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Hubei
Hubei
(Chinese: 湖北; pinyin: Húběi) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China
Central China
region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake.[4] The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China. Hubei
Hubei
is officially abbreviated to "鄂" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the Qin dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei
Hubei
is "楚" (Chǔ), after the powerful State of Chu
State of Chu
that existed here during the Eastern Zhou dynasty. It borders Henan
Henan
to the north, Anhui
Anhui
to the east, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the southeast, Hunan
Hunan
to the south, Chongqing
Chongqing
to the west, and Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
is located at Yichang, in the west of the province.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Administrative divisions 4 Politics 5 Economy

5.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion

7 Culture 8 Education

8.1 Universities

9 Transportation

9.1 Rail 9.2 Air

10 Tourism 11 Sports 12 Twinning 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Citations 15.2 Sources

16 External links

History[edit] The Hubei
Hubei
region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures.[5] By the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(770–476 BC), the territory of today's Hubei
Hubei
was part of the powerful State of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou dynasty, and it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north; but it was also a culturally unique blend of northern and southern culture, and was a powerful state that held onto much of the middle and lower Yangtze
Yangtze
River, with power extending northwards into the North China
China
Plain.[6]

Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th-century BC, Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Jiangling County, Hubei

During the Warring States period
Warring States period
(475–221 BC) Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest (in what is now Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province), which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin, then (in 278 BC) its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as part of Qin's bid for the conquest of all China.[citation needed] Qin founded the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
in 221 BC, the first unified state in the region. Qin was succeeded by the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in 206 BC, which established the province (zhou) of Jingzhou
Jingzhou
in what is now Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan. The Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods.[7] Towards the end of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou
Jingzhou
was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China; but in the Battle of Red Cliffs, warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan
Sun Quan
drove Cao Cao
Cao Cao
out of Jingzhou. Liu Bei
Liu Bei
then took control of Jingzhou; he went on to conquer Yizhou (the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin), but lost Jingzhou
Jingzhou
to Sun Quan; for the next few decades Jingzhou
Jingzhou
was controlled by the Wu Kingdom, ruled by Sun Quan
Sun Quan
and his successors.[citation needed]

A family's ancestral hall, Yangxin County

The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled (but increasingly Sinicized) north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China
China
by the Sui dynasty in 589. In 617 the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
replaced Sui, and later on the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
placed what is now Hubei
Hubei
under several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuit
Jiangnanxi Circuit
in the south; Shannandong Circuit in the west, and Huainan Circuit in the east. After the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
disintegrated in the 10th century, Hubei
Hubei
came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan
Jingnan
in the center, Wu (later Southern Tang) to the east, and the Five Dynasties
Five Dynasties
to the north.[citation needed] The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered the region in 1279, and under their rule the province of Huguang
Huguang
was established, covering Hubei, Hunan, and parts of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi. During the Mongol
Mongol
rule, in 1334, Hubei
Hubei
was devastated by an outbreak of the Black Death, which according to Chinese sources spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia.[8] The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang
Huguang
province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan
Hunan
combined. While Hubei
Hubei
was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei
Hubei
was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong
Zhang Xianzhong
and Li Zicheng. The Manchu
Manchu
Qing dynasty which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang
Huguang
into the modern provinces of Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, however, continued to maintain a Viceroy of Huguang, one of the most well-known being Zhang Zhidong, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei
Hubei
(especially Wuhan) into a prosperous center of commerce and industry. The Huangshi/ Daye
Daye
area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining and metallurgy.[citation needed] In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan
Wuhan
became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei; this government was later merged into Chiang Kai-shek's government in Nanjing. During World War II
World War II
the eastern parts of Hubei
Hubei
were conquered and occupied by Japan
Japan
while the western parts remained under Chinese control.[citation needed] During the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in the 1960s, Wuhan
Wuhan
saw fighting between rival Red Guard factions.[citation needed] As the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1960s, the Xianning
Xianning
prefecture of Hubei was chosen as the site of Project 131, an underground military command headquarters.[citation needed] The province—and Wuhan
Wuhan
in particular—suffered severely from the 1954 Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Floods. Large-scale dam construction followed, with the Gezhouba Dam
Gezhouba Dam
on the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
near Yichang
Yichang
started in 1970 and completed in 1988; the construction of the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
Dam, further upstream, began in 1993. In the following years, authorities resettled millions of people from western Hubei
Hubei
to make way for the construction of the dam. A number of smaller dams have been constructed on the Yangtze's tributaries as well.[citation needed]

