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(i)

—— Tannaitic ——

* Mishnah * Tosefta

—— Amoraic ( Gemara ) ——

* Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud
Talmud

—— Later ——

* Minor Tractates

HALAKHIC MIDRASH

—— Exodus ——

* Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael * Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon bar Yohai

—— Leviticus ——

* Sifra (Torat Kohanim)

—— Numbers and Deuteronomy ——

* Sifre * Sifrei Zutta on Numbers * (Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim)

AGGADIC MIDRASH

—— Tannaitic ——

* Seder Olam Rabbah * Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva
Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva
* Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules * Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules * Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle

—— 400–600 ——

* Genesis Rabbah * Lamentations Rabbah * Pesikta de-Rav Kahana * Esther Rabbah * Midrash Iyyob * Leviticus Rabbah * Seder Olam Zutta * Tanhuma * Megillat Antiochus

—— 650–900 ——

* Avot of Rabbi Natan * Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer * Tanna Devei Eliyahu * Alphabet of Sirach * Ecclesiastes Rabbah * Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah * Deuteronomy Rabbah * Devarim Zutta * Pesikta Rabbati * Midrash Shmuel * Midrash Proverbs * Ruth Rabbah * Baraita of Samuel * Targum Sheni

—— 900–1000 ——

* Ruth Zuta * Eichah Zuta * Midrash Tehillim * Midrash Hashkem * Exodus Rabbah
Exodus Rabbah
* Shir ha-Shirim Zutta

—— 1000–1200 ——

* Midrash Tadshe * Sefer haYashar

—— Later ——

* Yalkut Shimoni * Machir ben Abba Mari * Midrash Jonah
Midrash Jonah
* Ein Yaakov
Ein Yaakov
* Midrash HaGadol * Numbers Rabbah * Smaller midrashim

TARGUM

—— Torah
Torah
——

* Targum Onkelos * Targum Pseudo-Jonathan * Fragment Targum * Targum Neofiti

—— Nevi\'im ——

* Targum Jonathan

—— Ketuvim ——

* Targum Tehillim * Targum Mishlei * Targum Iyyov * Targum to the Five Megillot * Targum Sheni to Esther * Targum to Chronicles

* v * t * e

The MISHNAH or MISHNA (/ˈmɪʃnə/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: מִשְׁנָה‎, "study by repetition", from the verb _shanah_ שנה‎, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah
Torah
". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic literature . The Mishnah
Mishnah
was redacted by Judah the Prince at the beginning of the third century CE in a time when, according to the Talmud
Talmud
, the persecution of the Jews and the passage of time raised the possibility that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees from the Second Temple period (536 BCE – 70 CE) would be forgotten. Most of the Mishnah
Mishnah
is written in Mishnaic Hebrew , while some parts are Aramaic .

The Mishnah
Mishnah
consists of six orders (_sedarim_, singular _seder_ סדר), each containing 7–12 tractates (_masechtot_, singular _masechet_ מסכת; lit. "web"), 63 in total, and further subdivided into chapters and paragraphs or verses. The word _Mishnah_ can also indicate a single paragraph or a verse of the work itself, i.e. the smallest unit of structure in the Mishnah. For this reason the whole work is sometimes called by the plural, _Mishnayot_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Structure

* 1.1 Omissions * 1.2 Mishnah, Gemara and Talmud
Talmud

* 2 Content and purpose

* 2.1 Oral law * 2.2 The Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Hebrew Bible * 2.3 Rejection

* 3 Authorship

* 4 Mishnah
Mishnah
studies

* 4.1 Textual variants * 4.2 Manuscripts * 4.3 Printed editions * 4.4 Oral traditions and pronunciation * 4.5 Commentaries * 4.6 As a historical source

* 5 Cultural references * 6 See also * 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 English translations * 8.2 Historical study * 8.3 Recitation
Recitation

* 9 External links

* 9.1 Wikimedia projects * 9.2 Digitised manuscripts * 9.3 Other electronic texts * 9.4 Mishnah
Mishnah
study and the daily Mishnah
Mishnah
* 9.5 Audio lectures * 9.6 Oral traditions and pronunciation

STRUCTURE

The term "_Mishnah_" originally referred to a method of teaching by presenting topics in a systematic order, as contrasted with _Midrash _, which followed the order of the Bible. As a written compilation, the order of the _Mishnah_ is by subject matter and includes a much broader selection of halakhic subjects, and discusses individual subjects more thoroughly, than the _Midrash_.

