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The Inuit
Inuit
(pronounced /ˈɪnju.ɪt/; Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people"[7]) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic
Arctic
regions of Greenland, Canada
Canada
and Alaska.[8] Inuit
Inuit
is a plural noun; the singular is Inuk.[7] The Inuit
Inuit
languages are part of the Eskimo- Aleut
Aleut
family.[9] Inuit Sign Language
Inuit Sign Language
is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut.[10] In the United States
United States
and Canada, the term "Eskimo" was commonly used by ethnic Europeans
Europeans
to describe the Inuit
Inuit
and Alaska's Yupik
Yupik
and Iñupiat
Iñupiat
peoples. However, "Inuit" is not accepted as a term for the Yupik, and "Eskimo"[11] is the only term that applies to Yupik, Iñupiat
Iñupiat
and Inuit. Since the late 20th century, aboriginal peoples in Canada
Canada
and Greenlandic Inuit
Greenlandic Inuit
consider "Eskimo" to be a pejorative term, and they more frequently identify as "Inuit" for an autonym.[12][13] In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified the Inuit
Inuit
as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians
Canadians
who are not included under either the First Nations
First Nations
or the Métis.[14] The Inuit
Inuit
live throughout most of Northern Canada
Canada
in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik
Nunavik
in the northern third of Quebec, Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
and NunatuKavut
NunatuKavut
in Labrador, and in various parts of the Northwest Territories, particularly around the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. These areas are known in Inuktitut
Inuktitut
as the " Inuit
Inuit
Nunangat".[15][16] In the United States, the Iñupiat
Iñupiat
live primarily on the Alaska
Alaska
North Slope and on Little Diomede Island. The Greenlandic Inuit
Greenlandic Inuit
are descendants of ancient indigenous migrations from Canada, as these people migrated to the east through the continent. They are citizens of Denmark, although not of the European Union.

Contents

1 Precontact history 2 Postcontact history

2.1 Canada

2.1.1 Early contact with Europeans 2.1.2 Early 20th century 2.1.3 Second World War to the 1960s 2.1.4 Cultural renewal 2.1.5 Inuit
Inuit
cabinet members at the federal level

3 Nomenclature 4 Cultural history

4.1 Languages 4.2 Diet 4.3 Transport, navigation, and dogs 4.4 Industry, art, and clothing 4.5 Gender roles, marriage, birth, and community 4.6 Raiding 4.7 Suicide, murder, and death 4.8 Health 4.9 Traditional law

5 Traditional beliefs 6 Demographics

6.1 Canada 6.2 Greenland 6.3 Denmark 6.4 United States 6.5 Russia

7 Governance

7.1 Regional autonomy in Canada 7.2 Greenland 7.3 Alaska

8 Modern culture 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Precontact history[edit] For their earlier precontact history, see Aboriginal peoples in Canada §  Paleo-Indians
Paleo-Indians
period.

Inuit
Inuit
are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture,[17] who emerged from western Alaska
Alaska
around 1000 CE. They had split from the related Aleut
Aleut
group about 4,000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants, possibly related to the Chukchi language group, still earlier, descended from the third major migration from Siberia. They spread eastwards across the Arctic.[18] They displaced the related Dorset culture, called the Tuniit in Inuktitut, which was the last major Paleo- Eskimo
Eskimo
culture.[19] Inuit
Inuit
legends speak of the Tuniit as "giants", people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit.[20] Less frequently, the legends refer to the Dorset as "dwarfs".[21] Researchers believe that Inuit
Inuit
society had advantages by having adapted to using dogs as transport animals, and developing larger weapons and other technologies superior to those of the Dorset culture.[22] By 1300, Inuit
Inuit
migrants had reached west Greenland, where they settled. During the next century, they also settled in East Greenland
Greenland
[23] Faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan-speaking peoples to the south, the Tuniit gradually receded.[24] The Tuniit were thought to have become completely extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500. But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut
Sadlermiut
were likely the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit.[25] The Sadlermiut population survived up until winter 1902–03, when exposure to new infectious diseases brought by contact with Europeans
Europeans
led to their extinction as a people.[26] In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples.[27][28] It also provided evidence that a population displacement did not occur within the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
between the Dorset and Thule transition.[29] In contrast to other Tuniit populations, the Aleut
Aleut
and Sadlermiut
Sadlermiut
benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies. In Canada
Canada
and Greenland, Inuit
Inuit
circulated almost exclusively north of the " Arctic
Arctic
tree line", the effective southern border of Inuit society. The most southern "officially recognized" Inuit
Inuit
community in the world is Rigolet[30] in Nunatsiavut. South of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador
Labrador
Inuit in NunatuKavut
NunatuKavut
continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s. The Nunatukavummuit people usually moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis. They did not establish stationary communities. In other areas south of the tree line, Native American and First Nations
First Nations
cultures were well established. The culture and technology of Inuit
Inuit
society that served so well in the Arctic
Arctic
were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbors. Inuit
Inuit
had trade relations with more southern cultures; boundary disputes were common and gave rise to aggressive actions. Warfare was not uncommon among those Inuit
Inuit
groups with sufficient population density. Inuit
Inuit
such as the Nunatamiut
Nunatamiut
(Uummarmiut), who inhabited the Mackenzie River
Mackenzie River
delta area, often engaged in warfare. The more sparsely settled Inuit
Inuit
in the Central Arctic, however, did so less often. Their first European contact was with the Vikings who settled in Greenland
Greenland
and explored the eastern Canadian coast. The Norse sagas recorded meeting skrælingar, probably an undifferentiated label for all the indigenous peoples whom the Norse encountered, whether Tuniit, Inuit, or Beothuk.[31] After about 1350, the climate grew colder during the period known as the Little Ice Age. During this period, Alaskan natives were able to continue their whaling activities. But, in the high Arctic, the Inuit were forced to abandon their hunting and whaling sites as bowhead whales disappeared from Canada
Canada
and Greenland.[32] These Inuit
Inuit
had to subsist on a much poorer diet, and lost access to the essential raw materials for their tools and architecture which they had previously derived from whaling.[32] The changing climate forced the Inuit
Inuit
to work their way south, forcing them into marginal niches along the edges of the tree line. These were areas which Native Americans had not occupied or where they were weak enough for the Inuit
Inuit
to live near them. Researchers have difficulty defining when Inuit
Inuit
stopped this territorial expansion. There is evidence that they were still moving into new territory in southern Labrador
Labrador
when they first began to interact with European colonists in the 17th century. Postcontact history[edit]

A European ship coming into contact with the Inuit
Inuit
in the ice of Hudson Bay in 1697.