Wuhan
Wuhan
bells

Yellow Crane Tower

Geography[edit]

Boats on the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, upstream from the Three Gorges

Qichun countryside

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The Jianghan Plain
Jianghan Plain
takes up most of central and southern Hubei, while the west and the peripheries are more mountainous, with ranges such as the Wudang Mountains, the Jing Mountains, the Daba Mountains, and the Wu Mountains
Wu Mountains
(in rough north-to-south order). The Dabie Mountains
Dabie Mountains
lie to the northeast of the Janghan Plain, on the border with Henan
Henan
and Anhui; the Tongbai Mountains lie to the north on the border with Henan; to the southeast, the Mufu Mountains
Mufu Mountains
form the border with Jiangxi. The highest peak in Hubei
Hubei
is Shennong Peak, found in the Daba Mountains and in the forestry area of Shennongjia; it has an altitude of 3105 m.[citation needed]

Fishermen on the Fushui
Fushui
River, Yangxin County

The two major rivers of Hubei
Hubei
are the Yangtze
Yangtze
and its left tributary, the Hanshui; they lend their names to the Jianghan Plain. The Yangtze River enters Hubei
Hubei
from the west via the Three Gorges; the eastern half of the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
( Xiling Gorge
Xiling Gorge
and part of Wu Gorge) lie in western Hubei, while the western half is in neighbouring Chongqing. The Han River enters the province from the northwest. After crossing most of the province, the two great rivers meet at Wuhan, the provincial capital.[citation needed] Among the notable tributaries of the Yangtze
Yangtze
within the province are the Shen Nong Stream
Shen Nong Stream
(a small northern tributary, severely affected by the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
project); the Qing, a major waterway of southwestern Hubei; the Huangbo near Yichang; and the Fushui
Fushui
River in the southeast.[citation needed]

Snow is comparatively rare in Wuhan

Thousands of lakes dot the landscape of Hubei's Jianghan Plain, giving Hubei
Hubei
the name of "Province of Lakes"; the largest of these lakes are Liangzi Lake and Hong Lake. The numerous hydrodams have created a number of large reservoirs, the largest of which is the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han River, on the border between Hubei
Hubei
and Henan.[citation needed] Hubei
Hubei
has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa or Cwa under the Köppen climate classification), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold, with average temperatures of 1 to 6 °C (34 to 43 °F) in January, while summers are hot and humid, with average temperatures of 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 °F) in July; punishing temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or above are widely associated with Wuhan, the provincial capital. The mountainous districts of western Hubei, in particular Shennongjia, with their cooler summers, attract numerous visitors from Wuhan
Wuhan
and other lowland cities.[citation needed] Besides the capital Wuhan, other important cities are Jingmen; Shiyan, a center of automotive industry and the gateway to the Wudang Mountains; Yichang, the main base for the gigantic hydroelectric projects of southwestern Hubei; and Shashi.[citation needed] Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: List of administrative divisions of Hubei Hubei
Hubei
is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions (of which there are twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one autonomous prefecture), as well as three directly administered county-level cities (all sub-prefecture-level cities) and one directly administered county-level forestry area.