The _Mishnah_ consists of six orders (_sedarim_, singular _seder_ סדר), each containing 7–12 tractates (_masechtot_, singular _masechet_ מסכת; lit. "web"), 63 in total. Each _masechet_ is divided into chapters (_peraqim_, singular _pereq_) and then paragraphs (_mishnayot_, singular _mishnah_). In this last context, the word _mishnah_ means a single paragraph of the work, i.e. the smallest unit of structure, leading to the use of the plural, "_Mishnayot_", for the whole work.

Because of the division into six orders, the _Mishnah_ is sometimes called 'SHAS\' (an acronym for _Shisha Sedarim_ – the "six orders"), though that term is more often used for the Talmud
Talmud
as a whole.

The six orders are:

* _ Zeraim _ ("Seeds"), dealing with prayer and blessings, tithes and agricultural laws (11 tractates) * _ Moed _ ("Festival"), pertaining to the laws of the Sabbath and the Festivals (12 tractates) * _ Nashim _ ("Women"), concerning marriage and divorce, some forms of oaths and the laws of the nazirite (7 tractates) * _ Nezikin _ ("Damages"), dealing with civil and criminal law, the functioning of the courts and oaths (10 tractates) * _ Kodashim _ ("Holy things"), regarding sacrificial rites, the Temple , and the dietary laws (11 tractates) and * _ Tohorot _ ("Purities"), pertaining to the laws of purity and impurity, including the impurity of the dead, the laws of food purity and bodily purity (12 tractates).

In each order (with the exception of Zeraim), tractates are arranged from biggest (in number of chapters) to smallest. A popular mnemonic consists of the acronym "Z'MaN NaKaT."

The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(Hagiga 14a) states that there were either six hundred or seven hundred orders of the Mishnah. Hillel the Elder organized them into six orders to make it easier to remember. The historical accuracy of this tradition is disputed. There is also a tradition that Ezra
Ezra
the scribe dictated from memory not only the 24 books of the Tanakh but 60 esoteric books. It is not known whether this is a reference to the _Mishnah_, but there is a case for saying that the _Mishnah_ does consist of 60 tractates. (The current total is 63, but Makkot was originally part of Sanhedrin , and Bava Kamma , Bava Metzia and Bava Batra may be regarded as subdivisions of a single tractate Nezikin.)

Interestingly, Reuvein Margolies (1889–1971) posited that there were originally seven orders of Mishnah, citing a Gaonic tradition on the existence of a seventh order containing the laws of _Sta"m _ (scribal practice) and Berachot (blessings).

OMISSIONS

A number of important laws are not elaborated upon in the _Mishnah_. These include the laws of tzitzit , tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzot , the holiday of Hanukkah , and the laws of conversion to Judaism
Judaism
. These were later discussed in the minor tractates .

Nissim ben Jacob 's _Hakdamah Le'mafteach Hatalmud_ argued that it was unnecessary for Judah the Prince to discuss them as many of these laws were so well known. Margolies suggests that as the _Mishnah_ was redacted after the Bar Kokhba revolt , Judah could not have included discussion of Hanukkah, which commemorates the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire (the Romans would not have tolerated this overt nationalism). Similarly, there were then several decrees in place aimed at suppressing outward signs of national identity, including decrees against wearing tefillin and tzitzit; as conversion to Judaism was against Roman law, Judah would not have discussed this.

David Zvi Hoffmann suggests that there existed ancient texts in the form of the present-day _ Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
_ that discussed the basic laws of day to day living and it was therefore not necessary to focus on these laws in the _Mishnah_.

MISHNAH, GEMARA AND TALMUD

Rabbinic commentaries on the _Mishnah_ from the next four centuries, done in the Land of Israel and in Babylonia
Babylonia
, were eventually redacted and compiled as well. In themselves they are known as _ Gemara _. The books which set out the _Mishnah_ in its original structure, together with the associated _Gemara_, are known as Talmuds . Two Talmuds were compiled, the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(to which the term "Talmud" normally refers) and the Jerusalem Talmud . Unlike the Hebrew
Hebrew
_Mishnah_, the _Gemara_ is written primarily in Aramaic.