Canada[edit] Early contact with Europeans[edit] The lives of Paleo-inuits of the far north were largely unaffected by the arrival of visiting Norsemen except for mutual trade.[33] The Labrador
Labrador
Inuit
Inuit
have had the longest continuous contact with Europeans.[34] After the disappearance of the Norse colonies in Greenland, the Inuit
Inuit
had no contact with Europeans
Europeans
for at least a century. By the mid-16th century, Basque whalers and fishermen were already working the Labrador
Labrador
coast and had established whaling stations on land, such as the one that has been excavated at Red Bay, Labrador.[35][36] The Inuit
Inuit
do not appear to have interfered with their operations, but the Natives raided the stations in winter, taking tools and items made of worked iron, which they adapted to their own needs. Martin Frobisher's 1576 search for the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
was the first well-documented contact between Europeans
Europeans
and Inuit. Frobisher's expedition landed in Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, not far from the settlement now called the City of Iqaluit, which was long known as Frobisher Bay. Frobisher encountered Inuit
Inuit
on Resolution Island where five sailors left the ship, under orders from Frobisher. They became part of Inuit
Inuit
mythology. The homesick sailors, tired of their adventure, attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England, possibly the first Inuk ever to visit Europe.[37] In contrast, the Inuit
Inuit
oral tradition recounts the natives helping Frobisher's crewmen, whom they believed had been abandoned. The semi-nomadic eco-centred Inuit
Inuit
were fishers and hunters harvesting lakes, seas, ice platforms and tundra. While there are some allegations that Inuit
Inuit
were hostile to early French and English explorers, fishers and whalers, more recent research suggests that the early relations with whaling stations along the Labrador
Labrador
coast and later James Bay
James Bay
were based on a mutual interest in trade.[38] In the final years of the 18th century, the Moravian Church
Moravian Church
began missionary activities in Labrador, supported by the British who were tired of the raids on their whaling stations. The Moravian missionaries could easily provide the Inuit
Inuit
with the iron and basic materials they had been stealing from whaling outposts, materials whose real cost to Europeans
Europeans
was almost nothing, but whose value to the Inuit
Inuit
was enormous. From then on, contacts between the national groups in Labrador
Labrador
were far more peaceful.

Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
Ships bartering with Inuit
Inuit
off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait, 1819