Administrative divisions of Hubei

№ Division code[9] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[10] Population 2010[11] Seat Divisions[12]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities*

  420000 Hubei 湖北省 Húběi Shěng 185900.00 57,237,740 Wuhan 39 37 2 25

1 420100 Wuhan 武汉市 Wǔhàn Shì 8549.09 9,785,392 Jiang'an District 13

4 420200 Huangshi 黄石市 Huángshí Shì 4582.85 2,429,318 Xialu District 4 1

1

7 420300 Shiyan 十堰市 Shíyàn Shì 23674.41 3,340,843 Maojian District 3 4

1

12 420500 Yichang 宜昌市 Yíchāng Shì 21227.00 4,059,686 Xiling District 5 3 2 3

9 420600 Xiangyang 襄阳市 Xiāngyáng Shì 19724.41 5,500,307 Xiangcheng District 3 3

3

2 420700 Ezhou 鄂州市 Èzhōu Shì 1593.54 1,048,672 Echeng District 3

5 420800 Jingmen 荆门市 Jīngmén Shì 12192.57 2,873,687 Dongbao District 2 2

1

11 420900 Xiaogan 孝感市 Xiàogǎn Shì 8922.72 4,814,542 Xiaonan District 1 3

3

6 421000 Jingzhou 荆州市 Jīngzhōu Shì 14068.68 5,691,707 Shashi District 2 3

3

3 421100 Huanggang 黄冈市 Huánggāng Shì 17446.63 6,162,072 Huangzhou District 1 7

2

10 421200 Xianning 咸宁市 Xiánníng Shì 9749.84 2,462,583 Xian'an District 1 4

1

8 421300 Suizhou 随州市 Suízhōu Shì 9614.94 2,162,222 Zengdu District 1 1

1

13 422800 Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 恩施土家族苗族自治州 Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu 24061.25 3,290,294 Enshi

6

2

16 429004 Xiantao
Xiantao
** 仙桃市 Xiāntáo Shì 2538.00 1,175,085 Jingling Subdistrict

1

15 429005 Qianjiang ** 潜江市 Qiánjiāng Shì 2004.00 946,277 Yuanlin Subdistrict

1

14 429006 Tianmen
Tianmen
** 天门市 Tiānmén Shì 2,622.00 1,418,913 Shazui Subdistrict

1

17 429021 Shennongjia Forestry
Forestry
District ** 神农架林区 Shénnóngjià Línqū 3253.00 76,140 Songbai Town

1

  Sub-provincial cities * - including Forestry
Forestry
district ** - Directly administered county-level divisions

Farmers ploughing a field in Xian'an District, Xianning

The thirteen prefecture-level divisions and four directly administered county-level divisions of Hubei
Hubei
are subdivided into 103 county-level divisions (39 districts, 24 county-level cities, 37 counties, 2 autonomous counties, 1 forestry district; the directly administered county-level divisions are included here). Those are in turn divided into 1234 township-level divisions (737 towns, 215 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 273 subdistricts).[citation needed] Politics[edit] Further information: List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China Secretaries of the CPC Hubei
Hubei
Committee:

Li Xiannian
Li Xiannian
(李先念): 1949−1954 Wang Renzhong
Wang Renzhong
(王任重): 1954−1966 Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1966−1967 Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1970−1973 Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973−1978 Chen Pixian
Chen Pixian
(陈丕显): 1978−1982 Guan Guangfu (关广富): 1983−1994 Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1994−2001 Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 2001 Yu Zhengsheng
Yu Zhengsheng
(俞正声): 2001−2007 Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2007−2011 Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2011−2016 Jiang Chaoliang (蒋超良): 2016−present

Governors of Hubei:

Li Xiannian
Li Xiannian
(李先念): 1949−1954 Liu Zihou (刘子厚): 1954−1956 Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1956−1967 Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1968−1973 Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973−1978 Chen Pixian
Chen Pixian
(陈丕显): 1978−1980 Han Ningfu (韩宁夫): 1980−1982 Huang Zhizhen (黄知真): 1982−1986 Guo Zhenqian (郭振乾): 1986−1990 Guo Shuyan (郭树言): 1990−1993 Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1993−1995 Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 1995−2001 Zhang Guoguang (张国光): 2001−2002 Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2002−2007 Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2007−2010 Wang Guosheng (王国生): 2010−2016 Wang Xiaodong (王晓东): 2016−present

Economy[edit]

