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Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(English: /ɪˈnʊktɪtʊt/; Inuktitut: [inuktiˈtut], syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages
Inuit languages
of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba
Manitoba
as well as the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Nunavut
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Canadian Indian Residential School System
In Canada, the Indian residential school system[nb 1] was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples.[nb 2] The network was funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs and administered by Christian churches. The school system was created for the purpose of removing children from the influence of their own culture and assimilating them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the system's more than hundred-year existence, about 30%, or roughly 150,000, of Indigenous children were placed in residential schools nationally.[3][4]:2–3 At least 6,000 of these students are estimated to have died while residents.[5][6] The system had its origins in laws enacted before Confederation, but was primarily active from the passage of the Indian Act in 1876. An amendment to the Indian Act in 1884 made attendance at day schools, industrial schools, or residential schools compulsory for First Nations children
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Yukon
Yukon[6] (/ˈjuːkɒn/; French: [jykɔ̃]; also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Nunavut). The territory has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people.[7] Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukon's only city. The territory was split from the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
in 1898 and was named the Yukon
Yukon
Territory
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Colonialism
Colonialism
Colonialism
is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health. The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to 1914 when Spain, Portugal, Britain, Russia, France, the Netherlands, Germany, and several smaller European countries such a Belgium and Italy, established colonies outside Europe.[1] It has been estimated that by 1914, Europeans had gained control of 84% of the globe, and by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had taken hold, they already controlled at least 35% (excluding Antarctica).[2] The system practically ended between 1945–1975 when nearly all colonies became independent
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Oral Language
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.[1][2][3] In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument
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Canada 2006 Census
The Canada
Canada
2006 Census
Census
was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census
Census
day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people.[1]Contents1 Summary 2 Data products2.1 Population and dwelling counts 2.2 Age and sex 2.3 Families, marital status, households and dwelling characteristics 2.4 Immigration, citizenship, language, mobility and migration 2.5 Aboriginal peoples 2.6 Labour, place of work/commuting to work, education, language 2.7 Ethnic origin, visible minorities 2.8 Income/earnings, shelter costs3 Advertising 4 Outsourcing 5 Forms 6 Controversy 7 See also 8 External links 9 ReferencesSummary[edit] Over 12.7 million households, 32.5 million people were expected to be counted
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Government Of Canada
Provincial and territorial executive councilsPremiersLegislative (Queen-in-Parliament) Federal parliamentSenateSpeaker of the Senate Government
Government
Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisionsHouse of CommonsSpeaker of the house Government
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Labrador
Labrador
Labrador
(/ˈlæbrədɔːr/ LAB-rə-dor) is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland
Newfoundland
by the Strait of Belle Isle. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. Labrador
Labrador
occupies the eastern part of the Labrador
Labrador
Peninsula. It is bordered to the west and the south by the Canadian province of Quebec. Labrador
Labrador
also shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut
Nunavut
on Killiniq Island. Though Labrador
Labrador
covers 71 percent of the province's land area, it has only 8 percent of the province's population
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Legal Recognition
Legal recognition of some status or fact in a jurisdiction is formal acknowledgement of it as being true, valid, legal, or worthy of consideration and may involve approval or the granting of rights.[1] For example, a nation or territory may require a person to hold a professional qualification to practice some occupation, such as medicine. While any establishment may grant a qualification, only recognised qualifications from recognised establishments entitle the holder to practice the restricted occupation. Qualifications from another jurisdiction may or may not be recognised. In this way the state controls and regulates access; for example, physicians of unknown competence may not practice, and it may be desired to protect employment of local people. Another example is that any person can undergo a form of marriage with anyone or anything, and claim to be married
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Tree Line
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. It is found at high elevations and in frigid environments. Beyond the tree line, trees cannot tolerate the environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture).[1]:51 The tree line should not be confused with a lower timberline or forest line, which is the line where trees form a forest with a closed canopy.[2]:151[3]:18 At the tree line, tree growth is often sparse and stunted, with the last trees forming densely matted bushes, known as krummholz (German for "crooked wood").[4]:58 The tree line, like many other natural lines (lake boundaries, for example), appears well-defined from a distance, but upon sufficiently close inspection, it is a gradual transition in most places
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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ISO 639-1
 ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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