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Hubei
HUBEI (Chinese : 湖北; pinyin : Húběi) is a province of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake . The provincial capital is Wuhan
Wuhan
, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China. Hubei
Hubei
is officially abbreviated to "鄂" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the Qin dynasty , while a popular name for Hubei
Hubei
is "楚" (Chǔ), after the powerful State of Chu that existed here during the Eastern Zhou dynasty
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Bopomofo
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE * Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family (see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The SPELLING OF GWOYEU ROMATZYH (GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials , finals and tones . GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
and . The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin
Pinyin
should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations . Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Renminbi
The RENMINBI (Ab. : RMB; Chinese : 人民币; pinyin : rénmínbì ; literally: "people's currency"; sign : 元 ; code : CNY) is the official currency of the People\'s Republic of China
China
. The YUAN (Chinese : 元; pinyin : yuán) is the basic unit of the renminbi, but is also used to refer to the Chinese currency generally, especially in international contexts where "CHINESE YUAN" is widely used to mention the Renminbi. The distinction between the terms renminbi and yuan is similar to that between sterling and pound , which respectively refer to the British currency and its primary unit. One yuan is subdivided into 10 jiao (Chinese : 角; pinyin : jiǎo), and a jiao in turn is subdivided into 10 fen (Chinese : 分; pinyin : fēn). The Renminbi
Renminbi
is issued by the People\'s Bank of China
China
, the monetary authority of China
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Simplified Chinese
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore
Singapore

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Wu Chinese
WU ( Shanghainese : Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
pronunciation: , Suzhou dialect : Wu Chinese pronunciation: , Wuxi dialect : Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
pronunciation: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai
Shanghai
, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province and bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai
Shanghai
, Suzhou , Ningbo , Wuxi , Wenzhou/Oujiang , Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, Shaoxing , Jinhua and Yongkang
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China
China
, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min
Southern Min
Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien

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Taiwanese Romanization System
The TAIWANESE ROMANIZATION SYSTEM (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese : 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin : Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as TâI-Lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
and since 2006 has been officially promoted by Taiwan
Taiwan
's Ministry of Education . It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/
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Qin Dynasty
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing * Huainanzi
Huainanzi
Founding figures * Gua
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Hokkien
HOKKIEN-TAIWANESE (/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/ ; from Chinese : 福建話; pinyin : Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Hok-kiàn-oē) or MINNAN PROPER (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and other parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien
Hokkien
originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min
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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region ), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, and Singapore
Singapore

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