), p. 213 ("Kayaw societies
are strictly matriarchal.").
^ MacKinnon, Mark, In China, a
Matriarchy Under Threat, in The Globe
and Mail (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), August 15, 2011, 11:55p.
^ Lugu Lake
Mosuo Cultural Development Association, The Mosuo:
Matriarchal/Matrilineal Culture (2006), retrieved July 10, 2011.
^ Mukherjee, Sucharita Sinha, Women's Empowerment and Gender Bias in
the Birth and Survival of Girls in Urban India, in Feminist Economics,
vol. 19, no. 1 (January, 2013) (doi:10.1080/13545701.2012.752312),
p. 9, citing Srinivas, Mysore Narasimhachar, The Cohesive Role of
Sanskritization and Other Essays (Delhi: Oxford University Press,
1989), & Agarwal, Bina, A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land
Rights in South Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
^ Mukherjee, Sucharita Sinha, Women's Empowerment and Gender Bias in
the Birth and Survival of Girls in Urban India, in Feminist Economics,
vol. 19, no. 1 (January, 2013) (doi:10.1080/13545701.2012.752312),
^ Kumar, Anuj, Let's Anger Her! (sic), in The Hindu, July 25, 2012, as
accessed September 29, 2012 (whether statement was by Kumar or Kom is
^ Sanday, Peggy Reeves, Women at the Center: Life in a Modern
Matriarchy (Cornell University Press, 2002).[page needed]
^ a b c Turley, William S., Women in the Communist Revolution in
Vietnam, in Asian Survey, vol. 12, no. 9, September, 1972, p. 793
n. 1 (DOI 10.2307/2642829) (subscription may be required or
content may be available in libraries).
^ Phan (2005), p. 12 and see pp. 13 & 32 (the "three
persons" apparently being the sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi in A.D.
40, per p. 12, & Trieu Au in A.D. 248, per p. 13).
^ a b c Phan (2005), p. 32
^ Phan (2005), p. 33
^ Chiricosta, Alessandra, Following the Trail of the Fairy-Bird: The
Search For a Uniquely Vietnamese Women's Movement, in Roces &
Edwards (2010), pp. 125, 126 (single quotation marks so in
^ Roces & Edwards (2010), p. 125 (single quotation marks so
^ Roces & Edwards (2010), p. 125 (parentheses so in
^ Taylor (1983), p. 39 (n. 176 omitted).
^ Both quotations: Taylor (1983), p. 338
^ a b c d e Seekins, Donald M., Trung Sisters, Rebellion of (39–43),
in Sandler, Stanley, ed., Ground Warfare: An International
Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara California: ABC-Clio, hardcover 2002
(ISBN 1-57607-344-0)), vol. 3, p. 898.
^ Turner, Karen G., "Vietnam" as a Women's War, in Young, Marilyn B.,
& Robert Buzzanco, eds., A Companion to the Vietnam War (Malden,
Massachusetts: Blackwell, hardback 2002 (ISBN 0-631-21013-X)),
pp. 95–96 but see p. 107.
^ Schlegel (1984), p. 44 and see pp. 44–52
^ LeBow (1984), p. 8
^ LeBow (1984), p. 18
^ a b Schlegel (1984), p. 44 n. 1
^ a b Schlegel (1984), p. 45
^ a b c Schlegel (1984), p. 50
^ a b c d Schlegel (1984), p. 49
^ Jacobs (1991), pp. 498–509
^ Jacobs (1991), pp. 506–507
^ Jacobs (1991), pp. 505 & 506, quoting Carr, L., The Social
and Political Position of Women Among the Huron-
Report of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology, p. 223
^ a b George-Kanentiio, Doug,
Iroquois Culture & Commentary (New
Mexico: Clear Light Publishers, 2000), pp. 53–55.
^ Jacobs (1991), p. 498 & n. 6
^ Wesel, Uwe, Der Mythos vom Matriarchat. Über Bachofens Mutterrecht
und die Stellung von Frauen in frühen Gesellschaften (Frankfurt/M.:
Suhrkamp, 1980).[page needed]
^ Morgan, L., Ancient
Society Or Researches in the Lines of Human
Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization.
^ Ruether, Rosemary Radford, Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A
Western Religious History, p. 15.
