Wuhan (simplified Chinese: 武汉; traditional Chinese: 武漢;
pinyin: Wǔhàn; [ù.xân] ( listen)) is the capital of
Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most
populous city in Central China. It lies in the eastern Jianghan
Plain on the middle reaches of the
Yangtze River at the intersection
Yangtze and Han rivers. Arising out of the conglomeration of
three cities, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang,
Wuhan is known as 'China's
Thoroughfare' (zh); it is a major transportation hub, with
dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and
connecting to other major cities. Because of its key role in domestic
Wuhan is sometimes referred to as "the
China" by foreign sources.
Holding sub-provincial status,
Wuhan is recognized as the
political, economic, financial, cultural, educational and
transportation center of central China. In 1927,
Wuhan was briefly
the capital of
China under the left wing of the
government led by Wang Jingwei. The city later served as the
wartime capital of
China in 1937.
Wuhan Gymnasium held the
2011 FIBA Asia Championship
2011 FIBA Asia Championship and will be
one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.
2.2 Early Imperial China
2.4 Republic of China
2.5 People's Republic of China
4 Government and politics
4.1 Administrative divisions
4.2 Diplomatic missions
5.1 Industrial zones
7.5 Maritime transport
7.9 Bicycle-sharing system
9.1 Schools and universities
9.2 Scientific research
13 Notable Wuhanese
13.4 Other fields
14 Sister cities
15 Nature and wildlife
16 See also
18 Further reading
19 External links
'Wuhan' is derived from the pinyin romanization of the Standard
Mandarin pronunciation of the name of the city '武汉' (Wǔhàn). The
Chinese '武汉' (Wuhan) is a portmanteau of 武昌 (Wuchang) and
汉口 (Hankou). In 1926, the
Northern Expedition reached the Wuhan
area and decided to merge Hankou,
Wuchang and Hanyang into one city in
order to make a new capital for Nationalist China. On January 1,
1927, the resulting city was proclaimed as '武漢' (Wuhan), which
was later simplified as '武汉' (Wuhan). The 'Wu' (武)
in 'Wuhan' is derived from the 'Wu' in 'Wuchang' (武昌) (literally
prospering from military, regarding its logistics role of the military
bases established before the Battle of Red Cliffs).
Wuchang was the
name given to the area in AD 221 when warlord
Sun Quan moved the
Eastern Wu to
È county (in present-day
Ezhou City), and
È to Wuchang. The 'han' (漢, later simplified as 汉) in
'Wuhan' comes from the 'Han' in 'Hankou' (漢口), which literally
means "Mouth of the Han", from its position at the confluence of the
Han with the
Main article: History of Wuhan
Panlongcheng, located in the southernmost area of the Erligang culture
With a 3,500-year-long history,
Wuhan is one of the most ancient and
civilized metropolitan cities in China. Panlongcheng, an
archaeological site primarily associated with the
Erligang culture (c.
1510 – c. 1460 BC) (being sparsely populated during the earlier
Erlitou period), is located in modern-day Huangpi District. During the
Western Zhou, the State of E controlled the present-day
south of the
Yangtze River. After the conquest of the E state in 863
BC, the present-day
Wuhan area was controlled by the State of Chu for
the rest of the
Western Zhou and
Eastern Zhou periods.
Early Imperial China
During the Han dynasty, Hanyang became a fairly busy port. The Battle
of Xiakou in AD 203 and
Battle of Jiangxia five years later were
fought over control of Jiangxia Commandery (present-day Xinzhou
District in northeast Wuhan). In the winter of 208/9, one of the most
famous battles in
Chinese history and a central event in the Romance
of the Three Kingdoms—the Battle of Red Cliffs—took place in the
vicinity of the cliffs near Wuhan. Around that time, walls were
built to protect Hanyang (AD 206) and
Wuchang (AD 223). The latter
event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower
(黄鹤楼), one of the Four Great Towers of China, was constructed on
Wuchang side of the
Yangtze River by order of Sun Quan, leader of
the Eastern Wu. The tower become a sacred site of Taoism.
Depiction of the
Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower (Yuan dynasty)
Due to tensions between the
Eastern Wu and
Cao Wei states, in the
autumn of 228,[a] Cao Rui, grandson of
Cao Cao and the second emperor
of the state of Cao Wei, ordered the general
Man Chong to lead troops
to Xiakou (夏口; in present-day Wuhan). In 279, Wang Jun and
his army conquered strategic locations in Wu territory such as Xiling
(西陵; in present-day Yichang, Hubei), Xiakou (夏口; present-day
Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei).
In fall 550,
Hou Jing sent Ren Yue to attack both Xiao Daxin and Xiao
Fan's son Xiao Si (蕭嗣). Ren killed Xiao Si in battle, and Xiao
Daxin, unable to resist, surrendered, allowing Hou to take his domain
under control. Meanwhile, Xiao Guan, who had by now settled at
Jiangxia (江夏, in modern Wuhan), was planning to attack Hou, but
this drew Xiao Yi's ire—believing that Xiao Guan was intending to
contend for the throne—and he sent Wang to attack Xiao Guan. In
summer 567, Chen Xu commissioned
Wu Mingche as the governor of Xiang
Province and had him command a major part of the troops against Hua,
along with Chunyu Liang (淳于量). The opposing sides met at Dunkou
(沌口, in modern Wuhan).
Wuying Pagoda, a Buddhist pagoda rebuilt in
Wuchang during the
Southern Song dynasty.
The city has long been renowned as a center for the arts (especially
poetry) and for intellectual studies.Cui Hao, a celebrated poet of the
Tang dynasty, visited the building in the early 8th century; his poem
made it the most celebrated building in southern China.
In spring 877, Wang Xianzhi captured E
Prefecture (鄂州, in modern
Wuhan). He then returned north, joining forces with Huang again, and
they surrounded Song Wei at Song
Prefecture (宋州, in modern
Shangqiu, Henan). In winter 877,
Huang Chao pillaged Qi and Huang
(黃州, in modern Wuhan) Prefectures.
Kublai Khan arrived in 1259, word reached him that Möngke had
died. Kublai decided to keep the death of his brother secret and
continued the attack on the
Wuhan area, near the Yangtze. While
Kublai's force besieged Wuchang, Uryankhadai joined him.[citation
needed] The present-day
Wuying Pagoda was constructed at the end of
Song Dynasty between attacks by the Mongolian forces. Under the
Mongol rulers (Yuan dynasty) (after 1301), the
headquartered in the town, became the capital of
Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing, was under the administration of
the local government in Hanyang, although it was already one of the
four major national markets (zh:四大名镇) in Ming dynasty.
Guiyuan Temple was built in the 15th year of Shunzhi
(1658). By the dawn of the 18th century,
Hankou had become one of
China's top four most important towns of trade. In the late 19th
century, railroads were extended on a north–south axis through the
Wuhan an important transshipment point between rail and
river traffic. Also during this period foreign powers extracted
mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of
Hankou being divided up
into foreign-controlled merchant districts. These districts contained
trading firm offices, warehouses, and docking facilities. The French
had a concession in Hankou.
The mid-19th century
Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower (1871)
Second Opium War
Second Opium War (known in the West as the Arrow War,
1856–1860), the government of the
Qing dynasty was defeated by the
western powers and signed the
Treaties of Tianjin
Treaties of Tianjin and the Convention
of Peking, which stipulated eleven cities or regions (including
Hankou) as trading ports. In December 1858, James Bruce, 8th Earl of
Elgin, High Commissioner to China, led four warships up the Yangtze
Wuhan to collect the information needed for opening the
trading port in Wuhan. And in the spring of 1861, Counselor Harry
Parkes and Admiral Herbert were sent to
Wuhan to open a trading port.
