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Wuhan
Wuhan
(simplified Chinese: 武汉; traditional Chinese: 武漢; pinyin: Wǔhàn; [ù.xân] ( listen)) is the capital of Hubei
Hubei
province, People's Republic of China,[13] and is the most populous city in Central China.[14] It lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
at the intersection of the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Han rivers. Arising out of the conglomeration of three cities, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, Wuhan
Wuhan
is known as 'China's Thoroughfare' (zh);[1] it is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities. Because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan
Wuhan
is sometimes referred to as "the Chicago
Chicago
of China" by foreign sources.[2][3][4] Holding sub-provincial status,[15] Wuhan
Wuhan
is recognized as the political, economic, financial, cultural, educational and transportation center of central China.[14] In 1927, Wuhan
Wuhan
was briefly the capital of China
China
under the left wing of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) government led by Wang Jingwei.[16] The city later served as the wartime capital of China
China
in 1937.[17][18] The Wuhan Gymnasium held the 2011 FIBA Asia Championship
2011 FIBA Asia Championship
and will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[19]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Early Imperial China 2.3 Qing
Qing
dynasty

2.3.1 Wuchang
Wuchang
Uprising

2.4 Republic of China 2.5 People's Republic of China

3 Geography

3.1 Cityscape 3.2 Overview 3.3 Climate

4 Government and politics

4.1 Administrative divisions 4.2 Diplomatic missions

5 Economy

5.1 Industrial zones

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion

7 Transportation

7.1 Bridges 7.2 Railways 7.3 Metro 7.4 Trams 7.5 Maritime transport 7.6 Ferry 7.7 Airport 7.8 Highway 7.9 Bicycle-sharing system

8 Destinations 9 Education

9.1 Schools and universities 9.2 Scientific research

10 Media 11 Culture

11.1 Language 11.2 Cuisine 11.3 Opera 11.4 Sports

12 Architecture 13 Notable Wuhanese

13.1 Politics 13.2 Business 13.3 Sports 13.4 Other fields

14 Sister cities 15 Nature and wildlife 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

Etymology[edit] 'Wuhan' is derived from the pinyin romanization of the Standard Mandarin pronunciation of the name of the city '武汉' (Wǔhàn). The Chinese '武汉' (Wuhan) is a portmanteau of 武昌 (Wuchang) and 汉口 (Hankou). In 1926, the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
reached the Wuhan area and decided to merge Hankou, Wuchang
Wuchang
and Hanyang into one city in order to make a new capital for Nationalist China. On January 1, 1927,[20] the resulting city was proclaimed as '武漢' (Wuhan), which was later simplified as '武汉' (Wuhan).[21][22][23] The 'Wu' (武) in 'Wuhan' is derived from the 'Wu' in 'Wuchang' (武昌) (literally prospering from military, regarding its logistics role of the military bases established before the Battle of Red Cliffs). Wuchang
Wuchang
was the name given to the area in AD 221 when warlord Sun Quan
Sun Quan
moved the capital of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
to È county (in present-day Ezhou
Ezhou
City), and renamed È to Wuchang. The 'han' (漢, later simplified as 汉) in 'Wuhan' comes from the 'Han' in 'Hankou' (漢口), which literally means "Mouth of the Han", from its position at the confluence of the Han with the Yangtze
Yangtze
River. History[edit] Main article: History of Wuhan Antiquity[edit]

Panlongcheng, located in the southernmost area of the Erligang culture

With a 3,500-year-long history, Wuhan
Wuhan
is one of the most ancient and civilized metropolitan cities in China. Panlongcheng, an archaeological site primarily associated with the Erligang culture
Erligang culture
(c. 1510 – c. 1460 BC) (being sparsely populated during the earlier Erlitou period), is located in modern-day Huangpi District. During the Western Zhou, the State of E controlled the present-day Wuchang
Wuchang
area south of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River. After the conquest of the E state in 863 BC, the present-day Wuhan
Wuhan
area was controlled by the State of Chu for the rest of the Western Zhou
Western Zhou
and Eastern Zhou
Eastern Zhou
periods. Early Imperial China[edit] During the Han dynasty, Hanyang became a fairly busy port. The Battle of Xiakou in AD 203 and Battle of Jiangxia five years later were fought over control of Jiangxia Commandery (present-day Xinzhou District in northeast Wuhan). In the winter of 208/9, one of the most famous battles in Chinese history
Chinese history
and a central event in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms—the Battle of Red Cliffs—took place in the vicinity of the cliffs near Wuhan.[24] Around that time, walls were built to protect Hanyang (AD 206) and Wuchang
Wuchang
(AD 223). The latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower (黄鹤楼), one of the Four Great Towers of China, was constructed on the Wuchang
Wuchang
side of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
by order of Sun Quan, leader of the Eastern Wu. The tower become a sacred site of Taoism.[25]

Depiction of the Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
(Yuan dynasty)

Due to tensions between the Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
and Cao Wei
Cao Wei
states, in the autumn of 228,[a] Cao Rui, grandson of Cao Cao
Cao Cao
and the second emperor of the state of Cao Wei, ordered the general Man Chong to lead troops to Xiakou (夏口; in present-day Wuhan).[27][28] In 279, Wang Jun and his army conquered strategic locations in Wu territory such as Xiling (西陵; in present-day Yichang, Hubei), Xiakou (夏口; present-day Hankou) and Wuchang
Wuchang
(武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei). In fall 550, Hou Jing sent Ren Yue to attack both Xiao Daxin and Xiao Fan's son Xiao Si (蕭嗣). Ren killed Xiao Si in battle, and Xiao Daxin, unable to resist, surrendered, allowing Hou to take his domain under control. Meanwhile, Xiao Guan, who had by now settled at Jiangxia (江夏, in modern Wuhan), was planning to attack Hou, but this drew Xiao Yi's ire—believing that Xiao Guan was intending to contend for the throne—and he sent Wang to attack Xiao Guan. In summer 567, Chen Xu commissioned Wu Mingche as the governor of Xiang Province and had him command a major part of the troops against Hua, along with Chunyu Liang (淳于量). The opposing sides met at Dunkou (沌口, in modern Wuhan).

Wuying Pagoda, a Buddhist pagoda rebuilt in Wuchang
Wuchang
during the Southern Song
Southern Song
dynasty.

The city has long been renowned as a center for the arts (especially poetry) and for intellectual studies.Cui Hao, a celebrated poet of the Tang dynasty, visited the building in the early 8th century; his poem made it the most celebrated building in southern China.[29] In spring 877, Wang Xianzhi captured E Prefecture (鄂州, in modern Wuhan). He then returned north, joining forces with Huang again, and they surrounded Song Wei at Song Prefecture (宋州, in modern Shangqiu, Henan). In winter 877, Huang Chao
Huang Chao
pillaged Qi and Huang (黃州, in modern Wuhan) Prefectures. Before Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
arrived in 1259, word reached him that Möngke had died. Kublai decided to keep the death of his brother secret and continued the attack on the Wuhan
Wuhan
area, near the Yangtze. While Kublai's force besieged Wuchang, Uryankhadai joined him.[citation needed] The present-day Wuying Pagoda
Wuying Pagoda
was constructed at the end of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
between attacks by the Mongolian forces. Under the Mongol
Mongol
rulers (Yuan dynasty) (after 1301), the Wuchang
Wuchang
prefecture, headquartered in the town, became the capital of Hubei
Hubei
province. Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing, was under the administration of the local government in Hanyang, although it was already one of the four major national markets (zh:四大名镇) in Ming dynasty. Qing
Qing
dynasty[edit]

Guiyuan Temple

Hanyang's Guiyuan Temple
Guiyuan Temple
was built in the 15th year of Shunzhi (1658).[30] By the dawn of the 18th century, Hankou
Hankou
had become one of China's top four most important towns of trade. In the late 19th century, railroads were extended on a north–south axis through the city, making Wuhan
Wuhan
an important transshipment point between rail and river traffic. Also during this period foreign powers extracted mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of Hankou
Hankou
being divided up into foreign-controlled merchant districts. These districts contained trading firm offices, warehouses, and docking facilities. The French had a concession in Hankou.[31]

The mid-19th century Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
(1871)

During the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(known in the West as the Arrow War, 1856–1860), the government of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was defeated by the western powers and signed the Treaties of Tianjin
Treaties of Tianjin
and the Convention of Peking, which stipulated eleven cities or regions (including Hankou) as trading ports. In December 1858, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, High Commissioner to China, led four warships up the Yangtze River in Wuhan
Wuhan
to collect the information needed for opening the trading port in Wuhan. And in the spring of 1861, Counselor Harry Parkes and Admiral Herbert were sent to Wuhan
Wuhan
to open a trading port. On the basis of the Convention of Peking, Harry Parkes concluded the Hankou
Hankou
Lend-Lease Treaty with Guan Wen, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei. It brought an area of 30.53 square kilometres (11.79 sq mi) along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
(from Jianghan Road to Hezuo
Hezuo
Road today) to become a British Concession and permitted Britain to set up its consulate in the concession. Thus, Hankou
Hankou
became an open trading port.

Foreign concessions along the Hankow Bund c. 1900.

