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Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(English: /ɪˈnʊktɪtʊt/; Inuktitut: [inuktiˈtut], syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages
Inuit languages
of Canada. It is spoken in all areas north of the tree line, including parts of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, to some extent in northeastern Manitoba
Manitoba
as well as the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Nunavut. It is one of the aboriginal languages written with Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.[4] It is recognised as an official language in Nunavut
Nunavut
alongside Inuinnaqtun, and both languages are known collectively as Inuktut. Further, it is recognized as one of eight official native tongues in the Northwest Territories.[5] It also has legal recognition in Nunavik—a part of Quebec—thanks in part to the James Bay and Northern Quebec
Quebec
Agreement, and is recognised in the Charter of the French Language
Language
as the official language of instruction for Inuit school districts there. It also has some recognition in Nunatsiavut—the Inuit
Inuit
area in Labrador—following the ratification of its agreement with the government of Canada
Canada
and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Canadian census reports that there are roughly 35,000 Inuktitut
Inuktitut
speakers in Canada, including roughly 200 who live regularly outside traditionally Inuit
Inuit
lands.[2] The term Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is often used more broadly to include Inuvialuktun and thus nearly all the Inuit
Inuit
dialects of Canada. For more information on the relationship between Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and the Inuit languages
Inuit languages
spoken in Greenland
Greenland
and Alaska, see Inuit
Inuit
languages.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Inuktitut
Inuktitut
in the school system 1.2 Legislation