^ Bachofen, Johann Jakob, Myth, Religion, and Mother
^ Mann, Susan, Presidential Address: Myths of Asian Womanhood, in The
Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 59, no. 4 (November, 2000), p. 839
and see p. 842 but see p. 839 & n. 12
(subscription may be required or content may be available in
^ Engels (1984)[page needed]
^ Bachofen, Johann Jakob, Das Mutterrecht. Eine Untersuchung über die
Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen
Natur. Eine Auswahl herausgegeben von Hans-Jürgen Heinrichs
(Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1975 ).[page needed]
^ Engels (1984), p. 70
^ Engels (1984), p. 204
^ Eller (2011), p. 115
^ Bebel, August, Die Frau und der Sozialismus. Als Beitrag zur
Emanzipation unserer Gesellschaft, bearbeitet und kommentiert von
Monika Seifert (Stuttgart: Dietz, 1974 (1st published 1879)),
^ Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party:
Heritage Floor: Helen Diner (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Museum, last
updated March 27, 2007), as accessed March, 2008, & November 15,
^ Epstein (1991), p. 173
^ Epstein (1991), pp. 172–173
^ Davis, Philip G., Goddess Unmasked (N.Y.: Spence Publishing, 1998
(ISBN 0-9653208-9-8)); Sheaffer, R., Skeptical Inquirer (1999)
^ del Giorgio, J.F., The Oldest Europeans (A.J.Place, 2006
^ Rohrlich (1977), p. 36 and see p. 37 ("Minoan
matriarchate" (subquoting, at p. 37 n. 7, Thomson, George,
The Prehistoric Aegean (N.Y.: Citadel Press, 1965), p. 450)),
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman, Introduction, in Pt. Four (Visions of Utopia),
in Rohrlich & Baruch (1984), p. 207 ("matriarchal societies,
particularly Minoan Crete"), and Rohrlich (1984), p. 6 ("the
Minoan matriarchy" & "Minoan Crete").
^ Three quotations: Rohrlich (1977), p. 37
^ Rohrlich (1977), p. 39, quoting Thomson, George, The
Prehistoric Aegean (N.Y.: Citadel Press, 1965), p. 160.
^ Patai (1990), pp. 38–39
^ Patai (1990), pp. 96–111
^ a b c Wax, Emily, A Place Where Women Rule, in The Washington Post,
July 9, 2005, p. 1 (online), as accessed October 13, 2013.
^ a b Wax, Emily, A Place Where Women Rule, in The Washington Post,
July 9, 2005, p. 2 (online), as accessed October 13, 2013.
^ Tamang, Stella, Indigenous Affairs, vols. 1–2, no. 4, p. 46.
^ Six Nations Women's Traditional Council Fire Report to CEDAW,
^ Schaller, p. 37.
^ Sukumar, pp. 175–79.
^ Angier, Natalie (September 10, 2016). "Beware the Bonds of Female
Bonobos". New York Times. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
^ Chesler (2005), pp. 335–336 (italics omitted).
^ Chesler (2005), pp. 335–336
^ Chesler (2005), p. 336
^ Chesler (2005), p. 336 (italics omitted)
^ Strabo, 5.504.
^ Ukert, F. A., Die Amazonen (Abhandlungen der
philosophisch-philologischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen
Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1849), 63.
^ Adler (2006), p. 196 (italics so in original; p. 196
n. 20 citing Markale, Jean, Women of the
Celts (London: Gordon
^ Bamberger, Joan, The Myth of Matriarchy:
Why Men Rule in Primitive
Society, in M. Rosaldo & L. Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society
(Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1974), p. 279.
^ a b Weisberg, D. Kelly, ed., Applications of Feminist Legal Theory
to Women's Lives: Sex, Violence, Work, and Reproduction (Philadelphia:
Temple University Press, 1996 (ISBN 1-56639-423-6)), p. 9
("women must organize against patriarchy as a class") but see
p. 11 ("some radical feminists ... opt ... for
anarchistic, violent methods").
^ a b Dale, Jennifer, & Peggy Foster, Feminists and State Welfare
(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0278-4)),
p. 52 ("radical feminist theory .... could, indeed, be said
to point in the direction of 'matriarchy'") and see pp. 52–53
^ Donovan (2000), p. 55 & n. 15, citing Stanton,
Elizabeth Cady, Address (Washington Woman's Rights Convention, 1869),
in History of
Woman Suffrage, vol. 2, pp. 351–353.