The exchanges that accompanied the arrival and colonization by the Europeans
Europeans
greatly damaged the Inuit
Inuit
way of life. Mass death was caused by the new infectious diseases carried by whalers and explorers, to which the indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity. The high mortality rate contributed to the enormous social disruptions caused by the distorting effect of Europeans' material wealth and introduction of different materials. Nonetheless, Inuit
Inuit
society in the higher latitudes largely remained in isolation during the 19th century. The Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
opened trading posts such as Great Whale River (1820), today the site of the twin villages of Whapmagoostui and Kuujjuarapik, where whale products of the commercial whale hunt were processed and furs traded. The British Naval Expedition of 1821–3 led by Admiral William Edward Parry
William Edward Parry
twice over-wintered in Foxe Basin. It provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of the Inuit. Parry stayed in what is now Igloolik
Igloolik
over the second winter. Parry's writings, with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit
Inuit
everyday life, and those of George Francis Lyon
George Francis Lyon
were widely read after they were both published in 1824.[39] Captain George Comer's Inuit
Inuit
wife Shoofly, known for her sewing skills and elegant attire,[40] was influential in convincing him to acquire more sewing accessories and beads for trade with Inuit. Early 20th century[edit] During the early 20th century a few traders and missionaries circulated among the more accessible bands. After 1904 they were accompanied by a handful of Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP). Unlike most Aboriginal peoples in Canada, however, the Inuit
Inuit
did not occupy lands that were coveted by European settlers. Used to more temperate climates and conditions, most Europeans
Europeans
considered the homeland of the Inuit
Inuit
to be a hostile hinterland. Southerners enjoyed lucrative careers as bureaucrats and service providers to the peoples of the North, but very few ever chose to visit there. Once its more hospitable lands were largely settled, the government of Canada
Canada
and entrepreneurs began to take a greater interest in its more peripheral territories, especially the fur and mineral-rich hinterlands. By the late 1920s, there were no longer any Inuit
Inuit
who had not been contacted by traders, missionaries or government agents. In 1939, the Supreme Court of Canada
Canada
found, in a decision known as Re Eskimos, that the Inuit
Inuit
should be considered Indians and were thus under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Native customs were worn down by the actions of the RCMP, who enforced Canadian criminal law on the Inuit. People such as Kikkik often did not understand the rules of the alien society with which they had to interact. In addition, the generally Protestant missionaries of the British preached a moral code very different from the one the Inuit had as part of their tradition. Many of the Inuit
Inuit
were systematically converted to Christianity
Christianity
in the 19th and 20th centuries, through rituals such as the Siqqitiq. Second World War to the 1960s[edit] World War II and the Cold War made Arctic
Arctic
Canada
Canada
strategically important to the great powers for the first time. Thanks to the development of modern long-distance aircraft, these areas became accessible year-round. The construction of air bases and the Distant Early Warning Line in the 1940s and 1950s brought more intensive contacts with European society, particularly in the form of public education for children. The traditionalists complained that Canadian education promoted foreign values that were disdainful of the traditional structure and culture of Inuit
Inuit
society.[41] In the 1950s the Government of Canada
Canada
undertook what was called the High Arctic
Arctic
relocation for several reasons. These were to include protecting Canada's sovereignty in the Arctic, alleviating hunger (as the area currently occupied had been over-hunted), and attempting to solve the " Eskimo
Eskimo
problem", by seeking assimilation of the people and the end of their traditional Inuit
Inuit
culture. One of the more notable relocations was undertaken in 1953, when 17 families were moved from Port Harrison (now Inukjuak, Quebec) to Resolute and Grise Fiord. They were dropped off in early September when winter had already arrived. The land they were sent to was very different from that in the Inukjuak area; it was barren, with only a couple of months when the temperature rose above freezing, and several months of polar night. The families were told by the RCMP they would be able to return to their home territory within two years if conditions were not right. However, two years later more Inuit
Inuit
families were relocated to the High Arctic. Thirty years passed before they were able to visit Inukjuak.[42][43][44] By 1953, Canada's prime minister Louis St. Laurent
Louis St. Laurent
publicly admitted, "Apparently we have administered the vast territories of the north in an almost continuing absence of mind."[45] The government began to establish about forty permanent administrative centres to provide education, health, and economic development services.[45] Inuit
Inuit
from hundreds of smaller camps scattered across the north, began to congregate in these hamlets.[46] Regular visits from doctors, and access to modern medical care raised the birth rate and decreased the death rate, causing a marked natural increase in the population that made it more difficult for them to survive by traditional means. In the 1950s, the Canadian government began to actively settle Inuit
Inuit
into permanent villages and cities, occasionally against their will (such as in Nuntak and Hebron). In 2005 the Canadian government acknowledged the abuses inherent in these forced resettlements.[47] By the mid-1960s, encouraged first by missionaries, then by the prospect of paid jobs and government services, and finally forced by hunger and required by police, most Canadian Inuit
Inuit
lived year-round in permanent settlements. The nomadic migrations that were the central feature of Arctic
Arctic
life had become a much smaller part of life in the North. The Inuit, a once self-sufficient people in an extremely harsh environment were, in the span of perhaps two generations, transformed into a small, impoverished minority, lacking skills or resources to sell to the larger economy, but increasingly dependent on it for survival. Although anthropologists like Diamond Jenness
Diamond Jenness
(1964) were quick to predict that Inuit culture
Inuit culture
was facing extinction, Inuit
Inuit
political activism was already emerging. Cultural renewal[edit] In the 1960s, the Canadian government funded the establishment of secular, government-operated high schools in the Northwest Territories (including what is now Nunavut) and Inuit
Inuit
areas in Quebec
Quebec
and Labrador along with the residential school system. The Inuit
Inuit
population was not large enough to support a full high school in every community, so this meant only a few schools were built, and students from across the territories were boarded there. These schools, in Aklavik, Iqaluit, Yellowknife, Inuvik and Kuujjuaq, brought together young Inuit
Inuit
from across the Arctic
Arctic
in one place for the first time, and exposed them to the rhetoric of civil and human rights that prevailed in Canada
Canada
in the 1960s. This was a real wake-up call for the Inuit, and it stimulated the emergence of a new generation of young Inuit
Inuit
activists in the late 1960s who came forward and pushed for respect for the Inuit
Inuit
and their territories. The Inuit
Inuit
began to emerge as a political force in the late 1960s and early 1970s, shortly after the first graduates returned home. They formed new politically active associations in the early 1970s, starting with the Inuit
Inuit
Tapirisat of Canada
Canada
( Inuit
Inuit
Brotherhood and today known as Inuit
Inuit
Tapiriit Kanatami), an outgrowth of the Indian and Eskimo
Eskimo
Association of the '60s, in 1971, and more region specific organizations shortly afterwards, including the Committee for the Original People's Entitlement (representing the Inuvialuit),[48] the Northern Quebec
Quebec
Inuit
Inuit
Association (Makivik Corporation) and the Labrador
Labrador
Inuit
Inuit
Association (LIA) representing Northern Labrador
Labrador
Inuit. Since the mid-1980s the Southern Labrador
Labrador
Inuit
Inuit
of NunatuKavut
NunatuKavut
began organizing politically after being geographically cut out of the LIA, however, for political expediency the organization was erroneously called the Labrador
Labrador
Métis Nation. These various activist movements began to change the direction of Inuit
Inuit
society in 1975 with the James Bay and Northern Quebec
Quebec
Agreement. This comprehensive land claims settlement for Quebec
Quebec
Inuit, along with a large cash settlement and substantial administrative autonomy in the new region of Nunavik, set the precedent for the settlements to follow. The northern Labrador Inuit
Inuit
submitted their land claim in 1977, although they had to wait until 2005 to have a signed land settlement establishing Nunatsiavut. Southern Labrador
Labrador
Inuit
Inuit
of NunatuKavut
NunatuKavut
are currently in the process of establishing landclaims and title rights that would allow them to negotiate with the Newfoundland Government. Canada's 1982 Constitution Act recognized the Inuit
Inuit
as Aboriginal peoples in Canada, but not First Nations.[14] In the same year, the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut
Nunavut
(TFN) was incorporated, in order to take over negotiations for land claims on behalf of the Inuit
Inuit
living in the eastern Northwest Territories, that would later become Nunavut, from the Inuit
Inuit
Tapiriit Kanatami, which became a joint association of the Inuit
Inuit
of Quebec, Labrador, and the Northwest Territories. Inuit
Inuit
cabinet members at the federal level[edit] On October 30, 2008, Leona Aglukkaq
Leona Aglukkaq
was appointed as Minister of Health, "[becoming] the first Inuk to hold a senior cabinet position, although she is not the first Inuk to be in cabinet altogether."[49] Jack Anawak and Nancy Karetak-Lindell were both parliamentary secretaries respectively from 1993 to 1996 and in 2003. Nomenclature[edit] See also: Eskimo
Eskimo
§ Nomenclature In the United States, the term "Eskimo" is still commonly used, because it includes Inuit, Aleut, Iñupiat, and Yupik peoples
Yupik peoples
whilst distinguishing them from American Indians. The Yupik
Yupik
do not speak an Inuit language
Inuit language
nor consider themselves to be Inuit.[11] However, the term is probably a Montagnais[50][51][52] exonym as well as being widely used in[50][53][54][55] folk etymology as meaning "eater of raw meat" in the Cree language.[13][56] It is now considered pejorative or even a racial slur amongst the Canadian and English-speaking Greenlandic Inuit.[13][56] In Canada
Canada
and Greenland, "Inuit" is preferred. Inuit
Inuit
is the Eastern Canadian Inuit
Inuit
(Inuktitut) and West Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) word for "the people."[7] Since Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
are the prestige dialects in Canada
Canada
and Greenland, respectively, their version has become dominant, although every Inuit
Inuit
dialect uses cognates from the Proto- Eskimo
Eskimo
*ińuɣ – for example, "people" is inughuit in North Greenlandic and iivit in East Greenlandic. Cultural history[edit] Main article: Inuit
Inuit
culture Languages[edit]