2 Dialects

2.1 Nunavut 2.2 Nunavik 2.3 Labrador 2.4 Greenland

3 Phonology 4 Grammar 5 Writing

5.1 The Canadian syllabary 5.2 Braille

6 Current status 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

11.1 Dictionaries and lexica 11.2 Webpages 11.3 Utilities

History[edit] Inuktitut
Inuktitut
in the school system[edit] Before contact, Inuit
Inuit
learned skills by example and participation. The Inuktitut
Inuktitut
language provided them with all the vocabulary required to describe traditional practices and natural features [6] 1. Up to this point, it was solely an oral language. Colonialism
Colonialism
brought the European schooling system over to Canada. The missionaries of the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches were the first ones to deliver education to Inuit
Inuit
in schools. The teachers used the Inuktitut language for instruction and developed writing systems.[7] In 1928 the first residential school for Inuit
Inuit
opened, and English became the language of instruction. As the government's interests in the North increased, it started taking over the education of Inuit. After the end of World War II, English was seen as the language of communication in all domains. Officials expressed concerns about the difficulty for Inuit
Inuit
to find employment, if they were not able to communicate in English. Inuit
Inuit
were supposed to use English at school, work, and even at the playground.[8] The Inuit
Inuit
themselves viewed Inuktitut
Inuktitut
as the way to express their feelings and be linked to their identity, while English was a tool for making money.[6] In the 1960s, the European attitude towards the Inuktitut
Inuktitut
language started to change. Inuktitut
Inuktitut
was seen as a language worth preserving, and it was argued that knowledge, particularly in the first years of school, is best transmitted in the mother tongue. This set off the beginning of bilingual schools. In 1969, most Inuit
Inuit
voted to eliminate federal schools and replace them with programs by the Direction Generale du Nouveau- Quebec
Quebec
(DGNQ). Content was now taught in Inuktitut, English and French.[8] Legislation[edit] Inuktitut
Inuktitut
became one of the official language in the Northwest Territories in 1984. Its status is secured in the Northwest Territories Official Language
Language
Act. With the split of the Territory into NWT and Nunavut
Nunavut
in 1999, both territories kept the Language Act.[5] Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
in Labrador
Labrador
made Inuktitut
Inuktitut
the official language of the government. In Nunavik, the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement recognizes Inuktitut
Inuktitut
in the education system.[9] Dialects[edit] Nunavut[edit] Nunavut's basic law lists four official languages: English, French, Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and Inuinnaqtun, but to what degree Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
can be thought of as separate languages is ambiguous in state policy. The word Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is often used to describe both. A more proper term has been adopted using " Inuit
Inuit
Languages" when speaking of Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
and Inuktitut. The demographic situation of Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is quite strong in Nunavut. Nunavut
Nunavut
is the home of some 24,000 Inuit, most of whom – over 80% according to the 2001 census – speak Inuktitut, including some 3,500 people reported as monolinguals. 2001 census data shows that the use of Inuktitut, while lower among the young than the elderly, has stopped declining in Canada
Canada
as a whole and may even be increasing in Nunavut. The South Baffin dialect (Qikiqtaaluk nigiani) is spoken across the southern part of Baffin Island, including the territorial capital Iqaluit. This has in recent years made it a much more widely heard dialect, since a great deal of Inuktitut
Inuktitut
media originates in Iqaluit. Some linguists also distinguish an East Baffin dialect from either South Baffin or North Baffin, which is an Inuvialuk dialect. As of the early 2000s, Nunavut
Nunavut
has gradually implemented early childhood, elementary, and secondary school-level immersion programmes within its education system to further preserve and promote the Inuktitut
Inuktitut
language. As of 2012, "Pirurvik, Iqaluit's Inuktitut language training centre, has a new goal: to train instructors from Nunavut
Nunavut
communities to teach Inuktitut
Inuktitut
in different ways and in their own dialects when they return home."[10] Nunavik[edit] Quebec
Quebec
is home to roughly 12,000 Inuit, nearly all of whom live in Nunavik. According to the 2001 census, 90% of Quebec
Quebec
Inuit
Inuit
speak Inuktitut. The Nunavik
Nunavik
dialect (Nunavimmiutitut) is relatively close to the South Baffin dialect, but not identical. Because of the political and physical boundary between Nunavik
Nunavik
and Nunavut, Nunavik
Nunavik
has separate government and educational institutions from those in the rest of the Inuktitut-speaking world, resulting in a growing standardization of the local dialect as something separate from other forms of Inuktitut. In the Nunavik
Nunavik
dialect, Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is called Inuttitut. This dialect is also sometimes called Tarramiutut or Taqramiutut. Subdialects of Inuktitut
Inuktitut
in this region include Tarrarmiut and Itivimuit.[11] Itivimuit is associated with Inukjuak, Quebec, and there is a Itivimuit River near the town. Labrador[edit] The Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
dialect (Nunatsiavummiutut, or often in government documents Labradorimiutut) was once spoken across northern Labrador. It has a distinct writing system, created by German missionaries from the Moravian Church
Moravian Church
in Greenland
Greenland
in the 1760s. This separate writing tradition, and the remoteness of Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
from other Inuit communities, has made it into a distinct dialect with a separate literary tradition. The Nunatsiavummiut call their language Inuttut. Although Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
claims over 4,000 inhabitants of Inuit
Inuit
descent, only 550 reported Inuktitut
Inuktitut
to be their native language in the 2001 census, mostly in the town of Nain. Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is seriously endangered in Labrador. Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
also had a separate dialect reputedly much closer to western Inuktitut
Inuktitut
dialects, spoken in the area around Rigolet. According to news reports, in 1999 it had only three very elderly speakers.[12] Greenland[edit] Though often thought to be a dialect of Greenlandic, Inuktun
Inuktun
or Polar Eskimo is a recent arrival in Greenland
Greenland
from the Eastern Canadian Arctic, arriving perhaps as late as the 18th century. Phonology[edit] Main article: Inuit
Inuit
phonology Eastern Canadian dialects of Inuktitut
Inuktitut
have fifteen consonants and three vowels (which can be long or short). Consonants are arranged with five places of articulation: bilabial, alveolar, palatal, velar and uvular; and three manners of articulation: voiceless stops, voiced continuants and nasals, as well as two additional sounds—voiceless fricatives. Natsalingmiutut has an additional consonant /ɟ/, a vestige of the retroflex consonants of Proto-Inuit. Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
has one fewer consonant, as /s/ and /ɬ/ have merged into /h/. All dialects of Inuktitut
Inuktitut
have only three basic vowels and make a phonological distinction between short and long forms of all vowels. In Inuujingajut – Nunavut
Nunavut
standard Roman orthography – long vowels are written as a double vowel. Inuktitut
Inuktitut
vowels

IPA Inuujingajut Notes

open front unrounded Short /a/ a

Long /aː/ aa

closed front unrounded Short /i/ i Short i is realised as [e] or [ɛ] before uvular consonants [ʁ] and [q]

Long /iː/ ii

closed back rounded Short /u/ u Short u is realised as [o] or [ɔ] before uvular consonants [ʁ] and [q]

Long /uː/ uu

Inuktitut
Inuktitut
consonants in Inuujingajut and IPA notation

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Notes

Voiceless stop p /p/ t /t/

k /k/ q /q/

All plosives are unaspirated /q/ is sometimes represented with an r

Voiceless fricative

s /s/ ł /ɬ/ (h /h/)

h replaces s in Kivallirmiutut and Natsilingmiutut and replaces both s and ɬ in Inuinnaqtun ɬ is often written as &, or simply as l

