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Nunavut
Nunavut
(/ˈnuːnəˌvuːt/;[8] French: [nynavy(t)]; Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ [ˈnunavut]) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut
Nunavut
Act[9] and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act,[10] though the boundaries had been contemplatively drawn in 1993. The creation of Nunavut
Nunavut
resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
in 1949. Nunavut
Nunavut
comprises a major portion of Northern Canada, and most of the Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago. Its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, as well as North America's second-largest (after Greenland). The capital Iqaluit (formerly "Frobisher Bay"), on Baffin Island
Baffin Island
in the east, was chosen by the 1995 capital plebiscite. Other major communities include the regional centres of Rankin Inlet
Rankin Inlet
and Cambridge Bay. Nunavut
Nunavut
also includes Ellesmere Island
Ellesmere Island
to the far north, as well as the eastern and southern portions of Victoria Island in the west and Akimiski Island in James Bay
James Bay
far to the southeast of the rest of the territory. It is Canada's only geo-political region that is not connected to the rest of North America by highway.[11] Nunavut
Nunavut
is the largest in area and the second-least populous of Canada's provinces and territories. One of the world's most remote, sparsely settled regions, it has a population of 35,944,[1] mostly Inuit, spread over an area of just over 1,750,000 km2 (680,000 sq mi), or slightly smaller than Mexico. Nunavut
Nunavut
is also home to the world's northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert.[12] A weather station farther down Ellesmere Island, Eureka, has the lowest average annual temperature of any Canadian weather station.[13]

Niungvaliruluit ("pointer like a window") inuksuk, Foxe peninsula, Baffin Island

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History

3.1 Archaeological
Archaeological
findings 3.2 First written historical accounts 3.3 Cold War 3.4 Recent history

4 Demography

4.1 Language 4.2 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Mining and exploration 5.2 Advancing mining projects 5.3 Historic mines 5.4 Transportation 5.5 Renewable power

6 Government and politics

6.1 Licence plates 6.2 Flag and coat of arms

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Media 7.3 Film 7.4 Performing arts 7.5 Nunavummiut (notable people) 7.6 Alcohol 7.7 Sport

8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] Nunavut
Nunavut
means "our land" in Inuktitut.[14] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Nunavut Nunavut
Nunavut
covers 1,877,787 km2 (725,018 sq mi)[1] of land and 160,935 km2 (62,137 sq mi)[15] of water in Northern Canada. The territory includes part of the mainland, most of the Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago, and all of the islands in Hudson Bay, James Bay, and Ungava Bay, including the Belcher Islands, which belonged to the Northwest Territories. This makes it the fifth-largest subnational entity (or administrative division) in the world. If Nunavut
Nunavut
were a country, it would rank 15th in area.[16] Nunavut
Nunavut
has land borders with the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
on several islands as well as the mainland, Manitoba
Manitoba
to the south of the Nunavut mainland, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
to the southwest (at a single four-corner point), and a small land border with Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
on Killiniq Island
Killiniq Island
and with Ontario
Ontario
in two small locations in James Bay: the larger located west of Akimiski Island, and the smaller around the Albany River
Albany River
near Fafard Island. It also shares maritime borders with Greenland
Greenland
and the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba. Nunavut's highest point is Barbeau Peak
Barbeau Peak
(2,616 m (8,583 ft)) on Ellesmere Island. The population density is 0.019 persons/km2 (0.05 persons/sq mi), one of the lowest in the world. By comparison, Greenland
Greenland
has approximately the same area and nearly twice the population.[17] Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types in Nunavut

Nunavut
Nunavut
experiences a polar climate in most regions, owing to its high latitude and lower continental summertime influence than areas to the west. In more southerly continental areas very cold subarctic climates can be found, due to July being slightly milder than the required 10 °C (50 °F).