^ Donovan (2000), p. 57, citing Gage, Matilda Joslyn, Woman,
Church and State: A Historical Account of the Status of Women through
the Christian Ages; with Reminiscences of the Matriarchate (Watertown,
Mass.: Persephone Press, 1980 (1893)), p. 21.
^ A Lecture on Constitutional Equality, also known as The Great
Secession Speech, speech to Woman's Suffrage Convention, New York, May
11, 1871, excerpt quoted in Gabriel (1998), pp. 86–87.
^ Gabriel (1998), passim, esp. pp. 54–57
^ Underhill, Lois Beachy, The
Woman Who Ran for President: The Many
Victoria Woodhull (Bridgehampton, N.Y.: Bridge Works, 1st ed.
1995 (ISBN 1-882593-10-3), passim, esp. ch. 8.
^ The dates are those of two original editions of the same work, both
^ Donovan (2000), p. 61, citing Gilman (2001), passim
^ Donovan (2000), p. 62, citing Gilman (2001), p. 190
^ Gilman (2001), p. 177 and see p. 153.
^ Gilman (2001), p. 153
^ Gilman (2001), pp. 153, 177
^ Penner, James, Pinks, Pansies, and Punks: The Rhetoric of
Masculinity in American Literary Culture (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana
University Press, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-253-22251-0)), p. 235.
^ a b c Eller (1991), p. 287
^ Eller (2000), p. 12
^ Eller (2000), p. 12 (quoting also
Mary Daly ("matriarchy 'was
not patriarchy spelled with an "m."'", probably – per Eller (2000),
p. 12 n. 3 – in Daly, Mary, Beyond God the Father,
^ Starhawk, Dreaming the Dark: Magic, Sex, and Politics (Boston,
Mass.: Beacon Press, 15th Anniversary ed. 1997 (original 1982)
(ISBN 0-8070-1037-5)), ch. 1 (original 1982 ed. cited in
Eller (1991), p. 287).
^ Adler (1979), p. 187, as quoted in Eller (1991), p. 287.
^ Castro (1990), p. 42
^ Willemsen (1997), p. 5
^ Willemsen (1997), p. 6. See also Poldervaart (1997),
p. 182 ("Tineke Willemsen distinghuishes [sic] in her article
three large classes of utopias: ... 2) feminists who emphasize
the difference [between "women and men ... in rights and
possibilities"]; in these utopias women have a better position than
men or feminine qualities are more valued than masculine ones").
^ a b c Quotation: Take No Prisoners, in The Guardian, May 13, 2000,
as accessed Sep. 6, 2010.
^ Other than quotation: Dworkin, Andrea, Scapegoat: The Jews, Israel,
and Women's Liberation (N.Y.: Free Press, 2000
(ISBN 0-684-83612-2)), p. 246 and see pp. 248 &
^ Ouma, Veronica A., Dworkin's Scapegoating, in Palestine Solidarity
Review (PSR), Fall 2005 Archived December 8, 2010, at the Wayback
Machine., as accessed Oct. 21, 2010 (PSR was challenged on its
reliability, in Frantzman, Seth J., Do Arabs and Jews Realize How Much
They Look Alike?, in The Jerusalem Post, Jun. 10, 2009, 11:43 p.m.
(op-ed opinion), as accessed May 15, 2011.)
^ Schönpflug (2008), p. 22
^ Chesler (2005), p. 347 (italics so in original) and see
pp. 296, 335–336, 337–338, 340, 341, 345, 346, 347, &
348–349 and see also pp. 294–295
^ Chesler (2005), p. 337 and see p. 340
^ a b c Chesler (2005), p. 338
^ Chesler, Phyllis, in Spender (1985), p. 214 (reply from Phyllis
Chesler to Dale Spender).
^ Spender (1985), p. 151 (emphasis in original).
^ Spender (1985), p. 151
^ Wittig (1985), passim and see pp. 114–115, 127, 131, &
^ Wittig (1985), pp. 114–115
^ Both quotations: Rohrlich (1984), p. xvii.
^ Moi, Toril, Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory
(London: Routledge, 2d ed., 2002 (ISBN 0-415-28012-5)),
^ Auerbach, Nina, Communities of Women: An Idea in Fiction (Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press, 1978 (ISBN 0-674-15168-2)),
^ a b c d Porter (1992), p. 267
^ Wittig (1985), p. 112
^ Zerilli (2005), p. 80, quoting Porter (1992), p. 261
^ Farley (1984), pp. 237–238
^ Farley (1984), p. 238 and see Baruch, Elaine Hoffman,
Introduction, in Pt. Four (Visions of Utopia), in Rohrlich &
Baruch (1984), p. 205.
