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(i)

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—— Amoraic ( Gemara ) ——

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—— Later ——

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—— Leviticus ——

* Sifra (Torat Kohanim)

—— Numbers and Deuteronomy ——

* Sifre * Sifrei Zutta on Numbers * (Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim)

AGGADIC MIDRASH

—— Tannaitic ——

* Seder Olam Rabbah
Seder Olam Rabbah
* Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva * Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules * Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules * Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle

—— 400–600 ——

* Genesis Rabbah
Genesis Rabbah
* Lamentations Rabbah * Pesikta de-Rav Kahana * Esther Rabbah * Midrash Iyyob * Leviticus Rabbah
Leviticus Rabbah
* Seder Olam Zutta * Tanhuma * Megillat Antiochus
Megillat Antiochus

—— 650–900 ——

* Avot of Rabbi Natan
Avot of Rabbi Natan
* Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer * Tanna Devei Eliyahu * Alphabet of Sirach * Ecclesiastes Rabbah
Ecclesiastes Rabbah
* Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah * Deuteronomy Rabbah * Devarim Zutta * Pesikta Rabbati * Midrash Shmuel * Midrash Proverbs * Ruth Rabbah * Baraita of Samuel * Targum Sheni

—— 900–1000 ——

* Ruth Zuta * Eichah Zuta * Midrash Tehillim * Midrash Hashkem
Midrash Hashkem
* Exodus Rabbah * Shir ha-Shirim Zutta

—— 1000–1200 ——

* Midrash Tadshe * Sefer haYashar

—— Later ——

* Yalkut Shimoni * Machir ben Abba Mari * Midrash Jonah * Ein Yaakov * Midrash HaGadol * Numbers Rabbah * Smaller midrashim
Smaller midrashim

TARGUM

—— Torah
Torah
——

* Targum
Targum
Onkelos * Targum
Targum
Pseudo-Jonathan * Fragment Targum * Targum
Targum
Neofiti

—— Nevi\'im ——

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Jonathan

—— Ketuvim ——

* Targum
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Targum
Mishlei * Targum
Targum
Iyyov * Targum
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to the Five Megillot * Targum Sheni to Esther * Targum
Targum
to Chronicles

* v * t * e

AGGADAH ( Aramaic
Aramaic
אַגָּדָה: "tales, lore"; pl. aggadot or (Ashkenazi) aggados; also known as aggad or aggadh or agâdâ) refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism
Judaism
, particularly as recorded in the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash . In general, Aggadah
Aggadah
is a compendium of rabbinic texts that incorporates folklore, historical anecdotes, moral exhortations, and practical advice in various spheres, from business to medicine.

In terms of etymology , the cognate Hebrew : הַגָּדָה‎, means "telling", while the Aramaic
Aramaic
root אגד (as well as נגד from which אגדה may arise) has the dual implication of “expanding” / “drawing out” and “binding” / “drawing in”. Correspondingly, the Aggadah
Aggadah
may be seen as those teachings which communicate Rabbinic traditions to the reader, simultaneously expanding their understanding of the text, while strengthening their religious experience and spiritual connection. The root also has the meaning "flow", and here relates to the transmission of ideas.

CONTENTS

* 1 As part of the Jewish oral law

* 1.1 Literal-allegorical teachings * 1.2 Interpretation of the Aggadah
Aggadah
* 1.3 In the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash

* 2 Development

* 2.1 Exegetic and homiletic Aggadah
Aggadah

* 3 Modern compilations * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

AS PART OF THE JEWISH ORAL LAW

The Aggadah
Aggadah
is part of Judaism
Judaism
's Oral law (תורה שבעל פה‎)—the traditions providing the authoritative interpretation of the Written Law . In this context, the widely held view in rabbinic literature is that the aggadah is in fact a medium for the transmission of fundamental teachings (Homiletic Sayings—מאמרים לימודיים‎) or for explanations of verses in the Tanakh (Exegetic Sayings—מאמרים ביאוריים‎). In Rabbinic thought, therefore, much of the Aggadah
Aggadah
is understood as containing a hidden, allegorical dimension, in addition to its overt, literal sense. In general, where a literal interpretation contradicts rationality, the Rabbis seek an allegorical explanation: "We are told to use our common sense to decide whether an aggada is to be taken literally or not" (Carmell, 2005).