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Nunavut[18]

City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)

High Low High Low High Low High Low

Alert 6 1 43 33 −29 −36 −20 −33

Baker Lake 17 6 63 43 −28 −35 −18 −31

Cambridge Bay 13 5 55 41 −29 −35 −19 −32

Eureka 9 3 49 37 −33 −40 −27 −40

Iqaluit 12 4 54 39 −23 −31 −9 −24

Kugluktuk 16 6 60 43 −23 −31 −10 −25

Rankin Inlet 15 6 59 43 −27 −34 −17 −30

History[edit] Main article: History of Nunavut See also: Paleo-Eskimo, Pre-Dorset, Dorset culture, Thule people, and Inuit

Inuit
Inuit
women at Ashe Inlet, 1884.

The region now known as Nunavut
Nunavut
has supported a continuous indigenous population for approximately 4,000 years. Most historians identify the coast of Baffin Island
Baffin Island
with the Helluland
Helluland
described in Norse sagas, so it is possible that the inhabitants of the region had occasional contact with Norse sailors. Archaeological
Archaeological
findings[edit] In September 2008, researchers reported on the evaluation of existing and newly excavated archaeological remains, including yarn spun from a hare, rats, tally sticks, a carved wooden face mask that depicts Caucasian features, and possible architectural material. The materials were collected in five seasons of excavation at Cape Tanfield. Scholars determined that these provide evidence of European traders and possibly settlers on Baffin Island, not later than 1000 CE (and thus older than or contemporaneous with L'Anse aux Meadows). They seem to indicate prolonged contact, possibly up to 1450. The origin of the Old World
Old World
contact is unclear; the article states: "Dating of some yarn and other artifacts, presumed to be left by Vikings
Vikings
on Baffin Island, have produced an age that predates the Vikings
Vikings
by several hundred years. So […] you have to consider the possibility that as remote as it may seem, these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."[19]

Inuit
Inuit
village near Frobisher Bay, 1865

First written historical accounts[edit] The written historical accounts of Nunavut
Nunavut
begin in 1576, with an account by English explorer Martin Frobisher. While leading an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, Frobisher thought he had discovered gold ore around the body of water now known as Frobisher Bay on the coast of Baffin Island.[20] The ore turned out to be worthless, but Frobisher made the first recorded European contact with the Inuit. Other explorers in search of the elusive Northwest Passage followed in the 17th century, including Henry Hudson, William Baffin and Robert Bylot. Cold War[edit] Cornwallis and Ellesmere Islands featured in the history of the Cold War in the 1950s. Concerned about the area's strategic geopolitical position, the federal government relocated Inuit
Inuit
from Nunavik (northern Quebec) to Resolute and Grise Fiord. In the unfamiliar and hostile conditions, they faced starvation[21] but were forced to stay.[22] Forty years later, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report titled The High Arctic
Arctic
Relocation: A Report on the 1953–55 Relocation.[23] The government paid compensation to those affected and their descendents and on August 18, 2010 in Inukjuak, Nunavik, the Honourable John Duncan, PC, MP, previous Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians apologized on behalf of the Government of Canada
Canada
for the relocation of Inuit
Inuit
to the High Arctic.[24][25]

Glacially polished banded coloured marble on Baffin Island.

