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—— Tannaitic ——

Mishnah Tosefta

—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——

Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud

—— Later ——

Minor Tractates

Halakhic Midrash

—— Exodus ——

Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai

—— Leviticus ——

Sifra
Sifra
(Torat Kohanim)

—— Numbers and Deuteronomy ——

Sifre Sifrei Zutta on Numbers (Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim)

Aggadic Midrash

—— Tannaitic ——

Seder Olam Rabbah Alphabet of Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva Baraita
Baraita
of the Forty-nine Rules Baraita
Baraita
on the Thirty-two Rules Baraita
Baraita
on the Erection of the Tabernacle

—— 400–600 ——

Genesis Rabbah Lamentations Rabbah Pesikta de-Rav Kahana Esther Rabbah Midrash
Midrash
Iyyob Leviticus Rabbah Seder Olam Zutta Tanhuma Megillat Antiochus

—— 650–900 ——

Avot of Rabbi
Rabbi
Natan Pirke De- Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer Tanna Devei Eliyahu Alphabet of Sirach Ecclesiastes Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah Deuteronomy Rabbah Devarim Zutta Pesikta Rabbati Midrash
Midrash
Shmuel Midrash
Midrash
Proverbs Ruth Rabbah Baraita
Baraita
of Samuel Targum
Targum
Sheni

—— 900–1000 ——

Ruth Zuta Eichah Zuta Midrash
Midrash
Tehillim Midrash
Midrash
Hashkem Exodus Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Zutta

—— 1000–1200 ——

Midrash
Midrash
Tadshe Sefer haYashar

—— Later ——

Yalkut Shimoni Machir ben Abba Mari Midrash
Midrash
Jonah Ein Yaakov Midrash
Midrash
HaGadol Numbers Rabbah Smaller midrashim

Targum

—— Torah
Torah
——

Targum
Targum
Onkelos Targum
Targum
Pseudo-Jonathan Fragment Targum Targum
Targum
Neofiti

—— Nevi'im
Nevi'im
——

Targum
Targum
Jonathan

—— Ketuvim
Ketuvim
——

Targum
Targum
Tehillim Targum
Targum
Mishlei Targum
Targum
Iyyov Targum
Targum
to the Five Megillot Targum Sheni
Targum Sheni
to Esther Targum
Targum
to Chronicles

v t e

The Mishnah
Mishnah
or Mishna (/ˈmɪʃnə/; Hebrew: מִשְׁנָה‬, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah שנה‬, or "to study and review", also "secondary")[1] is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic literature.[2][3] The Mishnah
Mishnah
was redacted by Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
at the beginning of the third century CE[4] in a time when, according to the Talmud, the persecution of the Jews
Jews
and the passage of time raised the possibility that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees
Pharisees
from the Second Temple
Second Temple
period (536 BCE – 70 CE) would be forgotten. Most of the Mishnah
Mishnah
is written in Mishnaic Hebrew, while some parts are Aramaic. The Mishnah
Mishnah
consists of six orders (sedarim, singular seder סדר), each containing 7–12 tractates (masechtot, singular masechet מסכת; lit. "web"), 63 in total, and further subdivided into chapters and paragraphs or verses. The word Mishnah
Mishnah
can also indicate a single paragraph or a verse of the work itself, i.e. the smallest unit of structure in the Mishnah. For this reason the whole work is sometimes called by the plural, Mishnayot.

Contents

1 Structure

1.1 Omissions 1.2 Mishnah, Gemara
Gemara
and Talmud

2 Content and purpose

2.1 Oral law 2.2 The Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible 2.3 Rejection

3 Authorship 4 Mishnah
Mishnah
studies

4.1 Textual variants 4.2 Manuscripts 4.3 Printed editions 4.4 Oral traditions and pronunciation 4.5 Commentaries 4.6 As a historical source

5 Cultural references 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 English translations 8.2 Historical study 8.3 Recitation

9 External links

9.1 Wikimedia projects 9.2 Digitised manuscripts 9.3 Other electronic texts 9.4 Mishnah
Mishnah
study and the daily Mishnah 9.5 Audio lectures 9.6 Oral traditions and pronunciation

Structure[edit] The term "Mishnah" originally referred to a method of teaching by presenting topics in a systematic order, as contrasted with Midrash, which followed the order of the Bible. As a written compilation, the order of the Mishnah
Mishnah
is by subject matter and includes a much broader selection of halakhic subjects, and discusses individual subjects more thoroughly, than the Midrash. The Mishnah
Mishnah
consists of six orders (sedarim, singular seder סדר), each containing 7–12 tractates (masechtot, singular masechet מסכת; lit. "web"), 63 in total. Each masechet is divided into chapters (peraqim, singular pereq) and then paragraphs (mishnayot, singular mishnah). In this last context, the word mishnah means a single paragraph of the work, i.e. the smallest unit of structure, leading to the use of the plural, "Mishnayot", for the whole work. Because of the division into six orders, the Mishnah
Mishnah
is sometimes called 'Shas' (an acronym for Shisha Sedarim – the "six orders"), though that term is more often used for the Talmud
Talmud
as a whole. The six orders are:

Zeraim ("Seeds"), dealing with prayer and blessings, tithes and agricultural laws (11 tractates) Moed ("Festival"), pertaining to the laws of the Sabbath and the Festivals (12 tractates) Nashim ("Women"), concerning marriage and divorce, some forms of oaths and the laws of the nazirite (7 tractates) Nezikin ("Damages"), dealing with civil and criminal law, the functioning of the courts and oaths (10 tractates) Kodashim ("Holy things"), regarding sacrificial rites, the Temple, and the dietary laws (11 tractates) and Tohorot ("Purities"), pertaining to the laws of purity and impurity, including the impurity of the dead, the laws of food purity and bodily purity (12 tractates).

In each order (with the exception of Zeraim), tractates are arranged from biggest (in number of chapters) to smallest. A popular mnemonic consists of the acronym "Z'MaN NaKaT."[5] The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(Hagiga 14a) states that there were either six hundred or seven hundred orders of the Mishnah. Hillel the Elder organized them into six orders to make it easier to remember. The historical accuracy of this tradition is disputed.[citation needed] There is also a tradition that Ezra
Ezra
the scribe dictated from memory not only the 24 books of the Tanakh
Tanakh
but 60 esoteric books. It is not known whether this is a reference to the Mishnah, but there is a case for saying that the Mishnah
Mishnah
does consist of 60 tractates. (The current total is 63, but Makkot was originally part of Sanhedrin, and Bava Kamma, Bava Metzia and Bava Batra may be regarded as subdivisions of a single tractate Nezikin.) Interestingly, Reuvein Margolies (1889–1971) posited that there were originally seven orders of Mishnah, citing a Gaonic tradition on the existence of a seventh order containing the laws of Sta"m (scribal practice) and Berachot (blessings).[citation needed] Omissions[edit] A number of important laws are not elaborated upon in the Mishnah. These include the laws of tzitzit, tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzot, the holiday of Hanukkah, and the laws of conversion to Judaism. These were later discussed in the minor tractates. Nissim ben Jacob's Hakdamah Le'mafteach Hatalmud argued that it was unnecessary for Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
to discuss them as many of these laws were so well known. Margolies suggests that as the Mishnah
Mishnah
was redacted after the Bar Kokhba revolt, Judah could not have included discussion of Hanukkah, which commemorates the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(the Romans would not have tolerated this overt nationalism). Similarly, there were then several decrees in place aimed at suppressing outward signs of national identity, including decrees against wearing tefillin and tzitzit; as conversion to Judaism was against Roman law, Judah would not have discussed this.[6] David Zvi Hoffmann
David Zvi Hoffmann
suggests that there existed ancient texts analogous to the present-day Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
that discussed the basic laws of day to day living and it was therefore not necessary to focus on these laws in the Mishnah. Mishnah, Gemara
Gemara
and Talmud[edit] Rabbinic commentaries on the Mishnah
Mishnah
from the next four centuries, done in the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
and in Babylonia, were eventually redacted and compiled as well. In themselves they are known as Gemara. The books which set out the Mishnah
Mishnah
in its original structure, together with the associated Gemara, are known as Talmuds. Two Talmuds were compiled, the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(to which the term "Talmud" normally refers) and the Jerusalem Talmud. Unlike the Hebrew
Hebrew
Mishnah, the Gemara
Gemara
is written primarily in Aramaic. Content and purpose[edit] The Mishnah
Mishnah
teaches the oral traditions by example, presenting actual cases being brought to judgment, usually along with the debate on the matter and the judgment that was given by a notable rabbi based on halakha, mitzvot, and spirit of the teaching ("Torah") that guided his decision. In this way, it brings to everyday reality the practice of the mitzvot as presented in the Torah, and aims to cover all aspects of human living, serve as an example for future judgments, and, most important, demonstrate pragmatic exercise of the Biblical laws, which was much needed since the time when the Second Temple
Second Temple
was destroyed (70 CE). The Mishnah
Mishnah
does not claim to be the development of new laws, but rather the collection of existing traditions.[citation needed] The term "Mishnah" is related to the verb "shanah", to teach or repeat, and to the adjectives "sheni" and "mishneh", meaning "second". It is thus named for being both the one written authority (codex) secondary (only) to the Tanakh
Tanakh
as a basis for the passing of judgment, a source and a tool for creating laws, and the first of many books to complement the Tanakh
Tanakh
in certain aspects. Oral law[edit] Main article: Oral Torah Before the publication of the Mishnah, Jewish scholarship and judgement were predominantly oral, as according to the Talmud, it was not permitted to write them down.[7] The earliest recorded oral law may have been of the midrashic form, in which halakhic discussion is structured as exegetical commentary on the Torah.[citation needed] Rabbis expounded on and debated the Tanakh, the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, without the benefit of written works (other than the Biblical books themselves), though some may have made private notes (מגילות סתרים) for example of court decisions. The oral traditions were far from monolithic, and varied among various schools, the most famous of which were the House of Shammai
House of Shammai
and the House of Hillel. After First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
in 70 CE, with the end of the Second Temple Jewish center in Jerusalem, Jewish social and legal norms were in upheaval. The Rabbis were faced with the new reality of Judaism without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea without autonomy. It is during this period that Rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing.[8][9] The possibility was felt that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees
Pharisees
from the Second Temple period
Second Temple period
(530s BCE – 70 CE) would be forgotten, so the justification was found to have these oral laws transcribed.[10][11] Over time, different traditions of the Oral Law
Law
came into being, raising problems of interpretation. According to the Mevo Hatalmud[citation needed] many rulings were given in a specific context, but would be taken out of it; or a ruling was revisited but the second ruling would not become popularly known. To correct this, Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