^ Farley (1984), p. 238
^ Zerilli (2005), p. 80, purportedly quoting within the quotation
Porter (1992), p. 261.
^ Daly (1990), p. 15
^ Daly (1990), p. xxvi
^ Daly (1990), p. xxxiii
^ Daly (1990), p. 375 & fnn. and see p. 384
^ Daly (1990), p. 29
^ Zerilli (2005), p. 101
^ Eller (2000), p. 3
^ Rountree (2001), p. 6
^ Rountree (2001), pp. 5–9 & passim
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 72
^ Eller (1995), pp. 183–184
^ Eller (1995), p. 184
^ a b Johnston, Jill, Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution (N.Y.:
Simon & Schuster, 1973 (SBN (not ISBN) 671-21433-0)), p. 248
and see pp. 248–249.
^ Franklin, Kris, & Sara E. Chinn, Lesbians, Legal Theory and
Other Superheroes, in Review of Law & Social Change, vol. XXV,
1999, pp. 310–311, as accessed (at a prior URL) October 21,
2010 (citing in n. 45 Lesbian Nation, p. 15).
^ Ross (1995), passim, esp. pp. 8 & 15–16 & also pp.
19, 71, 111, 204, 205, 212, 219 & 231
^ Ross (1995), p. 204, citing McCoy, Sherry, & Maureen Hicks,
A Psychological Retrospective on Power in the Contemporary
Lesbian-Feminist Community, in Frontiers, vol. 4, no. 3 (1979),
^ Davis (1971), p. 18
^ a b c d e f Davis (1971), p. 339
^ a b c d e f g Castro (1990), p. 35 and see pp. 26, 27,
32–36, & 42.
^ Castro (1990), p. 36
^ Echols (1989), pp. 183–184
^ Tong, Rosemarie Putnam, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive
Introduction (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2d ed. 1998
(ISBN 0-8133-3295-8)), p. 23.
^ Echols (1989), p. 184, quoting Barbara Mehrhof and Pam Kearon.
Full names per Echols (1989), pp. 407, 409 & memberships per
Echols (1989), pp. 388, 383 & 382. See also p. 253
("moved toward ... matriarchalism").
^ Echols (1989), pp. 183–184; foundership per Echols (1989),
^ Morgan, Robin, Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist
(N.Y.: Random House, 1st ed. 1977 (ISBN 0-394-48227-1)),
p. 187 (italics so in original).
^ Adler (2006), p. 198 ("Maior" so in original)
^ Schönpflug (2008), p. 108, citing Gerd Brantenberg, Egalia's
Daughters (Norwegian original published in 1977).
^ Schönpflug (2008), p. 19
^ a b Schönpflug (2008), p. 20
^ Egalia's Daughters as fiction: WorldCat entry, as accessed August
^ Matriarchal Studies (International Academy HAGIA), as accessed
January 30, 2011.
^ 1st World Congress on Matriarchal Studies, also known as Societies
in Balance Archived February 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., both
as accessed January 29, 2011.
^ Societies of Peace: 2nd World Congress on Matriarchal Studies (home
page), as accessed January 29, 2011.
^ For a review of the conferences, esp. that of 2005, by a
participant, see Mukhim, Patricia, Khasi Matriliny Has Many Parallels,
October 15, 2005, as accessed February 6, 2011 (also published in The
Statesman (India), October 15, 2005).
^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009a), passim
^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009b), p. 23
^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009b), p. 25 and see p. 24 and, in
Goettner-Abendroth (2009a), Introduction & pts. I & VIII
^ Goettner-Abendroth (2009b), p. 25 (emphasis so in original).
^ a b c Eller (1991), p. 290
^ a b c Eller (1991), p. 291
^ a b c d e Eller (2000), p. 10 (whether author's data global
^ Dworkin, Andrea, Biological Superiority: The World's Most Dangerous
and Deadly Idea (1977), from Dworkin, Andrea, Letters From a War Zone:
Writings 1976–1989, Pt. III, Take Back the Day, as accessed December
25, 2010 (first published in Heresies No. 6 on Women and Violence,
vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer 1978)).