Recent history[edit] Discussions on dividing the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
along ethnic lines began in the 1950s, and legislation to do this was introduced in 1963. After its failure a federal commission recommended against such a measure.[26] In 1976, as part of the land claims negotiations between the Inuit
Inuit
Tapiriit Kanatami (then called the " Inuit
Inuit
Tapirisat of Canada") and the federal government, the parties discussed division of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
to provide a separate territory for the Inuit. On April 14, 1982, a plebiscite on division was held throughout the Northwest Territories. A majority of the residents voted in favour and the federal government gave a conditional agreement seven months later.[27] The land claims agreement was completed in September 1992 and ratified by nearly 85% of the voters in Nunavut
Nunavut
in a referendum. On July 9, 1993, the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act[10] and the Nunavut
Nunavut
Act[9] were passed by the Canadian Parliament. The transition to establish Nunavut
Nunavut
Territory was completed on April 1, 1999.[28] The creation of Nunavut
Nunavut
has been followed by growth in the capital, Iqaluit—a modest increase from 5,200 in 2001 to 6,600 in 2011. Demography[edit] Main article: Demographics of Nunavut See also: List of municipalities in Nunavut As of the 2016 Canada
Canada
Census, the population of Nunavut
Nunavut
was 35,944, a 12.7% increase from 2011.[1] In 2006, 24,640 people identified themselves as Inuit
Inuit
(83.6% of the total population), 100 as First Nations (0.34%), 130 Métis (0.44%) and 4,410 as non-aboriginal (14.96%).[29]

Ten largest communities

Municipality 2016 2011 2006 Growth 2011-16

Iqaluit 7,082 6,699 6,184 10.3%

Rankin Inlet 2,441 1,905 1,528 28.1%

Arviat 2,318 2,060

12.5%

Baker Lake 1,872 1,728

8.3%

Cambridge Bay 1,619 1,452 1,377 11.5%

Pond Inlet 1,549 1,315

17.8%

Igloolik 1,454 1,538

−5.5%

Kugluktuk 1,450 1,302

11.4%

Pangnirtung 1,425 1,325

7.5%

Cape Dorset 1,441 1,363 1,236 5.7%

The population growth rate of Nunavut
Nunavut
has been well above the Canadian average for several decades, mostly due to birth rates significantly higher than the Canadian average—a trend that continues. Between 2011 and 2016, Nunavut
Nunavut
had the highest population growth rate of any Canadian province or territory, at a rate of 12.7%.[1] The second-highest was Alberta, with a growth rate of 11.6%. Language[edit] Along with the Inuit
Inuit
Language ( Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and Inuinnaqtun) sometimes called Inuktut,[30] English and French are also official languages.[4][31] In his 2000 commissioned report (Aajiiqatigiingniq Language of Instruction Research Paper) to the Nunavut
Nunavut
Department of Education, Ian Martin of York University
York University
stated a "long-term threat to Inuit languages from English is found everywhere, and current school language policies and practices on language are contributing to that threat" if Nunavut
Nunavut
schools follow the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
model. He provided a 20-year language plan to create a "fully functional bilingual society, in Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and English" by 2020. The plan provides different models, including:

"Qulliq Model", for most Nunavut
Nunavut
communities, with Inuktitut
Inuktitut
as the main language of instruction. " Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
Immersion Model", for language reclamation and immersion to revitalize Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
as a living language.

Kugluktuk

"Mixed Population Model", mainly for Iqaluit
Iqaluit
(possibly for Rankin Inlet), as the 40% Qallunaat, or non-Inuit, population may have different requirements.[32]

Pangnirtung

Of the 29,025 responses to the census question concerning 'mother tongue', the most commonly reported languages were:

Rank Language Number of respondents Percentage

1 Inuktitut 20,185 69.54%

2 English 7,765 26.75%

3 French 370 1.27%

4 Inuinnaqtun 295 1.02%

At the time of the census, only English and French were counted as official languages. Figures shown are for single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.[33] In the 2006 census it was reported that 2,305 people (7.86%) living in Nunavut
Nunavut
had no knowledge of either official language of Canada (English or French).[34] Religion[edit] The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Anglican Church of Canada
Canada
with 15,440 (58%); the Roman Catholic Church (Roman Catholic Diocese of Churchill-Hudson Bay) with 6,205 (23%); and Pentecostal with 1,175 (4%).[35] In total, 93.2% of the population were Christian. Economy[edit]