Distribution of Inuit
Inuit
dialects

Main article: Inuit
Inuit
languages Inuit
Inuit
speak Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, and Greenlandic languages, which belong to the Inuit-Inupiaq branch of the Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
language family.[6] The Greenlandic languages are divided into: Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
(Western), Inuktun
Inuktun
(Northern), and Tunumiit (Eastern).[57] Inuktitut
Inuktitut
is spoken in Canada
Canada
and along with Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
is one of the official languages of Nunavut
Nunavut
and are known collectively as the Inuit Language.[58] In the Northwest Territories, Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun and Inuktitut
Inuktitut
are all official langues.[59] Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
is the official language of Greenland.[60] As Inuktitut
Inuktitut
was the language of the Eastern Canadian Inuit
Inuit
and Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
is the language of the Western Greenlandic Inuit, they are related more closely than most other dialects.[61] Inuit
Inuit
in Alaska
Alaska
and Northern Canada
Canada
also typically speak English.[citation needed] In Greenland, Inuit
Inuit
also speak Danish and learn English in school. Canadian Inuit
Inuit
may also speak Québécois French. Finally, Deaf Inuit
Inuit
speak Inuit
Inuit
Sign Language, often called Inuiuuk, which is a language isolate and almost extinct as only around 50 people still speak it.[62] Diet[edit] Main article: Inuit
Inuit
diet The Inuit
Inuit
have traditionally been fishers and hunters. They still hunt whales (esp. bowhead whale), walrus, caribou, seal, polar bears, muskoxen, birds, and fish and at times other less commonly eaten animals such as the Arctic
Arctic
fox. The typical Inuit diet
Inuit diet
is high in protein and very high in fat – in their traditional diets, Inuit consumed an average of 75% of their daily energy intake from fat.[63] While it is not possible to cultivate plants for food in the Arctic, the Inuit
Inuit
have traditionally gathered those that are naturally available. Grasses, tubers, roots, stems, berries, and seaweed (kuanniq or edible seaweed) were collected and preserved depending on the season and the location.[64][65][66][67][68] There is a vast array of different hunting technologies that the Inuit
Inuit
used to gather their food. In the 1920s anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson
Vilhjalmur Stefansson
lived with and studied a group of Inuit.[69] The study focused on the fact that the Inuit's low-carbohydrate diet had no adverse effects on their health, nor indeed, Stefansson's own health. Stefansson (1946) also observed that the Inuit
Inuit
were able to get the necessary vitamins they needed from their traditional winter diet, which did not contain any plant matter. In particular, he found that adequate vitamin C could be obtained from items in their traditional diet of raw meat such as ringed seal liver and whale skin (muktuk). While there was considerable skepticism when he reported these findings, they have been borne out in recent studies and analyses.[70][71] However, the Inuit
Inuit
have lifespans 12 to 15 years shorter than the average Canadian's, which is thought to be a result of limited access to medical services.[72] The life expectancy gap is not closing.[72][73][74] Furthermore, fish oil supplement studies have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes.[75][76][77] Transport, navigation, and dogs[edit]

Inupiat
Inupiat
in a kayak, Noatak, Alaska, c. 1929 (photo by Edward S. Curtis)

Urbanization in Greenland

The natives hunted sea animals from single-passenger, covered seal-skin boats called qajaq ( Inuktitut
Inuktitut
syllabics: ᖃᔭᖅ)[78] which were extraordinarily buoyant, and could easily be righted by a seated person, even if completely overturned. Because of this property, the design was copied by Europeans
Europeans
and Americans who still produce them under the Inuit
Inuit
name kayak.

Inupiat
Inupiat
baleen basket, with an ivory handle, made by Kinguktuk (1871–1941) of Barrow, Alaska. Displayed at the Museum of Man, San Diego, California.

Inuit
Inuit
also made umiaq ("woman's boat"), larger open boats made of wood frames covered with animal skins, for transporting people, goods, and dogs. They were 6–12 m (20–39 ft) long and had a flat bottom so that the boats could come close to shore. In the winter, Inuit
Inuit
would also hunt sea mammals by patiently watching an aglu (breathing hole) in the ice and waiting for the air-breathing seals to use them. This technique is also used by the polar bear, who hunts by seeking holes in the ice and waiting nearby. In winter, both on land and on sea ice, the Inuit
Inuit
used dog sleds (qamutik) for transportation. The husky dog breed comes from Inuit breeding of dogs and wolves for transportation. A team of dogs in either a tandem/side-by-side or fan formation would pull a sled made of wood, animal bones, or the baleen from a whale's mouth and even frozen fish,[79] over the snow and ice. The Inuit
Inuit
used stars to navigate at sea and landmarks to navigate on land; they possessed a comprehensive native system of toponymy. Where natural landmarks were insufficient, the Inuit
Inuit
would erect an inukshuk. Dogs played an integral role in the annual routine of the Inuit. During the summer they became pack animals, sometimes dragging up to 20 kg (44 lb) of baggage and in the winter they pulled the sled. Yearlong they assisted with hunting by sniffing out seals' holes and pestering polar bears. They also protected the Inuit
Inuit
villages by barking at bears and strangers. The Inuit
Inuit
generally favored, and tried to breed, the most striking and handsome of dogs, especially ones with bright eyes and a healthy coat. Common husky dog breeds used by the Inuit
Inuit
were the Canadian Eskimo
Eskimo
Dog, the official animal of Nunavut,[80] (Qimmiq; Inuktitut
Inuktitut
for dog), the Greenland
Greenland
Dog, the Siberian Husky
Husky
and the Alaskan Malamute. The Inuit
Inuit
would perform rituals over the newborn pup to give it favorable qualities; the legs were pulled to make them grow strong and the nose was poked with a pin to enhance the sense of smell. Industry, art, and clothing[edit]

Inuit
Inuit
woman's parka, Canada.

Traditional clothing; left: seal, right: caribou.

Main article: Inuit
Inuit
art Inuit
Inuit
industry relied almost exclusively on animal hides, driftwood, and bones, although some tools were also made out of worked stones, particularly the readily worked soapstone. Walrus
Walrus
ivory was a particularly essential material, used to make knives. Art played a big part in Inuit
Inuit
society and continues to do so today. Small sculptures of animals and human figures, usually depicting everyday activities such as hunting and whaling, were carved from ivory and bone. In modern times prints and figurative works carved in relatively soft stone such as soapstone, serpentinite, or argillite have also become popular. Inuit
Inuit
made clothes and footwear from animal skins, sewn together using needles made from animal bones and threads made from other animal products, such as sinew. The anorak (parka) is made in a similar fashion by Arctic
Arctic
peoples from Europe through Asia
Asia
and the Americas, including the Inuit. The hood of an amauti, (women's parka, plural amautiit) was traditionally made extra large with a separate compartment below the hood to allow the mother to carry a baby against her back and protect it from the harsh wind. Styles vary from region to region, from the shape of the hood to the length of the tails. Boots (mukluk or kamik[81]), could be made of caribou or seal skin, and designed for men and women.