CONTENT AND PURPOSE

The _Mishnah_ teaches the oral traditions by example, presenting actual cases being brought to judgment, usually along with the debate on the matter and the judgment that was given by a notable rabbi based on halakha , mitzvot , and spirit of the teaching ("Torah") that guided his decision. In this way, it brings to everyday reality the practice of the _mitzvot _ as presented in the Torah, and aims to cover all aspects of human living, serve as an example for future judgments, and, most important, demonstrate pragmatic exercise of the Biblical laws, which was much needed since the time when the Second Temple was destroyed (70 CE). The _Mishnah_ does not claim to be the development of new laws, but rather the collection of existing traditions.

The term "Mishnah" is related to the verb "shanah", to teach or repeat, and to the adjectives "_sheni_" and "_mishneh_", meaning "second". It is thus named for being both the one written authority (codex) secondary (only) to the Tanakh as a basis for the passing of judgment, a source and a tool for creating laws, and the first of many books to complement the Tanakh in certain aspects.

ORAL LAW

Main article: Oral Torah
Torah

Before the publication of the _Mishnah_, Jewish scholarship and judgement were predominantly oral, as according to the Talmud, it was not permitted to write them down. The earliest recorded oral law may have been of the midrashic form, in which halakhic discussion is structured as exegetical commentary on the Torah
Torah
. Rabbis expounded on and debated the Tanakh , the Hebrew Bible , without the benefit of written works (other than the Biblical books themselves), though some may have made private notes (מגילות סתרים) for example of court decisions. The oral traditions were far from monolithic, and varied among various schools, the most famous of which were the House of Shammai and the House of Hillel .

After First Jewish–Roman War in 70 CE, with the end of the Second Temple Jewish center in Jerusalem, Jewish social and legal norms were in upheaval. The Rabbis were faced with the new reality of Judaism without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea without autonomy. It is during this period that Rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing. The possibility was felt that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees from the Second Temple period (530s BCE – 70 CE) would be forgotten, so the justification was found to have these oral laws transcribed.

Over time, different traditions of the Oral Law
Law
came into being, raising problems of interpretation. According to the _Mevo Hatalmud_ many rulings were given in a specific context, but would be taken out of it; or a ruling was revisited but the second ruling would not become popularly known. To correct this, Judah the Prince took up the redaction of the _Mishnah_. If a point was of no conflict, he kept its language; where there was conflict, he reordered the opinions and ruled; and he clarified where context was not given. The idea was not to use his own discretion, but rather to examine the tradition as far back as he could, and only supplement as required.

THE MISHNAH AND THE HEBREW BIBLE

According to Rabbinic Judaism , the Oral Torah
Torah
( Hebrew
Hebrew
: תורה שבעל-פה‎‎) was given to Moses
Moses
with the Torah
Torah
at Mount Sinai or Mount Horeb as an exposition to the latter. The accumulated traditions of the Oral Law, expounded by scholars in each generation from Moses
Moses
onward, is considered as the necessary basis for the interpretation, and often for the reading, of the Written Law. Jews sometimes refer to this as the Masorah (Hebrew: מסורה), roughly translated as tradition, though that word is often used in a narrower sense to mean traditions concerning the editing and reading of the Biblical text (see Masoretic Text ). The resulting Jewish law and custom is called halakha.

While most discussions in the Mishnah
Mishnah
concern the correct way to carry out laws recorded in the Torah, it usually presents its conclusions without explicitly linking them to any scriptural passage, though scriptural quotations do occur. For this reason it is arranged in order of topics rather than in the form of a Biblical commentary. (In a very few cases, there is no scriptural source at all and the law is described as _ Halakha leMoshe miSinai_, "law to Moses
Moses
from Sinai".) The _ Midrash halakha _, by contrast, while presenting similar laws, does so in the form of a Biblical commentary and explicitly links its conclusions to details in the Biblical text. These Midrashim often predate the Mishnah.

The Mishnah
Mishnah
also quotes the Torah
Torah
for principles not associated with law , but just as practical advice, even at times for humor or as guidance for understanding historical debates.