Rice
Rice
fields in Tongshan County

Hubei
Hubei
is often called the "Land of Fish and Rice" (鱼米之乡). Important agricultural products in Hubei
Hubei
include cotton, rice, wheat, and tea, while industries include automobiles, metallurgy, machinery, power generation, textiles, foodstuffs and high-tech commodities.[13] Mineral
Mineral
resources that can be found in Hubei
Hubei
in significant quantities include borax, hongshiite, wollastonite, garnet, marlstone, iron, phosphorus, copper, gypsum, rutile, rock salt, gold amalgam, manganese and vanadium. The province's recoverable reserves of coal stand at 548 million tons, which is modest compared to other Chinese provinces. Hubei
Hubei
is well known for its mines of fine turquoise and green faustite.[citation needed]

A quarry in Yiling District
Yiling District
west of Yichang. Rocks are lined up on the roadside to attract customers

Once completed, the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
in western Hubei
Hubei
will provide plentiful hydroelectricity, with an estimated annual power production of 84,700 Gwh. Existing hydroelectric stations include Gezhouba, Danjiangkou, Geheyan, Hanjiang, Duhe, Huanglongtan, Bailianhe, Lushui and Fushui. Hubei's economy ranks 11th in the country and its nominal GDP for 2011 was 1.959 trillion yuan (US$311 billion) and a per capita of 21,566 RMB (US$2,863). The government of Hubei
Hubei
hopes to keep the GDP growth rate above 10% annually and double per capita GDP by 2020.[13] Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

Hubei
Hubei
Jingzhou
Jingzhou
Chengnan Economic Development Zone was established in 1992 under the approval of Hubei
Hubei
Government. Three major industries include textile, petroleum and chemical processing, with a combined output accounts for 90% of its total output. The zone also enjoys a well-developed transportation network—only 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the airport and 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the railway station.[14] Wuhan
Wuhan
East Lake High-Tech Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan
Wuhan
East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Changfei Fiber-optical Cables (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), Fenghuo Telecommunications and Wuhan
Wuhan
Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (the largest research institute in optical telecommunications in China). Wuhan
Wuhan
ELHTZ represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HUST Technologies and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.[15] Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993.[16] Its size is about 10-25 square km and it plans to expand to 25-50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic and Technological Development Zone include automobile production/assembly, biotechnology/pharmaceuticals, chemicals production and processing, food/beverage processing, heavy industry, and telecommunications equipment. Wuhan
Wuhan
Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic & Technology Development Zone, planned to cover land of 2.7 km2. The first 0.7 km2 area has been launched.[17] Wuhan
Wuhan
Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is in Wuhan
Wuhan
East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. Wuhan
Wuhan
Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd.[18] The planned area is 0.67 km2 with total floor area of 600,000 square meters. The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) from the Wuhan
Wuhan
Tianhe Airport. Xiangyang
Xiangyang
New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1912[19] 29,590,000 —    

1928[20] 26,699,000 −9.8%

1936-37[21] 25,516,000 −4.4%

1947[22] 20,976,000 −17.8%

1954[23] 27,789,693 +32.5%

1964[24] 33,709,344 +21.3%

1982[25] 47,804,150 +41.8%

1990[26] 53,969,210 +12.9%

2000[27] 59,508,870 +10.3%

2010[28] 57,237,740 −3.8%

Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hankou) part of Hubei
Hubei
Province until 1927; dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Hubei
Hubei
Province.

Han Chinese
Han Chinese
form the dominant ethnic group in Hubei. A considerable Miao and Tujia population live in the southwestern part of the province, especially in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. On October 18, 2009, Chinese officials began to relocate 330,000 residents from the Hubei
Hubei
and Henan
Henan
provinces that will be affected by the Danjiangkou Reservoir
Danjiangkou Reservoir
on the Han river. The reservoir is part of the larger South-North Water Transfer Project.[29]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Hubei[30][note 1]    Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(6.5%)    Christianity
Christianity
(0.58%)   Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (92.92%)

The predominant religions in Hubei
Hubei
are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 6.5% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 0.58% of the population identifies as Christian, declining from 0.83% in 2004.[30] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 92.92% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.

Taihui Taoist Temple in Jingzhou.

Baotong Buddhist Temple in Wuhan.

Guangde Buddhist Temple in Xiangyang.

An ancestral shrine in Hong'an, Huanggang.

Rural Buddhist community temple in Xianning.