took up the redaction of the Mishnah. If a point was of no conflict, he kept its language; where there was conflict, he reordered the opinions and ruled; and he clarified where context was not given. The idea was not to use his own discretion, but rather to examine the tradition as far back as he could, and only supplement as required.[citation needed] The Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible[edit] According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah
Torah
(Hebrew: תורה שבעל-פה‎) was given to Moses
Moses
with the Torah
Torah
at Mount Sinai or Mount Horeb
Mount Horeb
as an exposition to the latter. The accumulated traditions of the Oral Law, expounded by scholars in each generation from Moses onward, is considered as the necessary basis for the interpretation, and often for the reading, of the Written Law. Jews
Jews
sometimes refer to this as the Masorah (Hebrew: מסורה), roughly translated as tradition, though that word is often used in a narrower sense to mean traditions concerning the editing and reading of the Biblical text (see Masoretic Text). The resulting Jewish law and custom is called halakha. While most discussions in the Mishnah
Mishnah
concern the correct way to carry out laws recorded in the Torah, it usually presents its conclusions without explicitly linking them to any scriptural passage, though scriptural quotations do occur. For this reason it is arranged in order of topics rather than in the form of a Biblical commentary. (In a very few cases, there is no scriptural source at all and the law is described as Halakha leMoshe miSinai, "law to Moses
Moses
from Sinai".) The Midrash
Midrash
halakha, by contrast, while presenting similar laws, does so in the form of a Biblical commentary and explicitly links its conclusions to details in the Biblical text. These Midrashim often predate the Mishnah. The Mishnah
Mishnah
also quotes the Torah
Torah
for principles not associated with law, but just as practical advice, even at times for humor or as guidance for understanding historical debates. Rejection[edit] Some Jews
Jews
did not accept the codification of the oral law at all. Karaite Judaism, for example, recognised only the Tanakh
Tanakh
as authoritative in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology. It vehemently rejected the codification of the Oral Torah
Torah
in the Mishnah and Talmud
Talmud
and subsequent works of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism which maintained that the Talmud
Talmud
was an authoritative interpretations of the Torah. Karaites maintained that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses
Moses
by God were recorded in the written Torah
Torah
without additional Oral Law
Law
or explanation. As a result, Karaite Jews
Jews
did not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash
Midrash
or Talmud. The Karaites comprised a significant portion of the world Jewish population in the 10th and 11th centuries CE, and remain extant, although they currently number in the thousands. Authorship[edit] Main article: Tannaim The rabbis who contributed to the Mishnah
Mishnah
are known as the Tannaim,[12][13] of whom approximately 120 are known. The period during which the Mishnah
Mishnah
was assembled spanned about 130 years, or five generations, in the first and second centuries CE. Judah the Prince is credited with the final redaction and publication of the Mishnah,[14] although there have been a few additions since his time:[15] those passages that cite him or his grandson, Judah II, and the end of tractate Sotah, which refers to the period after Judah the Prince's death. One must also note that in addition to redacting the Mishnah, Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
and his court also ruled on which opinions should be followed, though the rulings do not always appear in the text. Most of the Mishnah
Mishnah
is related without attribution (stam). This usually indicates that many sages taught so, or that Judah the Prince ruled so. The halakhic ruling usually follows that view. Sometimes, however, it appears to be the opinion of a single sage, and the view of the sages collectively (Hebrew: חכמים‎, hachamim) is given separately. As Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
went through the tractates, the Mishnah
Mishnah
was set forth, but throughout his life some parts were updated as new information came to light. Because of the proliferation of earlier versions, it was deemed too hard to retract anything already released, and therefore a second version of certain laws were released. The Talmud
Talmud
refers to these differing versions as Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah ("First Mishnah") and Mishnah
Mishnah
Acharonah ("Last Mishnah"). David Zvi Hoffmann suggests that Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah actually refers to texts from earlier Sages upon which Rabbi
Rabbi
based his Mishnah. The Talmud
Talmud
records a tradition that unattributed statements of the law represent the views of Rabbi Meir
Rabbi Meir
(Sanhedrin 86a), which supports the theory (recorded by Sherira Gaon in his famous Iggeret) that he was the author of an earlier collection. For this reason, the few passages that actually say "this is the view of Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir" represent cases where the author intended to present Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir's view as a "minority opinion" not representing the accepted law. There are also references to the " Mishnah
Mishnah
of Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva", suggesting a still earlier collection;[16] on the other hand, these references may simply mean his teachings in general. Another possibility is that Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
and Rabbi Meir
Rabbi Meir
established the divisions and order of subjects in the Mishnah, making them the authors of a school curriculum rather than of a book. Authorities are divided on whether Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
recorded the Mishnah
Mishnah
in writing or established it as an oral text for memorisation. The most important early account of its composition, the Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon (Epistle of Rabbi
Rabbi
Sherira Gaon) is ambiguous on the point, although the Spanish recension leans to the theory that the Mishnah
Mishnah
was written. However, the Talmud
Talmud
records that, in every study session, there was a person called the tanna appointed to recite the Mishnah
Mishnah
passage under discussion. This may indicate that, even if the Mishnah
Mishnah
was reduced to writing, it was not available on general distribution. Mishnah
Mishnah
studies[edit]