In 1889, Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
was transferred from Viceroy of Liangguang ( Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi
Guangxi
provinces) to Viceroy of Huguang
Viceroy of Huguang
( Hunan
Hunan
and Hubei
Hubei
provinces). He governed the province for 18 years, until 1907. During this period, he elucidated the theory of "Chinese learning as the basis, Western learning for application," known as the ti-yong ideal. He set up many heavy industries, founded Hanyang Steel Plant, Daye
Daye
Iron Mine, Pingxiang Coal Mine and Hubei
Hubei
Arsenal and set up local textile industries, boosting the flourishing modern industry in Wuhan. Meanwhile, he initiated education reform, opened dozens of modern educational organizations successively, such as Lianghu ( Hunan
Hunan
and Hubei) Academy of Classical Learning, Civil General Institute, Military General Institute, Foreign Languages Institute and Lianghu ( Hunan
Hunan
and Hubei) General Normal School, and selected a great many students for study overseas, which well promoted the development of China’s modern education. Furthermore, he trained a modern military and organized a modern army including a zhen and a xie (both zhen and xie are military units in the Qing
Qing
dynasty) in Hubei. All of these laid a solid foundation for the modernization of Wuhan. Originally known as the Hubei
Hubei
Arsenal, the Hanyang Arsenal
Hanyang Arsenal
was founded in 1891 by Qing
Qing
official Zhang Zhidong, who diverted funds from the Nanyang Fleet
Nanyang Fleet
in Guangdong
Guangdong
to build the arsenal. It cost about 250,000 pounds sterling and was built in 4 years.[32] On 23 April 1894, construction was completed and the arsenal, occupying some 40 acres (160,000 m2), could start production of small-calibre cannons. It built magazine-fed rifles, Gruson quick fire guns, and cartridges.[33] Wuchang
Wuchang
Uprising[edit] Main article: Wuchang
Wuchang
Uprising

Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
Memorial, the original site of revolutionary government in 1911

Present-day Wuhan
Wuhan
area in 1915

On October 10, 1911, Sun Yat-sen's followers launched the Wuchang Uprising,[34] which led to the collapse of the Qing
Qing
dynasty,[35] as well as the establishment of the Chinese Republic.[36] Wuhan
Wuhan
was the capital of the left-wing Kuomintang
Kuomintang
government led by Wang Jingwei, in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek's right-wing government during the 1920s. The Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
of October 1911, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, originated in Wuhan.[34] Before the uprising, anti-Qing secret societies were active in Wuhan. In September 1911, the outbreak of the protests in Sichuan
Sichuan
forced the Qing
Qing
authorities to send part of the New Army
New Army
garrisoned in Wuhan
Wuhan
to suppress the rebellion.[37] On September 14 the Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會), two local revolutionary organizations in Hubei,[37] set up joint headquarters in Wuchang
Wuchang
and planned for an uprising. On the morning of October 9, a bomb at the office of the political arrangement exploded prematurely and alerted local authorities.[38] The proclamation for the uprising, beadroll and the revolutionaries’ official seal fell into the hands of Rui Cheng, the governor-general of Hunan
Hunan
and Hubei, who demolished the uprising headquarters the same day and set out to arrest the revolutionaries listed in the beadroll.[38] This forced the revolutionaries to launch the uprising earlier than planned.[34] On the night of October 10, the revolutionaries fired shots to signal the uprising at the engineering barracks of Hubei
Hubei
New Army.[34] They then led the New Army
New Army
of all barracks to join the revolution.[39] Under the guidance of Wu Zhaolin, Cai Jimin and others, this revolutionary army seized the official residence of the governor and government offices.[37] Rui Cheng fled in panic into the Chu-Yu Ship. Zhang Biao, the commander of Qing
Qing
army, also fled the city. On the morning of the 11th, the revolutionary army took the whole city of Wuchang, but leaders such as Jiang Yiwu
Yiwu
and Sun Wu disappeared.[34] Thus the leaderless revolutionary army recommended Li Yuanhong, the assistant governor of Qing
Qing
army, as the commander-in-chief.[40] Li founded the Hubei
Hubei
Military Government, proclaimed the abolition of the Qing
Qing
rule in Hubei, the founding of the Republic of China
China
and published an open telegram calling for other provinces to join the revolution.[34][37] As the revolution spread to other parts of the country, the Qing government concentrated loyalist military forces to suppress the uprising in Wuhan. From October 17 to December 1, the revolutionary army and local volunteers defended the city in the Battle of Yangxia against better armed and more numerous Qing
Qing
forces commanded by Yuan Shikai. Huang Xing
Huang Xing
(黃興) would arrive in Wuhan
Wuhan
in early November to take command of the revolutionary army.[37] After fierce fighting and heavy casualties, Qing
Qing
forces seized Hankou
Hankou
and Hanyang. But Yuan agreed to halt the advance on Wuchang
Wuchang
and participated in peace talks, which would eventually lead to the return of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
from exile, founding of the Republic of China
China
on January 1, 1912.[36][41] Through the Wuchang
Wuchang
Uprising, Wuhan
Wuhan
is known as the birthplace of the Xinhai Revolution, named after the Xinhai year on the Chinese calendar.[42] The city has several museums and memorials to the revolution and the thousands of martyrs who died defending the revolution. Republic of China[edit]

A map of Wuhan
Wuhan
painted by Japanese in 1930, with Hankou
Hankou
being the most prosperous sector

With the northern extension of the Northern Expedition, the center of the Great Revolution shifted from the Pearl River basin to the Yangtze River basin. On November 26, the KMT Central Political Committee decided to move the capital from Guangzhou
Guangzhou
to Wuhan. In middle December, most of the KMT central executive commissioners and national government commissioners arrived in Wuhan, set up the temporary joint conference of central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners, performed the top functions of central party headquarters and National Government, declared they would work in Wuhan
Wuhan
on January 1, 1927, and decided to combine the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang into Wuhan
Wuhan
City, called "Capital District". The national government was in the Nanyang Building in Hankou, while the central party headquarters and other organizations chose their locations in Hankou
Hankou
or Wuchang.[16] In March 1927, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
appeared at the Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in Wuhan, which sought to strip General Chiang of his power by appointing Wang Jingwei leader. The first phase of the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
was interrupted by the political split in the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
following the formation of the Nanjing
Nanjing
faction in April 1927 against the existing faction in Wuhan.[43] Members of the Chinese Communist Party, who had survived the April 12 massacre, met at Wuhan
Wuhan
and re-elected Chen Duxiu (Ch'en Tu-hsiu) as the Party's Secretary General.[44] The split was partially motivated by the purge of the Communists within the party, which marked the end of the First United Front, and Chiang Kai-shek briefly stepped down as the commander of the National Revolutionary Army.[45] In June 1927, Stalin
Stalin
sent a telegram to the Communists in Wuhan, calling for mobilisation of an army of workers and peasants.[46] This alarmed Wang Jingwei, who decided to break with the Communists and come to terms with Chiang Kai-shek. The Wuhan coup was a political shift made on July 15, 1927 by Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
towards Chiang Kai-shek, and his Shanghai-based rival in the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT). The Wuhan Nationalist Government was established in Wuhan
Wuhan
on February 21, 1927 and ended by August 19, 1927.[47] In the 1931 China
China
floods, the high-water mark was reached on 19 August at Hankou, with the water level exceeding 16 m (53 ft) above normal.[48][49] In 1936, when natural disaster struck Central China with widespread flooding affecting Hebei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Wuhan
Wuhan
and Chongqing
Chongqing
caused by the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Huai Rivers bursting their banks, Ong Seok Kim, as Chairman of the Sitiawan Fundraising and Disaster Relief Committee, raised money and materials in support of the victims.[50][51][52][53]

The gunboat Zhongshan

During the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
and following the fall of Nanking in December 1937, Wuhan
Wuhan
had become the provisional capital of China's Kuomintang
Kuomintang
government, and became another focal point of pitched air battles beginning in early 1938 between modern monoplane bomber and fighter aircraft of the Imperial Japanese forces and the Chinese Air Force, which included support from the Soviet Volunteer Group
Soviet Volunteer Group
in both planes and personnel, as U.S. support in war materials waned.[54] As the battle raged on through 1938, Wuhan
Wuhan
and the surrounding region had become the site of the Battle of Wuhan. After being taken by the Japanese in late 1938, Wuhan
Wuhan
became a major Japanese logistics center for operations in southern China. In early October 1938, Japanese troops moved east and north in the outskirts of Wuhan. As a result, numerous companies and enterprises and large numbers of people had to withdraw from Wuhan
Wuhan
to the west of Hubei
Hubei
and Sichuan. The KMT navy undertook the responsibility of defending the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
on patrol and covering the withdrawal. On October 24, while overseeing the waters of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
near the town of Jinkou ( Jiangxia District
Jiangxia District
in Wuhan) in Wuchang, the KMT gunboat Zhongshan
Zhongshan
came up against six Japanese aircraft. Though two were eventually shot down, the Zhongshan
Zhongshan
sank with 25 casualties. Raised from the bottom of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
in 1997, and restored at a local shipyard, the Zhongshan
Zhongshan
has been moved to a purpose-built museum in Wuhan's suburban Jiangxia District, which opened on September 26, 2011.[55] As a key center on the Yangtze, Wuhan
Wuhan
was an important base for Japanese operations in China.[56] On 18 December 1944, Wuhan
Wuhan
was bombed by 77 American bombers that set off a firestorm that destroyed much of the city.[57] For the next three days, Wuhan
Wuhan
was bombed by the Americans, destroying all of the docks and warehouses of Wuhan, as well as the Japanese air bases in the city. The air raids killed thousands of Chinese civilians.[57] "According to casualty statistics compiled by Hankou
Hankou
city in 1946, more than 20,000 were killed or injured in the December bombings of 1944."[58]