^ Morgan, Robin, The Demon Lover: On the Sexuality of Terrorism (N.Y.:
Norton, 1989 (ISBN 0-393-30677-1) (rev. ed. 2000
(ISBN 0-7434-5293-3))), p. 27 (pagination per edition at
^ Badinter, Elisabeth, trans. Julia Borossa, Dead End Feminism
(Polity, 2006 (ISBN 0-7456-3381-1 &
ISBN 978-0-7456-3381-7)), p. 32, in Google Books, as
accessed December 4, 2010 (no source cited for Ti-Grace Atkinson's
statement); Amazon Continues Odyssey, in off our backs, December, 1979
(interview) (mentioning "female nationalism" (relevant herein insofar
as the female nationalism is matriarchal) & women as nation);
Atkinson, Ti-Grace, Amazon Odyssey (N.Y.: Links, 1974 (SBN (not ISBN)
0-8256-3023-1)) (may preclude female nationalism (relevant herein
insofar as female nationalism is matriarchal)); also there exists (not
read by this editor) Atkinson, Ti-Grace, Le Nationalisme
Feminin, in Nouvelle Questions Feministes 6–7, Spring 1984,
pp. 35–54 (French) (Eng. trans., Female Nationalism
(unpublished), was held by author) (relevant herein insofar as female
nationalism is matriarchal) (cited by Ringelheim, Joan, Women and the
Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research, in Signs: Journal of Women
in Culture and Society, vol. 10, no. 4 (Summer, 1985) (Communities of
Women), pp. 741–761 ([§] Viewpoint) (also in Rittner, Carol,
& John K. Roth, eds., Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust
(N.Y.: Paragon House, 1993), pp. 373–418) & by Weiss, Penny
A., & Marilyn Friedman,
Feminism & Community (Temple
University Press, 1995 (ISBN 1-56639-277-2 &
ISBN 978-1-56639-277-8)), p. 330.
^ Mansfield (2006), pp. 241–242, citing Plato, Republic.
^ Mansfield (2006), pp. 173–174 & nn. 14, 16–17,
& 19, citing Hobbes, Leviathan, ch. 10, 14–15, & 21,
Tuck, Richard, Natural Rights Theories (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1979), ch. 6, & Tarcov, Nathan, Locke's
Education for Liberty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984),
^ Ross (1995), p. 208
^ Farley (1984), p. 238 (respecting Wittig, Monique, Les
^ Stansell, Christine, The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present
(N.Y.: Modern Library (Random House), 1st ed. 2010
(ISBN 978-0-679-64314-2)), p. 394.
^ Bartkowski, Frances, Feminist Utopias (Lincoln: University of
Nebraska Press, 1989 (ISBN 0-8032-1205-4)), ch. 1.
^ Donovan (2000), p. 48
^ Schönpflug (2008), p. 21 and see p. 20–21.
^ Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, What is "Feminism"?, in The Sunday
Herald, vol. CXL, no. 65, September 3, 1916 (Extra ed.), [§]
Magazine, p.  [of §], of The Boston Herald (Boston, Mass.)
(on genderal integration: "essential duty of the female is ... in
choosing a father for her children" & "women will always love
men", both per col. 2, & "closer union, deeper attachment
between men and women", per col. 3; on freedom: "[women's] full
economic independence.... [and] freedom now allowed our girls", per
col. 1, "freedom" (several references), per col. 2, &
"feminism .... [will] set free four-fifths of its labor" &
"comparative freedom of action possible to women today ", both
per col. 3) (microfilm (Bell & Howell)).
^ Mansfield (2006), pp. 80–81
^ Mansfield (2006), pp. 79–80
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 17
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 49 and see also pp. 170–171 & 204–206
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 161
^ Roald (2001), p. 195
^ Donovan (2000), p. 30, citing Grimké, Sarah M., Letters on
Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of
Woman (N.Y.: Burt Franklin,
1970 (1838)), p. 81 (objecting to women "participating in
government", "reflecting perhaps the Victorian notion that public
affairs were too sordid for women").
^ a b c d Herzog (1998), pp. 424–425
^ Richards (1997), p. 120, but see pp. 120–121.
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 72 ("the evidence [is] ... of males
ruling over all societies at almost all times" & "males ...
have dominated all politics we know of") & 58 ("every previous
society, including our democracy up to now, has been some kind of
patriarchy, permeated by stubborn, self-insistent manliness" (italics
omitted)) and see p. 66 (patriarchy as "based on manliness, not
merely those governments staffed by males", applicability depending on
the antecedent for "here").