Culture[edit]

Hubei
Hubei
Provincial Museum

Hubei
Hubei
Museum of Art

Hubei
Hubei
Provincial Library

People in Hubei
Hubei
speak Mandarin dialects; most of these dialects are classified as Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
dialects, a group that also encompasses the Mandarin dialects of most of southwestern China.[citation needed] Perhaps the most celebrated element of Hubei cuisine
Hubei cuisine
is the Wuchang bream, a freshwater bream that is commonly steamed.[citation needed] Types of traditional Chinese opera
Chinese opera
popular in Hubei
Hubei
include Hanju (simplified Chinese: 汉剧; traditional Chinese: 漢劇; pinyin: Hàn Jù) and Chuju (楚剧; Chǔ Jù). The Shennongjia
Shennongjia
area is the alleged home of the Yeren, a wild undiscovered hominid that lives in the forested hills. The people of Hubei
Hubei
are given the uncomplimentary nickname "Nine-headed Birds" by other Chinese, from a mythological creature said to be very aggressive and hard to kill. "In the sky live nine-headed birds. On the earth live Hubei
Hubei
people." (天上九头鸟,地上湖北佬; Tiānshàng jiǔ tóu niǎo, dìshàng Húběi lǎo) Wuhan
Wuhan
is one of the major culture centers in China. Hubei
Hubei
is thought to be the province that originated the card game of Dou Di Zhu. Education[edit] The premier Wuhan
Wuhan
University (founded in 1893) and many other institutions in Wuhan
Wuhan
makes it a hub of higher education and research in China. Universities[edit]

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

See also: List of universities and colleges in Hubei

Wuhan
Wuhan
University Huazhong University of Science and Technology Central China
Central China
Normal University (Huazhong Normal University) Wuhan
Wuhan
University of Technology Huazhong Agricultural University Hubei University
Hubei University
of Technology Zhongnan University of Economics and Law China
China
University of Geosciences Jianghan University Hubei
Hubei
University Hubei University
Hubei University
of Economics Hubei University
Hubei University
of Education China
China
Three Gorges
Three Gorges
University(yichang) Wuhan
Wuhan
Institute of Technology Wuhan
Wuhan
University of Science and Technology Yangtze
Yangtze
University South-Central University for Nationalities Hubei
Hubei
Institute of Fine Arts Wuhan
Wuhan
Technology and Business University Wuhan
Wuhan
Technical College of Communications

Transportation[edit]

Boats on the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
in Wuhan

Wuhan
Wuhan
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge

Prior to the construction of China's national railway network, the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Hanshui
Hanshui
Rivers had been the main transportation arteries of Hubei
Hubei
for many centuries, and still continue to play an important transport role. Historically, Hubei's overland transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze
Yangtze
in Hubei, the Wuhan
Wuhan
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge was completed in 1957, followed by the Zhicheng Bridge in 1971. As of October 2014, Hubei
Hubei
had 23 bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze
Yangtze
River, including nine bridges and three tunnels in Wuhan. Rail[edit] The railway from Beijing
Beijing
reached Wuhan
Wuhan
in 1905, and was later extended to Guangzhou, becoming the first north-to-south railway mainline to cross China. A number of other lines crossed the province later on, including the Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway
Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway
and Beijing-Kowloon Railway, respectively, in the western and eastern part of the province. The first decade of the 21st century has seen a large number of new railway construction in Hubei. The Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, roughly parallel to the original Wuhan-Guangzhou line, opened in late 2009, and is currently being extended to the north, towards Beijing. A new east-west high-speed corridor connecting major cities along the Yangtze
Yangtze
(the Huhanrong Passenger Dedicated Line) is being constructed as well: the Hefei- Wuhan
Wuhan
section, which opened in 2009, has enabled fast service between Wuhan
Wuhan
and Shanghai, while the Wuhan-Yuchang and Yichang-Wanzhou sections are (as of 2010) under construction. Air[edit] Hubei's main airport is Wuhan
Wuhan
Tianhe International Airport. Yichang Sanxia Airport serves the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
region. There are also passenger airports in Xiangyang, Enshi, and Jingzhou
Jingzhou
(Shashi Airport, named after the city's Shashi District). Tourism[edit] The province's best-known natural attraction (shared with the adjacent Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality) is the scenic area of the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
of the Yangtze. Located in the far west of the province, the gorges can be conveniently visited by one of the numerous tourist boats (or regular passenger boats) that travel up the Yangtze
Yangtze
from Yichang
Yichang
through the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
and into the neighboring Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality. The mountains of western Hubei, in particular in Shennongjia
Shennongjia
District, offer a welcome respite from Wuhan's and Yichang's summer heat, as well as skiing opportunities in winter. The tourist facilities in that area concentrate around Muyu in the southern part of Shennongjia, the gateway to Shennongjia
Shennongjia
National Nature Reserve (神农架国家自然保护区). Closer to the provincial capital, Wuhan, is the Mount Jiugong (Jiugongshan) national park, in Tongshan County near the border with Jiangxi. A particular important site of both natural and cultural significance is Mount Wudang
Mount Wudang
(Wudangshan) in the northwest of the province. Originally created early in the Ming dynasty, its building complex has been listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
since 1994 as a World Heritage Site. Other historic attractions in Hubei
Hubei
include:

The old Jingzhou
Jingzhou
City The Xianling Mausoleum, built by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
Jiajing Emperor
Jiajing Emperor
for his parents at their fief near Zhongxiang[31] The Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
in Wuhan The Hubei Provincial Museum
Hubei Provincial Museum
in Wuhan, with extensive archaeological and cultural exhibits and performance presentations of ancient music and dance. This is one of the best places to learn about the ancient state of Chu, which flourished in the territory of present-day Hubei during the Eastern Zhou dynasty
Eastern Zhou dynasty
and developed its own unique culture, quite distinct from that of the Shang/Zhou civilization of northern China.

The province also has historical sites connected with China's more recent history, such as the Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
Memorial in Wuhan, Project 131 site (a Cultural-Revolution-era underground military command center) in Xianning, and the National Mining Park (国家矿山公园) in Huangshi.[32]

Hubei
Hubei
Provincial Museum

Sports[edit]

University Stadium of Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
in Wuhan

Professional sports teams in Hubei
Hubei
include:

Chinese Football Association Super League Wuhan
Wuhan
Huanghelou

Twinning[edit] In 2005, Hubei
Hubei
province signed a twinning agreement with Telemark county of Norway, and a "Norway- Hubei
Hubei
Week" was held in 2007.[33] See also[edit]

List of prisons in Hubei Major national historical and cultural sites in Hubei 1954 Yangtze River
Yangtze River
floods

Notes[edit]

^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[30] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. ^ This may include:

Buddhists; Confucians; Deity worshippers; Taoists; Members of folk religious sects; Small minorities of Muslims; And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ "Doing Business in China
China
- Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.  ^ " China
China
National Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. p. 146. Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online. ^ Zhang Chi(張弛), “The Qujialing-Shijiahe Culture in the Middle Yangzi River Valley,” in A Companion to Chinese Archaeology, ed. Anne P. Underhill (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2013), 510–34; Rowan K. Flad and Pochan Chen, Ancient Central China: Centers and Peripheries along the Yangzi River (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013). ^ Constance A. Cook and John S. Major, eds. Defining Chu: Image and Reality in Ancient China, (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1999); Lothar von Falkenhausen, Chinese Society in the Age of Confucius (1000–250 BC): The Archaeological Evidence (Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 2006), 262–88. ^ Brian Lander. State Management of River Dikes in Early China: New Sources on the Environmental History of the Central Yangzi Region . T'oung Pao 100.4-5 (2014): 325–362. ^ Benedict, C.A. (1996). Bubonic Plague in Nineteenth-century China. Stanford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780804726610.  ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.  ^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  ^ a b http://www.thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/hubei-province/ ^ RightSite.asia Hubei
Hubei
Jingzhou
Jingzhou
Chengnan Economic Development Zone ^ RightSite.asia Wuhan
Wuhan
East Lake High-Tech Development Zone ^ RightSite.asia Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic and Technological Development Zone Archived 2015-05-26 at the Wayback Machine. ^ RightSite.asia Wuhan
Wuhan
Export Processing Zone Archived 2015-05-26 at the Wayback Machine. ^ RightSite.asia Wuhan
Wuhan
Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.  ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.  ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.  ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.  ^ http://www.philly.com/inquirer/world_us/20091019_In_the_World.html China
China
to resettle 330,000 people ^ a b c China
China
General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Eric N. Danielson, "The Ming Ancestor Tomb" ^ "Mining for tourism in Hubei", By Li Jing ( China
China
Daily). Updated: 2008-09-22 ^ http://www.norway-hubei.net