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The economy of Nunavut
Nunavut
is Inuit
Inuit
and Territorial Government, mining, oil gas mineral exploration, arts crafts, hunting, fishing, whaling, tourism, transportation, education - Nunavut
Nunavut
Arctic
Arctic
College, housing, military and research – new Canadian High Arctic
Arctic
Research Station CHARS in planning for Cambridge Bay
Cambridge Bay
and high north Alert Bay Station. Iqaluit
Iqaluit
hosts the annual Nunavut
Nunavut
Mining Symposium every April, this is a tradeshow that showcases many economic activities on going in Nunavut. Mining and exploration[edit] There are currently three major mines in operation in Nunavut. Agnico-Eagle Mines Ltd – Meadowbank Division. Meadowbank is an open pit gold mine with an estimated mine life 2010–2020 and employs 680 persons. The second recently opened mine in production is the Mary River Iron Ore mine operated by Baffinland Iron Mines. It is located close to Pond Inlet
Pond Inlet
on North Baffin Island. They produce a high grade direct ship iron ore. The most recent mine to open is Doris North or the Hope Bay Mine operated by TMAC Resource Ltd. This new high grade gold mine is the first in a series of potential mines in gold occurrences all along the Hope Bay greenstone belt. Advancing mining projects[edit]

Name Company In the region of Material

Amaruq and Meliadine Gold
Gold
Projects Agnico-Eagle Rankin Inlet Gold

Back River Project Sabina Gold
Gold
& Silver Corp. Bathurst Inlet Gold

Izok Corridor Project MMG Resources Inc. Kugluktuk Gold, Copper, Silver, Zinc

Hackett River Glencore Kugluktuk Copper, Lead, Silver, Zinc

Chidliak Peregrine Diamonds Ltd. Iqaluit
Iqaluit
/ Pangnirtung Diamonds

Committee Bay, Three Bluffs Gold
Gold
Project Auryn Resources Inc Naujaat Gold

Kiggavik Areva Resources Baker Lake Uranium

Roche Bay Advanced Exploration Hall Beach Iron Ore

Ulu and Lupin Elgin Mining Ltd. Contwoyto Lake
Contwoyto Lake
- connected to Yellowknife
Yellowknife
with an ice road Gold

Storm Copper Property Aston Bay Holdings Taloyoak Copper

Historic mines[edit]

Lupin Mine
Lupin Mine
1982–2005, gold, current owner Elgin Mining Ltd located near the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
boundary near Contwoyto Lake)[36] Polaris Mine
Polaris Mine
1982–2002, lead and zinc (located on Little Cornwallis Island, not far from Resolute) Nanisivik Mine
Nanisivik Mine
1976–2002, lead and zinc, prior owner Breakwater Resources Ltd (near Arctic
Arctic
Bay) at Nanisivik Rankin Nickel Mine 1957–1962, nickel, copper and platinum group metals Jericho Diamond Mine
Jericho Diamond Mine
2006–2008, diamond (located 400 km, 250 mi, northeast of Yellowknife) 2012 produced diamonds from existing stockpile. No new mining; closed. Doris North Gold
Gold
Mine Newmont Mining
Newmont Mining
approx 3 km (2 mi) underground drifting/mining, none milled or processed. Newmont closed the mine and sold it to TMAC Resources in 2013. TMAC has now reached commercial production in 2017.

Transportation[edit]

Northern Transportation Company Limited, owned by Norterra, a holding company that was, until April 1, 2014, jointly owned by the Inuvialuit of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and the Inuit
Inuit
of Nunavut.[37][38][39][40]

Renewable power[edit] Further information: Global warming
Global warming
in the Arctic

Open ocean absorbs more sunshine, while sea ice, shown here in Nunavut, reflects more, accelerating freezing.