On the basis of the Convention of Peking, Harry Parkes concluded the
Hankou Lend-Lease Treaty with Guan Wen, the governor-general of Hunan
and Hubei. It brought an area of 30.53 square kilometres
(11.79 sq mi) along the
Yangtze River (from Jianghan Road to
Hezuo Road today) to become a British Concession and permitted Britain
to set up its consulate in the concession. Thus,
Hankou became an open
Foreign concessions along the Hankow Bund c. 1900.
Zhang Zhidong was transferred from Viceroy of Liangguang
Guangxi provinces) to
Viceroy of Huguang
Viceroy of Huguang (
Hubei provinces). He governed the province for 18 years, until 1907.
During this period, he elucidated the theory of "Chinese learning as
the basis, Western learning for application," known as the ti-yong
ideal. He set up many heavy industries, founded Hanyang Steel Plant,
Daye Iron Mine, Pingxiang Coal Mine and
Hubei Arsenal and set up local
textile industries, boosting the flourishing modern industry in Wuhan.
Meanwhile, he initiated education reform, opened dozens of modern
educational organizations successively, such as Lianghu (
Hubei) Academy of Classical Learning, Civil General Institute,
Military General Institute, Foreign Languages Institute and Lianghu
Hunan and Hubei) General Normal School, and selected a great many
students for study overseas, which well promoted the development of
China’s modern education. Furthermore, he trained a modern military
and organized a modern army including a zhen and a xie (both zhen and
xie are military units in the
Qing dynasty) in Hubei. All of these
laid a solid foundation for the modernization of Wuhan.
Originally known as the
Hubei Arsenal, the
Hanyang Arsenal was founded
in 1891 by
Qing official Zhang Zhidong, who diverted funds from the
Nanyang Fleet in
Guangdong to build the arsenal. It cost about 250,000
pounds sterling and was built in 4 years. On 23 April 1894,
construction was completed and the arsenal, occupying some 40 acres
(160,000 m2), could start production of small-calibre cannons. It
built magazine-fed rifles, Gruson quick fire guns, and cartridges.
Wuchang Uprising Memorial, the original site of revolutionary
government in 1911
Wuhan area in 1915
On October 10, 1911, Sun Yat-sen's followers launched the Wuchang
Uprising, which led to the collapse of the
Qing dynasty, as
well as the establishment of the Chinese Republic.
Wuhan was the
capital of the left-wing
Kuomintang government led by Wang Jingwei, in
opposition to Chiang Kai-shek's right-wing government during the
Wuchang Uprising of October 1911, which overthrew the Qing
dynasty, originated in Wuhan. Before the uprising, anti-Qing
secret societies were active in Wuhan. In September 1911, the outbreak
of the protests in
Sichuan forced the
Qing authorities to send part of
New Army garrisoned in
Wuhan to suppress the rebellion. On
September 14 the Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive
Association (共進會), two local revolutionary organizations in
Hubei, set up joint headquarters in
Wuchang and planned for an
uprising. On the morning of October 9, a bomb at the office of the
political arrangement exploded prematurely and alerted local
authorities. The proclamation for the uprising, beadroll and the
revolutionaries’ official seal fell into the hands of Rui Cheng, the
Hunan and Hubei, who demolished the uprising
headquarters the same day and set out to arrest the revolutionaries
listed in the beadroll. This forced the revolutionaries to launch
the uprising earlier than planned.
On the night of October 10, the revolutionaries fired shots to signal
the uprising at the engineering barracks of
Hubei New Army. They
then led the
New Army of all barracks to join the revolution.
Under the guidance of Wu Zhaolin, Cai Jimin and others, this
revolutionary army seized the official residence of the governor and
government offices. Rui Cheng fled in panic into the Chu-Yu Ship.
Zhang Biao, the commander of
Qing army, also fled the city. On the
morning of the 11th, the revolutionary army took the whole city of
Wuchang, but leaders such as Jiang
Yiwu and Sun Wu disappeared.
Thus the leaderless revolutionary army recommended Li Yuanhong, the
assistant governor of
Qing army, as the commander-in-chief. Li
Hubei Military Government, proclaimed the abolition of the
Qing rule in Hubei, the founding of the Republic of
published an open telegram calling for other provinces to join the
As the revolution spread to other parts of the country, the Qing
government concentrated loyalist military forces to suppress the
uprising in Wuhan. From October 17 to December 1, the revolutionary
army and local volunteers defended the city in the Battle of Yangxia
against better armed and more numerous
Qing forces commanded by Yuan
Huang Xing (黃興) would arrive in
Wuhan in early November to
take command of the revolutionary army. After fierce fighting and
Qing forces seized
Hankou and Hanyang. But Yuan
agreed to halt the advance on
Wuchang and participated in peace talks,
which would eventually lead to the return of
Sun Yat-sen from exile,
founding of the Republic of
China on January 1, 1912. Through
Wuhan is known as the birthplace of the Xinhai
Revolution, named after the Xinhai year on the Chinese calendar.
The city has several museums and memorials to the revolution and the
thousands of martyrs who died defending the revolution.
Republic of China
A map of
Wuhan painted by Japanese in 1930, with
Hankou being the most
With the northern extension of the Northern Expedition, the center of
the Great Revolution shifted from the Pearl River basin to the Yangtze
River basin. On November 26, the KMT Central Political Committee
decided to move the capital from
Guangzhou to Wuhan. In middle
December, most of the KMT central executive commissioners and national
government commissioners arrived in Wuhan, set up the temporary joint
conference of central executive commissioners and National Government
commissioners, performed the top functions of central party
headquarters and National Government, declared they would work in
Wuhan on January 1, 1927, and decided to combine the towns of Wuchang,
Hankou, and Hanyang into
Wuhan City, called "Capital District". The
national government was in the Nanyang Building in Hankou, while the
central party headquarters and other organizations chose their
Hankou or Wuchang. In March 1927,
Mao Zedong appeared
at the Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in Wuhan,
which sought to strip General Chiang of his power by appointing Wang
Jingwei leader. The first phase of the
Northern Expedition was
interrupted by the political split in the
Kuomintang following the
formation of the
Nanjing faction in April 1927 against the existing
faction in Wuhan. Members of the Chinese Communist Party, who had
survived the April 12 massacre, met at
Wuhan and re-elected Chen Duxiu
(Ch'en Tu-hsiu) as the Party's Secretary General. The split was
partially motivated by the purge of the Communists within the party,
which marked the end of the First United Front, and Chiang Kai-shek
briefly stepped down as the commander of the National Revolutionary
In June 1927,
Stalin sent a telegram to the Communists in Wuhan,
calling for mobilisation of an army of workers and peasants. This
alarmed Wang Jingwei, who decided to break with the Communists and
come to terms with Chiang Kai-shek. The
Wuhan coup was a political
shift made on July 15, 1927 by
Wang Jingwei towards Chiang Kai-shek,
and his Shanghai-based rival in the
Kuomintang (KMT). The Wuhan
Nationalist Government was established in
Wuhan on February 21, 1927
and ended by August 19, 1927.