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Textual variants[edit] Very roughly, there are two traditions of Mishnah
Mishnah
text. One is found in manuscripts and printed editions of the Mishnah
Mishnah
on its own, or as part of the Jerusalem Talmud. The other is found in manuscripts and editions of the Babylonian Talmud; though there is sometimes a difference between the text of a whole paragraph printed at the beginning of a discussion (which may be edited to conform with the text of the Mishnah-only editions) and the line-by-line citations in the course of the discussion. Robert Brody, in his Mishna and Tosefta
Tosefta
Studies (Jerusalem 2014), warns against over-simplifying the picture by assuming that the Mishnah-only tradition is always the more authentic, or that it represents a "Palestinian" as against a "Babylonian" tradition. Manuscripts from the Cairo Geniza, or citations in other works, may support either type of reading or other readings altogether. Manuscripts[edit] Printed editions[edit] The first printed edition of the Mishnah
Mishnah
was published in Naples. There have been many subsequent editions, including the late 19th century Vilna
Vilna
edition, which is the basis of the editions now used by the religious public. Vocalized editions were published in Italy, culminating in the edition of David ben Solomon Altaras, publ. Venice 1737. The Altaras edition was republished in Mantua
Mantua
in 1777, in Pisa
Pisa
in 1797 and 1810 and in Livorno
Livorno
in many editions from 1823 until 1936: reprints of the vocalized Livorno
Livorno
editions were published in Israel in 1913, 1962, 1968 and 1976. These editions show some textual variants by bracketing doubtful words and passages, though they do not attempt detailed textual criticism. The Livorno
Livorno
editions are the basis of the Sephardic tradition for recitation. As well as being printed on its own, the Mishnah
Mishnah
is included in all editions of the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. Each paragraph is printed on its own, and followed by the relevant Gemara
Gemara
discussion. However, that discussion itself often cites the Mishnah
Mishnah
line by line. While the text printed in paragraph form has generally been standardized to follow the Vilna
Vilna
edition, the text cited line by line in the Gemara
Gemara
often preserves important variants, which sometimes reflect the readings of older manuscripts. The nearest approach to a critical edition is that of Hanoch Albeck. There is also an edition by Yosef Qafiḥ of the Mishnah
Mishnah
together with the commentary of Maimonides, which compares the base text used by Maimonides
Maimonides
with the Napoli and Vilna
Vilna
editions and other sources. Oral traditions and pronunciation[edit]

