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Halakha
HALAKHA (/hɑːˈlɔːxə/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: הֲלָכָה‬, Sephardic : ; also transliterated as HALACHA, HALAKHAH, HALACHAH or HALOCHO) (Ashkenazic : ) is the collective body of Jewish
Jewish
religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah
Torah
. It is based on biblical laws or "commandments" (mitzvot ) (traditionally numbered as 613 ), subsequent Talmudic and rabbinic law and the customs and traditions compiled in the many books, one of the most famous of which is the sixteenth century Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(literally "Prepared Table"). Halakha is often translated as " Jewish
Jewish
Law", although a more literal translation might be "the way to behave" or "the way of walking". The word derives from the root that means "to behave" (also "to go" or "to walk")
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Piyyut
A PIYYUT or PIYUT (plural PIYYUTIM or PIYUTIM, Hebrew פּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פּיּוּטִ / פיוט pronounced ; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services . Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic , and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam ("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol in 11th century Spain
Spain

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Safed
SAFED ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְפַת‎ Tsfat, Ashkenazi : Tzfas, Biblical : Ṣ'fath; Arabic : صفد‎‎, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of 900 metres (2,953 ft), Safed
Safed
is the highest city in the Galilee
Galilee
and in Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed
Safed
experiences warm summers and cold, often snowy, winters. Since the 16th century, Safed
Safed
has been considered one of Judaism
Judaism
's Four Holy Cities , along with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
and Tiberias
Tiberias
; since that time, the city has remained a center of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism

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Hebron
HEBRON (Arabic : الْخَلِيل‎‎ al-Khalīl ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: חֶבְרוֹן‎ Ḥevron ) is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank
West Bank
, 30 km (19 mi) south of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains
Judaean Mountains
, it lies 930 meters (3,050 ft) above sea level . It is the largest city in the West Bank
West Bank
, and the second largest in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
after Gaza , and home to 215,452 Palestinians (2016), and between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. The city is divided into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2, roughly 20% of the city, administered by Israel
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Tiberias
TIBERIAS (/taɪˈbɪəriəs/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: טְבֶרְיָה‎, Tveria, (audio) (help ·info ); Arabic : طبرية‎‎, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
. Established around 20 CE , it was named in honour of the 2nd Emperor of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Tiberius
Tiberius
. In 2015 it had a population of 42,610. Tiberias
Tiberias
was held in great respect in Judaism
Judaism
from the middle of the 2nd century CE and since the 16th century has been considered one of Judaism
Judaism
's Four Holy Cities , along with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
and Safed
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Aruch HaShulchan
ARUCH HASHULCHAN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: ערוך השולחן) is a chapter-by-chapter restatement of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(the latter being the most influential codification of halakhah in the post-Talmudic era). Compiled and written by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein (1829–1908), the work attempts to be a clear, organized summary of the sources for each chapter of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
and its commentaries, with special emphasis on the positions of the Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
and Maimonides
Maimonides

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Tzedakah
TZEDAKAH or Ṣ\'DAQAH in Classical Hebrew (Hebrew : צדקה‎; Arabic : صدقة‎‎), is a Hebrew word literally meaning justice or righteousness but commonly used to signify charity , though it is a different concept from charity because tzedakah is an obligation and charity is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity. It is based on the Hebrew word (צדק, Tzedek ) meaning righteousness , fairness or justice , and it is related to the Hebrew word Tzadik meaning righteous as an adjective (or righteous individual as a noun in the form of a substantive ). In Judaism
Judaism
, tzedakah refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, which Judaism
Judaism
emphasises are important parts of living a spiritual life
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Mishnah Berurah
The MISHNAH BERURAH (Hebrew : משנה ברורה‎‎ "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisrael Meir Kagan ( Poland
Poland
, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life". It was first published in 1904. His Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a commentary on Orach Chayim , the first section of the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
which deals with laws of prayer, synagogue , Shabbat
Shabbat
and holidays , summarizing the opinions of the Acharonim (post-Medieval rabbinic authorities) on that work. The title Mishnah Berurah
Mishnah Berurah
is a reference to the portion in Deuteronomy where Israel is commanded to inscribe God's commandments in large clear writing on a mountainside
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Four Holy Cities
The FOUR HOLY CITIES (Hebrew : ארבע ערי הקודש‎‎, Yiddish
Yiddish
: פיר רוס שטעט‎) is the collective term in Jewish tradition applied to the cities of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
, Safed
Safed
and, later, Tiberias
Tiberias
, the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of Israel
Israel
. The "holy cities" concept dates to the 1640s, with Tiberias
Tiberias
joining in 1740, resulting from the creation of an association between the cities for the collection of halukka (funds for the needy)
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Haymanot
HAYMANOT (Ge\'ez : ሃይማኖት) is the branch of Judaism practiced by the Beta Israel
Israel
, also known as Ethiopian Jews. Haymanot
Haymanot
in both Ge'ez and Amharic
Amharic
means "religion" or "faith". Thus in modern Amharic, it is common to speak of the Christian Haymanot, the Jewish Haymanot
Haymanot
or the Muslim Haymanot. It is only in Israel
Israel
where the Ge'ez term haymanot is associated with a particular religion
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Chumash (Judaism)
The Hebrew term CHUMASH (also ḤUMASH; Hebrew : חומש‎, pronounced or pronounced or Yiddish
Yiddish
: pronounced ) is a Torah
Torah
in printed form (i.e. codex ) as opposed to a sefer Torah
Torah
, which is a scroll . The word comes from the Hebrew word for five, ḥamesh (חמש‎). A more formal term is Ḥamishah Ḥumshei Torah, "five fifths of Torah". It is also known by the Latinised Greek term Pentateuch in common printed editions. CONTENTS * 1 Origin of the term * 2 Usage * 3 Various publications * 4 References * 5 External links ORIGIN OF THE TERM The Artscroll Chumash The word "ḥumash" may be a vowel alteration of ḥomesh, meaning "one-fifth", alluding to any one of the five books: as the Hebrew חומש‎ has no vowel signs, it could be read either way
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Messiah In Judaism
In Judaism
Judaism
, MESSIAH (Hebrew : מָשִׁיחַ‎, translit. māšîaḥ‎; Greek : χριστός, translit. khristós, lit. 'anointed, covered in oil') is a title for a savior and liberator of the Jewish people . The concept of messianism originated in Judaism
Judaism
, and in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, a messiah is a king or High Priest traditionally anointed with holy anointing oil . However, messiahs were not exclusively Jewish, as the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
refers to Cyrus the Great , king of Persia, as a messiah for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The TANAKH (/tɑːˈnɑːx/ ; Hebrew : תַּנַ"ךְ‎, pronounced or ; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible
Bible
, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
. These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text . The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books
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Humanistic Judaism
HUMANISTIC JUDAISM (Hebrew : יהדות הומניסטית‎ Yahdut Humanistit) is a Jewish movement that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life . It defines Judaism
Judaism
as the cultural and historical experience of the Jewish people
Jewish people
and encourages humanistic and secular Jews
Jews
to celebrate their Jewish identity
Jewish identity
by participating in Jewish holidays and lifecycle events (such as weddings and bar and bat mitzvahs ) with inspirational ceremonies that draw upon but go beyond traditional literature
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Hasidic Judaism
HASIDISM, sometimes HASIDIC JUDAISM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: חסידות‎, hasidut, Ashkenazi pronunciation : ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century
18th century
and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States
United States
, Israel
Israel
, and Britain . Israel
Israel
Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem Tov ", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism
Judaism
and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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