In the 1931
China floods, the high-water mark was reached on 19 August
at Hankou, with the water level exceeding 16 m (53 ft) above
normal. In 1936, when natural disaster struck Central China
with widespread flooding affecting Hebei, Hunan, Jiangxi,
Chongqing caused by the
Yangtze and Huai Rivers bursting their banks,
Ong Seok Kim, as Chairman of the Sitiawan Fundraising and Disaster
Relief Committee, raised money and materials in support of the
The gunboat Zhongshan
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War and following the fall of Nanking
in December 1937,
Wuhan had become the provisional capital of China's
Kuomintang government, and became another focal point of pitched air
battles beginning in early 1938 between modern monoplane bomber and
fighter aircraft of the Imperial Japanese forces and the Chinese Air
Force, which included support from the
Soviet Volunteer Group
Soviet Volunteer Group in both
planes and personnel, as U.S. support in war materials waned. As
the battle raged on through 1938,
Wuhan and the surrounding region had
become the site of the Battle of Wuhan. After being taken by the
Japanese in late 1938,
Wuhan became a major Japanese logistics center
for operations in southern China.
In early October 1938, Japanese troops moved east and north in the
outskirts of Wuhan. As a result, numerous companies and enterprises
and large numbers of people had to withdraw from
Wuhan to the west of
Hubei and Sichuan. The KMT navy undertook the responsibility of
Yangtze River on patrol and covering the withdrawal. On
October 24, while overseeing the waters of the
Yangtze River near the
town of Jinkou (
Jiangxia District in Wuhan) in Wuchang, the KMT
Zhongshan came up against six Japanese aircraft. Though two
were eventually shot down, the
Zhongshan sank with 25 casualties.
Raised from the bottom of the
Yangtze River in 1997, and restored at a
local shipyard, the
Zhongshan has been moved to a purpose-built museum
in Wuhan's suburban Jiangxia District, which opened on September 26,
As a key center on the Yangtze,
Wuhan was an important base for
Japanese operations in China. On 18 December 1944,
bombed by 77 American bombers that set off a firestorm that destroyed
much of the city. For the next three days,
Wuhan was bombed by the
Americans, destroying all of the docks and warehouses of Wuhan, as
well as the Japanese air bases in the city. The air raids killed
thousands of Chinese civilians. "According to casualty statistics
Hankou city in 1946, more than 20,000 were killed or
injured in the December bombings of 1944."
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army troops at
Hankou on May 16,
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army troops entered
Wuhan on May 16, 1949.
People's Republic of China
In his poem "Swimming" (1956), engraved on the 1954 Flood Memorial in
Mao Zedong envisions "walls of stone" to be erected
Changjiang Water Resources Commission was re-established in
February 1950 with its headquarters seated in Wuhan. From June to
September 1954, the
Yangtze River Floods were a series of catastrophic
floodings that occurred mostly in
Hubei Province. Due to unusually
high volume of precipitation as well as an extraordinarily long rainy
season in the middle stretch of the
Yangtze River late in the spring
of 1954, the river started to rise above its usual level in around
late June. In 1969, a large stone monument was erected in the
riverside park in
Hankou honoring the heroic deeds in fighting the
Yangtze River floods.
Before construction of the
Yangtze River Bridge, Hunslet Engine
Company built two extra heavy
0-8-0 locomotives for loading the train
ferries for crossing the
Yangtze River in Wuhan.
Yangtze River Bridge under construction
The project of building the
Yangtze River Bridge, also known as
Yangtze River Bridge, was regarded as one of the key
projects during the first five-year plan. On October 25, 1955,
construction began on the bridge proper. The same day in 1957, the
whole project was completed and an opening-to-traffic ceremony was
held on October 15. The First
Yangtze River Bridge united the
Hankou Railway with the Guangdong–
Hankou Railway into the
Guangzhou Railway, making
Wuhan a 'thoroughfare to nine
provinces' (九省通衢) in name and in fact.
Chengdu Conference, Mao went to
Wuhan in April to
inspect the countryside and factories. In Wuhan, he called all the
leaders of provinces and municipalities who had not attended Chengdu
Conference to report their work. Tian Jiaying, the secretary of Mao,
Wuhan Conference was a supplement to
In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the
("July 20th Incident"), an armed conflict between two hostile groups
who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the
In 1981, the
Wuhan City Government commenced reconstruction of the
tower at a new location, about 1 km (0.62 mi) from the
original site, and it was completed in 1985. In 1957, the Wuhan
Yangtze River Bridge was built with one trestle of the bridge on the
Yellow Crane Tower's site.
The present-day Yellow Crane Tower
On June 22, 2000, a
Wuhan Airlines flight from Enshi to
forced to circle for 30 minutes due to thunderstorms. The aircraft
eventually crashed on the banks of Han River in Hanyang District,
all on-board perished (there were varying accounts of number of crews
and passengers). In addition, the crash also killed 7 people on the
Chinese protesters organized boycotts of the French-owned retail chain
Carrefour in major Chinese cities including Kunming,
Hefei and Wuhan,
accusing the French nation of pro-secessionist conspiracy and
anti-Chinese racism. The BBC reported that hundreds of people
demonstrated in Beijing, Wuhan, Hefei,
Kunming and Qingdao. On
May 19, 2011, Fang Binxing, the Principal of
Beijing University of
Posts and Telecommunications (also known as "Father of China's Great
Fire Wall") was hit on the chest by a shoe thrown at him by a
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong University of Science and Technology student who calls
herself "hanunyi" (Chinese:寒君依, or 小湖北) while Fang was
giving a lecture at
The city has been subject to devastating floods, which are now
supposed to be controlled by the ambitious
Three Gorges Dam, a project
which was completed in 2008. The 2008 Chinese winter storms
damaged water supply equipment in Wuhan: up to 100,000 people
were out of running water when several water pipes burst, cutting the
supply to local households. The 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer
heat wave hit
Wuhan on July 3. In the 2010
China floods, the Han
Wuhan experienced its worst flooding in twenty years, as
officials continued sandbagging efforts along the Han and Yangtze
Rivers in the city and checked reservoirs. In the 2011 China
Wuhan was flooded, with parts of the city losing power. In
Wuhan saw 570 mm (22 in) of rainfall
during the first week of July, surpassing the record that fell on the
city in 1991. A red alert for heavy rainfall was issued on 2 July, the
same day that eight people died after a 15-metre (49 ft) section
of a 2 m (6.6 ft) tall wall collapsed on top of them.
The city's subway system, the
Wuhan Metro was partially submerged as
was the main railway station. At least 14 city residents were
killed, one was missing, and more than 80,000 were relocated.
On January 31, 2018, Theresa May, Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom, visited Wuhan, spoke at
Wuhan University and visited the
Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower and the First
Yangtze River Bridge.
Wuhan as viewed from the Yellow Crane Tower.
Left to right:
Yangtze River, Wuchang,
Yangtze River Bridge,
Hanyang Tortoise Mountain TV Tower, mouth of the Han River and Hankou
Satellite image of Wuhan
Looking west from the
Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower in Wuchang. The First Bridge
over the Yangtze, and the Tortoise Hill in Hanyang, with its TV tower,
are in the background.
Wuhan is in east-central Hubei, at latitude 29° 58'–31° 22' N and
longitude 113° 41'–115° 05' E, east of the Jianghan Plain, and is
at the confluence of the
Yangtze Rivers along the middle
reaches of the latter.