Amar Rabbi
Rabbi
Elazar

A traditional setting of the last passage of the first tractate, Berakhot, which describes how scholars of the Talmud
Talmud
create peace in the world. Performed by Cantor Meyer Kanewsky in 1919 for Edison Records.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The Mishnah
Mishnah
was and still is traditionally studied through recitation (out loud). Jewish communities around the world preserved local melodies for chanting the Mishnah, and distinctive ways of pronouncing its words. Many medieval manuscripts of the Mishnah
Mishnah
are vowelized, and some of these, especially some fragments found in the Genizah, are partially annotated with Tiberian cantillation marks.[17] Today, many communities have a special tune for the Mishnaic passage "Bammeh madliqin" in the Friday night service; there may also be tunes for Mishnaic passages in other parts of the liturgy, such as the passages in the daily prayers relating to sacrifices and incense and the paragraphs recited at the end of the Musaf service on Shabbat. Otherwise, there is often a customary intonation used in the study of Mishnah
Mishnah
or Talmud, somewhat similar to an Arabic mawwal, but this is not reduced to a precise system like that for the Biblical books. (In some traditions this intonation is the same as or similar to that used for the Passover
Passover
Haggadah.) Recordings have been made for Israeli national archives, and Frank Alvarez-Pereyre has published a book-length study of the Syrian tradition of Mishnah
Mishnah
reading on the basis of these recordings. Most vowelized editions of the Mishnah
Mishnah
today reflect standard Ashkenazic vowelization, and often contain mistakes. The Albeck edition of the Mishnah
Mishnah
was vowelized by Hanokh Yalon, who made careful eclectic use of both medieval manuscripts and current oral traditions of pronunciation from Jewish communities all over the world. The Albeck edition includes an introduction by Yalon detailing his eclectic method. Two institutes at the Hebrew University
Hebrew University
in Jerusalem have collected major oral archives which hold (among other things) extensive recordings of Jews
Jews
chanting the Mishnah
Mishnah
using a variety of melodies and many different kinds of pronunciation.[18] These institutes are the Jewish Oral Traditions Research Center and the National Voice Archives (the Phonoteca at the Jewish National and University Library). See below for external links. Commentaries[edit]

The two main commentaries on the Mishnah
Mishnah
are the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
and the Jerusalem Talmud. Neither work covers the whole Mishnah, but each work is on about 50–70% of the text. The reason that the Talmud
Talmud
is not usually viewed as a commentary on the Mishnah, is because it also has many other goals, and can get involved in long tangential discussions. However, the main purpose of the Talmud
Talmud
is as a commentary on the Mishnah. In 1168, Maimonides
Maimonides
(Rambam) published a comprehensive commentary on the Mishnah. It was written in transliterated Judeo-Arabic (using Hebrew
Hebrew
letters) and was one of the first commentaries of its kind. In it, Rambam condensed the associated Talmudical debates, and offered his conclusions in a number of undecided issues. Of particular significance are the various introductory sections – as well as the introduction to the work itself[19] – these are widely quoted in other works on the Mishnah, and on the Oral law in general. Perhaps the most famous is his introduction to the tenth chapter of tractate Sanhedrin[20] where he enumerates the thirteen fundamental beliefs of Judaism. Rabbi
Rabbi
Samson of Sens (France) was, apart from Maimonides, one of the few rabbis of the early medieval era to compose a Mishnah
Mishnah
commentary on some tractates. It is printed in many editions of the Mishnah. It is interwoven with his commentary on major parts of the Tosefta. The Rosh's commentary on some tractates The Meiri's commentary on most of the Mishnah Rabbi
Rabbi
Obadiah ben Abraham
Obadiah ben Abraham
of Bertinoro
Bertinoro
(15th century) wrote one of the most popular Mishnah
Mishnah
commentaries. He draws on Maimonides' work but also offers Talmudical material (in effect a summary of the Talmudic discussion) largely following the commentary of Rashi. In addition to its role as a commentary on the Mishnah, this work is often referenced by students of Talmud
Talmud
as a review-text, and is often referred to as "the Bartenura" or "the Ra'V". Yomtov Lipman Heller wrote a commentary called Tosafot
Tosafot
Yom Tov. In the introduction Heller says that his aim is to make additions (tosafoth) to Bertinoro’s commentary. The glosses are sometimes quite detailed and analytic. That is why it is sometimes compared to the Tosafot
Tosafot
– discussions of Babylonian gemara by French and German scholars of the 12th–13th centuries. In many compact Mishnah
Mishnah
printings, a condensed version of his commentary, titled Ikar Tosafot
Tosafot
Yom Tov, is featured. An 11th-century CE commentary of the Mishnah, composed by Rabbi
Rabbi
Nathan ben Abraham, President of the Academy in Eretz Israel. This relatively unheard-of commentary was first printed in Israel in 1955. Other Acharonim who have written Mishnah
Mishnah
commentaries:

The Melechet Shlomo (Rav Shelomo Adeni; early 17th century) Hon Ashir by Immanuel Ḥai Ricchi (Amsterdam 1731) The Vilna
Vilna
Gaon (Shenot Eliyahu on parts of the Mishnah, and glosses Eliyaho Rabba, Chidushei HaGra, Meoros HaGra) Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
Eiger (glosses, rather than a commentary) The Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah on Zeraim and the Mishnah
Mishnah
Acharonah on Tehorot (Rav Efrayim Yitzchok from Premishla) The Sidrei Tehorot on Kelim and Ohalot (the commentary on the rest of Tehorot and on Eduyot is lost) by Gershon Henoch Leiner, the Radziner Rebbe The Gulot Iliyot (Rav Dov Ber Lifshitz) on Mikvaot The Ahavat Eitan by Rav Avrohom Abba Krenitz (the great grandfather of Rav Malkiel Kotler) The Chazon Ish
Chazon Ish
on Zeraim and Tohorot