Nunavut's people rely primarily on diesel fuel[41] to run generators and heat homes, with fossil fuel shipments from southern Canada
Canada
by plane or boat because there are few to no roads or rail links to the region.[42] There is a government effort to use more renewable energy sources,[43] which is generally supported by the community.[44] This support comes from Nunavut
Nunavut
feeling the effects of global warming.[45][46] Former Nunavut
Nunavut
Premier Eva Aariak
Eva Aariak
said in 2011, " Climate change
Climate change
is very much upon us. It is affecting our hunters, the animals, the thinning of the ice is a big concern, as well as erosion from permafrost melting."[42] The region is warming about twice as fast as the global average, according to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Government and politics[edit]

Legislative assembly building in Iqaluit

Nunavut
Nunavut
has a Commissioner appointed by the federal Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs. As in the other territories, the commissioner's role is symbolic and is analogous to that of a Lieutenant-Governor.[47] While the Commissioner is not formally a representative of Canada's head of state, a role roughly analogous to representing The Crown
The Crown
has accrued to the position. Nunavut
Nunavut
elects a single member of the House of Commons of Canada. This makes Nunavut
Nunavut
the largest electoral district in the world by area. The members of the unicameral Legislative Assembly of Nunavut
Legislative Assembly of Nunavut
are elected individually; there are no parties and the legislature is consensus-based.[48] The head of government, the premier of Nunavut, is elected by, and from the members of the legislative assembly. As of November 17, 2017, the Premier is Paul Quassa. Former Premier Paul Okalik set up an advisory council of eleven elders, whose function it is to help incorporate " Inuit
Inuit
Qaujimajatuqangit" ( Inuit
Inuit
culture and traditional knowledge, often referred to in English as "IQ") into the territory's political and governmental decisions.[49] Due to the territory's small population, and the fact that there are only a few hundred voters in each electoral district, the possibility of two election candidates finishing in an exact tie is significantly higher than in any Canadian province. This has actually happened twice in the five elections to date, with exact ties in Akulliq in the Nunavut general election, 2008
Nunavut general election, 2008
and in Rankin Inlet
Rankin Inlet
South in the Nunavut
Nunavut
general election, 2013. In such an event, Nunavut's practice is to schedule a follow-up by-election rather than choosing the winning candidate by an arbitrary method. The territory has also had numerous instances where MLAs were directly acclaimed to office as the only person to register their candidacy by the deadline, as well as one instance where a follow-up by-election had to be held due to no candidates registering for the regular election in their district at all.

Ceremony on the occasion of the foundation of Nunavut, April 1, 1999

Regions of Nunavut

Owing to Nunavut's vast size, the stated goal of the territorial government has been to decentralize governance beyond the region's capital. Three regions—Kitikmeot, Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk/Baffin—are the basis for more localized administration, although they lack autonomous governments of their own.[citation needed] The territory has an annual budget of C$700 million, provided almost entirely by the federal government. Former Prime Minister Paul Martin designated support for Northern Canada
Canada
as one of his priorities for 2004, with an extra $500 million to be divided among the three territories.[citation needed] In 2001, the government of New Brunswick[citation needed] collaborated with the federal government and the technology firm SSI Micro
SSI Micro
to launch Qiniq, a unique network that uses satellite delivery to provide broadband Internet access to 24 communities in Nunavut. As a result, the territory was named one of the world's "Smart 25 Communities" in 2006 by the Intelligent Community Forum, a worldwide organization that honours innovation in broadband technologies. The Nunavut
Nunavut
Public Library Services, the public library system serving the territory, also provides various information services to the territory. In September 2012, Premier Aariak welcomed Prince Edward and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, to Nunavut
Nunavut
as part of the events marking the Diamond Jubilee
Diamond Jubilee
of Queen Elizabeth II.[50] Licence plates[edit] The Nunavut
Nunavut
licence plate was originally created for the Northwest Territories in the 1970s. The plate has long been famous worldwide for its unique design in the shape of a polar bear. Nunavut
Nunavut
was licensed by the NWT to use the same licence plate design in 1999 when it became a separate territory,[51] but adopted its own plate design in March 2012 for launch in August 2012—a rectangle that prominently features the northern lights, a polar bear and an inuksuk.[51][52] Flag and coat of arms[edit] The flag and the coat of arms of Nunavut
Nunavut
were designed by Andrew Karpik from Pangnirtung.[53] Culture[edit] Music[edit]