Sources[edit]

Economic profile for Hubei
Hubei
at HKTDC

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hubei.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hubei.

Hubei
Hubei
Government website Google Maps Hubei

Places adjacent to Hubei

Shaanxi Henan

Chongqing

Hubei

Anhui

Hunan Jiangxi

v t e

Hubei
Hubei
topics

Wuhan
Wuhan
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Wudang Mountains Jingshan Mountains Daba Mountains Shennongjia Wu Mountains Dabie Mountains Mufu Mountains Yangtze
Yangtze
River Han River Three Gorges

Education

Wuhan
Wuhan
University Ω Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Ω Wuhan
Wuhan
University of Technology Ω China University of Geosciences
China University of Geosciences
Ω Central China
Central China
Agricultural University Ω Central China
Central China
Normal University Ω Zhongnan University of Economics and Law
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law
Ω South-Central University for Nationalities

Culture

Chu Culture Han opera Nine-headed Bird

Cuisine

Wuhan
Wuhan
duck Soup dumpling Re gan mian

Visitor attractions

Jingzhou Xianling Tomb
Xianling Tomb
(in Zhongxiang) Three Gorges Yellow Crane Tower Hubei
Hubei
Provincial Museum Underground Project 131

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Hubei
Hubei
Province

Wuhan
Wuhan
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Wuhan

Jiang'an District Jianghan District Qiaokou District Hanyang District Wuchang District Qingshan District Hongshan District Dongxihu District Hannan District Caidian District Jiangxia District Huangpi District Xinzhou District

Prefecture-level cities

Huangshi

Huangshigang District Xisaishan District Xialu District Tieshan District Daye
Daye
City Yangxin County

Shiyan

Zhangwan District Maojian District Yunyang District Danjiangkou
Danjiangkou
City Zhushan County Fang County Yunxi County Zhuxi County

Yichang

Xiling District Wujiagang District Dianjun District Xiaoting District Yiling District Zhijiang City Yidu
Yidu
City Dangyang
Dangyang
City Yuan'an County Xingshan County Zigui County Changyang Autonomous County Wufeng Autonomous County

Xiangyang

Xiangcheng District Fancheng District Xiangzhou District Laohekou
Laohekou
City Zaoyang
Zaoyang
City Yicheng City Nanzhang County Gucheng County Baokang County

Ezhou

Echeng District Liangzihu District Huarong District

Jingmen

Dongbao District Duodao District Zhongxiang
Zhongxiang
City Shayang County Jingshan County

Xiaogan

Xiaonan District Yingcheng
Yingcheng
City Anlu
Anlu
City Hanchuan
Hanchuan
City Xiaochang County Dawu County Yunmeng County

Jingzhou

Shashi District Jingzhou
Jingzhou
District Shishou Honghu
Honghu
City Songzi
Songzi
City Jiangling County Gong'an County Jianli County

Huanggang

Huangzhou District Macheng
Macheng
City Wuxue
Wuxue
City Hong'an County Luotian County Yingshan County Xishui County Qichun County Huangmei County Tuanfeng County Longganhu Administrative District

Xianning

Xian'an District Chibi
Chibi
City Jiayu County Tongcheng County Chongyang County Tongshan County

Suizhou

Zengdu District Guangshui
Guangshui
City Sui County

Autonomous prefectures

Enshi

Enshi City Lichuan City Jianshi County Badong County Xuan'en County Xianfeng County Laifeng County Hefeng County

Sub-prefecture-level cities

Xiantao
Xiantao
City Tianmen
Tianmen
City Qianjiang City Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Forestry
Forestry
District

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

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