A prominent commentary from the 19th century is Tiferet Yisrael by Rabbi
Rabbi
Israel Lipschitz. It is subdivided into two parts, one more general and the other more analytical, titled Yachin and Boaz respectively (after two large pillars in the Temple in Jerusalem). Although Rabbi
Rabbi
Lipschutz has faced some controversy in certain Hasidic circles, he was greatly respected by such sages as Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
Eiger, whom he frequently cites, and is widely accepted in the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
world. The Tiferet Yaakov is an important gloss on the Tiferet Yisrael. Symcha Petrushka's commentary was written in Yiddish
Yiddish
in 1945 (published in Montreal).[21] Its vocalization is supposed to be of high quality. The commentary by Rabbi
Rabbi
Pinhas Kehati, which is written in Modern Israeli Hebrew
Hebrew
and based on classical and contemporary works, has become popular in the late 20th century. The commentary is designed to make the Mishnah
Mishnah
accessible to a wide readership. Each tractate is introduced with an overview of its contents, including historical and legal background material, and each Mishnah
Mishnah
is prefaced by a thematic introduction. The current version of this edition is printed with the Bartenura commentary as well as Kehati's. The encyclopedic editions put out by Mishnat Rav Aharon (Beis Medrosho Govoah, Lakewood) on Peah, Sheviit, Challah, and Yadayim. The above-mentioned edition edited by Hanokh Albeck and vocalized by Hanokh Yellin (1952–59) includes the former's extensive commentary on each Mishnah, as well as introductions to each tractate (Masekhet) and order (Seder). This commentary tends to focus on the meaning of the mishnayot themselves, without as much reliance on the Gemara's interpretation and is, therefore, considered valuable as a tool for the study of Mishnah
Mishnah
as an independent work. Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda Leib Ginsburg wrote a commentary on ethical issues, Musar HaMishnah. The commentary appears for the entire text except for Tohorot and Kodashim. Shmuel Safrai, Chana Safrai and Ze'ev Safrai have half completed a 45 volume socio-historic commentary "Mishnat Eretz Yisrael".

As a historical source[edit] Both the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
contain little serious biographical studies of the people discussed therein, and the same tractate will conflate the points of view of many different people. Yet, sketchy biographies of the Mishnaic sages can often be constructed with historical detail from Talmudic and Midrashic sources. According to the Encyclopaedia Judaica (Second Edition), it is accepted that Judah the Prince
Judah the Prince
added, deleted, and re wrote his source material during the process of redacting the Mishnah. Modern authors who have provided examples of these changes include J.N. Epstein, and S. Friedman.[22] Following Judah the Prince's redaction there remained a number of different versions of the Mishnah
Mishnah
in circulation. The Mishnah
Mishnah
used in the Babylonian rabbinic community differing markedly from that used in the Palestinian one. Indeed within these rabbinic communities themselves there are indications of different versions being used for study. These differences are shown in divergent citations of individual Mishnah
Mishnah
passages in the Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi and the Talmud Bavli, and in variances of medieval manuscripts and early editions of the Mishnah. The best known examples of these differences is found in J.N.Epstein’s Introduction to the Text of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(1948).[22] Epstein has also concluded that the period of the Amoraim
Amoraim
was one of further deliberate changes to the text of the Mishnah, which he views as attempts to return the text to what was regarded as its original form. These lessened over time, as the text of the Mishnah
Mishnah
became more and more regarded as authoritative.[22] Many modern historical scholars have focused on the timing and the formation of the Mishnah. A vital question is whether it is composed of sources which date from its editor's lifetime, and to what extent is it composed of earlier, or later sources. Are Mishnaic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines, and in what ways do different sections derive from different schools of thought within early Judaism? Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? In response to these questions, modern scholars have adopted a number of different approaches.

Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Mishnah
Mishnah
(and later, in the Talmud.) Lacking outside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can say little for certain about their authorship. In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, the works of Louis Jacobs, Baruch M. Bokser, Shaye J. D. Cohen, Steven D. Fraade. Some scholars hold that the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
have been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sources which we can identify and describe with some level of reliability. In this view, sources can be identified to some extent because each era of history and each distinct geographical region has its own unique feature, which one can trace and analyze. Thus, the questions above may be analyzed. See, for example, the works of Goodblatt, Lee Levine, David C. Kraemer and Robert Goldenberg. Some scholars hold that many or most of the statements and events described in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
usually occurred more or less as described, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study. In this view, historians do their best to tease out later editorial additions (itself a very difficult task) and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliable historical text. See, for example, the works of Saul Lieberman, David Weiss Halivni, Avraham Goldberg and Dov Zlotnick.