The metropolitan area comprises three parts—Wuchang, Hankou, and
Hanyang—commonly called the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (hence the name
"Wuhan", combining "Wu" from the first city and "Han" from the other
two). The consolidation of these cities occurred in 1927 and
thereby established. The parts face each other across the rivers and
are linked by bridges, including one of the first modern bridges in
China, known as the "First Bridge". It is simple in terrain—low and
flat in the middle and hilly in the south, with the
Yangtze and Han
rivers winding through the city. The
Sheshui River enters the Yangtze
in Huangpi District.
Wuhan occupies a land area of 8,494.41 square
kilometres (3,279.71 sq mi), most of which is plain and
decorated with hills and a great number of lakes and ponds, including
East Lake and Tangxun Lake, which are the largest lakes entirely
within a city in China. Other well-known lakes include South Lake
and Sand Lake. Liangzi Lake, the largest lake by surface area in Hubei
province, is located in the southeast of Jiangxia District. There are
also several mountains within the city limits of
Wuhan including Mount
Luojia (珞珈山) in
Wuchang District as well as Mount Hong
(洪山) and Mount Yujia (喻家山/瑜珈山) in Hongshan
On a rare snow day in Wuhan
Wuhan's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with abundant
rainfall and four distinctive seasons.
Wuhan is known for its
oppressively humid summers, when dewpoints can often reach 26 °C
(79 °F) or more. Along with
Chongqing and Nanjing,
traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities"
Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the
summertime. Because of its hot summer weather,
Wuhan is commonly
known as one of the Four Furnaces of China, along with Nanjing,
Nanchang and Chongqing. Spring and autumn are generally mild,
while winter is cool with occasional snow. The monthly 24-hour average
temperature ranges from 4.0 °C (39.2 °F) in January to
29.1 °C (84.4 °F) in July. Annual precipitation totals
1,320 mm (52 in), the majority of which falls from April
to July; the annual mean temperature is 17.13 °C
(62.8 °F), the frost-free period lasts 211 to 272
days. With monthly possible sunshine percentage
ranging from 31 percent in March to 59 percent in August,
the city proper receives 1,865 hours of bright sunshine annually.
Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −18.1 °C (−1 °F)
on 31 January 1977 to 39.7 °C (103 °F) on 27 July 2017
(unofficial record of 41.3 °C (106 °F) was set on 10
Climate data for
Wuhan (1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Meteorological Administration
Government and politics
Wuhan is a sub-provincial city. Municipal government is regulated by
the local Communist Party of
China (CPC), led by the
Secretary (Chinese: 武汉市委书记), Chen Yixin. The local CPC
issues administrative orders, collects taxes, manages the economy, and
directs a standing committee of the Municipal People's Congress in
making policy decisions and overseeing the local government.
Government officials include the mayor (Chinese: 市长), Wan Yong
(万勇), and vice-mayor. Numerous bureaus focus on law, public
security, and other affairs.
Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Hubei
§ Administrative divisions, and List of township-level divisions
Hubei § Wuhan
The sub-provincial city of
Wuhan currently comprises 13 districts.
As of the Sixth Census of
China in 2010, the 13 districts comprised
161 township-level divisions including 143 subdistricts, 8 towns, 5
townships and 5 farming areas.
Suburban and Rural Districts
Water Region (水上地区)
Main article: List of diplomatic missions in
China § Wuhan
There are four countries that have consulates in
planning on opening a new consulate in Wuhan):
The current U.S. Consul General, the Honorable Mrs. Jamie Fouss, was
Wuhan in August 2017. The office of the U.S. Consulate
China (located in Wuhan) celebrated its official
opening on November 20, 2008 and is the first new American consulate
China in over 20 years. The consulate is currently
scheduled to offer visa and citizen services in the Fall of 2018.
Japan and Russia will be establishing consular offices in
An area of
Wuhan during a construction boom in 2007
In 2012, the city's GDP exceeded 800 billion CNY, growing at an annual
rate of 11.4 percent. GDP is split almost evenly between the city's
industrial and service sectors. GDP per capita was approximately
64,000 CNY as of 2009[update]. In 2013, the city's annual average
disposable income was 23,738.09 CNY, which is expected to increase by
14 percent over the next year.
France are linked by strong economics partnerships. For
example, some French companies (Renault, PSA Group...) are established
in Wuhan. It is the city in
China which receives the most French
Wuhan has attracted foreign investment from over 80 countries, with
5,973 foreign-invested enterprises established in the city with a
total capital injection of $22.45 billion USD. Among these, about
50 French companies have operations in the city, representing over one
third of French investment in China, and the highest level of French
investment in any Chinese city. The municipal government offers
various preferential policies to encourage foreign investment,
including tax incentives, discounted loan interest rates and
Wuhan is an important center for economy, trade, finance,
transportation, information technology, and education in China. Its
major industries include optic-electronic, automobile manufacturing,
iron and steel manufacturing, new pharmaceutical sector, biology
engineering, new materials industry and environmental protection.
Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation and Dongfeng-Citroen Automobile Co.,
Ltd headquartered in the city. Environmental sustainability is
highlighted in Wuhan's list of emerging industries, which include
energy efficiency technology and renewable energy.
Wuhan is one of the most competitive forces for domestic trade in
China, rivaling the first-tier cities of Shanghai, Beijing, and
Guangzhou in its volume of retail. It is also among the top list of
Wuhan Department Store, Zhongshang Company,
Hanyang Department Store, and Central Department Store enjoy the
highest reputation and are Wuhan's four major commercial enterprises
and listed companies. Hanzhengjie Small Commodities Market has been
prosperous for hundreds of years and enjoys a worldwide reputation.
Headquarters of Wu Chuan (
Wuhan Shipbuilding Company)
Major industrial zones in
Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone
Donghu New Technology Development Zone
Donghu New Technology Development Zone is a national level
high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications,
and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of
Wuhan East Lake
High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and
electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production
centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Yangtze
Optical Fiber and Cable, (the largest fiber-optical cable maker
in China), and Fiberhome Telecommunications.
Wuhan Donghu New
Technology Development Zone also represents the development centre for
China's laser industry with key players such as HG Tech and
Chutian Laser being based in the zone.
Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone
Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level
industrial zone incorporated in 1993. Its current zone size is
about 10–25 square km and it plans to expand to
25–50 square km. Industries encouraged in
Wuhan Economic and
Technological Development Zone include Auto-mobile
Production/Assembly, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals
Production and Processing, Food/Beverage Processing, Heavy Industry,
and Telecommunications Equipment.
Wuhan Export Processing Zone
Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in
Wuhan Economic and Technology Development Zone, planned to cover 2.7
square kilometres (1.0 square mile) of land. The first
0.7-square-kilometre (0.3-square-mile) area has been launched.
Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park
Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is located in Wuhan
Donghu New Technology Development Zone.
Wuhan Optics Valley Software
Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and
Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd. The planned area is 0.67 square
kilometres (0.26 square miles) with total floor area of 6,000,000
square metres (65,000,000 square feet). The zone is 8.5 km
(5.28 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km
(29.02 mi) away from the
Wuhan Tianhe Airport.
Biolake is an industry base established in 2008 in the Optics Valley
of China. Located in East Lake New Technology Development Zone of
Biolake covers 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi), and has six
parks including Bio-innovation Park, Bio-pharma Park, Bio-agriculture
Park, Bio-manufacturing Park, Medical Device Park and Medical Health
Park, to accommodate both research activities and
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative
divisions. 1953, 1982, 1990, 2000  2007
Wuhan is the most populous city in Central
China and among the most
populous in China. In the Sixth Census of
China in 2010, Wuhan's
built-up area made of 8 out of 10 urban districts (all but
Hannan not yet conurbated) was home to 8,821,658 inhabitants. As
of 2015[update], the city of
Wuhan had an estimated population of
The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as
of 2010[update], a population of 19 million.