Inuit
Inuit
building an igloo

During the winter, certain Inuit
Inuit
lived in a temporary shelter made from snow called an igloo, and during the few months of the year when temperatures were above freezing, they lived in tents, known as tupiq,[82] made of animal skins supported by a frame of bones or wood.[83][84] Some, such as the Siglit, used driftwood,[85] while others built sod houses.[86] Gender roles, marriage, birth, and community[edit] See also: Eskimo
Eskimo
kinship and Inuit
Inuit
women

Inupiat
Inupiat
woman, Alaska, circa 1907

The division of labor in traditional Inuit
Inuit
society had a strong gender component, but it was not absolute. The men were traditionally hunters and fishermen and the women took care of the children, cleaned the home, sewed, processed food, and cooked. However, there are numerous examples of women who hunted, out of necessity or as a personal choice. At the same time men, who could be away from camp for several days at a time, would be expected to know how to sew and cook.[87] The marital customs among the Inuit
Inuit
were not strictly monogamous: many Inuit
Inuit
relationships were implicitly or explicitly sexual. Open marriages, polygamy, divorce, and remarriage were known. Among some Inuit
Inuit
groups, if there were children, divorce required the approval of the community and particularly the agreement of the elders. Marriages were often arranged, sometimes in infancy, and occasionally forced on the couple by the community.[88]

An Inupiat
Inupiat
family from Noatak, Alaska, 1929.

Marriage was common for women at puberty and for men when they became productive hunters. Family
Family
structure was flexible: a household might consist of a man and his wife (or wives) and children; it might include his parents or his wife's parents as well as adopted children; it might be a larger formation of several siblings with their parents, wives and children; or even more than one family sharing dwellings and resources. Every household had its head, an elder or a particularly respected man.[89] There was also a larger notion of community as, generally, several families shared a place where they wintered. Goods were shared within a household, and also, to a significant extent, within a whole community. The Inuit
Inuit
were hunter–gatherers,[90] and have been referred to as nomadic.[91] One of the customs following the birth of an infant was for an Angakkuq
Angakkuq
(shaman) to place a tiny ivory carving of a whale into the baby's mouth, in hopes this would make the child good at hunting. Loud singing and drumming were also customary after a birth.[92] Raiding[edit] Virtually all Inuit
Inuit
cultures have oral traditions of raids by other indigenous peoples, including fellow Inuit, and of taking vengeance on them in return, such as the Bloody Falls Massacre. Western observers often regarded these tales as generally not entirely accurate historical accounts, but more as self-serving myths. However, evidence shows that Inuit
Inuit
cultures had quite accurate methods of teaching historical accounts to each new generation.[93] In northern Canada, historically there were ethnic feuds between the Dene and the Inuit, as witnessed by Samuel Hearne
Samuel Hearne
in 1771.[94] In 1996, Dene and Inuit representatives participated in a healing ceremony to reconcile the centuries-old grievances.[95] The historic accounts of violence against outsiders does make clear that there was a history of hostile contact within the Inuit
Inuit
cultures and with other cultures.[96] It also makes it clear that Inuit
Inuit
nations existed through history, as well as confederations of such nations. The known confederations were usually formed to defend against a more prosperous, and thus stronger, nation. Alternately, people who lived in less productive geographical areas tended to be less warlike, as they had to spend more time producing food. Justice within Inuit culture
Inuit culture
was moderated by the form of governance that gave significant power to the elders. As in most cultures around the world, justice could be harsh and often included capital punishment for serious crimes against the community or the individual. During raids against other peoples, the Inuit, like their non-Inuit neighbors, tended to be merciless.[97] Suicide, murder, and death[edit]

Further information: Suicide in Greenland
Greenland
and Suicide among Canadian aboriginal people A pervasive European myth about Inuit
Inuit
is that they killed elderly (senicide) and "unproductive people",[98] but this is not generally true.[99][100][101] In a culture with an oral history, elders are the keepers of communal knowledge, effectively the community library.[102] Because they are of extreme value as the repository of knowledge, there are cultural taboos against sacrificing elders.[103][104] In Antoon A. Leenaars' book Suicide in Canada
Canada
he states that "Rasmussen found that the death of elders by suicide was a commonplace among the Iglulik Inuit."[105] According to Franz Boas, suicide was "...not of rare occurrence..." and was generally accomplished through hanging.[106] Writing of the Labrador
Labrador
Inuit, Hawkes (1916) was considerably more explicit on the subject of suicide and the burden of the elderly:

Aged people who have outlived their usefulness and whose life is a burden both to themselves and their relatives are put to death by stabbing or strangulation. This is customarily done at the request of the individual concerned, but not always so. Aged people who are a hindrance on the trail are abandoned. — Antoon A. Leenaars, Suicide in Canada[107]

When food is not sufficient, the elderly are the least likely to survive. In the extreme case of famine, the Inuit
Inuit
fully understood that, if there was to be any hope of obtaining more food, a hunter was necessarily the one to feed on whatever food was left. However, a common response to desperate conditions and the threat of starvation was infanticide.[108][109] A mother abandoned an infant in hopes that someone less desperate might find and adopt the child before the cold or animals killed it. The belief that the Inuit
Inuit
regularly resorted to infanticide may be due in part to studies done by Asen Balikci,[110] Milton Freeman[111] and David Riches[112] among the Netsilik, along with the trial of Kikkik.[113][114] Other recent research has noted that "While there is little disagreement that there were examples of infanticide in Inuit
Inuit
communities, it is presently not known the depth and breadth of these incidents. The research is neither complete nor conclusive to allow for a determination of whether infanticide was a rare or a widely practiced event."[115] Anthropologists believed that Inuit
Inuit
cultures routinely killed children born with physical defects because of the demands of the extreme climate. These views were changed by late 20th century discoveries of burials at an archaeological site. Between 1982 and 1994, a storm with high winds caused ocean waves to erode part of the bluffs near Barrow, Alaska, and a body was discovered to have been washed out of the mud. Unfortunately the storm claimed the body, which was not recovered. But examination of the eroded bank indicated that an ancient house, perhaps with other remains, was likely to be claimed by the next storm. The site, known as the "Ukkuqsi archaeological site", was excavated. Several frozen bodies (now known as the "frozen family") were recovered, autopsies were performed, and they were re-interred as the first burials in the then-new Imaiqsaun Cemetery south of Barrow.[116] Years later another body was washed out of the bluff. It was a female child, approximately 9 years old, who had clearly been born with a congenital birth defect.[117] This child had never been able to walk, but must have been cared for by family throughout her life.[118] She was the best preserved body ever recovered in Alaska, and radiocarbon dating of grave goods and of a strand of her hair all place her back to about 1200 CE.[118] Health[edit] During the 19th century, the Western Arctic
Arctic
suffered a population decline of close to 90%, resulting from exposure to new diseases, including tuberculosis, measles, influenza, and smallpox. Autopsies near Greenland
Greenland
reveal that, more commonly pneumonia, kidney diseases, trichinosis, malnutrition, and degenerative disorders may have contributed to mass deaths among different Inuit
Inuit
tribes. The Inuit believed that the causes of the disease were of a spiritual origin.[119] "In October (2017) the federal Minister of Indigenous Services, Jane Philpott, announced that in 2015 tuberculosis . . . was 270 times . . . more common among the Canadian Inuit
Inuit
than it is among non-indigenous southern Canadians." The Canadian Mediical Association Journal published in 2013 that "tuberculosis among Canadian Inuit
Inuit
has dramatically increased since 1997. In 2010 the incidence in Nunavut
Nunavut
. . . was 304 per 100,000 -- more than 66 times the rate seen in the general population."[120] Traditional law[edit] Inuit
Inuit
traditional laws are anthropologically different from Western law concepts. Customary law was thought non-existent in Inuit
Inuit
society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system. Hoebel, in 1954, concluded that only 'rudimentary law' existed amongst the Inuit. Indeed, prior to about 1970, it is impossible to find even one reference to a Western observer who was aware that any form of governance existed among any Inuit,[121] however, there was a set way of doing things that had to be followed:

maligait refers to what has to be followed piqujait refers to what has to be done tirigusuusiit refers to what has to be avoided

If an individual's actions went against the tirigusuusiit, maligait or piqujait, the angakkuq (shaman) might have to intervene, lest the consequences be dire to the individual or the community.[122]

We are told today that Inuit
Inuit
never had laws or "maligait". Why? They say because they are not written on paper. When I think of paper, I think you can tear it up, and the laws are gone. The laws of the Inuit are not on paper. — Mariano Aupilaarjuk, Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, Perspectives on Traditional Law[123]

Traditional beliefs[edit] See also: Inuit mythology
Inuit mythology
and Shamanism
Shamanism
among Eskimo
Eskimo
peoples

Some Inuit
Inuit
believed that the spirits of their ancestors could be seen in the aurora borealis

The environment in which the Inuit
Inuit
lived inspired a mythology filled with adventure tales of whale and walrus hunts. Long winter months of waiting for caribou herds or sitting near breathing holes hunting seals gave birth to stories of mysterious and sudden appearance of ghosts and fantastic creatures. Some Inuit
Inuit
looked into the aurora borealis, or northern lights, to find images of their family and friends dancing in the next life.[124] However, some Inuit
Inuit
believed that the lights were more sinister and if you whistled at them, they would come down and cut off your head. This tale is still told to children today.[125] For others they were invisible giants, the souls of animals, a guide to hunting and as a spirit for the angakkuq to help with healing.[125][126] They relied upon the angakkuq (shaman) for spiritual interpretation. The nearest thing to a central deity was the Old Woman (Sedna), who lived beneath the sea. The waters, a central food source, were believed to contain great gods. The Inuit
Inuit
practiced a form of shamanism based on animist principles. They believed that all things had a form of spirit, including humans, and that to some extent these spirits could be influenced by a pantheon of supernatural entities that could be appeased when one required some animal or inanimate thing to act in a certain way. The angakkuq of a community of Inuit
Inuit
was not the leader, but rather a sort of healer and psychotherapist, who tended wounds and offered advice, as well as invoking the spirits to assist people in their lives. His or her role was to see, interpret and exhort the subtle and unseen. Angakkuit were not trained; they were held to be born with the ability and recognized by the community as they approached adulthood. Inuit
Inuit
religion was closely tied to a system of rituals integrated into the daily life of the people. These rituals were simple but held to be necessary. According to a customary Inuit
Inuit
saying,

The great peril of our existence lies in the fact that our diet consists entirely of souls.

By believing that all things, including animals, have souls like those of humans, any hunt that failed to show appropriate respect and customary supplication would only give the liberated spirits cause to avenge themselves. The harshness and unpredictability of life in the Arctic
Arctic
ensured that Inuit
Inuit
lived with concern for the uncontrollable, where a streak of bad luck could destroy an entire community. To offend a spirit was to risk its interference with an already marginal existence. The Inuit understood that they had to work in harmony with supernatural powers to provide the necessities of day-to-day life. Demographics[edit] In total there are about 134,241 Inuit
Inuit
living in four countries, Canada, Greenland, Denmark, and the United States.[2][1][4][3] Canada[edit] Although the 50,480[127] Inuit
Inuit
listed in the 2006 Canada
Canada
Census can be found throughout Canada
Canada
the majority, 44,470, live in four regions.[128][129][130][131] As of the 2006 Canada
Canada
Census there were 4,715 Inuit
Inuit
living in Newfoundland and Labrador[128] and about 2,160 live in Nunatsiavut.[132] There are also about 6,000 NunatuKavut
NunatuKavut
people ( Labrador
Labrador
Metis or Inuit-metis) living in southern Labrador
Labrador
in what is called NunatuKavut.[133] As of the 2006 Canada
Canada
Census there were 4,165 Inuit
Inuit
living in the Northwest Territories.[129] The majority, about 3,115, live in the six communities of the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Settlement Region.[134] As of the 2006 Canada
Canada
Census there were 24,640 Inuit
Inuit
living in Nunavut.[130] In Nunavut
Nunavut
the Inuit
Inuit
population forms a majority in all communities and is the only jurisdiction of Canada
Canada
where Aboriginal peoples form a majority. As of the 2006 Canada
Canada
Census there were 10,950 Inuit
Inuit
living in Quebec.[131] The majority, about 9,565, live in Nunavik.[135] Greenland[edit] Main article: Greenlandic Inuit According to the 2013 edition of The World Factbook, published by the Central Intelligence Agency, the Inuit
Inuit
population of Greenland
Greenland
is 89% (51,365) out of a total of 57,714 people.[1] Like Nunavut
Nunavut
the population lives throughout the region. Denmark[edit] The population size of Greenlandic people in Denmark
Denmark
varies from source to source between 15,000 and 20,000. According to 2015 figures from Statistics Denmark
Denmark
there are 15,815 people residing in Denmark
Denmark
of Greenlandic Inuit
Greenlandic Inuit
ancestry.[4] Most travel to Denmark
Denmark
for educational purposes, and many remain after finishing their education ,[136] which results in the population being mostly concentrated in the big 4 educational cities of Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense, and Aalborg, which all have vibrant Greenlandic communities and cultural centers ( Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Illuutaat). United States[edit] According to the 2000 United States
United States
Census there were a total of 16,581 Inuit/ Inupiat
Inupiat
living throughout the country.[3] The majority, about 14,718, live in the state of Alaska.[137] Russia[edit] According to the 2010 Russian Census there were a total of 1,738 Inuit/ Eskimo
Eskimo
living throughout the country, mostly in the East of the Far Eastern Federal District.[138] Governance[edit]

Map showing the members of the Inuit
Inuit
Circumpolar Conference.