Inuit
Inuit
drum dancing, Gjoa Haven, Nunavut

Main article: Music of Nunavut The indigenous music of Nunavut
Nunavut
includes Inuit
Inuit
throat singing and drum-led dancing, along with country music, bluegrass, square dancing, the button accordion and the fiddle, an infusion of European influence. Media[edit] The Inuit
Inuit
Broadcasting Corporation is based in Nunavut. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) serves Nunavut
Nunavut
through a radio and television production centre in Iqaluit, and a bureau in Rankin Inlet. The territory is also served by two regional weekly newspapers Nunatsiaq News
Nunatsiaq News
published by Nortext and Nunavut
Nunavut
News/North, published by Northern News Services, who also publish the regional Kivalliq News.[54] Broadband internet is provided by Qiniq
Qiniq
and Northwestel through Netkaster.[55][56] Film[edit] The film production company Isuma
Isuma
is based in Igloolik. Co-founded by Zacharias Kunuk and Norman Cohn in 1990, the company produced the 1999 feature Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner, winner of the Caméra d'Or for Best First Feature Film at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival. It was the first feature film written, directed, and acted entirely in Inuktitut. In November 2006, the National Film Board of Canada
Canada
(NFB) and the Inuit
Inuit
Broadcasting Corporation announced the start of the Nunavut Animation Lab, offering animation training to Nunavut
Nunavut
artists at workshops in Iqaluit, Cape Dorset
Cape Dorset
and Pangnirtung.[57] Films from the Nunavut
Nunavut
Animation Lab include Alethea Arnaquq-Baril's 2010 digital animation short Lumaajuuq, winner of the Best Aboriginal Award at the Golden Sheaf Awards and named Best Canadian Short Drama at the imagineNATIVE Film + Media Arts Festival.[58] In November 2011, the government of Nunavut
Nunavut
and the NFB jointly announced the launch of a DVD and online collection entitled Unikkausivut (Inuktitut: Sharing Our Stories), which will make over 100 NFB films by and about Inuit
Inuit
available in Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun and other Inuit
Inuit
languages, as well as English and French. The Government of Nunavut
Nunavut
is distributing Unikkausivut to every school in the territory.[59][60] Performing arts[edit] Artcirq is a collective of Inuit
Inuit
circus performers based in Igloolik.[61] The group has performed around the world, including at the 2010 Olympic Winter Games
2010 Olympic Winter Games
in Vancouver, British Columbia. Nunavummiut (notable people)[edit] Main article: List of people from Nunavut Susan Aglukark
Susan Aglukark
is an Inuit
Inuit
singer and songwriter. She has released six albums and has won several Juno Awards. She blends the Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and English languages with contemporary pop music arrangements to tell the stories of her people, the Inuit
Inuit
of Arctic. On May 3, 2008, the Kronos Quartet
Kronos Quartet
premiered a collaborative piece with Inuit
Inuit
throat singer Tanya Tagaq, entitled Nunavut, based on an Inuit
Inuit
folk story. Tagaq is also known internationally for her collaborations with Icelandic pop star Björk. Jordin John Kudluk Tootoo ( Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics: ᔪᐊᑕᓐ ᑐᑐ; born February 2, 1983 in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada) is a professional ice hockey player with the Chicago Blackhawks
Chicago Blackhawks
of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL). Although born in Manitoba, Tootoo grew up in Rankin Inlet, where he was taught to skate and play hockey by his father, Barney. Alcohol[edit] Due to prohibition laws influenced by local and traditional beliefs, Nunavut
Nunavut
has a highly regulated alcohol market. It is the last outpost of prohibition in Canada, and it is often easier to obtain firearms than alcohol.[62] Every community in Nunavut
Nunavut
has slightly differing regulations, but as a whole it is still very restrictive. Seven communities have bans against alcohol and another 14 have orders being restricted by local committees. Because of these laws, a lucrative bootlegging market has appeared where people mark up the prices of bottles by extraordinary amounts.[63] The RCMP estimate Nunavut's bootleg liquor market rakes in some $10 million a year.[62] Despite the restrictions, alcohol's availability leads to widespread alcohol related crime. One lawyer estimated some 95% of police calls are alcohol-related.[64] Alcohol is also believed to be a contributing factor to the territory's high rates of violence, suicide and homicide. A special task force created in 2010 to study and address the territory's increasing alcohol-related problems recommended the government ease alcohol restrictions. With prohibition shown to be highly ineffective historically, it is believed these laws contribute to the territory's widespread social ills. However, many residents are skeptical about the effectiveness of liquor sale liberalization and want to ban it completely. In 2014, Nunavut's government decided to move towards more legalization. A liquor store will be opened in Iqaluit, the capital, for the first time in 38 years.[62] Sport[edit] Nunavut
Nunavut
has competed at the Arctic Winter Games
Arctic Winter Games
and co-hosted the 2002 edition. Hockey Nunavut was founded in 1999 and competes in the Maritime-Hockey North Junior C Championship. See also[edit]