Chinese religion or not religious (including Taoists
According to a survey published in 2017, 79.2% of the population of
Wuhan are not religious or practise worship of gods and ancestors;
among these, 0.93% are Taoists, a title traditionally denoting just
the Taoist clergy. Among other religious doctrines, 14.69% of the
population adheres to Buddhism, 2.86% to Protestantism, 0.34% to
Catholicism and 1.64% to Islam, and 1.61% of the population adheres to
unspecified other religions.
Religious sites in Wuhan
Baotong Buddhist Temple
Thanksgiving Protestant Church
Holy Family Catholic Church
The First Bridge at Wuhan. This view is upstream, toward the distant
Three Gorges and Chongqing.
Wuhan has seven bridges and one tunnel across the
Yangtze River. The
Yangtze River Bridge, also called the First Bridge, was built
Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in 1957, carrying the railroad
directly across the river between Snake Hill (on the left in the
picture below) and Turtle Hill. Before this bridge was built it could
take up to an entire day to barge railcars across. Including its
approaches, it is 5,511 feet (1,680 m) long, and it accommodates
both a double-track railway on a lower deck and a four-lane roadway
above. It was built with the assistance of advisers from the Soviet
The Second Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge, built of pre-stressed
concrete, has a central span of 400 metres (1,300 feet); it is 4,678
metres (15,348 feet) in length (including 1,877 metres (6,158 feet) of
the main bridge) and 26.5 to 33.5 metres (86.9 to 109.9 feet) in
width. Its main bridgeheads are 90 metres (300 feet) high each,
pulling 392 thick slanting cables together in the shape of double
fans, so that the central span of the bridge is well poised on the
piers and the bridge's stability and vibration resistance are ensured.
With six lanes on the deck, the bridge is designed to handle 50,000
motor vehicles passing every day. The bridge was completed in 1995.
Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed in September 2000.
Located 8.6 kilometres (5.3 miles) southwest of the First Bridge,
construction of Baishazhou Bridge started in 1997. With an investment
of over 1.4 billion yuan (about 170 million U.S. dollars), the bridge,
which is 3,586 metres (11,765 feet) long and 26.5 metres (86.9 feet)
wide, has six lanes and has a capacity of 50,000 vehicles a day. The
bridge is expected to serve as a major passage for the future Wuhan
Ring Road, enormously easing the city's traffic and aiding local
Yangluo Bridge carries Wuhan's Ring Road across the
Yangtze in the
city's eastern suburbs (connecting the Hongshan District with the
Xinzhou District). It was opened on December 26, 2007.
Yangtze River Bridge crosses the
Yangtze in the
northeastern part of the city, downstream of the Second bridge. Its
name is due to the Tianxing Island (Tianxingzhou), above which it
crosses the river. Built at the cost of 11 billion yuan, the
4,657-meter cable suspension bridge was opened on December 26,
2009, in time for the opening of the
Wuhan Railway Station. It is
a combined road and rail bridge, and carries the Wuhan–Guangzhou
High-Speed Railway across the river.
The old Dazhimen railway Station (大智门火车站), the original
Hankou terminus of the Beijing-
Hankou Railway. Constructed in
1900–1903, it was closed in 1991, after the opening of the present
Hankou Railway Station.
Wuhan Railway Hub
Wuhan Railway Hub is considered one of the four key railway hubs
of China. The city of
Wuhan is served by three major railway
Hankou Railway Station in Hankou, the
Station in Wuchang, and the
Wuhan Railway Station, located in a newly
developed area east of the East Lake (Hongshan District). As the
stations are many miles apart, it is important for passengers to be
aware of the particular station(s) used by a particular train.
Hankou Station was the terminus for the Jinghan Railway
from Beijing, while the
Wuchang Station was the terminus for the
Yuehan Railway to Guangzhou. Since the construction of the First
Yangtze Bridge and the linking of the two lines into the Jingguang
Wuchang stations have been served by trains
going to all directions, which contrasts with the situation in such
cities as New York or Moscow, where different stations serve different
With the opening of the Hefei-
Wuhan high-speed railway on April 1,
Wuhan became served by high-speed trains with Hefei,
Nanjing, and Shanghai; several trains a day now connect the city with
Shanghai, getting there in under 6 hours. As of early 2010, most of
these express trains leave from the
Hankou Railway Station.
Wuhan Railway Station, completed in 2009
In 2006, construction began on the new
Wuhan Railway Station
Wuhan Railway Station with 11
platforms, located on the northeastern outskirts of the city. In
December 2009, the station was opened, as
China unveiled its second
high-speed train with scheduled runs from
Guangzhou to Wuhan. Billed
as the fastest train in the world, it can reach a speed of
394 km/h (244.82 mph). The travel time between the two
cities has been reduced from ten and a half hours to just three. The
rail service has been extended north to Beijing.
As of 2011[update], the new
Wuhan Railway Station
Wuhan Railway Station is primarily used by
Guangzhou high-speed trains, while most regular trains to
other destinations continue to use the
Construction work is carried out on several lines of the new Wuhan
Metropolitan Area Intercity Railway, which will eventually connect
Wuhan's three main rail terminals with several stations throughout the
city's outer areas and farther suburbs, as well as with the nearby
cities of Xianning, Huangshi, Huanggang, and Xiaogan. The first line
of the system, the one to Xianning, opened for passenger operations at
the end of 2013.
The main freight railway station and marshalling yard of the Wuhan
metropolitan area is the gigantic
Wuhan North railway station, with
112 tracks and over 650 switches. It is located in Hengdiang
Subdistrict (横店街道) of Huangpi District, located 20 km
(12 mi) north of the
Wuhan Station and 23 km (14 mi)
Wuhan Metro (2017)
Wuhan Metro opened in September 2010,
Wuhan became the fifth
Chinese city with a metro system (after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai,
and Guangzhou). The first 10.2 kilometres (6.3 mi)-long line
(10 stations) is an elevated rail (and therefore called 'light rail'
in Chinese terminology). It runs from
Huangpu Road Station
Huangpu Road Station to Zongguan
Station in the downtown area of the
Hankou District, and it is the
first one in the country to use a communication-based train control
system (a Moving Block signalling system, provided by Alcatel). The
designed minimum interval is only 90 seconds between two trains and it
features driverless operation. Phase 2 of this line will extend
the length to 28.8 km (17.90 mi) with 26 stations in total.
It plans to start revenue service on July 28, 2010.
Metro Line 2 opened on December 28, 2012, extending total system
length to 56.85 km (35.32 mi). This is the first Metro line
Yangtze River (Chang Jiang).
Line 4 opened on December 28, 2013, connecting
Wuhan Railway Station
Wuchang Railway Station. Since that date, all three main railway
stations of the city are connected by the metro lines. In December
2016, the extension of Metro's Line 2 was extended to
Airport was opened as well.
By the end of year 2017, there are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4,
Line 6, Line 7 (built, opening delayed), Line 8, Line Yangluo and Line
21 (built, opening delayed).
A tram in
Wuhan University Science Park (武大园) Station
Main article: Trams in Wuhan
Trams were brought to the streets of
Wuhan on July 28, 2017 with the
first line (Auto-city T1 Line) opened that day. The trams under
construction or planning in
Auto-city trams, with Lines T1, T2, T6, and T8 in the
Development Area, in the far western reaches on Hanyang. T1 Line is
operational as of 2017.