The Inuit Circumpolar Council
Inuit Circumpolar Council
is a United Nations-recognized non-governmental organization (NGO), which defines its constituency as Canada's Inuit
Inuit
and Inuvialuit, Greenland's Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Inuit, Alaska's Inupiat
Inupiat
and Yup'ik, and Russia's Siberian Yupik,[139] despite the last two neither speaking an Inuit
Inuit
dialect[11] or considering themselves "Inuit". Nonetheless, it has come together with other circumpolar cultural and political groups to promote the Inuit
Inuit
and other northern people in their fight against ecological problems such as climate change which disproportionately affects the Inuit
Inuit
population. The Inuit Circumpolar Council
Inuit Circumpolar Council
is one of the six group of Arctic
Arctic
indigenous peoples that have a seat as a so-called "Permanent Participant" on the Arctic
Arctic
Council,[140] an international high level forum in which the eight Arctic
Arctic
Countries (USA, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland) discuss Arctic
Arctic
policy. On 12 May 2011, Greenland's Prime Minister Kuupik Kleist
Kuupik Kleist
hosted the ministerial meeting of the Arctic
Arctic
Council, an event for which the American Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
came to Nuuk, as did many other high-ranking officials such as Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt
Carl Bildt
and Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre. At that event they signed the Nuuk
Nuuk
Declaration.[141] Regional autonomy in Canada[edit] See also: Nunavut, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, NunatuKavut, and Inuvik Region

Map of all Inuit
Inuit
regions

The Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
are western Canadian Inuit
Inuit
who remained in the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
when Nunavut
Nunavut
split off. They live primarily in the Mackenzie River
Mackenzie River
delta, on Banks Island, and parts of Victoria Island in the Northwest Territories. They are officially represented by the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Regional Corporation and, in 1984, received a comprehensive land claims settlement, the first in Northern Canada, with the signing of the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Final Agreement.[142] The TFN worked for ten years and, in September 1992, came to a final agreement with the Government of Canada. This agreement called for the separation of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
into an eastern territory whose Aboriginal population would be predominately Inuit,[143] the future Nunavut, and a rump Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
in the west. It was the largest land claims agreement in Canadian history. In November 1992, the Nunavut
Nunavut
Final Agreement was approved by nearly 85% of the Inuit
Inuit
of what would become Nunavut. As the final step in this long process, the Nunavut
Nunavut
Land Claims Agreement was signed on May 25, 1993, in Iqaluit
Iqaluit
by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
and by Paul Quassa, the president of Nunavut
Nunavut
Tunngavik Incorporated, which replaced the TFN with the ratification of the Nunavut
Nunavut
Final Agreement. The Canadian Parliament passed the supporting legislation in June of the same year, enabling the 1999 establishment of Nunavut
Nunavut
as a territorial entity. With the establishment of Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
in 2005, almost all the traditional Inuit
Inuit
lands in Canada, with the exception NunatuKavut
NunatuKavut
in central and South Labrador, are now covered by some sort of land claims agreement providing for regional autonomy. Greenland[edit]

Municipalities of Greenland

Main articles: Kalaallit
Kalaallit
and History of Greenland In 1953, Denmark
Denmark
put an end to the colonial status of Greenland
Greenland
and granted home rule in 1979 and in 2008 a self-government referendum was passed with 75% approval. Although still a part of the Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
(along with Denmark
Denmark
proper and the Faroe Islands), Greenland, known as Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat in the Greenlandic language, maintains much autonomy today. Of a population of 56,000, 80% of Greenlanders identify as Inuit. Their economy is based on fishing and shrimping.[144] The Thule people
Thule people
arrived in Greenland
Greenland
in the 13th century. There they encountered the Norsemen, who had established colonies there since the late 10th century, as well as a later wave of the Dorset people. Because most of Greenland
Greenland
is covered in ice, the Greenland
Greenland
Inuit
Inuit
(or Kalaallit) only live in coastal settlements, particularly the northern polar coast, the eastern Amassalik coast and the central coasts of western Greenland.[145] Alaska[edit]

Alaska
Alaska
Native Regional Corporations

See also: Alaska
Alaska
Native Regional Corporations, Russian America, Alaska Statehood Act, and List of Alaska
Alaska
Native tribal entities Currently Alaska
Alaska
is governed as a State within United States
United States
with very limited autonomy for Alaska
Alaska
Native peoples. European Colonization of Alaska
Alaska
started in the 18th century by Russia. By the 1860s, the Russian government was considering ridding itself of its Russian America colony. Alaska
Alaska
was officially incorporated to United States
United States
on January 3, 1959. The Inuit
Inuit
of Alaska
Alaska
are the Inupiat
Inupiat
(from Inuit- people – and piaq/piat real, i.e. 'real people') who live in the Northwest Arctic Borough, the North Slope Borough and the Bering Straits region. Barrow, the northernmost city in the United States, is in the Inupiat region. Their language is Iñupiaq (which is the singular form of Inupiat). Modern culture[edit]

Inuit women
Inuit women
at Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador

Inuit
Inuit
art, carving, print making, textiles and Inuit
Inuit
throat singing, are very popular, not only in Canada
Canada
but globally, and Inuit
Inuit
artists are widely known. Canada
Canada
has adopted some of the Inuit culture
Inuit culture
as national symbols, using Inuit
Inuit
cultural icons like the inukshuk in unlikely places, such as its use as a symbol at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Respected art galleries display Inuit
Inuit
art, the largest collection of which is at the Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Art Gallery. Some Inuit
Inuit
languages, such as Inuktitut, appears to have a more secure future in Quebec
Quebec
and Nunavut. There are a surprising number of Inuit, even those who now live in urban centres such as Ottawa, Montreal
Montreal
and Winnipeg, who have experienced living on the land in the traditional life style. People such as Legislative Assembly of Nunavut
Nunavut
member, Levinia Brown and former Commissioner of Nunavut
Nunavut
and the NWT, Helen Maksagak were born and lived the early part of their life "on the land". Inuit culture
Inuit culture
is alive and vibrant today in spite of the negative impacts of recent history. An important biennial event, the Arctic
Arctic
Winter Games, is held in communities across the northern regions of the world, featuring traditional Inuit
Inuit
and northern sports as part of the events. A cultural event is also held. The games were first held in 1970, and while rotated usually among Alaska, Yukon
Yukon
and the Northwest Territories, they have also been held in Schefferville, Quebec
Quebec
in 1976, in Slave Lake, Alberta, and a joint Iqaluit, Nunavut-Nuuk, Greenland
Greenland
staging in 2002. In other sporting events, Jordin Tootoo became the first Inuk to play in the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
in the 2003–04 season, playing for the Nashville Predators. Although Inuit
Inuit
life has changed significantly over the past century, many traditions continue. Inuit
Inuit
Qaujimajatuqangit, or traditional knowledge, such as storytelling, mythology, music, and dancing remain important parts of the culture. Family
Family
and community are very important. The Inuktitut
Inuktitut
language is still spoken in many areas of the Arctic
Arctic
and is common on radio and in television programming. Well-known Inuit
Inuit
politicians include Premier of Nunavut, Peter Taptuna, Nancy Karetak-Lindell, former MP for the riding of Nunavut, and Kuupik Kleist, Prime Minister of Greenland. Leona Aglukkaq, current MP, was the first Inuk to be sworn into the Canadian Federal Cabinet as Health Minister in 2008. In May 2011 after being re-elected for her second term, Ms. Aglukkaq was given the additional portfolio of Minister of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency. In July 2013 she was sworn in as the Minister of the Environment.[146]