LITERAL-ALLEGORICAL TEACHINGS

Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto
, the Ramchal, discusses this two-tiered, literal-allegorical mode of transmission of the Aggadah
Aggadah
in his well-known Discourse on the Haggadot. He explains that the Oral Law, in fact, comprises two components: the legal component (חלק המצוות‎), discussing the mitzvot and halakha ; and "the secret" component (חלק הסודות‎), discussing the deeper teachings. The aggadah, along with the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
, falls under the latter. The rabbis of the Mishnaic era believed that it would be dangerous to record the deeper teachings in explicit, mishnah-like, medium. Rather, they would be conveyed in a "concealed mode" and via "paradoxes". (Due to their value, these teachings should not become accessible to those "of bad character" and due to their depth they should not be made available to those "not schooled in the ways of analysis".) This mode of the transmission was nevertheless based on consistent rules and principles such that those "equipped with the keys" would be able to unlock their meaning; to others they would appear as non-rational or fantastic.

INTERPRETATION OF THE AGGADAH

In line with the above, Shmuel ha-Nagid , in his "Introduction to the Talmud", states that " Aggadah
Aggadah
comprises any comment occurring in the Talmud
Talmud
on any topic which is not a commandment (i.e. which is not halachic ) and one should derive from it only that which is reasonable." As regards this, Maimonides
Maimonides
, in his preface to the tenth chapter of Tractate Sanhedrin (Perek Chelek), describes three possible approaches to the interpretation of the Aggadah.

* The first approach is to accept the Aggadah
Aggadah
as literally true, without admission of any hidden, allegorical explanation—even where a literal interpretation runs counter to common sense. Maimonides
Maimonides
is dismissive of this approach. * The second approach is to assume that anything said by the Sages was intended literally, and to therefore reject, as impossible, non-rational or fantastic teachings (and to consequently consider the Sages as "simpletons and ignoramuses"). Maimonides
Maimonides
does not entirely reject rationalist interpretation, but he opposes an exegetical approach which denies the Aggadah
Aggadah
a hidden rationality. "The sages presented their drashot in a style by which the mind of a fool will reject them because of his way of thinking; it is improper to assign any deficiency to the drash—one may rather suspect that the deficiency is a result of his intellectual shortcomings" (Commentary on the Mishnah: Introduction). * The third approach is to recognise that many Aggadot are intended to teach profound truths, and that the teachings thus operate on two levels: "overt" and "hidden". Thus any impossible assertion was, in fact, intended as a parable; further, where aggadot can be understood literally, they may be taken on this level. This is, in general, the view of the Rabbis. "It is proper…to carefully analyse …when any of these seem far-fetched we must immerse ourselves in the various branches of knowledge until we understand the concepts." (Maimonides, op cit .)

Note that Maimonides' approach is also widely held amongst the non-rationalistic, mystical streams of Judaism—thus, for example, Rabbi Isaiah Horowitz , the Shlah HaKodosh holds that "none of these sometimes mind-boggling 'stories' are devoid of profound meaning; if anyone is devoid of understanding, it is the reader" (Shnei Luchos HaBris, introduction).

IN THE TALMUD AND MIDRASH

The aggadah is today recorded in the Midrash and the Talmud
Talmud
.

In the Midrash, the aggadic and halakhic material are compiled as two distinct collections: 1) The Aggadic Midrashim, generally, are explanatory aggada, deriving the "sermonic implications" from the biblical text; and 2) the Halakhic Midrashim derive the laws from the text. Many of the Torah
Torah
commentaries , and the Targumim , interpret the Torah
Torah
text in the light of Aggadic statements, particularly those in the Midrash, and hence contain much material on Aggadah interpretation.

Throughout the Talmud, aggadic and halakhic material are interwoven—legal material comprises around 90%. (Tractate Avoth , which has no gemara , deals exclusively with non-halakhic material, though it is not regarded as aggadic in that it is focused, largely, on character development.) The Talmudic aggada, generally, convey the "deeper teachings"—though in concealed mode, as discussed. The aggadic material in the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
is also presented separately in Ein Yaakov , a compilation of the Aggadah
Aggadah
together with commentaries.

Well-known works interpreting the Aggadot in the Talmud
Talmud
include:

* Chiddushei Aggados (Novellae on the Aggadot) by Samuel Edels "the Maharsha." * Chiddushei Aggados (Novellae on the Aggadot) by Judah Loew "the Maharal" (as well as many other works by Loew, esp. Be'er ha-Golah). * Yehoyada and MeKabtziel (names based on 2 Samuel 23:20) by Yosef Hayyim "the Ben Ish Chai." * Beur Aggados (Clarification of the Aggadot) and Perush al Kamma Aggadot (Commentary on several Aggadot) by the Vilna Gaon . * Ayin Ayah Commentary on Ein Yaakov by Rav Kook * En Jacob ( Ein Yaakov ) Agada of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
by Rabbi Jacob ibn Habib , Revised and Translated into English by Rabbi S. H. (Zvi Hirsch) Glick, Copyright 1916.