Optics Valley trams, two lines (T1 and T2) south and east of Guanggu
Circle (Guanggu Guangchang) in southeastern Wuchang. The system opened
on January 18, 2018.
Hankou Streetcar, a loop line around
Wuhan is a major hub for maritime transport in central China. The Port
Wuhan provide services for the local population and shipping
View from ferry (2015)
As a city located at bank of
Wuhan has long history of
ferry services. Modern ferry services were established in 1900 by
steam boat. In 1937, train ferry was established to transport train
Hankou to Wuchang. There are numbered stops that allow
people get on and off the ferry around
Wuhan and there is a tourist
ferry in the night.
Currently, ferry services rea provided by
Wuhan Ferry Company. In
2010, the company bought 10 new ships to replace the ones that had
been in service for 29 years.
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
Opened in April 1995,
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport is one of the
busiest airports in central
China and it is located in Wuhan's
Huangpi District 26 kilometres (16 mi) north of Wuhan.
The extension of Line 2 of
Wuhan Metro to Tianhe Airport opened on 28
December 2016. It has also been selected as China's fourth
international hub airport after
Beijing Capital International Airport,
Guangzhou Baiyun. A second terminal was completed
in March 2008, having been started in February 2005 with an investment
CNY 3.372 billion. International flights to neighboring Asian
countries have also been enhanced, including direct flights to Tokyo
and Nagoya, Japan. Terminal 3 has been available for service since
China National Highway 318
As of May 2011[update], the
Hangzhou Public Bicycle
bike-share systems in
China were the largest in the world, with around
90,000 and 60,000 bicycles respectively. In 2012 the
Hangzhou Public Bicycle
Hangzhou Public Bicycle programs in
China are the largest in the
world, with around 90,000 and 60,000 bicycles respectively.
seen a rise in private "dockless" bike shares with fleets that dwarf
systems in size outside China. Initially, a number of traditional
(third generation) docked public bike systems operated by local
municipal governments opened across China, with the largest ones being
Wuhan and Hangzhou. The first was introduced in
Beijing in 2007.
However, third generation bike sharing is not considered successful
for the majority cities in China. Bike sharing in
stopped and it also has encountered difficulties in
Replica instruments of ancient originals are played at the Hubei
A replica set of bronze concert bells is in the background and a set
of stone chimes is to the right.
The pagoda on Moshan Hill at East Lake
Happy Valley Wuhan
Happy Valley Wuhan amusement park
Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower (Huanghelou) is presumed to have been first
built in approximately 220 AD. The tower has been destroyed and
reconstructed numerous times, and was burned last according to some
sources in 1884. The tower underwent complete reconstruction in 1981.
The reconstruction utilized modern materials and added an elevator
while maintaining the traditional design in the tower's outward
Wuchang has the largest and second largest lakes within a city in
China, the East Lake and Tangxun Lake, as well as the South Lake. The
east lake in
Wuhan is 6 times the size of the West Lake in Hangzhou,
Zhejiang province. The total area is more than 80 km2
(31 sq mi) of which the lake is covering an area of
33 km2 (13 sq mi). In the springtime, the shores of
East Lake become a garden of flowers with the Mei blossoms as the king
and the Cherry Blossom as the queen among the species at East Lake
Cherry Blossom Park. Another famous flower is the lotus. The lake has
a long history and especially the Chu Kingdom is well represented
around East Lake. At East Lake you find fascinating gardens like the
Mei Blossom Garden, Forest of the Birds, Cherry Blossom Garden and
monuments from ancient times, beautiful hills and green nature.
Moreover, in the Moshan Botanic Garden there are many types of plum
blossoms, as well as lotus flowers.
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, made in 433 B.C., now on display at
Hubei Provincial Museum in Wuhan
Hubei Provincial Museum: With over 200,000 valued artifacts, this
is one of the leading museums in China. Especially the artefacts from
the tomb of
Marquis Yi of Zeng
Marquis Yi of Zeng (Zeng Hou Yi), who lived in the 5th
century B.C., is a world unique treasure. The bell chime of Marquis Yi
of Zeng is a bronze instrument performed 2430 years ago in ancient
China (Warring States Period), and was discovered in the Tomb of
Marquis Yi of Zeng
Marquis Yi of Zeng in Suizhou,
Hubei in 1978. The whole chime weighs 5
tons, can perfectly play sound which was heard 2430 years ago, and was
considered "The Eighth Wonder of the World".
Wuhan Museum has a collection of more than 100,000 artifacts,
including ceramic, bronze ware, paintings and calligraphy, jade, wood
carving, enamel ware, seals and so on. As a modern comprehensive
Wuhan Museum has the function in cultural relic collection,
academic reach, publicity and education, cultural exchange, and
recreation and entertainment.
Happy Valley Wuhan
Happy Valley Wuhan is a theme park in Hongshan District. Opened on 29
April 2012, it is the fifth installation of the Happy Valley theme
The Rock and Bonsai Museum includes a mounted platybelodon skeleton,
many unique stones, a quartz crystal the size of an automobile, and an
outdoor garden with miniature trees in the penjing ("Chinese Bonsai")
Jiqing Street (吉庆街) holds many roadside restaurants and street
performers during the evening and is the site of a Live Show with
stories of events on this street by contemporary writer Chi Li.
Lute Platform in Hanyang was where the legendary musician Yu Boya
is said to have played. This is the birthplace of the renowned legend
of seeking a soul mate through "high mountains and flowing water".
According to the story of 知音 (zhi yin, "understanding music"), Yu
Boya played for the last time over the grave of his friend Zhong Ziqi,
then smashed his lute because the only person able to appreciate his
music was dead.
Some luxury riverboat tours begin here after a flight from
Shanghai, with several days of flatland cruising and then climbing
Three Gorges with passage upstream past the Gezhouba and
Three Gorges dams to the city of Chongqing. With the completion of the
dam a number of cruises now start from the upstream side and continue
west, with tourists traveling by motor coach from Wuhan.
Wuying Pagoda or the "Shadowless Pagoda" is the oldest standing
architectural feature in Wuhan, dating from the closing days of the
Southern Song Dynasty.
Chu River and Han Street, a popular shopping district located in
Wuchang with many tourist attractions, including Han Show theater,
Madame Tussauds wax museum, and Movie Culture Park, etc. This project
was initiated as a water connecting channel between East Lake and
Wuhan Zoo in Hanyang
Wuhan, capital city of the
Hubei Province, is a popular shopping and
culinary tourist destination for both Chinese nationals and overseas
Schools and universities
The old library of
See also: List of universities and colleges in Hubei
There are 35 higher educational institutions which makes it a leading
educational hub for China. Recognized institutions include the
Wuhan University, and Huazhong University of Science and
Technology. 3 state-level development zones and many enterprise
incubators are also significant aspects of Wuhan.
Wuhan ranks third in
China in overall strength of science and technology.
By the end of 2013, in
Wuhan there were 1024 kindergartens with 224.3
thousand children, 590 primary schools with 424 thousand students, 369
general high schools with 314 thousand students, 105 secondary
vocational and technical schools with 98.6 students and 80 colleges
and universities with 966.4 thousand undergraduates and junior college
students, and 107.4 thousand postgraduate students. There are
several international schools in Wuhan.