Inuit
Inuit
seal hunter in a kayak, armed with a harpoon.

Visual and performing arts are strong. In 2002 the first feature film in Inuktitut, Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner, was released worldwide to great critical and popular acclaim. It was directed by Zacharias Kunuk, and written, filmed, produced, directed, and acted almost entirely by the Inuit
Inuit
of Igloolik. In 2009, the film Le Voyage D'Inuk, a Greenlandic language
Greenlandic language
feature film, was directed by Mike Magidson and co-written by Magidson and French film producer Jean-Michel Huctin.[147] One of the most famous Inuit
Inuit
artists is Pitseolak Ashoona. Susan Aglukark
Susan Aglukark
is a popular singer. Mitiarjuk Attasie Nappaaluk worked at preserving Inuktitut
Inuktitut
and wrote one of the first novels ever published in that language.[148] In 2006, Cape Dorset
Cape Dorset
was hailed as Canada's most artistic city, with 23% of the labor force employed in the arts.[149] Inuit art
Inuit art
such as soapstone carvings is one of Nunavut's most important industries. Recently, there has been an identity struggle among the younger generations of Inuit, between their traditional heritage and the modern society which their cultures have been forced to assimilate into in order to maintain a livelihood. With current dependence on modern society for necessities, (including governmental jobs, food, aid, medicine, etc.), the Inuit
Inuit
have had much interaction with and exposure to the societal norms outside their previous cultural boundaries. The stressors regarding the identity crisis among teenagers have led to disturbingly high numbers of suicide.[150] A series of authors has focused upon the increasing myopia in the youngest generations of Inuit. Myopia
Myopia
was almost unknown prior to the Inuit
Inuit
adoption of western culture. Principal theories are the change to a western style diet with more refined foods, and extended education.[151][152][153] David Pisurayak Kootook
David Pisurayak Kootook
was awarded the Meritorious Service Cross, posthumously, for his heroic efforts in a 1972 plane crash. References[edit]

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The World Factbook
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Inuit
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Inuit
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Alaska
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Further reading[edit] Further information: Bibliography of Canadian Aboriginals

Alia, Valerie (2009). Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic
Arctic
Canada. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-165-3.  Billson, Janet Mancini; Kyra Mancini (2007). Inuit
Inuit
women: their powerful spirit in a century of change. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-3596-1.  Briggs, Jean L. (1971). Never in Anger: Portrait of an Eskimo
Eskimo
Family. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-60828-3.  Forman, Werner; Burch, Ernest S. (1988). The Eskimos. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2126-2.  CBC. History of the Thule Migration, The Nature of Things, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Informational webpage related to the TV documentary, Inuit
Inuit
Odyssey, shown below in the External links section. Crandall, Richard C (2000). Inuit
Inuit
Art: A History. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0711-5.  De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). ISBN 1-55597-249-7 Eber, Dorothy (1997). Images of Justice: A Legal History of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Yellowknife. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-1675-1.  Eber, Dorothy (2008). Encounters on the Passage: Inuit
Inuit
meet the explorers. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-8798-1.  Hauser, Michael; Erik Holtved; Bent Jensen (2010). Traditional Inuit songs from the Thule area, Volume 2. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 978-87-635-2589-3.  Hessell, Ingo (2006). Arctic
Arctic
Spirit: The Albrecht Collection of Inuit Art at the Heard Museum. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 1-55365-189-8.  Hund, Andrew (2012). Inuit. SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-1412992619.  Kulchyski, Peter Keith; Frank J. Tester (2007). Kiumajut (talking back): game management and Inuit
Inuit
rights, 1900–70. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1241-2.  King, J. C. H; Birgit Pauksztat; Robert Storrie (2005). Arctic clothing of North America—Alaska, Canada, Greenland. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-3008-8.  McGrath, Melanie (2007). The long exile: a tale of Inuit
Inuit
betrayal and survival in the high Arctic. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4047-7.  Paver, Michelle (2008). Chronicles of Ancient Darkness Omnibus Edition (Volume 1, 2, and 3). London: Orion. ISBN 1-84255-705-X.  Ruesch, Hans (1986). Top of the World. New York: Pocket. ISBN 950-637-164-4.  (Hebrew version) Sowa, F. 2014. Inuit. in: Hund, A. Antarctica and the Arctic
Arctic
Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth’s Polar Regions. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, pp. 390–395. Stern, Pamela R; Lisa Stevenson (2006). Critical Inuit
Inuit
studies: an anthology of contemporary Arctic
Arctic
ethnography. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4303-0.  Steckley, John (2008). White Lies about the Inuit. Broadview Press. ISBN 978-1-55111-875-8.  Stern, Pamela R (2004). Historical dictionary of the Inuit. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5058-3.  Walk, Ansgar. (1999). Kenojuak: the life story of an Inuit
Inuit
artist. Manotick, Ontario: Penumbra Press. ISBN 0-921254-95-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Inuit.

National Inuit
Inuit
Organization in Canada Inuit
Inuit
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Living Dictionary Inuit
Inuit
Odyssey, produced by The Nature of Things and first broadcast 29 June 2009 on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
network. This is a documentary on the Thule people, the ancestors of the Inuit, and their eastward migration across the Arctic
Arctic
to Greenland. The webpage contains a link to view the documentary online here (length: 44:03; may not be viewable online outside of Canada). Note: Nature of Things episodes are also viewable on iTunes.

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