^ Ruden (2010), p. 80 (emphasis in original)
^ Athenians discussed in the context of play by Aristophanes, Ruden
(2010), pp. 78–80
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 210
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 75
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 76
^ Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang (N.Y.: Random
House, 1st ed. 1994 (ISBN 0-394-54427-7)), vol. 1, p. 892,
col. 2 (earliest example dated 1944).
^ Mansfield (2006), pp. 63–64
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 62
^ Roald (2001), p. 269
^ Not absolutely but relatively so: Mansfield (2006), p. 80
n. 51 ("successful ambition in women [i.e., "women holding
office"] makes them more womanish in the sense of representing women's
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 50 ("our science rather clumsily confirms
the stereotype about manliness, the stereotype that stands stubbornly
in the way of the gender-neutral society") and see pp. 43–49.
^ Mansfield (2006), pp. 205–206
^ Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth, The Praxis of Coequal Discipleship,
in Horsley, Richard A., ed., Paul and Empire: Religion and Power in
Society (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press
Intntl., 1997 (ISBN 1-56338-217-2)), pp. 238–239 (probably
from Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth, In Memory of Her (Crossroad
Publishing, 1983) & edited), quoting
Aristotle (Politics I.1254b)
("the male is by nature superior and the female inferior, the male
ruler and the female subject").
^ Editorial, New York Herald, May 27, 1870, p. 6, as quoted in
Gabriel (1998), pp. 56–57
^ Herzog (1998), p. 440
^ Mansfield (2006), p. 131, citing
Oscar Wilde (playwright, per
p. 126), and
Henry James (novelist, per p. 127).
^ a b Mansfield (2006), p. 195, citing Jean-Jacques Rousseau, per
^ a b Eller (1995), p. 207
^ Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to
Grrls Gone Wild (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007
(ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9)), p. 65.
^ "Holy Scripture inculcates for women a sphere higher than and apart
from that of public life; because as women they find a full measure of
duties, cares and responsibilities and are unwilling to bear
additional burdens unsuited to their physical organization.", a
"signed ... petition against female suffrage" (January, 1871), in
Gabriel (1998), p. 83, citing The Press—Philadelphia, January
14, 1871, p. 8.
^ Roald (2001), p. 185
^ a b Roald (2001), pp. 186–187
^ Roald (2001), pp. 189–190
^ a b Roald (2001), p. 190
^ Roald (2001), p. 188
^ Roald (2001), pp. 186–189
^ a b Roald (2001), p. 196
^ Roald (2001), pp. 196–197
^ Roald (2001), pp. 185–186
^ Roald (2001), p. 186 & ch. 8, passim
^ Ikhwan web,
Muslim Brotherhood on Muslim women in Islamic Society
(October 29, 2005) (trans.), as accessed March 5, 2011, [§] The
Woman's Right to Vote, Be Elected and Occupy Public and Governmental
Posts., [sub§] Thirdly, Women's Holding of Public Office.
^ Roald (2001), p. 198 (for study details, see Roald (2001),
ch. 3, e.g., quantity of 82 per p. 64).
^ Roald (2001), p. 197, quoting The Muslim Brotherhood, The Role
of Women in Islamic
Society According to the Muslim Brotherhood
(London: International Islamic Forum, 1994), 14.
^ The document stating it was not available at its official
English-language website advanced search page, as accessed March 5,
2011 (search for "Role of Women in Islamic Society" without quotation
marks yielding no results), but a document with similar relevant
effect is Ikhwan web,
Muslim Brotherhood on Muslim women in Islamic
Society (October 29, 2005) (trans.), as accessed March 5, 2011
("social circumstances and traditions" as justifying gradualism, per
[§] A General Remark).
^ Roald (2001), p. 34, citing Shafiq, Duriyya, al-Kitab al-abiyad
lil-huquq al-mar'a al-misriyya (The White Paper on the Rights of the
Egyptian Woman) (Cairo: n.p., 1953) (bibliographic information partly
per Roald (2001), p. 25 n. 27)
^ Rostami Povey, Elaheh, Feminist Contestations of Institutional
Domains in Iran, in Feminist Review, no. 69, pp. 49 & 53
^ Al-Mohamed, Asmaa, Saudi Women's Rights: Stuck at a Red Light (Arab
Insight (World Security Institute), January 8, 2008) Archived July 4,
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^ Pinker, Steven, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has
Declined (N.Y.: Viking, hardback 2011 (ISBN 978-0-670-02295-3)),
pp. 366–367 and see pp. 414–415.