Wuhan University, located near East Lake, was founded in 1893 as
Ziqiang Institute by
Zhang Zhidong and named a national university in
1928. In 2000 three other first-rated universities were merged with
the original university, forming a new university with 36 schools in 6
faculties. From the 1950s it has received international students from
more than 109 countries. Among its staff, 7 are Chinese Academy
of Sciences fellows, and 8 are Chinese Academy of Engineering
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong University of Science and Technology is another
Project 985 university in Wuhan. Founded in 1953 as Huazhong Institute
of Technology, it combined with three other universities (including
former Tongji Medical University founded in 1907) in 2000 to form the
new HUST, and has 42 schools and departments covering 12 comprehensive
The Water Resources and Hydro Power Lab,
Wuhan University (2005)
Wuhan contains three national development zones and four scientific
and technological development parks, as well as numerous enterprise
incubators, over 350 research institutes, 1470 hi-tech enterprises,
and over 400,000 experts and technicians.
Founded in 1958, the
Wuhan Branch of
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences is
one of the twelve national branches of CAS. It is composed of 9
independent organizations, including the headquarters at Xiaohongshan,
Wuchang. It has had a staff of 3900, among which 8 are CAS fellows,
and one is a
Chinese Academy of Engineering fellow. Up to 2013, the
achievements gained by WHB have won 23 National Awards and 778
Wuhan Research Institute of Post and
Telecommunications (now known as FiberHome Technologies Group) is the
national center for optical communication research in China, where the
first optical fiber in the country was produced.
Wuhan University of Technology is another major national University in
the area. Founded in the year 2000,
Wuhan University of Technology is
merged from three major universities,
Wuhan University of Technology
(established in 1948),
Wuhan Transportation University (established in
Wuhan Automotive Polytechnic University (established in
Wuhan University of Technology is one of the leading Chinese
universities accredited by the Ministry of Education and one of the
universities constructed in priority by the "State Project 211" for
Chinese higher education institutions. The University has three main
campuses located in the
Tortoise Mountain TV Tower
The headquarters of
Hubei Television is located in
Tortoise Mountain TV Tower
Tortoise Mountain TV Tower is China's first self-developed TV tower,
opened in 1986. The modern newspapers in
Wuhan can be dated back to
1866, when Hankow Times, a newspaper in English, was founded. Before
1949, more than 50 newspapers and magazines were published by
foreigners in Wuhan. Chao-wen Hsin-pao, founded by Ai Xiaomei in 1873,
was the first Chinese newspaper appeared in Hankou. During the
Northern Expedition era, journalism in
Wuhan was pushed to a climax.
More than 120 newspapers and periodicals, including national
newspapers such as
Central Daily News
Central Daily News and Republican Daily News, were
founded or published there. Chutian Metropolis Daily and Wuhan
Evening News are two major local commercial tabloid newspapers. Both
of them have entered the list of 100 most widely circulated newspapers
of the world.
Wuhan is one of the birthplaces of the brilliant ancient Chu Culture
Plum blossom is the emblem of the city, chosen because of
the long history of plum local cultivation and use, and partly to
recognize the current economic significance in term of cultivation and
research. Local wild plums were used medicinally during the Qin and
Han dynasties. Cultivation of the fruit began during the Song dynasty.
Some traditional new year customs revolve around the planting of
Wuhan natives speak a variety of
Southwestern Mandarin Chinese
referred to as
Wuhan dialect which differs slightly between the
districts of Wuhan, including
Wuchang dialect in
Hankou dialect in the
Hankou districts, Hanyang dialect in Hanyang
District, and Qingshan dialect in Qingshan District.
Fried Hongshan Caitai (洪山菜薹)
Hubei cuisine ranks as one of China’s ten major styles of cooking
with many representative dishes. With development of more than 2,000
Hubei cuisine, originating in Chu Cuisine in ancient times, has
developed a lot of distinctive dishes with its own characteristics,
such as steamed blunt-snout bream in clear soup, preserved ham with
flowering Chinese cabbage, etc.
"No need to be particular about the recipes, all food have their own
Rice wine and tangyuan are excellent midnight snacks, while fat
bream and flowering Chinese cabbages are great delicacies." This
attitude expressed in
Hankou Zhuzhici reflects indirectly the eating
habits and a wide variety of distinctive snacks with a long history in
Wuhan, such as Qingshuizong (a pyramid-shaped dumpling made of
glutinous rice wrapped in bamboo or reed leaves) in the Period of the
Warring States, Chunbinbian in Northern & Southern dynasties, mung
bean jelly in the Sui dynasty, youguo (a deep-fried twisted dough
stick) in the Song and Yuan dynasties, rice wine and mianwo in the
Qing dynasties as well as three-delicacy stuffed skin of bean
milk, tangbao (steamed dumpling filled with minced meat and gravy) and
hot braised noodles (reganmian) in modern times.
Guozao (過早) is a popular way to say 'having breakfast' in
Wuhan. It is generally said that
Guangzhou is the paradise for
Shanghai for dressing, while
Wuhan is a combination of
both. Sitting favorably at the heart of China,
Wuhan has gathered and
mixed together various habits and customs from neighboring cities and
provinces in all directions, which gives rise to a saying of
concentrating diverse customs from different places. The most famous
place to guozao (have breakfast) is the Hubu street (户部巷). This
150 meters long street is located in the most flourishing district of
Wuhan, Simenkou (司门口). We can find there nearly all the
traditional food of Wuhan, such as:
Doupi on the left and Re-gan mian on the right
Hot and Dry Noodles, Re-gan mian (热干面) consists of long freshly
boiled noodles mixed with sesame paste. The Chinese word re means hot
and gan means dry. It is considered to be the most typical local food
Duck's neck or Ya Bozi (鸭脖子) is a local version of this popular
Chinese dish, made of duck necks and spices.
Bean skin or
Doupi (豆皮) is a popular local dish with a filling of
egg, rice, beef, mushrooms and beans cooked between two large round
soybean skins and cut into pieces, structurally like a stuffed pizza
without enclosing edges.
Soup dumpling or Xiaolongtangbao (小笼汤包) is a kind of dumpling
with thin skin made of flour, steamed with very juicy meat inside, so
that is why it is called Tang (soup) Bao (bun), because every time one
takes a bite from it the soup inside spills out.
A salty doughnut or
Mianwo (面窝) is a kind of doughnut with a salty
taste. It is much thinner than a common doughnut and is a typical
Wuhan local food.
Han opera, which is the local opera of
Wuhan area, was one of China's
oldest and most popular operas. During the late
Qing dynasty, Han
opera, blended with Hui opera, gave birth to Peking opera, the most
popular opera in modern China. Therefore,
Han opera is called "mother
of Peking opera" in China.
Wuhan Zall Football Club
Wuhan has a professional football team
Wuhan Zall F.C.
Wuhan Zall F.C. that plays in
China League One. Xinhua Road Sport Center, the home stadium of the
team that has a capacity of 32,137, is located in the heart of the
city next to
Zhongshan Park. In 2013 season,
Wuhan Zall was promoted
to the top tier league of Chinese football--
Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League and
relocated its home to
Wuhan Sports Center Stadium, a modern stadium
located in suburban of the city that has 54,357 seats. However, the
team did not play well in the season and was demoted back to China
League One as 2013 season ended. Due to financial and transportation
reasons, the team moved back to Xinhua Road Sport Center in 2014.
Wuhan Gators are a professional arena football team based in
Wuhan. They are members of the
China Arena Football League
Wuhan Sports Center hosted
FIFA Women's World Cup
FIFA Women's World Cup in 2007, including
both group stage games and elimination phases.