Voiced v /v/ l /l/ j /j/ (j /ɟ/) g /ɡ/ r /ʁ/

/ɟ/ is absent from most dialects and is therefore not written with a separate letter /ɡ/ is always a fricative [ɣ] in Siglitun. In other dialects, the fricative realization is possible between vowels or vowels and approximants. /ʁ/ is assimilated to [ɴ] before nasals

Nasal m /m/ n /n/

ng /ŋ/

A geminated ng is written nng

Grammar[edit] Main article: Inuit
Inuit
grammar Inuktitut, like other Eskimo–Aleut languages, has a very rich morphological system, in which a succession of different morphemes are added to root words to indicate things that, in languages like English, would require several words to express. (See also: Agglutinative language and Polysynthetic language). All words begin with a root morpheme to which other morphemes are suffixed. Inuktitut has hundreds of distinct suffixes, in some dialects as many as 700. However, it is highly regular, with rules that do not have exceptions like in English and other Indo-European languages, though they are sometimes very complicated. One famous example is the word qangatasuukkuvimmuuriaqalaaqtunga (ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᒻᒨᕆᐊᖃᓛᖅᑐᖓ)[13] meaning I'll have to go to the airport:

Morpheme Meaning Euphonic changes due to following sound

qangata verbal root to raise/to be raised in the air

suuq verb-to-noun suffix one who habitually performs an action; thus qangatasuuq: airplane -q is deleted

kkut noun-to-noun suffix group -t is deleted

vik noun-to-noun suffix enormous; thus qangatasuukkuvik: airport -k changes to -m

mut noun ending dative singular, to -t+a changes to -u

aq noun-to-verb suffix arrival at a place; to go -q+ja is deleted

jariaq verb-to-noun suffix the obligation to perform an action -q is deleted

qaq noun-to-verb suffix to have -q is deleted

laaq verb-to-verb suffix future tense, will -q+l changes to -q+t

lunga verb ending participle, first person singular, I

Writing[edit] Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is written in several different ways, depending on the dialect and region, but also on historical and political factors. Moravian missionaries, with the purpose of introducing the Inuit peoples to Christianity
Christianity
and the Bible, contributed to the development of an Inuktitut
Inuktitut
alphabet in Greenland
Greenland
during the 1760s that was based on the Latin script. (This alphabet is distinguished by its inclusion of the letter kra, ĸ.) They later travelled to Labrador
Labrador
in the 1800s, bringing the Inuktitut
Inuktitut
alphabet with them. The Alaskan Yupik and Inupiat (who, in addition, developed their own system of hieroglyphs)[citation needed] and the Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
also adopted Latin alphabets. Eastern Canadian Inuit
Inuit
were the last to adopt the written word when, in the 1860s, missionaries imported the written system Qaniujaaqpait they had developed in their efforts to convert the Cree
Cree
to Christianity. The very last Inuit
Inuit
peoples introduced to missionaries and writing were the Netsilik Inuit
Inuit
in Kugaaruk and north Baffin Island. The Netsilik adopted Qaniujaaqpait by the 1920s. The "Greenlandic" system has been substantially reformed in recent years, making Labrador
Labrador
writing unique to Nunatsiavummiutut
Nunatsiavummiutut
at this time. Most Inuktitut
Inuktitut
in Nunavut
Nunavut
and Nunavik
Nunavik
is written using a scheme called Qaniujaaqpait or Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics, based on Canadian Aboriginal syllabics. The western part of Nunavut
Nunavut
and the Northwest Territories use a Latin alphabet usually called Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
or Qaliujaaqpait, reflecting the predispositions of the missionaries who reached this area in the late 19th century and early 20th. In April 2012, with the completion of the Old Testament, the first complete Bible
Bible
in Inuktitut, translated by native speakers, was published.[14] Noted literature in Inuktitut
Inuktitut
has included the novels Harpoon of the Hunter by Markoosie Patsauq,[15] and Sanaaq by Mitiarjuk Nappaaluk.[16] The Canadian syllabary[edit] Main article: Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics

The syllabary used to write Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(titirausiq nutaaq). The extra characters with the dots represent long vowels; in the Latin transcription, the vowel would be doubled.

The Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabary used in Canada
Canada
is based on the Cree
Cree
syllabary devised by the missionary James Evans. The present form of the syllabary for Canadian Inuktitut
Inuktitut
was adopted by the Inuit
Inuit
Cultural Institute in Canada
Canada
in the 1970s. The Inuit
Inuit
in Alaska, the Inuvialuit, Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
speakers, and Inuit
Inuit
in Greenland
Greenland
and Labrador
Labrador
use Latin alphabets. Though conventionally called a syllabary, the writing system has been classified by some observers as an abugida, since syllables starting with the same consonant have related glyphs rather than unrelated ones. All of the characters needed for the Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabary are available in the Unicode
Unicode
block Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The territorial government of Nunavut, Canada
Canada
has developed a TrueType font called Pigiarniq[17][18] (ᐱᓄᐊᕐᓂᖅ [pi.nu.aʁ.ˈniq][dubious – discuss]) for computer displays. It was designed by Vancouver-based Tiro Typeworks. Apple Macintosh computers include an Inuktitut
Inuktitut
IME (Input Method Editor) as part of keyboard language options.[18] Braille[edit] Main article: Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Braille In 2012 Tamara Kearney, Manager of Braille Research and Development at the Commonwealth Braille and Talking Book Cooperative developed a Braille code for the Inuktitut
Inuktitut
language syllabics. This code is based on representing the syllabics orientation. Machine translation from Unicode
Unicode
UTF-8 and UTF-16 can be performed using the liblouis Braille translation system which included an Inuktitut Braille translation table. The book ᐃᓕᐊᕐᔪᒃ ᓇᓄᕐᓗ (The Orphan and the Polar Bear) became the first work ever translated into Inuktitut Braille and a copy is held by the Nunavut
Nunavut
Territorial Library at Baker Lake, Nunavut. Current status[edit] Inuktitut
Inuktitut
used to be the language of the North. However, colonialism and changes in the school system left traces. The demand of the federal government in the 1950s for Inuit
Inuit
to use English in school and at work decreased the chances for people to speak their mother tongue, English was supposed to become "the language of the playground". Stopping children from using their ancestral language is a quick way to endanger it.[19] Today, Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is evaluated as being vulnerable.[20] The percentage of speakers varies depending on the region. In Canada, Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is most deeply routed in the "Inuit nunaat" (land of the Inuit). This is the area originally most populated by Inuit
Inuit
- Nunavut, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, and Nunaqput. Due to the high Inuit
Inuit
population in these areas, Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is still most thriving there. Keeping the language becomes more difficult once the ethnic population decreases. Therefore, Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is on a steeper decline in Southern places, where the Inuit
Inuit
population is lower.[5] Language
Language
acts have been put into place to prevent the endangerment of Inuktitut.[19] See also[edit]

Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Canada
portal

Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Braille Nanook of the North, documentary film Thule people

References[edit]

^ "Census in Brief: The Aboriginal languages of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2017-11-12.  ^ a b Various Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data Archived 2013-10-16 at the Wayback Machine. and Selected Language Characteristics (165), Aboriginal Identity (8), Age Groups (7), Sex (3) and Area of Residence (6) for the Population of Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data (Total – Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal identity population ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Canadian Inuktitut". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "field to show translation -> 10 facts about Canadian Aboriginal Languages". Wintranslation.com. 2014-02-12. Retrieved 2015-07-15.  ^ a b c 1945-, Dorais, Louis-Jacques, (2010). The language of the Inuit : syntax, semantics, and society in the Arctic. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 9780773544451. OCLC 767733303.  ^ a b Dorais, Louis-Jacques (1995). "Language, culture and identity: some Inuit
Inuit
examples EXAMPLES". Canadian Journal of Native Studies. 15 (2): 129–308.  ^ Fabbi, Nadine (2003). " Inuktitut
Inuktitut
– the Inuit
Inuit
Language" (PDF). K12 Study Canada. Retrieved March 15, 2018.  ^ a b Patrick, Donna (1999). "The roots of Inuktitut-Language bilingual education". The Canadian Journal of Native Studies. XIX, 2: 249–262.  ^ Compton, Richard. "Inuktitut". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-03-15.  ^ Dawson, Samantha (2013-01-17). "A new way to nurture the Inuit language: train the instructors". NunatsiaqOnline. Retrieved 2013-01-24.  ^ "Review". Arctic.synergiesprairies.ca. Archived from the original on 2014-02-24. Retrieved 2015-07-15.  ^ "A precious Inuktitut
Inuktitut
dialect slowly dies in Rigolet". Nunatsiaq.com. 1999-05-07. Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ CJSLPA 35 (2011), 2, p. 170 ^ Hebrew Bible
Bible
published in Eskimo language Archived 2012-11-08 at the Wayback Machine., News/North
News/North
Nunavut, 23 April 2012 ^ "MARKOOSIE, 1942-: LMS-0017". Collections Canada. ^ Martin, Keavy (17 January 2014). "Southern readers finally get a chance to read Mitiarjuk Nappaaluk, the accidental Inuit
Inuit
novelist". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ Computer Tools ^ a b Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Syllabic Fonts – Download ^ a b "Inuktitut".. 2018-03-15.  ^ "Did you know Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is vulnerable?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2018-03-15. 