Book: Canada

Nunavut
Nunavut
portal Canada
Canada
portal Arctic
Arctic
portal

Chemetco, U.S. company that produced air-borne dioxin inferred to be the source of contamination in Nunavut Archaeology in Nunavut Scouting and Guiding in Nunavut Symbols of Nunavut Arctic
Arctic
policy of Canada List of communities in Nunavut

Footnotes[edit] ^1 Effective November 12, 2008. References[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2017-02-08.  ^ "Population by year of Canada
Canada
of Canada
Canada
and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2016.  ^ Nunavummiut, the plural demonym for residents of Nunavut, appears throughout the Government of Nunavut
Nunavut
website Archived January 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., proceedings of the Nunavut
Nunavut
legislature, and elsewhere. Nunavut
Nunavut
Housing Corporation, Discussion Paper Released to Engage Nunavummiut on Development of Suicide Prevention Strategy. Alan Rayburn, previous head of the Canadian Permanent Committee of Geographical Names, opined that: " Nunavut
Nunavut
is still too young to have acquired [a gentilé], although Nunavutan may be an obvious choice." In Naming Canada: stories about Canadian place names 2001. (2nd ed. ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (ISBN 0-8020-8293-9); p. 50. ^ a b "Consolidation of (S.Nu. 2008,c.10) (NIF) Official Languages Act" (PDF).  and "Consolidation of Inuit
Inuit
Language Protection Act" (PDF).  ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2011)". Statistics Canada. November 19, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.  ^ "The Official Flower of Nunavut: Purple Saxifrage". Legislative Assembly of Nunavut. 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.  ^ "The Official Bird of Nunavut: The Rock Ptarmigan". Legislative Assembly of Nunavut. 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.  ^ "Nunavut". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary.  ^ a b " Nunavut
Nunavut
Act". Justice Canada. 1993. Retrieved April 26, 2007.  ^ a b Justice Canada
Canada
(1993). " Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act". Retrieved April 26, 2007.  ^ "How to Get Here". Nunavut
Nunavut
Tourism. Retrieved June 22, 2014.  ^ "Canadian Forces Station Alert - 8 Wing". Royal Canadian Air Force.  ^ "Cold Places in Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 12, 2013.  ^ "Origin of the names of Canada
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Nunavut
Alert - Whale Cove" (CSV (4222 KB)). Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2300MKF. Retrieved November 27, 2013.  ^ Jane George, " Kimmirut
Kimmirut
site suggests early European contact: Hare fur yarn, wooden tally sticks may mean visitors arrived 1,000 years ago", Nunatsiaq News, September 12, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2009 ^ "Nunavut: The Story of Canada's Inuit
Inuit
People" Archived October 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Maple Leaf Web ^ "Grise Fiord: History". Archived from the original on December 28, 2008.  ^ McGrath, Melanie. The Long Exile: A Tale of Inuit
Inuit
Betrayal and Survival in the High Arctic. Alfred A. Knopf, 2006 (268 pages) Hardcover: ISBN 0-00-715796-7 Paperback: ISBN 0-00-715797-5 ^ René Dussault and George Erasmus (1994). "The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–55 Relocation". Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Toronto: Canadian Government Publishing. fedpubs.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2009.  ^ Royte, Elizabeth (April 8, 2007). "Trail of Tears (review of Melanie McGrath, The Long Exile: A Tale of Inuit
Inuit
Betrayal and Survival in the High Arctic
Arctic