People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
troops at Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Avenue, Hankou
Hankou
on May 16, 1949

People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
troops entered Wuhan
Wuhan
on May 16, 1949.[59] People's Republic of China[edit]

In his poem "Swimming" (1956), engraved on the 1954 Flood Memorial in Wuhan, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
envisions "walls of stone" to be erected upstream.[60]

The Changjiang Water Resources Commission was re-established in February 1950 with its headquarters seated in Wuhan. From June to September 1954, the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Floods were a series of catastrophic floodings that occurred mostly in Hubei
Hubei
Province. Due to unusually high volume of precipitation as well as an extraordinarily long rainy season in the middle stretch of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
late in the spring of 1954, the river started to rise above its usual level in around late June. In 1969, a large stone monument was erected in the riverside park in Hankou
Hankou
honoring the heroic deeds in fighting the 1954 Yangtze River
Yangtze River
floods. Before construction of the Wuhan
Wuhan
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge, Hunslet Engine Company built two extra heavy 0-8-0
0-8-0
locomotives for loading the train ferries for crossing the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
in Wuhan.

The First Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge under construction

The project of building the Wuhan
Wuhan
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge, also known as the First Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge, was regarded as one of the key projects during the first five-year plan. On October 25, 1955, construction began on the bridge proper. The same day in 1957, the whole project was completed and an opening-to-traffic ceremony was held on October 15. The First Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge united the Beijing– Hankou
Hankou
Railway with the Guangdong– Hankou
Hankou
Railway into the Beijing– Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Railway, making Wuhan
Wuhan
a 'thoroughfare to nine provinces' (九省通衢) in name and in fact. After Chengdu
Chengdu
Conference, Mao went to Chongqing
Chongqing
and Wuhan
Wuhan
in April to inspect the countryside and factories. In Wuhan, he called all the leaders of provinces and municipalities who had not attended Chengdu Conference to report their work. Tian Jiaying, the secretary of Mao, said that Wuhan
Wuhan
Conference was a supplement to Chengdu
Chengdu
Conference.[61] In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan
Wuhan
Incident ("July 20th Incident"), an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution.[62] In 1981, the Wuhan
Wuhan
City Government commenced reconstruction of the tower at a new location, about 1 km (0.62 mi) from the original site, and it was completed in 1985. In 1957, the Wuhan Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge was built with one trestle of the bridge on the Yellow Crane Tower's site.[63]

The present-day Yellow Crane Tower

On June 22, 2000, a Wuhan Airlines flight from Enshi to Wuhan
Wuhan
was forced to circle for 30 minutes due to thunderstorms. The aircraft eventually crashed on the banks of Han River in Hanyang District,[64] all on-board perished (there were varying accounts of number of crews and passengers). In addition, the crash also killed 7 people on the ground.[65][66][67] Chinese protesters organized boycotts of the French-owned retail chain Carrefour
Carrefour
in major Chinese cities including Kunming, Hefei
Hefei
and Wuhan, accusing the French nation of pro-secessionist conspiracy and anti-Chinese racism.[68] The BBC reported that hundreds of people demonstrated in Beijing, Wuhan, Hefei, Kunming
Kunming
and Qingdao.[69][70] On May 19, 2011, Fang Binxing, the Principal of Beijing
Beijing
University of Posts and Telecommunications (also known as "Father of China's Great Fire Wall"[71][72]) was hit on the chest by a shoe thrown at him by a Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
student who calls herself "hanunyi" (Chinese:寒君依, or 小湖北) while Fang was giving a lecture at Wuhan
Wuhan
University.[73][74][75][76][77][78] The city has been subject to devastating floods, which are now supposed to be controlled by the ambitious Three Gorges
Three Gorges
Dam, a project which was completed in 2008.[79][80] The 2008 Chinese winter storms damaged water supply equipment in Wuhan: up to 100,000 people were out of running water when several water pipes burst, cutting the supply to local households.[81] The 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave hit Wuhan
Wuhan
on July 3.[82] In the 2010 China
China
floods, the Han River at Wuhan
Wuhan
experienced its worst flooding in twenty years, as officials continued sandbagging efforts along the Han and Yangtze Rivers in the city and checked reservoirs.[83] In the 2011 China floods, Wuhan
Wuhan
was flooded, with parts of the city losing power.[84] In the 2016 China
China
floods, Wuhan
Wuhan
saw 570 mm (22 in) of rainfall during the first week of July, surpassing the record that fell on the city in 1991. A red alert for heavy rainfall was issued on 2 July, the same day that eight people died after a 15-metre (49 ft) section of a 2 m (6.6 ft) tall wall collapsed on top of them.[85] The city's subway system, the Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
was partially submerged as was the main railway station.[86] At least 14 city residents were killed, one was missing, and more than 80,000 were relocated.[87] On January 31, 2018, Theresa May, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, visited Wuhan, spoke at Wuhan University
Wuhan University
and visited the Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
and the First Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge.[88] Geography[edit] Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Wuhan
Wuhan
as viewed from the Yellow Crane Tower. Left to right: Yangtze
Yangtze
River, Wuchang, Wuhan
Wuhan
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge, Hanyang Tortoise Mountain TV Tower, mouth of the Han River and Hankou

Overview[edit]

Satellite image of Wuhan

Looking west from the Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
in Wuchang. The First Bridge over the Yangtze, and the Tortoise Hill in Hanyang, with its TV tower, are in the background.

Wuhan
Wuhan
is in east-central Hubei, at latitude 29° 58'–31° 22' N and longitude 113° 41'–115° 05' E, east of the Jianghan Plain, and is at the confluence of the Hanshui
Hanshui
and Yangtze
Yangtze
Rivers along the middle reaches of the latter. The metropolitan area comprises three parts—Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang—commonly called the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (hence the name "Wuhan", combining "Wu" from the first city and "Han" from the other two). The consolidation of these cities occurred in 1927 and Wuhan
Wuhan
was thereby established. The parts face each other across the rivers and are linked by bridges, including one of the first modern bridges in China, known as the "First Bridge". It is simple in terrain—low and flat in the middle and hilly in the south, with the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Han rivers winding through the city. The Sheshui River enters the Yangtze in Huangpi District. Wuhan
Wuhan
occupies a land area of 8,494.41 square kilometres (3,279.71 sq mi), most of which is plain and decorated with hills and a great number of lakes and ponds, including East Lake and Tangxun Lake, which are the largest lakes entirely within a city in China.[89] Other well-known lakes include South Lake and Sand Lake. Liangzi Lake, the largest lake by surface area in Hubei province, is located in the southeast of Jiangxia District. There are also several mountains within the city limits of Wuhan
Wuhan
including Mount Luojia (珞珈山) in Wuchang
Wuchang
District[88] as well as Mount Hong (洪山) and Mount Yujia (喻家山/瑜珈山) in Hongshan District.[90] Climate[edit]

On a rare snow day in Wuhan

Wuhan's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with abundant rainfall and four distinctive seasons. Wuhan
Wuhan
is known for its oppressively humid summers, when dewpoints can often reach 26 °C (79 °F) or more.[91] Along with Chongqing
Chongqing
and Nanjing, Wuhan
Wuhan
is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities" along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime.[92] Because of its hot summer weather, Wuhan
Wuhan
is commonly known as one of the Four Furnaces of China, along with Nanjing, Nanchang
Nanchang
and Chongqing.[93] Spring and autumn are generally mild, while winter is cool with occasional snow. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 4.0 °C (39.2 °F) in January to 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) in July.[94] Annual precipitation totals 1,320 mm (52 in),[94] the majority of which falls from April to July; the annual mean temperature is 17.13 °C (62.8 °F),[94] the frost-free period lasts 211 to 272 days.[citation needed] With monthly possible sunshine percentage ranging from 31 percent in March to 59 percent in August, the city proper receives 1,865 hours of bright sunshine annually.[94] Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −18.1 °C (−1 °F) on 31 January 1977 to 39.7 °C (103 °F) on 27 July 2017 (unofficial record of 41.3 °C (106 °F) was set on 10 August 1934).[95][96]

Climate data for Wuhan
Wuhan
(1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.4 (77.7) 29.1 (84.4) 32.4 (90.3) 35.1 (95.2) 36.1 (97) 37.8 (100) 39.7 (103.5) 39.6 (103.3) 37.6 (99.7) 34.4 (93.9) 30.4 (86.7) 23.3 (73.9) 39.7 (103.5)

Average high °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 10.7 (51.3) 15.2 (59.4) 22.1 (71.8) 27.1 (80.8) 30.2 (86.4) 32.9 (91.2) 32.5 (90.5) 28.5 (83.3) 23.0 (73.4) 16.8 (62.2) 10.8 (51.4) 21.49 (70.69)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 6.6 (43.9) 10.9 (51.6) 17.4 (63.3) 22.6 (72.7) 26.2 (79.2) 29.1 (84.4) 28.4 (83.1) 24.1 (75.4) 18.2 (64.8) 11.9 (53.4) 6.2 (43.2) 17.13 (62.85)