Bibliography[edit]

Mallon, Mick. " Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Linguistics for Technocrats". Inuktitutcomputing.ca.  Mallon, Mick (1991). Introductory Inuktitut. ISBN 0-7717-0230-2.  Mallon, Mick. Introductory Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Reference Grammar. ISBN 0-7717-0235-3.  Spalding, Alex (1998). Inuktitut: A multi-dialectal outline dictionary (with an Aivilingmiutaq base). ISBN 1-896204-29-5.  Spalding, Alex (1992). Inuktitut: a Grammar of North Baffin Dialects. ISBN 0-920063-43-8.  "The Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Language". Project Naming the identification of Inuit portrayed in photographic collections at Library and Archives Canada. Collectionscanada.ca. Archived from the original on 2006-10-28.  "Arctic Languages: An Awakening" (PDF).  (2.68 MB), ed: Dirmid R. F. Collis. ISBN 92-3-102661-5.

Although as many of the examples as possible are novel or extracted from Inuktitut
Inuktitut
texts, some of the examples in this article are drawn from Introductory Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Linguistics for Technocrats.

Further reading[edit]

Allen, Shanley. Aspects of Argument Structure Acquisition in Inuktitut. Language
Language
acquisition & language disorders, v. 13. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub, 1996. ISBN 1-55619-776-4 Balt, Peter. Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Affixes. Rankin Inlet? N.W.T.: s.n, 1978. Fortescue, Michael, Steven Jacobson, and Lawrence Kaplan. Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates – second edition. Fairbanks: University of Alaska
Alaska
Press, 2011. ISBN 1555001092. Kalmar, Ivan. Case and Context in Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(Eskimo). Mercury series. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1979. Nowak, Elke. Transforming the Images Ergativity and Transitivity in Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(Eskimo). Empirical approaches to language typology, 15. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1996. ISBN 3-11-014980-X Schneider, Lucien. Ulirnaisigutiit An Inuktitut-English Dictionary of Northern Québec, Labrador, and Eastern Arctic Dialects (with an English- Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Index). Québec: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1985. Spalding, Alex, and Thomas Kusugaq. Inuktitut
Inuktitut
A Multi-Dialectal Outline Dictionary (with an Aivilingmiutaq Base). Iqaluit, NT: Nunavut Arctic College, 1998. ISBN 1-896204-29-5 Swift, Mary D. Time in Child Inuktitut
Inuktitut
A Developmental Study of an Eskimo–Aleut Language. Studies on language acquisition, 24. Berlin: M. de Gruyter, 2004. ISBN 3-11-018120-7 Thibert, Arthur. Eskimo–English, English–Eskimo Dictionary = Inuktitut–English, English– Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Dictionary. Ottawa: Laurier Books, 1997. ISBN 1-895959-12-8

External links[edit]

Inuktitut
Inuktitut
edition of, the free encyclopedia

Inuktitut
Inuktitut
repository of Wikisource, the free library

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Inuktitut.

Dictionaries and lexica[edit]

Nunavut
Nunavut
Living Dictionary " Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Morphology List" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-09-30.  (133 KB)

Webpages[edit]

A Brief History of Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Writing Culture Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Syllabarium (Languagegeek) Our Language, Our Selves Government of Nunavut
Nunavut
font download Inuktitut-friendly website hosting and development Tusaalanga ("Let me hear it"), a website with Inuktitut
Inuktitut
online lessons with sound files Inuktiut Computer Games, Kativik School Board

Utilities[edit]

Microsoft Transliteration Utility – Powerful, free tool for transliterating text between different scripts. Includes a module for transliterating back and forth between Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabary and Inuktitut
Inuktitut
romanization. NANIVARA – Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Search Engine[permanent dead link]. – NANIVARA means "I've found it!" in Inuktitut.