Cultural references[edit] A notable literary work on the composition of the Mishnah
Mishnah
is Milton Steinberg's novel As a Driven Leaf. See also[edit]

Judaism
Judaism
portal

Mishnah
Mishnah
Yomis—daily cycle of Mishna studying Baraita Jewish commentaries on the Bible Mishneh Torah Tosefta

Notes[edit]

^ The same meaning is suggested by the term Deuterosis ("doubling" or "repetition" in Ancient Greek) used in Roman law and Patristic literature. However it is not always clear from the context whether the reference is to the Mishnah
Mishnah
or to the Targum, which could be regarded as a "doubling" of the Torah
Torah
reading. ^ The list of joyful days known as Megillat Taanit is older, but according to the Talmud
Talmud
it is no longer in force. ^ "Commentary on Tractate Avot with an Introduction (Shemona perakim)". World Digital Library. Retrieved 19 March 2013.  ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition, Volume 14, p. 319. ^ Ronald L. Eisenberg, "Rabbinic Literature," in The JPS Guide to Jewish Traditions (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 2004), pp. 499–500. ^ Yesod Hamishna Va'arichatah pp. 25–28 (" Hebrew
Hebrew
text". ) ^ Babylonian Talmud, Temurah 14b; Gittin 60a. ^ See, Strack, Hermann, Introduction to the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash, Jewish Publication Society, 1945. pp. 11–12. "[The Oral Law] was handed down by word of mouth during a long period. ... The first attempts to write down the traditional matter, there is reason to believe, date from the first half of the second post-Christian century." Strack theorizes that the growth of a Christian canon (the New Testament) was a factor that influenced the Rabbis to record the oral law in writing. ^ The theory that the destruction of the Temple and subsequent upheaval led to the committing of Oral Law
Law
into writing was first explained in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon and often repeated. See, for example, Grayzel, A History of the Jews, Penguin Books, 1984, p. 193. ^ Nosson Dovid Rabinowich, ed. (1988). The Iggeres of Rav Sherira Gaon. Jerusalem. pp. 28–29. OCLC 20044324.  html. ^ Though as shown below, there is some disagreement about whether the Mishnah
Mishnah
was originally put in writing. ^ Outhwaite, Ben. "Mishnah". Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 16 September 2013.  ^ The plural term (singular tanna) for the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah; from the Aramaic root tanna (תנא) equivalent for the Hebrew
Hebrew
root shanah (שנה), as in Mishnah. ^ Abraham ben David calculated the date 189 CE. Seder Ha-Kabbalah Leharavad, Jerusalem 1971, p.16 (Hebrew) ^ According to the Epistle (Iggeret) of Sherira Gaon. ^ This theory was held by David Zvi Hoffman, and is repeated in the introduction to Herbert Danby's Mishnah
Mishnah
translation. ^ For a full study see Israel Yeivin, Cantillation
Cantillation
of the Oral Law. Leshonenu 24 (1960), pp. 47-231 (Hebrew). ^ Shelomo Morag, The Samaritan and Yemenite Tradition of Hebrew (published in: The Traditions of Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic of the Jews
Jews
of Yemen; ed. Yosef Tobi), Tel-Aviv 2001, p. 183 (note 12) ^ Daat.ac.il ^ Daat.ac.il Maimonides' introduction (Hebrew) ^ Margolis, Rebecca (2009) Translating Jewish Poland into Canadian Yiddish: Symcha Petrushka’s Mishnayes in TTR : traduction, terminologie, rédaction. Vol. 22, No. 2; pp. 183-209 ^ a b c Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition, Volume 14, p. 327.

References[edit] English translations[edit]

Philip Blackman. Mishnayoth. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 2000 (ISBN 978-0-910818-00-1). Online PDF
PDF
at HebrewBooks: Zeraim, Moed, Nashim, Nezikin, Kodashim, Tehorot. Herbert Danby. The Mishnah. Oxford, 1933 (ISBN 0-19-815402-X). Jacob Neusner. The Mishnah: A New Translation. New Haven, reprint 1991 (ISBN 0-300-05022-4). Various editors. The Mishnah, a new translation with commentary Yad Avraham. New York: Mesorah publishers, since the 1980s. [Yoseph Milstein + Various editors.] The Mishnah, a new integrated translation and commentary based on Rabbeinu Ovadiah M'Bartenurah, Machon Yisrael Trust, available online at eMishnah.com.

Historical study[edit]

Shalom Carmy (Ed.) Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations Jason Aronson, Inc. Shaye J.D. Cohen, "Patriarchs and Scholarchs", Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 48 (1981), pp. 57–87 Steven D. Fraade, "The Early Rabbinic Sage," in The Sage in Israel and the Ancient Near East, ed. John G. Gammie and Leo G. Perdue (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1990), pp. 417–23 Robert Goldenberg The Sabbath- Law
Law
of Rabbi Meir
Rabbi Meir
(Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press, 1978) John W McGinley 'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly ISBN 0-595-40488-X Jacob Neusner Making the Classics in Judaism
Judaism
(Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), pp. 1–13 and 19–44 Jacob Neusner Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), pp. 14–22. Gary Porton, The Traditions of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1982), vol. 4, pp. 212–25 Dov Zlotnick, The Iron Pillar Mishnah
Mishnah
(Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1988), pp. 8–9 Reuvain Margolies, Yesod Ha- Mishnah
Mishnah
V'Arichatah (Heb.) David Tzvi Hoffman, Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah U'flugta D'tanna'e (Heb) Hanokh Yalon, Mavo le-nikud ha- Mishnah
Mishnah
[Introduction to the vocalization of the Mishnah] (Jerusalem 1964) (Heb) Robert Brody, Mishna and Tosefta
Tosefta
Studies (Jerusalem 2014)