Average low °C (°F) 1.0 (33.8) 3.5 (38.3) 7.4 (45.3) 13.6 (56.5) 18.9 (66) 22.9 (73.2) 26.0 (78.8) 25.3 (77.5) 20.7 (69.3) 14.7 (58.5) 8.4 (47.1) 2.9 (37.2) 13.77 (56.79)

Record low °C (°F) −18.1 (−0.6) −14.8 (5.4) −5.0 (23) −0.3 (31.5) 7.2 (45) 13.0 (55.4) 17.3 (63.1) 16.4 (61.5) 10.1 (50.2) 1.3 (34.3) −7.1 (19.2) −10.1 (13.8) −18.1 (−0.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 49.0 (1.929) 67.6 (2.661) 89.5 (3.524) 136.4 (5.37) 166.9 (6.571) 219.9 (8.657) 224.7 (8.846) 117.4 (4.622) 74.3 (2.925) 81.3 (3.201) 59.1 (2.327) 29.7 (1.169) 1,315.8 (51.802)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.5 9.8 13.1 12.5 12.2 11.8 11.6 9.6 7.5 9.0 8.0 6.9 121.5

Average relative humidity (%) 76 75 76 75 74 77 77 77 75 76 75 73 75.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.9 97.0 121.8 152.8 181.0 170.9 220.2 226.4 175.8 151.9 139.3 126.5 1,865.5

Percent possible sunshine 33 33 31 39 43 43 54 59 48 46 45 43 43.1

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration[94]

Government and politics[edit] Wuhan
Wuhan
is a sub-provincial city. Municipal government is regulated by the local Communist Party of China
China
(CPC), led by the Wuhan
Wuhan
CPC Secretary (Chinese: 武汉市委书记), Chen Yixin. The local CPC issues administrative orders, collects taxes, manages the economy, and directs a standing committee of the Municipal People's Congress in making policy decisions and overseeing the local government. Government officials include the mayor (Chinese: 市长), Wan Yong (万勇)[6], and vice-mayor. Numerous bureaus focus on law, public security, and other affairs. Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Hubei § Administrative divisions, and List of township-level divisions of Hubei
Hubei
§ Wuhan The sub-provincial city of Wuhan
Wuhan
currently comprises 13 districts.[97] As of the Sixth Census of China
China
in 2010, the 13 districts comprised 161 township-level divisions including 143 subdistricts, 8 towns, 5 townships and 5 farming areas.[5]

Map District Chinese (S) Pinyin Population (2010 census)[98][5] Area (km²)[7] Density (/km²)

1 2 3 Xiaonan Xiaochang County Dawu County Hanchuan (city) Hanyang Wuchang Qingshan Hongshan Dongxihu Hannan Caidian Jiangxia Huangpi Xinzhou Huarong Liangzihu Xian'an Jiayu County Daye Xiantao Hankou
Hankou
districts 1. Jiang'an 2. Jianghan 3. Qiaokou Hong'an County Macheng (city) Tuanfeng County

Central Districts 6,434,373 888.42 7,242

Jiang'an 江岸区 Jiāng'àn Qū 895,635 64.24 13,942

Jianghan 江汉区 Jiānghàn Qū 683,492 33.43 20,445

Qiaokou 硚口区 Qiáokǒu Qū 828,644 46.39 17,863

Hanyang 汉阳区 Hànyáng Qū 792,183[99] 108.34 7,312

Wuchang 武昌区 Wǔchāng Qū 1,199,127 87.42 13,717

Qingshan 青山区 Qīngshān Qū 485,375 68.40 7,096

Hongshan 洪山区 Hóngshān Qū 1,549,917[100] 480.20 3,228

Suburban and Rural Districts 3,346,271 7,605.99 440

Dongxihu 东西湖区 Dōngxīhú Qū 451,880 439.19 1,029

Hannan 汉南区 Hànnán Qū 114,970 287.70 400

Caidian 蔡甸区 Càidiàn Qū 410,888 1,108.10 371

Jiangxia 江夏区 Jiāngxià Qū 644,835 2,010.00 321

Huangpi 黄陂区 Huángpí Qū 874,938 2,261.00 387

Xinzhou 新洲区 Xīnzhōu Qū 848,760 1,500.00 566

Water Region (水上地区) 4,748 - -

Total 9,785,392 8,494.41 1,152

Diplomatic missions[edit] Main article: List of diplomatic missions in China
China
§ Wuhan There are four countries that have consulates in Wuhan
Wuhan
( Russia
Russia
is planning on opening a new consulate in Wuhan):

 France[101]  USA[102]  South Korea[103]  UK[104]

The current U.S. Consul General, the Honorable Mrs. Jamie Fouss, was stationed in Wuhan
Wuhan
in August 2017. The office of the U.S. Consulate General, Central China
China
(located in Wuhan) celebrated its official opening on November 20, 2008 and is the first new American consulate in China
China
in over 20 years.[105][106] The consulate is currently scheduled to offer visa and citizen services in the Fall of 2018. Japan[107] and Russia[108] will be establishing consular offices in Wuhan. Economy[edit]

An area of Wuhan
Wuhan
during a construction boom in 2007

In 2012, the city's GDP exceeded 800 billion CNY, growing at an annual rate of 11.4 percent. GDP is split almost evenly between the city's industrial and service sectors.[109] GDP per capita was approximately 64,000 CNY[110] as of 2009[update]. In 2013, the city's annual average disposable income was 23,738.09 CNY, which is expected to increase by 14 percent over the next year.[109] Wuhan
Wuhan
and France
France
are linked by strong economics partnerships. For example, some French companies (Renault, PSA Group...) are established in Wuhan. It is the city in China
China
which receives the most French investment.[111] Wuhan
Wuhan
has attracted foreign investment from over 80 countries, with 5,973 foreign-invested enterprises established in the city with a total capital injection of $22.45 billion USD.[109] Among these, about 50 French companies have operations in the city, representing over one third of French investment in China, and the highest level of French investment in any Chinese city.[112] The municipal government offers various preferential policies to encourage foreign investment, including tax incentives, discounted loan interest rates and government subsidies. Wuhan
Wuhan
is an important center for economy, trade, finance, transportation, information technology, and education in China. Its major industries include optic-electronic, automobile manufacturing, iron and steel manufacturing, new pharmaceutical sector, biology engineering, new materials industry and environmental protection. Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation and Dongfeng-Citroen Automobile Co., Ltd headquartered in the city. Environmental sustainability is highlighted in Wuhan's list of emerging industries, which include energy efficiency technology and renewable energy.[109] Wuhan
Wuhan
is one of the most competitive forces for domestic trade in China, rivaling the first-tier cities of Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in its volume of retail. It is also among the top list of China's metropolises. Wuhan
Wuhan
Department Store, Zhongshang Company, Hanyang Department Store, and Central Department Store enjoy the highest reputation and are Wuhan's four major commercial enterprises and listed companies. Hanzhengjie Small Commodities Market has been prosperous for hundreds of years and enjoys a worldwide reputation. Industrial zones[edit]

Headquarters of Wu Chuan ( Wuhan
Wuhan
Shipbuilding Company)

Major industrial zones in Wuhan
Wuhan
include:

Wuhan
Wuhan
Donghu New Technology Development Zone

Wuhan
Wuhan
Donghu New Technology Development Zone
Donghu New Technology Development Zone
is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan
Wuhan
East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable,[113] (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), and Fiberhome Telecommunications.[114] Wuhan
Wuhan
Donghu New Technology Development Zone also represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HG Tech[115] and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.[116]

Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic and Technological Development Zone

Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993.[117] Its current zone size is about 10–25 square km and it plans to expand to 25–50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic and Technological Development Zone include Auto-mobile Production/Assembly, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Food/Beverage Processing, Heavy Industry, and Telecommunications Equipment.

Wuhan
Wuhan
Export Processing Zone

Wuhan
Wuhan
Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic and Technology Development Zone, planned to cover 2.7 square kilometres (1.0 square mile) of land. The first 0.7-square-kilometre (0.3-square-mile) area has been launched.[118]

Wuhan
Wuhan
Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park

Wuhan
Wuhan
Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is located in Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone. Wuhan
Wuhan
Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian
Dalian
Software Park Co., Ltd.[119] The planned area is 0.67 square kilometres (0.26 square miles) with total floor area of 6,000,000 square metres (65,000,000 square feet). The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) away from the Wuhan
Wuhan
Tianhe Airport.