DEVELOPMENT

The Midrashim are mostly derived from, and based upon, the teachings of the Tannaim .

The Aggadah
Aggadah
has been preserved in a series of different works, which, like all works of traditional literature, have come to their present form through previous collections and revisions. Their original forms existed long before they were reduced to writing.

The first traces of the midrashic exegesis are found in the Bible itself; while in the time of the Soferim the development of the Midrash Aggadah
Aggadah
received a mighty impetus, and the foundations were laid for public services which were soon to offer the chief medium for the cultivation of Bible exegesis.

Much Aggadah, often mixed with foreign elements, is found in the Apocrypha , the Pseudepigrapha , the works of Josephus
Josephus
and Philo
Philo
, and the remaining Judæo-Hellenistic literature; but aggadic exegesis reached its highest development in the great epoch of the Mishnaic-Talmudic period, between 100 and 550 CE.

The Aggadah
Aggadah
of the Amoraim (sages of the Talmud) is the continuation of that of the Tannaim (sages of the Mishna). The final edition of the Mishnah, which was of such signal importance for the Halakah, is of less significance for the Aggadah, which, in form as well as in content, shows the same characteristics in both periods.

EXEGETIC AND HOMILETIC AGGADAH

It is important to emphasize the fundamental difference in plan between the midrashim forming a running commentary (מאמרים ביאוריים) to the Scripture text, and the homiletic midrashim (מאמרים לימודיים). When the scholars undertook to edit, revise, and collect into individual midrashim the immense array of haggadot, they followed the method employed in the collections and revisions of the halakhot and the halakhic discussions. The form which suggested itself was to arrange in textual sequence the exegetical interpretations of the Biblical text as taught in the schools, or the occasional interpretations introduced into public discourses, etc., and which were in any way connected with Scripture. Since the work of the editor was often merely that of compilation, the existing midrashim show in many passages the character of the sources from which they were taken. This was the genesis of the midrashim which are in the nature of running haggadic commentaries to single books of the Bible, as Bereshit Rabbah, Eikah Rabbati, the midrashim to the other Megillot, etc. See Midrash for more details.

MODERN COMPILATIONS

The Ein Yaakov is a compilation of the aggadic material in the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
together with commentary. It was compiled by Jacob ibn Habib and (after his death) by his son Rabbi Levi ibn Habib , and was first published in Saloniki (Greece) in 1515. It was intended as a text of aggadah, that could be studied with "the same degree of seriousness as the Talmud
Talmud
itself". Popularized anthologies did not appear until more recently—these often incorporate "aggadot" from outside of classical Rabbinic literature . The major works include:

* Sefer Ha- Aggadah
Aggadah
(The Book of Legends) is a classic compilation of aggadah from the Mishnah
Mishnah
, the two Talmuds and the Midrash literature. It was edited by Hayim Nahman Bialik
Hayim Nahman Bialik
and Yehoshua Hana Ravnitzky . Bialik and Ravnitzky worked for three years to compile a comprehensive and representative overview of aggadah. When they found the same aggadah in multiple versions, from multiple sources, they usually selected the later form, the one found in the Babylonian Talmud. However, they also presented some aggadot sequentially, giving the early form from the Jerusalem Talmud , and later versions from the Babylonian Talmud, and from a classic midrash compilation. In each case every aggadah is given with its original source. In their original edition, they translated the Aramaic
Aramaic
aggadot into modern Hebrew . Sefer Ha- Aggadah
Aggadah
was first published in 1908-11 in Odessa
Odessa
, Russia, then reprinted numerous times in Israel
Israel
. In 1992 it was translated into English as The Book of Legends, by William G. Braude. * Legends of the Jews, by Rabbi Louis Ginzberg , is an original synthesis of a vast amount of aggadah from the Mishnah, the two Talmuds and Midrash. Ginzberg had an encyclopedic knowledge of all rabbinic literature, and his masterwork included a massive array of aggadot. However he did not create an anthology which showed these aggadot distinctly. Rather, he paraphrased them and rewrote them into one continuous narrative that covered five volumes, followed by two volumes of footnotes that give specific sources. * Mimekor Yisrael, by Micha Josef Berdyczewski . Berdichevsky was interested in compiling the folklore and legends of the Jewish people, from the earliest times up until the dawn of the modern era. His collection included a large array of aggadot, although they were limited to those he considered within the domain of folklore. * The collected works of Dov Noy. In 1954, Noy established the Israel
Israel
Folktale Archives and Ethnological Museum at the University of Haifa , an archive containing over 23,000 folktales collected from all the various ethnic communities who live in Israel
Israel
.

SEE ALSO

* Judaism