(2006)". The New York Times.  ^ Branch, Government of Canada; Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada; Communications. "Apology for the Inuit
Inuit
High Arctic relocation". www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2017-01-08.  ^ Creation of a New Northwest Territories ^ Peter Jull (Summer 1988). "Building Nunavut: A Story of Inuit Self-Government". The Northern Review. Yukon
Yukon
College. pp. 59–72. Retrieved February 16, 2009.  ^ "Creation of Nunavut". CBC News. 2006. Retrieved April 26, 2007.  ^ Statistics Canada
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(2006). "2006 Census Aboriginal Population Profiles". Retrieved January 16, 2008.  ^ Nunavut
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Tunngavik calls for equitable funding for Inuit
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languages ^ What are the Official Languages of Nunavut? at the Office of the Language Commissioner of Nunavut ^ Board of Education (2000). "Summary of Aajiiqatigiingniq" (PDF). gov.nu.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 15, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2007.  ^ "Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) (3) (2006 Census)". 2.statcan.ca. December 7, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^ Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory (2006 Census) Archived January 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 15, 2010. ^ "Selected Religions, for Canada, Provinces and Territories – 20% Sample Data". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^ "Wolfden Resources". Wolfden Resources. August 31, 2007. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved February 16, 2011.  ^ The NorTerra Group of Companies Archived December 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., corporate website ^ Northern Transportation Company Limited
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at NorTerra Archived March 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., corporate website ^ "Nunasi Corp. sells its stake in NorTerra, Canadian North". April 1, 2014.  ^ "NunatsiaqOnline 2014-04-01: NEWS: Nunasi Corp. sells its half of Norterra to the Inuvialuit".  ^ "Canada's North struggles to ditch diesel". Alberta
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Further reading[edit]

Alia, Valerie. (2007) Names and Nunavut
Nunavut
Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-84545-165-1 Henderson, Ailsa. (2007) Nunavut: Rethinking Political Culture. Vancouver: University of British Columbia
British Columbia
Press. ISBN 0-7748-1423-3 Dahl, Jens; Hicks, Jack; Jull, Peter, eds. (2002), Nunavut: Inuit regain control of their lands and their lives, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, ISBN 87-90730-34-8  Kulchyski, Peter Keith. (2005) Like the Sound of a Drum: Aboriginal Cultural Politics in Denendeh and Nunavut. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba
Manitoba
Press. ISBN 0-88755-178-5 Sanna, Ellyn, and William Hunter. (2008) Canada's Modern-Day Aboriginal Peoples Nunavut
Nunavut
& Evolving Relationships. Markham, Ont: Scholastic Canada. ISBN 978-0-7791-7322-8

External links[edit]

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K-12 bilingual language instruction plan at the Wayback Machine (archived September 26, 2006): Martin, Ian. Aajiiqatigiingniq Language of Instruction Research Paper. Nunavut: Dept. of Education, 2000.[dead link]

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Coordinates: 73°N 091°W / 73°N 91°W / 73; -91

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157036760 LCCN: n99032030 GND: 4248598-8 BNF:

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