v t e

Eskimo–Aleut languages
Eskimo–Aleut languages
and dialects

Aleut

Aleut

Inuit1

Greenlandic

Kalaallisut Tunumiit Inuktun

Inuinnaqtun

Kangiryuarmiutun

Inuktitut

North Baffin Inuttitut

Inupiaq (Iñupiaq Braille)

Qawiaraq Uummarmiutun

Inuvialuktun

Aivilik Kangiryuarmiutun Kivalliq Netsilik Siglitun Utkuhiksalik

Yupik

Alutiiq Central Alaskan

Yugtun Nunivak Cup'ig Chevak Cup’ik

Central Siberian Naukan Sirenik2

See also

Proto-Eskimo Proto-Eskimo-Aleut Inuktitut syllabics
Inuktitut syllabics
(writing system) Inuit
Inuit
phonology Inuit
Inuit
grammar Kaktovik Inupiaq numerals Yugtun script

Italics indicate extinct languages

1: The Inuit
Inuit
language 'family' is a continuum of dialects 2: Some linguists classify Sirenik as under a separate branch

v t e

Languages of Nunavut

Official languages

English French Inuit
Inuit
Language

Inuinnaqtun Inuktitut

Oral Indigenous languages

Dené–Yeniseian

Dënesųłiné (ᑌᓀᓱᒼᕄᓀ)

Inuit

Inuvialuktun

Iglulingmiut / Qikiqtaaluk uannangani Inuinnaqtun Kangiqłniq / Aivilingmiutut / Aivilimmiutut / Aivillirmiut Kangiryuarmiutun Kivallirmiutut Nattiliŋmiutut (ᓇᑦᓯᓕᖕᒥᐅᑦᑐᑦ)

Utkuhiksalingmiutitut (ᐅᑦᑯhᐃᒃᓴᓕᖕᒥᐅᑎᑐᑦ)

Inuktitut (ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ)

Iglulingmiut / Qikiqtaaluk uannangani Kangiqłniq / Aivilingmiutut / Aivilimmiutut / Aivillirmiut Kivallirmiutut Nunatsiavummiutut
Nunatsiavummiutut
/ NunatuKavummiutut

Manual Languages

Francosign

American Sign Language

Inuit

Inuit
Inuit
Uukturausingit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐆᒃᑐᕋᐅᓯᖏᑦ)

Settler-Colonial Languages

English French

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Languages of Quebec

Official language

French

Brayon

Oral Indigenous languages

Algonquian

Malecite-Passamaquoddy Míkmaq

Anishinaabemowin (ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ)

Wôbanakiôdwawôgan Anicinâbemowin

Cree

Atikamekw Īyiyū Ayimūn / Īnū Ayimūn iyuw iyimuun (ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ) Innu-aimun

Inuit

Nunavimmiutitut
Nunavimmiutitut
(ᓄᓇᕕᒻᒥᐅᑎᑐᑦ)

Iroquoian

Mohawk Wyandot

Manual languages

Francosign

American Sign Language
Language
(ASL) Pro-Tactile American Sign Language Quebec
Quebec
Sign Language

Plains Sign Talk

Anishinaabe Sign Language Cree
Cree
Sign Language

Isolate

Inuk Sign Language

Immigrant languages

English

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Languages of Canada

Official languages

English French

Indigenous languages

Algonquian

Abenaki Algonquin Blackfoot Cree Innu Malecite-Passamaquoddy Mi'kmaq Munsee Naskapi Ojibwe Ottawa Potawatomi

Athabaskan

Babine-Witsuwit'en Carrier Chilcotin Chipewyan Dogrib Gwich’in Hän Kaska Nicola Sarcee Sekani Slavey Tagish Tahltan Tutchone

Inuit

Inuinnaqtun Inuktitut Inupiaq Inuvialuktun

Iroquoian

Cayuga Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Seneca Tuscarora Wyandot

Salishan

Bella Coola Comox Halkomelem Lillooet Okanagan Saanich Sechelt Shuswap Squamish Thompson

Wakashan

Ditidaht Haisla Heiltsuk-Oowekyala Kwak'wala Nuu-chah-nulth

other

Beothuk Haida Kutenai Tlingit Coast Tsimshian

Pidgins, creoles and mixed

Broken Slavey Bungee Chiac Chinook Jargon Labrador
Labrador
Inuit
Inuit
Pidgin French Michif

Immigrant languages

Gaelic Irish Ukrainian

Sign languages

American Sign Language Quebec
Quebec
Sign Language Inuk Sign Language Plains Indian Sign Language Mari

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