Wuhan
Wuhan
Biolake

Biolake is an industry base established in 2008 in the Optics Valley of China. Located in East Lake New Technology Development Zone of Wuhan, Biolake covers 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi), and has six parks including Bio-innovation Park, Bio-pharma Park, Bio-agriculture Park, Bio-manufacturing Park, Medical Device Park and Medical Health Park, to accommodate both research activities and living.[120][121][122][123][124] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1953 1,427,300 —    

1982 4,101,000 +3.71%

1990 6,901,911 +6.72%

2000 8,312,700 +1.88%

2007 7,243,000 −1.95%

2010 9,785,388 +10.55%

2014 10,338,000 +1.38%

2015 10,607,700 +2.61%

Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions. 1953,[125][126] 1982,[127] 1990,[128] 2000 [98] 2007[129] 2015[130]

Wuhan
Wuhan
is the most populous city in Central China
China
and among the most populous in China. In the Sixth Census of China
China
in 2010, Wuhan's built-up area made of 8 out of 10 urban districts (all but Xinzhou
Xinzhou
and Hannan not yet conurbated) was home to 8,821,658 inhabitants.[131] As of 2015[update], the city of Wuhan
Wuhan
had an estimated population of 10,607,700 people.[130] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 19 million.[132][8] Religion[edit]

Religion in Wuhan
Wuhan
(2017)[133]    Chinese religion
Chinese religion
or not religious (including Taoists (0.93%)) (79.2%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(14.69%)    Protestantism
Protestantism
(2.86%)    Islam
Islam
(1.64%)   Catholicism (0.34%)   Other (1.61%)

According to a survey published in 2017, 79.2% of the population of Wuhan
Wuhan
are not religious or practise worship of gods and ancestors; among these, 0.93% are Taoists, a title traditionally denoting just the Taoist clergy. Among other religious doctrines, 14.69% of the population adheres to Buddhism, 2.86% to Protestantism, 0.34% to Catholicism and 1.64% to Islam, and 1.61% of the population adheres to unspecified other religions.[133]

Religious sites in Wuhan

Baotong Buddhist Temple

Thanksgiving Protestant Church

Holy Family Catholic Church

Transportation[edit]

The First Bridge at Wuhan. This view is upstream, toward the distant Three Gorges
Three Gorges
and Chongqing.

Bridges[edit] Wuhan
Wuhan
has seven bridges and one tunnel across the Yangtze
Yangtze
River. The Wuhan
Wuhan
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge, also called the First Bridge, was built over the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
(Chang Jiang) in 1957, carrying the railroad directly across the river between Snake Hill (on the left in the picture below) and Turtle Hill. Before this bridge was built it could take up to an entire day to barge railcars across. Including its approaches, it is 5,511 feet (1,680 m) long, and it accommodates both a double-track railway on a lower deck and a four-lane roadway above. It was built with the assistance of advisers from the Soviet Union. The Second Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge, built of pre-stressed concrete, has a central span of 400 metres (1,300 feet); it is 4,678 metres (15,348 feet) in length (including 1,877 metres (6,158 feet) of the main bridge) and 26.5 to 33.5 metres (86.9 to 109.9 feet) in width. Its main bridgeheads are 90 metres (300 feet) high each, pulling 392 thick slanting cables together in the shape of double fans, so that the central span of the bridge is well poised on the piers and the bridge's stability and vibration resistance are ensured. With six lanes on the deck, the bridge is designed to handle 50,000 motor vehicles passing every day. The bridge was completed in 1995.

Second bridge

The Third Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
was completed in September 2000. Located 8.6 kilometres (5.3 miles) southwest of the First Bridge, construction of Baishazhou Bridge started in 1997. With an investment of over 1.4 billion yuan (about 170 million U.S. dollars), the bridge, which is 3,586 metres (11,765 feet) long and 26.5 metres (86.9 feet) wide, has six lanes and has a capacity of 50,000 vehicles a day. The bridge is expected to serve as a major passage for the future Wuhan Ring Road, enormously easing the city's traffic and aiding local economic development. The Yangluo Bridge
Yangluo Bridge
carries Wuhan's Ring Road across the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the city's eastern suburbs (connecting the Hongshan District with the Xinzhou
Xinzhou
District). It was opened on December 26, 2007. The Wuhan
Wuhan
Tianxingzhou Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge crosses the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the northeastern part of the city, downstream of the Second bridge. Its name is due to the Tianxing Island (Tianxingzhou), above which it crosses the river. Built at the cost of 11 billion yuan, the 4,657-meter cable suspension bridge was opened on December 26, 2009,[134] in time for the opening of the Wuhan
Wuhan
Railway Station. It is a combined road and rail bridge, and carries the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway across the river. Railways[edit]

The old Dazhimen railway Station (大智门火车站), the original Hankou
Hankou
terminus of the Beijing- Hankou
Hankou
Railway. Constructed in 1900–1903, it was closed in 1991, after the opening of the present Hankou
Hankou
Railway Station.

The Wuhan Railway Hub
Wuhan Railway Hub
is considered one of the four key railway hubs of China.[135] The city of Wuhan
Wuhan
is served by three major railway stations: the Hankou
Hankou
Railway Station in Hankou, the Wuchang
Wuchang
Railway Station in Wuchang, and the Wuhan
Wuhan
Railway Station, located in a newly developed area east of the East Lake (Hongshan District). As the stations are many miles apart, it is important for passengers to be aware of the particular station(s) used by a particular train. The (original) Hankou
Hankou
Station was the terminus for the Jinghan Railway from Beijing, while the Wuchang
Wuchang
Station was the terminus for the Yuehan Railway
Yuehan Railway
to Guangzhou. Since the construction of the First Yangtze
Yangtze
Bridge and the linking of the two lines into the Jingguang Railway, both Hankou
Hankou
and Wuchang
Wuchang
stations have been served by trains going to all directions, which contrasts with the situation in such cities as New York or Moscow, where different stations serve different directions. With the opening of the Hefei- Wuhan
Wuhan
high-speed railway on April 1, 2009,[136] Wuhan
Wuhan
became served by high-speed trains with Hefei, Nanjing, and Shanghai; several trains a day now connect the city with Shanghai, getting there in under 6 hours. As of early 2010, most of these express trains leave from the Hankou
Hankou
Railway Station.

Wuhan
Wuhan
Railway Station, completed in 2009

In 2006, construction began on the new Wuhan Railway Station
Wuhan Railway Station
with 11 platforms, located on the northeastern outskirts of the city. In December 2009, the station was opened, as China
China
unveiled its second high-speed train with scheduled runs from Guangzhou
Guangzhou
to Wuhan. Billed as the fastest train in the world, it can reach a speed of 394 km/h (244.82 mph). The travel time between the two cities has been reduced from ten and a half hours to just three. The rail service has been extended north to Beijing.[137] As of 2011[update], the new Wuhan Railway Station
Wuhan Railway Station
is primarily used by the Wuhan- Guangzhou
Guangzhou
high-speed trains, while most regular trains to other destinations continue to use the Hankou
Hankou
and Wuchang
Wuchang
stations. Construction work is carried out on several lines of the new Wuhan Metropolitan Area Intercity Railway, which will eventually connect Wuhan's three main rail terminals with several stations throughout the city's outer areas and farther suburbs, as well as with the nearby cities of Xianning, Huangshi, Huanggang, and Xiaogan. The first line of the system, the one to Xianning, opened for passenger operations at the end of 2013. The main freight railway station and marshalling yard of the Wuhan metropolitan area is the gigantic Wuhan
Wuhan
North railway station, with 112 tracks and over 650 switches. It is located in Hengdiang Subdistrict (横店街道) of Huangpi District, located 20 km (12 mi) north of the Wuhan
Wuhan
Station and 23 km (14 mi) from Hankou
Hankou
Station. Metro[edit]

Map of Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
(2017)

Main article: Wuhan
Wuhan
Metro When Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
opened in September 2010, Wuhan
Wuhan
became the fifth Chinese city with a metro system (after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Guangzhou).[138] The first 10.2 kilometres (6.3 mi)-long line (10 stations) is an elevated rail (and therefore called 'light rail' in Chinese terminology). It runs from Huangpu Road Station
Huangpu Road Station
to Zongguan Station in the downtown area of the Hankou
Hankou
District, and it is the first one in the country to use a communication-based train control system (a Moving Block signalling system, provided by Alcatel). The designed minimum interval is only 90 seconds between two trains and it features driverless operation.[138] Phase 2 of this line will extend the length to 28.8 km (17.90 mi) with 26 stations in total. It plans to start revenue service on July 28, 2010.[139] Metro Line 2 opened on December 28, 2012, extending total system length to 56.85 km (35.32 mi). This is the first Metro line crossing the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
(Chang Jiang). Line 4 opened on December 28, 2013, connecting Wuhan
Wuhan
Railway Station and Wuchang
Wuchang
Railway Station. Since that date, all three main railway stations of the city are connected by the metro lines. In December 2016, the extension of Metro's Line 2 was extended to Wuhan
Wuhan
Tianhe Airport was opened as well. By the end of year 2017, there are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 6, Line 7 (built, opening delayed), Line 8, Line Yangluo and Line 21 (built, opening delayed).[140] Trams[edit]

A tram in Wuhan University
Wuhan University
Science Park (武大园) Station

Main article: Trams in Wuhan Trams were brought to the streets of Wuhan
Wuhan
on July 28, 2017 with the first line (Auto-city T1 Line) opened that day.[141] The trams under construction or planning in Wuhan
Wuhan
are:

Auto-city trams, with Lines T1, T2, T6, and T8 in the Wuhan
Wuhan
Economic Development Area, in the far western reaches on Hanyang. T1 Line is operational as of 2017. Optics Valley trams, two lines (T1 and T2) south and east of Guanggu Circle (Guanggu Guangchang) in southeastern Wuchang. The system opened on January 18, 2018.[142] The Old Hankou
Hankou
Streetcar, a loop line around Hankou
Hankou
city.