^ Hartman (2007), p. 105, attributing the argument to Rav Kook,
or Rabbi Abraham Isaac Hacohen Kook; "a significant spiritual leader
of the ["early twentieth century"]", Hartman (2007), p. 101,
citing, at Hartman (2007), pp. 101–102, Kook, Rav, Open Letter
to the Honorable Committee of the "Mizrahi" Association (1919) ("In
the Torah, in the Prophets and in the Writings, in the Halacha and in
the Aggadah, we hear ... that the duty of fixed public service
falls upon men.").
^ Hartman (2007), p. 106
^ Freeman (2003), pp. 59 & 65
^ Freeman (2003), p. 65 (the tribunals are discussed in the
context of "the marital law regime in each religion", including
^ Umanit (2003), p. 133
^ Freeman (2003), p. 60
^ Tsomo (1999), pp. 6–7
^ a b Tsomo (1999), p. 5
^ Bacchetta (2002), p. 157
^ a b c d e Bacchetta (2002), p. 168
^ Bacchetta (2002), p. 168 (the 2 being Uma Bharati and Sadhvi
Rithambara, both associated with the
Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)),
all according to Bacchetta.
^ Bacchetta (2002), p. 168 & n. 76, citing Kelkar,
Kakshmibai, Stri-Ek Urja Kendra: Strivishayak Vicharon Ka Sankalan
(Nagpur: Sevika Prakashan, n.d.), ch. 2.
^ de Abreu (2003), p. 167
^ Knox (1878) (italicization and boldface, if any, removed).
^ a b Knox (1878)
^ Felch (1995), p. 806
^ a b de Abreu (2003), p. 169
^ Brammall (1996), p. 19
^ a b Brammall (1996), p. 20
^ Healey (1994), p. 376
^ Ridley, Jasper,
John Knox (N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1968),
p. 267, as cited in Felch (1995), p. 805
^ Reid, W. Stanford, Trumpeter of God: A Biography of
John Knox (N.Y.:
Scribner, 1974), p. 145, as cited in Felch (1995), p. 805
^ Lee (1990), p. 242
^ a b Richards (1997), p. 116
^ Laing, David, Preface (from extract), in Knox (1878)
^ Lee (1990), pp. 250, 249, citing Goodman, Christopher, How
Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyd (N.Y.: reprint, 1931, originally
1558) (chap. on gynecocracy).
^ Richards (1997), p. 117
^ Healey (1994), pp. 372, 373
^ Healey (1994), pp. 372–373
^ Healey (1994), p. 373
^ Richards (1997), p. 115
^ "There were occasionally women so endowed, that the singular good
qualities which shone forth in them made it evident that they were
raised up by Divine authority". Calvin, letter to William Cecil (on or
after January 29, 1559 (probably 1560)), in Knox (1878) (citing, at
Preface, n. 1, for letter, Zurich Letters (2d ser.), p. 35)
(Calvin reviser, Commentaries on Isaiah (sometime in 1551–1559)
^ de Abreu (2003), pp. 168, 170–171, e.g., citing Aylmer
(AElmer), John, An Harborowe for Faithfull and Trewe Subiects agaynst
the late blowne Blast, concerninge the Gouernment of Wemen wherin be
confuted all such reasons as a straunger of late made in that behalfe,
with a briefe exhortation to obedience (1559).
^ de Abreu (2003), p. 170
^ Eller (1991), p. 281 and see pp. 282 & 287
^ a b c Eller (1991), p. 281
^ Eller (1991), p. 282
^ a b c Mansfield (2006), pp. 73–74 & n. 37, citing
Strauss, Leo, Socrates and
Aristophanes (N.Y.: Basic Books, 1966),
ch. 9, and Saxonhouse, Arlene W., Fear of Diversity (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1992), ch. 1.
^ Ruden (2010), p. 79
^ Suksang, Duangrudi, Overtaking Patriarchy: Corbett's and Dixie's
Visions of Women, in Utopian Studies, vol. 4, no. 2 (1993),
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^ Hasan, Seemin,
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Arthurian Myth (Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2007).
^ Bright Hub Education (book summary).
^ Fitting, Peter, Reconsiderations of the Separatist Paradigm in
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^ Vonarburg (1992)
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^ Traynor, Page, A Brother's Price, in RT Book Reviews (review).
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