Wuhan is nicknamed the
"fortune place" of Chinese football. Before the women's team lost the
Brazil in 2007 Women's World Cup, Chinese national football
teams, both men and women, had never lost any games in Wuhan.
The 13,000 seat
Wuhan Gymnasium held
2011 FIBA Asia Championship
2011 FIBA Asia Championship and
will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.
The city has been holding the women's tennis tournament
one of the WTA Premier 5 tournaments, since 2014.
Wuhan Center, tallest building in
Wuhan since 2014
See also: List of tallest buildings in Wuhan
Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower on the southern bank of the
The Yellow Crane Tower, considered one of the Four Great Towers of
China, was destroyed twelve times, both by warfare and by fire. The
tower is classified as an
AAAAA scenic area
AAAAA scenic area by the
Tourism Administration. At 438-metre (1,437 ft) in
Wuhan Center skyscraper, the tallest structure in
Wuhan and in Central China, is the eighth tallest structure in China.
The Minsheng Bank Building, the second tallest structure in Wuhan, was
the tallest building in
Wuhan when it was completed in 2007. It
retained the title until
Wuhan Center surpassed it in 2014.
Wuhan World Trade Tower
Wuhan World Trade Tower is a 273-meter (896 foot) tall skyscraper
located in Wuhan. It became the tallest building in
Wuhan after its
completion in 1998. However, it was surpassed by the Minsheng Bank
Building in 2007. The
Wuhan Greenland Center is a planned
636-metre (2,087 ft), 126-floor mixed-use skyscraper currently
under construction and scheduled for completion in 2019. If completed
as planned, it will be among the world's tallest structures, and one
of the world's tallest buildings by occupiable floor height. The
Phoenix Towers are proposed supertall skyscrapers planned for
construction in Wuhan. At 1 kilometre (3,300 ft) high, the towers
would also be the among the tallest structures in the world when
Li Na, a professional tennis player, serving at Wimbledon 2008, 1st
round against Anastasia Rodionova
President Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong – former President of the Republic of China.
Wu Yi – former Vice-Premier and Minister of Health of the People's
Republic of China
Wei Brian - Chinese entrepreneur
Hao Junmin – professional football player, played for Schalke 04 in
the German League.
Deng Zhuoxiang – professional football player, scored many
impressive goals for Chinese national team in important games
South Korea and 1:0
France in 2010.
Zeng Cheng – professional football player, has 6 Chinese Super
League and 2
AFC Champions League
AFC Champions League champion titles.
Rong Hao – professional football player. has 6 Chinese Super Leagues
AFC Champions League
AFC Champions League champion titles.
Xiao Hailiang – Olympic gold medalist (in 3-metre (9.8-foot)
springboard synchronized diving,
Sydney 2000) diver
Li Ting – female tennis player, Olympic gold medalist (in woman's
doubles, Athens 2004)
Fu Mingxia – female diver, four-time Olympic gold Medalist (1 in
Barcelona 1992, 2 in Atlanta 1996, 1 in
Sydney 2000), the only diver
that had won gold medals at 3 Olympiads as well as one of the very few
divers in the world who are able to win world championship in both
platform diving and springboard diving. diver
Zhou Jihong – woman diving athlete, Olympic gold medalist (Los
Angeles 1984), the first Chinese who has won an Olympic gold medal in
Mei Fang, a Chinese footballer who currently plays for Guangzhou
Evergrande in the Chinese Super League.
Qiao Hong – woman table tennis player, two-time Olympic gold
medalist (in woman's doubles, Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996)
Gao Ling – professional badminton player, two-time Olympic gold
Sydney 2000, Athens 2004)
Li Na – female tennis player, Champion of the
French Open 2011 and
Australian Open 2014
Tang Jieli – AIBA Women's Boxing World Champion
Yu Boya (俞伯牙) – ancient Chinese musician whose musical
composition "Flowing Water" was included on the Voyager Golden Record
Yao Beina - Top female singer (during 2005-2015), known as the "Voice
of China", spiritual leader of organ donation and charity (1981-2015).
Peng Xiuwen – composer and conductor
Paula Tsui – singer who spent most of her singing career in Hong
Xu Fan – actress
Liu Yifei – actress and singer. Childhood friend with Yao Beina.
Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) – soldier who started the
in the Chinese Revolution of 1911 which gave birth to the Republic of
China, Asia's first democratic country.
Chang-Lin Tien – seventh Chancellor of the University of California,
Berkeley (1990–1997), the first Asian to head a major university in
the United States.
Wang Kai – actor
Chi Li – modern writer
Zhou Mi – musician, member of the band Super Junior M
Tian Yuan – singer and actress
Samuel David Hawkins - American soldier in the Korean War who was
captured by the North, subsequently defected to
China at the time of
the Korean Armistice Agreement. He worked as a mechanic in Wuhan
before returning to the US in 1957.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Wuhan is twinned with:
September 7, 1979
September 8, 1982
October 8, 1982
September 27, 2004
April 4, 2006
November 12, 2012
November 11, 2013
May 20, 2015
September 12, 2006
August 6, 2015
August 6, 2015
September 10, 2016
January 31, 2018
2015 (Letter of Intent)
April 7, 2016
August 25, 2014
December 21, 2012
November 8, 2011
Nature and wildlife
In Chinese mythology, the
Baiji has many origin stories. In one
Baiji was the daughter of a general who was deported from
the city of
Wuhan during a war. During his duty, the daughter ran
away. Later, the general met a woman who told him how her father was a
general, and when he realized that she was his daughter, he threw
himself into the river out of shame. The daughter ran after him and
also fell into the river. Before they were drowned, the daughter was
transformed into a dolphin, and the general a porpoise.
Historical capitals of China
List of cities in the People's Republic of
China by population
List of current and former capitals of subnational entities of China
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江岸区 420103000000 江汉区 420104000000 硚口区 420105000000
汉阳区 420106000000 武昌区 420107000000 青山区 420111000000
洪山区 420112000000 东西湖区 420113000000 汉南区
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pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-19-954947-4.
^ Man Chong's biography in the Sanguozhi mentioned that these events
took place in the 3rd year of the Taihe era (227–233) of Cao Rui's
reign, i.e., the year 229. This is a mistake. It was actually in the
2nd year of the Taihe era, i.e., the year 228, according to the Zizhi
Chi, Li (2000). Lao
Wuhan (Old Wuhan): Yong Yuan De Lang Man... (part
of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series). Nanjing:
Coe, John L. (1962). Huachung University (Huazhong Daxue). New York:
United Board for Christian Higher Education.
Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "The Three
Wuhan Cities," pp.1–96 in The
Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times
Latimer, James V. (1934).
Wuhan Trips: A Book on Short Trips in and
Around Hankow. Hankow: Navy YMCA.
MacKinnon, Stephen R. (2000). "Wuhan's Search for Identity in the
Republican Period," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by
Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Rowe, William T. (1984). Hankou: Commerce and Society, 1796–1889.
Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Rowe, William T. (1988). Hankou: Conflict and Community in a Chinese
City, 1796–1895. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Song, Xiaodan & Zhu, Li (1999).
Wuhan Jiu Ying (Old Photos of
Wuhan). Beijing: Renmin Meishu Chubanshe (People's Fine Arts
Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." - In:
Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the
Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter,
January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799, 9783110962796. Also available
at (Archive) the website of the
Queens Library - This version does not
include the footnotes visible in the
Walter de Gruyter
Walter de Gruyter version. Also
available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in
international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers
section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003.
ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.
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