Maritime transport[edit] Wuhan
Wuhan
is a major hub for maritime transport in central China. The Port of Wuhan
Wuhan
provide services for the local population and shipping services. Ferry[edit]

View from ferry (2015)

As a city located at bank of Yangtze
Yangtze
River, Wuhan
Wuhan
has long history of ferry services. Modern ferry services were established in 1900 by steam boat. In 1937, train ferry was established to transport train cart from Hankou
Hankou
to Wuchang.[143] There are numbered stops that allow people get on and off the ferry around Wuhan
Wuhan
and there is a tourist ferry in the night. Currently, ferry services rea provided by Wuhan
Wuhan
Ferry Company. In 2010, the company bought 10 new ships to replace the ones that had been in service for 29 years.[144] Airport[edit] Main article: Wuhan
Wuhan
Tianhe International Airport Opened in April 1995, Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
Wuhan Tianhe International Airport
is one of the busiest airports in central China
China
and it is located in Wuhan's suburban Huangpi District
Huangpi District
26 kilometres (16 mi) north of Wuhan. The extension of Line 2 of Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
to Tianhe Airport opened on 28 December 2016.[145] It has also been selected as China's fourth international hub airport after Beijing
Beijing
Capital International Airport, Shanghai- Pudong
Pudong
and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Baiyun. A second terminal was completed in March 2008, having been started in February 2005 with an investment of CNY
CNY
3.372 billion. International flights to neighboring Asian countries have also been enhanced, including direct flights to Tokyo and Nagoya, Japan. Terminal 3 has been available for service since early 2017. Highway[edit]

China
China
National Highway 318

Bicycle-sharing system[edit] As of May 2011[update], the Wuhan
Wuhan
and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Public Bicycle bike-share systems in China
China
were the largest in the world, with around 90,000 and 60,000 bicycles respectively.[146] In 2012 the Wuhan
Wuhan
and Hangzhou Public Bicycle
Hangzhou Public Bicycle
programs in China
China
are the largest in the world, with around 90,000 and 60,000 bicycles respectively. China
China
has seen a rise in private "dockless" bike shares with fleets that dwarf systems in size outside China.[147] Initially, a number of traditional (third generation) docked public bike systems operated by local municipal governments opened across China, with the largest ones being in Wuhan
Wuhan
and Hangzhou. The first was introduced in Beijing
Beijing
in 2007. However, third generation bike sharing is not considered successful for the majority cities in China. Bike sharing in Beijing
Beijing
virtually stopped and it also has encountered difficulties in Shanghai
Shanghai
and Wuhan.[148] Destinations[edit]

Replica instruments of ancient originals are played at the Hubei Provincial Museum. A replica set of bronze concert bells is in the background and a set of stone chimes is to the right.

The pagoda on Moshan Hill at East Lake

Happy Valley Wuhan
Happy Valley Wuhan
amusement park

The Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
(Huanghelou) is presumed to have been first built in approximately 220 AD. The tower has been destroyed and reconstructed numerous times, and was burned last according to some sources in 1884. The tower underwent complete reconstruction in 1981. The reconstruction utilized modern materials and added an elevator while maintaining the traditional design in the tower's outward appearance. Wuchang
Wuchang
has the largest and second largest lakes within a city in China, the East Lake and Tangxun Lake, as well as the South Lake. The east lake in Wuhan
Wuhan
is 6 times the size of the West Lake in Hangzhou, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province. The total area is more than 80 km2 (31 sq mi) of which the lake is covering an area of 33 km2 (13 sq mi). In the springtime, the shores of East Lake become a garden of flowers with the Mei blossoms as the king and the Cherry Blossom as the queen among the species at East Lake Cherry Blossom Park. Another famous flower is the lotus. The lake has a long history and especially the Chu Kingdom is well represented around East Lake. At East Lake you find fascinating gardens like the Mei Blossom Garden, Forest of the Birds, Cherry Blossom Garden and monuments from ancient times, beautiful hills and green nature. Moreover, in the Moshan Botanic Garden there are many types of plum blossoms, as well as lotus flowers.

Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, made in 433 B.C., now on display at the Hubei
Hubei
Provincial Museum in Wuhan

The Hubei
Hubei
Provincial Museum: With over 200,000 valued artifacts, this is one of the leading museums in China. Especially the artefacts from the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
Marquis Yi of Zeng
(Zeng Hou Yi), who lived in the 5th century B.C., is a world unique treasure. The bell chime of Marquis Yi of Zeng is a bronze instrument performed 2430 years ago in ancient China
China
(Warring States Period), and was discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
Marquis Yi of Zeng
in Suizhou, Hubei
Hubei
in 1978. The whole chime weighs 5 tons, can perfectly play sound which was heard 2430 years ago, and was considered "The Eighth Wonder of the World". The Wuhan Museum
Wuhan Museum
has a collection of more than 100,000 artifacts, including ceramic, bronze ware, paintings and calligraphy, jade, wood carving, enamel ware, seals and so on. As a modern comprehensive museum, Wuhan Museum
Wuhan Museum
has the function in cultural relic collection, academic reach, publicity and education, cultural exchange, and recreation and entertainment.[149] Happy Valley Wuhan
Happy Valley Wuhan
is a theme park in Hongshan District. Opened on 29 April 2012, it is the fifth installation of the Happy Valley theme park chain.[150] The Rock and Bonsai Museum includes a mounted platybelodon skeleton, many unique stones, a quartz crystal the size of an automobile, and an outdoor garden with miniature trees in the penjing ("Chinese Bonsai") style. Jiqing Street (吉庆街) holds many roadside restaurants and street performers during the evening and is the site of a Live Show with stories of events on this street by contemporary writer Chi Li. The Lute Platform in Hanyang was where the legendary musician Yu Boya is said to have played. This is the birthplace of the renowned legend of seeking a soul mate through "high mountains and flowing water". According to the story of 知音 (zhi yin, "understanding music"), Yu Boya played for the last time over the grave of his friend Zhong Ziqi, then smashed his lute because the only person able to appreciate his music was dead.[151] Some luxury riverboat tours begin here after a flight from Beijing
Beijing
or Shanghai, with several days of flatland cruising and then climbing through the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
with passage upstream past the Gezhouba and Three Gorges
Three Gorges
dams to the city of Chongqing. With the completion of the dam a number of cruises now start from the upstream side and continue west, with tourists traveling by motor coach from Wuhan. Wuying Pagoda
Wuying Pagoda
or the "Shadowless Pagoda" is the oldest standing architectural feature in Wuhan, dating from the closing days of the Southern Song
Southern Song
Dynasty. Chu River and Han Street, a popular shopping district located in Wuchang
Wuchang
with many tourist attractions, including Han Show theater, Madame Tussauds
Madame Tussauds
wax museum, and Movie Culture Park, etc. This project was initiated as a water connecting channel between East Lake and Shahu Lake. Wuhan
Wuhan
Zoo in Hanyang[152] Wuhan, capital city of the Hubei
Hubei
Province, is a popular shopping and culinary tourist destination for both Chinese nationals and overseas visitors.

Education[edit] Schools and universities[edit]

The old library of Wuhan
Wuhan
University

See also: List of universities and colleges in Hubei There are 35 higher educational institutions which makes it a leading educational hub for China. Recognized institutions include the well-known Wuhan
Wuhan
University, and Huazhong University of Science and Technology. 3 state-level development zones and many enterprise incubators are also significant aspects of Wuhan. Wuhan
Wuhan
ranks third in China
China
in overall strength of science and technology.[153] By the end of 2013, in Wuhan
Wuhan
there were 1024 kindergartens with 224.3 thousand children, 590 primary schools with 424 thousand students, 369 general high schools with 314 thousand students, 105 secondary vocational and technical schools with 98.6 students and 80 colleges and universities with 966.4 thousand undergraduates and junior college students, and 107.4 thousand postgraduate students.[154] There are several international schools in Wuhan. Wuhan
Wuhan
University, located near East Lake, was founded in 1893 as Ziqiang Institute by Zhang Zhidong
Zhang Zhidong
and named a national university in 1928. In 2000 three other first-rated universities were merged with the original university, forming a new university with 36 schools in 6 faculties. From the 1950s it has received international students from more than 109 countries.[155] Among its staff, 7 are Chinese Academy of Sciences fellows, and 8 are Chinese Academy of Engineering fellows.[156] Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
is another Project 985
Project 985
university in Wuhan. Founded in 1953 as Huazhong Institute of Technology, it combined with three other universities (including former Tongji Medical University founded in 1907) in 2000 to form the new HUST, and has 42 schools and departments covering 12 comprehensive disciplines.[157][158] Scientific research[edit]

The Water Resources and Hydro Power Lab, Wuhan University
Wuhan University
(2005)