Recitation[edit]

Frank Alvarez-Pereyre, La Transmission Orale de la Mishna. Une methode d'analyse appliquee a la tradition d'Alep: Jerusalem 1990

External links[edit] Wikimedia projects[edit]

Media related to Mishnah
Mishnah
at Wikimedia Commons Works related to Mishnah
Mishnah
at Wikisource   Hebrew
Hebrew
Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: משנה Wikisource's Open Mishna Project is developing Mishnah
Mishnah
texts, commentaries, and translations. The project is currently available in four languages: Hebrew
Hebrew
(the largest collection), English, French and Portuguese.

Digitised manuscripts[edit]

Complete Mishnah
Mishnah
manuscript (15th century CE), Cambridge Digital Library

Other electronic texts[edit]

Learn Mishna in Someone's Memory – Create a Shloshim Mishnah
Mishnah
list online Mechon Mamre – Hebrew
Hebrew
text of the Mishnah
Mishnah
according to Maimonides' version (based on the manuscript of his Mishnah
Mishnah
commentary in his own handwriting). The Structured Mishnah
Mishnah
Hebrew
Hebrew
text according to the Albeck edition (without vowels) with special formatting. Online Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts, Jewish National and University Library in Hebrew. Codex Kaufmann of the Mishnah
Mishnah
High resolution images of this important textual witness. emishnah English Translation & Commentary.

Mishnah
Mishnah
study and the daily Mishnah[edit]

Aaron Ahrend, "Mishna Study and Study Groups in Modern Times" in JSIJ 3: 2004 (Hebrew). Available online at biu.ac.il (Word & PDF). Mishna Yomit – One Mishnah
Mishnah
per day. (Note: this study-cycle follows a different schedule than the regular one; contains extensive archives in English). Mishnah
Mishnah
Yomit – MishnahYomit.com hosts a weekly publication complementing the learning of people studying the regular program. It include articles, review questions and learning aids. Kehati Mishna at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived June 25, 2003) a program of two Mishnayot per day. Currently inactive, but archives contain the complete text of Kehati in English for Moed, Nashim, Nezikin, and about half of Kodashim. Dafyomireview – custom learning and review programs for Mishnah. MishnaSdura – Popular edition of Hebrew
Hebrew
text (with vowels), used in many schools, formatted to encourage review and aid memory. Tables summarizing content. Mishna songs and recordings. Wiki article in Hebrew
Hebrew
Mishna Sdura Perek HaYomi – in Hebrew. Host to Shiurim, and learning and review according to the Perek HaYomi in Mishna instituted by the Maharal. 2 Mishnas A Day – A program of learning two mishnayos every day. Site include Hebrew
Hebrew
and English together with a link for audio for each day.

Audio lectures[edit]

Rav Avraham Kosman – Slabodka on the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
in English – Produced in Israel Mishna Audio – given by Rabbi
Rabbi
Chaim Brown in English Rav Grossman on the Mishna in English produced in Los Angeles Download all 6 tractates of Mishnah
Mishnah
for Free on TorahDownloads.com

Oral traditions and pronunciation[edit]

The National Sound Archives at the Hebrew University
Hebrew University
(catalogue not currently online). Tradition and Relevance – Recordings of Seder Zera'im in Syrian tradition

v t e

The Six Orders of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(ששה סדרי משנה‬)

Zeraim (Seeds) (זרעים‬) Moed (Festival) (מועד‬) Nashim (Women) (נשים‬) Nezikin (Damages) (נזיקין‬) Kodashim (Holies) (קדשים‬) Tohorot (Purities) (טהרות‬)

Berakhot Pe'ah Demai Kil'ayim Shevi'it Terumot Ma'aserot Ma'aser Sheni Hallah Orlah Bikkurim

Shabbat Eruvin Pesahim Shekalim Yoma Sukkah Beitza Rosh Hashanah Ta'anit Megillah Mo'ed Katan Hagigah

Yevamot Ketubot Nedarim Nazir Sotah Gittin Kiddushin

Bava Kamma Bava Metzia Bava Batra Sanhedrin Makkot Shevu'ot Eduyot Avodah Zarah Avot Horayot

Zevahim Menahot Hullin Bekhorot Arakhin Temurah Keritot Me'ilah Tamid Middot Kinnim

Keilim Oholot Nega'im Parah Tohorot Mikva'ot Niddah Makhshirin Zavim Tevul Yom Yadayim Uktzim

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