Wuhan
Wuhan
contains three national development zones and four scientific and technological development parks, as well as numerous enterprise incubators, over 350 research institutes, 1470 hi-tech enterprises, and over 400,000 experts and technicians. Founded in 1958, the Wuhan
Wuhan
Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences
is one of the twelve national branches of CAS. It is composed of 9 independent organizations, including the headquarters at Xiaohongshan, Wuchang. It has had a staff of 3900, among which 8 are CAS fellows, and one is a Chinese Academy of Engineering fellow. Up to 2013, the achievements gained by WHB have won 23 National Awards and 778 Provincial Awards.[159] Wuhan
Wuhan
Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (now known as FiberHome Technologies Group) is the national center for optical communication research in China, where the first optical fiber in the country was produced.[160] Wuhan University
Wuhan University
of Technology is another major national University in the area. Founded in the year 2000, Wuhan University
Wuhan University
of Technology is merged from three major universities, Wuhan University
Wuhan University
of Technology (established in 1948), Wuhan
Wuhan
Transportation University (established in 1946) and Wuhan
Wuhan
Automotive Polytechnic University (established in 1958). Wuhan University
Wuhan University
of Technology is one of the leading Chinese universities accredited by the Ministry of Education and one of the universities constructed in priority by the "State Project 211" for Chinese higher education institutions. The University has three main campuses located in the Wuchang
Wuchang
District. Media[edit]

Tortoise Mountain TV Tower

The headquarters of Hubei
Hubei
Television is located in Wuchang
Wuchang
District. Tortoise Mountain TV Tower
Tortoise Mountain TV Tower
is China's first self-developed TV tower, opened in 1986. The modern newspapers in Wuhan
Wuhan
can be dated back to 1866, when Hankow Times, a newspaper in English, was founded. Before 1949, more than 50 newspapers and magazines were published by foreigners in Wuhan. Chao-wen Hsin-pao, founded by Ai Xiaomei in 1873, was the first Chinese newspaper appeared in Hankou. During the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
era, journalism in Wuhan
Wuhan
was pushed to a climax. More than 120 newspapers and periodicals, including national newspapers such as Central Daily News
Central Daily News
and Republican Daily News, were founded or published there.[161] Chutian Metropolis Daily and Wuhan Evening News are two major local commercial tabloid newspapers. Both of them have entered the list of 100 most widely circulated newspapers of the world. Culture[edit] Wuhan
Wuhan
is one of the birthplaces of the brilliant ancient Chu Culture in China. Plum blossom
Plum blossom
is the emblem of the city, chosen because of the long history of plum local cultivation and use, and partly to recognize the current economic significance in term of cultivation and research. Local wild plums were used medicinally during the Qin and Han dynasties. Cultivation of the fruit began during the Song dynasty. Some traditional new year customs revolve around the planting of plums.[11] Language[edit] Main article: Wuhan
Wuhan
dialect Wuhan
Wuhan
natives speak a variety of Southwestern Mandarin
Southwestern Mandarin
Chinese referred to as Wuhan dialect which differs slightly between the districts of Wuhan, including Wuchang
Wuchang
dialect in Wuchang
Wuchang
District, Hankou
Hankou
dialect in the Hankou
Hankou
districts, Hanyang dialect in Hanyang District, and Qingshan dialect in Qingshan District. Cuisine[edit]

Fried Hongshan Caitai (洪山菜薹)

Main article: Hubei
Hubei
cuisine Hubei
Hubei
cuisine ranks as one of China’s ten major styles of cooking with many representative dishes. With development of more than 2,000 years, Hubei
Hubei
cuisine, originating in Chu Cuisine in ancient times, has developed a lot of distinctive dishes with its own characteristics, such as steamed blunt-snout bream in clear soup, preserved ham with flowering Chinese cabbage, etc. "No need to be particular about the recipes, all food have their own uses. Rice wine
Rice wine
and tangyuan are excellent midnight snacks, while fat bream and flowering Chinese cabbages are great delicacies."[162] This attitude expressed in Hankou
Hankou
Zhuzhici reflects indirectly the eating habits and a wide variety of distinctive snacks with a long history in Wuhan, such as Qingshuizong (a pyramid-shaped dumpling made of glutinous rice wrapped in bamboo or reed leaves) in the Period of the Warring States, Chunbinbian in Northern & Southern dynasties, mung bean jelly in the Sui dynasty, youguo (a deep-fried twisted dough stick) in the Song and Yuan dynasties, rice wine and mianwo in the Ming and Qing
Qing
dynasties as well as three-delicacy stuffed skin of bean milk, tangbao (steamed dumpling filled with minced meat and gravy) and hot braised noodles (reganmian) in modern times. Guozao (過早) is a popular way to say 'having breakfast' in Wuhan.[163] It is generally said that Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is the paradise for eating and Shanghai
Shanghai
for dressing, while Wuhan
Wuhan
is a combination of both. Sitting favorably at the heart of China, Wuhan
Wuhan
has gathered and mixed together various habits and customs from neighboring cities and provinces in all directions, which gives rise to a saying of concentrating diverse customs from different places. The most famous place to guozao (have breakfast) is the Hubu street (户部巷). This 150 meters long street is located in the most flourishing district of Wuhan, Simenkou (司门口). We can find there nearly all the traditional food of Wuhan, such as:

Doupi
Doupi
on the left and Re-gan mian on the right

Hot and Dry Noodles, Re-gan mian (热干面) consists of long freshly boiled noodles mixed with sesame paste. The Chinese word re means hot and gan means dry. It is considered to be the most typical local food for breakfast. Duck's neck or Ya Bozi (鸭脖子) is a local version of this popular Chinese dish, made of duck necks and spices. Bean skin or Doupi
Doupi
(豆皮) is a popular local dish with a filling of egg, rice, beef, mushrooms and beans cooked between two large round soybean skins and cut into pieces, structurally like a stuffed pizza without enclosing edges. Soup dumpling or Xiaolongtangbao (小笼汤包) is a kind of dumpling with thin skin made of flour, steamed with very juicy meat inside, so that is why it is called Tang (soup) Bao (bun), because every time one takes a bite from it the soup inside spills out. A salty doughnut or Mianwo (面窝) is a kind of doughnut with a salty taste. It is much thinner than a common doughnut and is a typical Wuhan
Wuhan
local food.

Opera[edit] Han opera, which is the local opera of Wuhan
Wuhan
area, was one of China's oldest and most popular operas. During the late Qing
Qing
dynasty, Han opera, blended with Hui opera, gave birth to Peking opera, the most popular opera in modern China. Therefore, Han opera is called "mother of Peking opera" in China.[164][165] Sports[edit]

Wuhan
Wuhan
Zall Football Club

Wuhan
Wuhan
has a professional football team Wuhan Zall F.C.
Wuhan Zall F.C.
that plays in China
China
League One. Xinhua Road Sport Center, the home stadium of the team that has a capacity of 32,137, is located in the heart of the city next to Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Park. In 2013 season, Wuhan
Wuhan
Zall was promoted to the top tier league of Chinese football-- Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League
and relocated its home to Wuhan
Wuhan
Sports Center Stadium, a modern stadium located in suburban of the city that has 54,357 seats. However, the team did not play well in the season and was demoted back to China League One as 2013 season ended. Due to financial and transportation reasons, the team moved back to Xinhua Road Sport Center in 2014. The Wuhan Gators
Wuhan Gators
are a professional arena football team based in Wuhan. They are members of the China
China
Arena Football League (CAFL).[166] Wuhan
Wuhan
Sports Center hosted FIFA Women's World Cup
FIFA Women's World Cup
in 2007, including both group stage games and elimination phases. Wuhan
Wuhan
is nicknamed the "fortune place" of Chinese football. Before the women's team lost the game to Brazil
Brazil
in 2007 Women's World Cup, Chinese national football teams, both men and women, had never lost any games in Wuhan. The 13,000 seat Wuhan Gymnasium held 2011 FIBA Asia Championship
2011 FIBA Asia Championship
and will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[19] The city has been holding the women's tennis tournament Wuhan
Wuhan
Open, one of the WTA Premier 5 tournaments, since 2014. Architecture[edit]

Wuhan
Wuhan
Center, tallest building in Wuhan
Wuhan
since 2014

See also: List of tallest buildings in Wuhan

The Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
on the southern bank of the Yangtze
Yangtze
River (1874)

The Yellow Crane Tower, considered one of the Four Great Towers of China, was destroyed twelve times, both by warfare and by fire. The tower is classified as an AAAAA scenic area
AAAAA scenic area
by the China
China
National Tourism Administration.[167] At 438-metre (1,437 ft) in height,[168] the Wuhan Center
Wuhan Center
skyscraper, the tallest structure in Wuhan
Wuhan
and in Central China, is the eighth tallest structure in China. The Minsheng Bank Building, the second tallest structure in Wuhan, was the tallest building in Wuhan
Wuhan
when it was completed in 2007. It retained the title until Wuhan Center
Wuhan Center
surpassed it in 2014.[169][170] Wuhan World Trade Tower
Wuhan World Trade Tower
is a 273-meter (896 foot) tall skyscraper located in Wuhan. It became the tallest building in Wuhan
Wuhan
after its completion in 1998. However, it was surpassed by the Minsheng Bank Building in 2007. The Wuhan
Wuhan
Greenland Center[171] is a planned 636-metre (2,087 ft), 126-floor mixed-use skyscraper currently under construction and scheduled for completion in 2019. If completed as planned, it will be among the world's tallest structures, and one of the world's tallest buildings by occupiable floor height. The Phoenix Towers are proposed supertall skyscrapers planned for construction in Wuhan. At 1 kilometre (3,300 ft) high, the towers would also be the among the tallest structures in the world when completed.[172] Notable Wuhanese[edit]

Li Na, a professional tennis player, serving at Wimbledon 2008, 1st round against Anastasia Rodionova

President Li Yuanhong

Politics[edit]

Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
– former President of the Republic of China. Wu Yi – former Vice-Premier and Minister of Health of the People's Republic of China[173]

Business[edit]

Wei Brian - Chinese entrepreneur

Sports[edit]

Hao Junmin
Hao Junmin
– professional football player, played for Schalke 04 in the German League. Deng Zhuoxiang
Deng Zhuoxiang
– professional football player, scored many impressive goals for Chinese national team in important games including 3:0 South Korea
South Korea
and 1:0 France
France
in 2010. Zeng Cheng – professional football player, has 6 Chinese Super League and 2 AFC Champions League
AFC Champions League
champion titles. Rong Hao – professional football player. has 6 Chinese Super Leagues and 2 AFC Champions League
AFC Champions League
champion titles. Xiao Hailiang – Olympic gold medalist (in 3-metre (9.8-foot) springboard synchronized diving, Sydney
Sydney
2000) diver Li Ting – female tennis player, Olympic gold medalist (in woman's doubles, Athens 2004) Fu Mingxia – female diver, four-time Olympic gold Medalist (1 in Barcelona 1992, 2 in Atlanta 1996, 1 in Sydney
Sydney
2000), the only diver that had won gold medals at 3 Olympiads as well as one of the very few divers in the world who are able to win world championship in both platform diving and springboard diving. diver Zhou Jihong – woman diving athlete, Olympic gold medalist (Los Angeles 1984), the first Chinese who has won an Olympic gold medal in diving. Mei Fang, a Chinese footballer who currently plays for Guangzhou Evergrande in the Chinese Super League. Qiao Hong – woman table tennis player, two-time Olympic gold medalist (in woman's doubles, Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996) Gao Ling
Gao Ling
– professional badminton player, two-time Olympic gold medalist ( Sydney
Sydney
2000, Athens 2004) Li Na
Li Na
– female tennis player, Champion of the French Open
French Open
2011 and Australian Open
Australian Open
2014 Tang Jieli – AIBA Women's Boxing World Champion[174]

Other fields[edit]

Yu Boya
Yu Boya
(俞伯牙) – ancient Chinese musician whose musical composition "Flowing Water" was included on the Voyager Golden Record Yao Beina
Yao Beina
- Top female singer (during 2005-2015), known as the "Voice of China", spiritual leader of organ donation and charity (1981-2015). Peng Xiuwen – composer and conductor Paula Tsui
Paula Tsui
– singer who spent most of her singing career in Hong Kong Xu Fan – actress Liu Yifei – actress and singer. Childhood friend with Yao Beina. Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) – soldier who started the Wuhan
Wuhan
Uprising in the Chinese Revolution of 1911 which gave birth to the Republic of China, Asia's first democratic country. Chang-Lin Tien – seventh Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (1990–1997), the first Asian to head a major university in the United States.[citation needed][175] Wang Kai – actor Chi Li – modern writer[176] Zhou Mi – musician, member of the band Super Junior M Tian Yuan – singer and actress Samuel David Hawkins - American soldier in the Korean War who was captured by the North, subsequently defected to China
China
at the time of the Korean Armistice Agreement. He worked as a mechanic in Wuhan before returning to the US in 1957.

Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China Wuhan
Wuhan
is twinned with:

Country City Since

 Japan Ōita September 7, 1979

 United States Pittsburgh September 8, 1982

 Germany Duisburg October 8, 1982

 France Bordeaux[177] 1998

 United States St. Louis September 27, 2004

 New Zealand Christchurch[178] April 4, 2006

 Mexico Tijuana[179] November 12, 2012[180]

 United States San Francisco[181] November 11, 2013

 Malaysia Kota Kinabalu[182] May 20, 2015

 Canada Markham[181] September 12, 2006

 United Kingdom Manchester[182] 1986[183]

 Greece Chalcis[184] 2015

 Russia Saratov[185] August 6, 2015

 Australia Sydney[184] August 6, 2015

 United States Houston[185] September 10, 2016

 United Kingdom Swansea[186] January 31, 2018

 Australia Gold Coast[187] 2015 (Letter of Intent)

 Netherlands Arnhem 1999

 Chile Concepción[188] April 7, 2016

 Finland Salo[189] August 25, 2014

 France Essonne[190] December 21, 2012

 Israel Ashdod[191] November 8, 2011

Cheongju Sankt Pölten Borlange Kopavogur Győr Khartoum Kiev Galati Košice

Nature and wildlife[edit] In Chinese mythology, the Baiji
Baiji
has many origin stories. In one legend, the Baiji
Baiji
was the daughter of a general who was deported from the city of Wuhan
Wuhan
during a war. During his duty, the daughter ran away. Later, the general met a woman who told him how her father was a general, and when he realized that she was his daughter, he threw himself into the river out of shame. The daughter ran after him and also fell into the river. Before they were drowned, the daughter was transformed into a dolphin, and the general a porpoise.[192] See also[edit]

Historical capitals of China List of cities in the People's Republic of China
China
by population List of current and former capitals of subnational entities of China

References[edit]

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University. Retrieved August 26, 2014.  ^ "Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology". Study Abroad in China. Retrieved August 26, 2014.  ^ "History". HUST. Retrieved August 26, 2014.  ^ "Introduction". CAS Wuhan
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Branch. Retrieved August 25, 2014.  ^ "FiberHome Technologies Group". China
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Daily. Retrieved August 25, 2014.  ^ "武汉市志(1840-1985)·新闻志·概述" [ Wuhan
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Zhuzhici (an ancient book recording stories about Wuhan) produced during the Daoguang Period of the Qing
Qing
dynasty ^ http://bbs.tianya.cn/post-free-197497-1.shtml ^ http://www.wuhanews.com/read/67.html 汉剧中的二黄唱调,是现代京剧唱腔的主要组成部分,所以汉剧又有“京剧唱腔之祖山”的美誉。 ... 1962年武汉市成立了武汉汉剧院 ^ 湖北省博物馆.楚腔汉调 : 汉剧文物图说:湖北人民,2013 ^ "Meet the Super Six! The CAFL's Teams, Names and Official Logos". China
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Arena Football League. Retrieved May 27, 2016.  ^ "AAAAA Scenic Areas". China
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National Tourism Administration. 16 November 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2011.  ^ " Wuhan Center
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Dolphin. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-19-954947-4. ASIN 0199549486. 

^ Man Chong's biography in the Sanguozhi mentioned that these events took place in the 3rd year of the Taihe era (227–233) of Cao Rui's reign, i.e., the year 229. This is a mistake. It was actually in the 2nd year of the Taihe era, i.e., the year 228, according to the Zizhi Tongjian.[26]

Further reading[edit]

Chi, Li (2000). Lao Wuhan
Wuhan
(Old Wuhan): Yong Yuan De Lang Man... (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series). Nanjing: Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Meishu Chubanshe.  Coe, John L. (1962). Huachung University (Huazhong Daxue). New York: United Board for Christian Higher Education.  Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "The Three Wuhan
Wuhan
Cities," pp.1–96 in The Three Gorges
Three Gorges
and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions.  Latimer, James V. (1934). Wuhan
Wuhan
Trips: A Book on Short Trips in and Around Hankow. Hankow: Navy YMCA.  MacKinnon, Stephen R. (2000). "Wuhan's Search for Identity in the Republican Period," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.  Rowe, William T. (1984). Hankou: Commerce and Society, 1796–1889. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  Rowe, William T. (1988). Hankou: Conflict and Community in a Chinese City, 1796–1895. Stanford: Stanford University Press.  Song, Xiaodan & Zhu, Li (1999). Wuhan
Wuhan
Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Wuhan). Beijing: Renmin Meishu Chubanshe (People's Fine Arts Publishing House).  Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." - In: Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter, January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799, 9783110962796. Also available at (Archive) the website of the Queens Library
Queens Library
- This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter
Walter de Gruyter
version. Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003. ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.

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Sub-provincial
cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. b Sub-provincial
Sub-provincial
cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3 Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

Cities along the Yangtze

Province-level

Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)

Yunnan

Lijiang (SIchuan see below) Dongchuan

Sichuan

Panzhihua (Yunan see above) Yibin Luzhou

Chongqing

Jiangjin Central Chongqing Fuling Wanzhou

Hubei

Yichang Yidu Zhijiang Songzi Jingzhou Shishou ( Hunan
Hunan
see below) Honghu Chibi Wuhan Ezhou Huangshi Huanggang Wuxue

Hunan

Yueyang Linxiang

Jiangxi

Ruichang Jiujiang

Anhui

Anqing Chizhou Tongling Wuhu Ma'anshan

Jiangsu

Nanjing Yizheng Jurong Zhenjiang Yangzhou Taizhou Yangzhong Taixing Danyang Changzhou Jingjiang Jiangyin Zhangjiagang Rugao Nantong Changshu Taicang Haimen Qidong

Shanghai

Baoshan Pudong

Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yellow River

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144446205 GND: 4122666-5 BNF: cb120034008 (d

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