REJECTION

Some Jews did not accept the codification of the oral law at all. Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism
, for example, recognised only the Tanakh as authoritative in _ Halakha _ (Jewish religious law ) and theology . It vehemently rejected the codification of the Oral Torah
Torah
in the Mishnah and Talmud
Talmud
and subsequent works of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism which maintained that the Talmud
Talmud
was an authoritative interpretations of the Torah
Torah
. Karaites maintained that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses
Moses
by God were recorded in the written Torah
Torah
without additional Oral Law
Law
or explanation. As a result, Karaite Jews did not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud. The Karaites comprised a significant portion of the world Jewish population in the 10th and 11th centuries CE, and remain extant, although they currently number in the thousands.

AUTHORSHIP

Main article: Tannaim

The rabbis who contributed to the _Mishnah_ are known as the _Tannaim_, of whom approximately 120 are known. The period during which the _Mishnah_ was assembled spanned about 130 years, or five generations, in the first and second centuries CE. Judah the Prince is credited with the final redaction and publication of the _Mishnah_, though there have been a few additions since his time: those passages that cite him or his grandson, Judah II , and the end of tractate Sotah , which refers to the period after Judah the Prince's death. One must also note that in addition to redacting the _Mishnah_, Judah the Prince and his court also ruled on which opinions should be followed, though the rulings do not always appear in the text.

Most of the Mishnah
Mishnah
is related without attribution (_stam_). This usually indicates that many sages taught so, or that Judah the Prince ruled so. The halakhic ruling usually follows that view. Sometimes, however, it appears to be the opinion of a single sage, and the view of the sages collectively ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: חכמים‎‎, _hachamim_) is given separately.

As Judah the Prince went through the tractates, the _Mishnah_ was set forth, but throughout his life some parts were updated as new information came to light. Because of the proliferation of earlier versions, it was deemed too hard to retract anything already released, and therefore a second version of certain laws were released. The Talmud
Talmud
refers to these differing versions as _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah_ ("First Mishnah") and _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Acharonah_ ("Last Mishnah"). David Zvi Hoffmann suggests that _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah_ actually refers to texts from earlier Sages upon which Rabbi
Rabbi
based his Mishnah.

The Talmud
Talmud
records a tradition that unattributed statements of the law represent the views of Rabbi Meir (Sanhedrin 86a), which supports the theory (recorded by Sherira Gaon in his famous _Iggeret_) that he was the author of an earlier collection. For this reason, the few passages that actually say "this is the view of Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir" represent cases where the author intended to present Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir's view as a "minority opinion" not representing the accepted law.

There are also references to the " Mishnah
Mishnah
of Rabbi Akiva ", suggesting a still earlier collection; on the other hand, these references may simply mean his teachings in general. Another possibility is that Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Meir established the divisions and order of subjects in the Mishnah, making them the authors of a school curriculum rather than of a book.

Authorities are divided on whether Rabbi
Rabbi
recorded the Mishnah
Mishnah
in writing or established it as an oral text for memorisation. The most important early account of its composition, the Epistle of Sherira Gaon, is ambiguous on the point, though the "Spanish" recension leans to the theory that the Mishnah
Mishnah
was written. However, the Talmud records that, in every study session, there was a person called the _tanna_ appointed to recite the Mishnah
Mishnah
passage under discussion. This may indicate that, even if the Mishnah
Mishnah
was reduced to writing, it was not available on general distribution.

MISHNAH STUDIES

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TEXTUAL VARIANTS

Very roughly, there are two traditions of Mishnah
Mishnah
text. One is found in manuscripts and printed editions of the Mishnah
Mishnah
on its own, or as part of the Jerusalem Talmud . The other is found in manuscripts and editions of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
; though there is sometimes a difference between the text of a whole paragraph printed at the beginning of a discussion (which may be edited to conform with the text of the Mishnah-only editions) and the line-by-line citations in the course of the discussion.

Robert Brody, in his _Mishna and Tosefta Studies_ (Jerusalem 2014), warns against over-simplifying the picture by assuming that the Mishnah-only tradition is always the more authentic, or that it represents a "Palestinian" as against a "Babylonian" tradition. Manuscripts from the Cairo Geniza , or citations in other works, may support either type of reading or other readings altogether.

MANUSCRIPTS

PRINTED EDITIONS

The first printed edition of the Mishnah
Mishnah
was published in Naples
Naples
. There have been many subsequent editions, including the late 19th century Vilna
Vilna
edition, which is the basis of the editions now used by the religious public.

Vocalized editions were published in Italy, culminating in the edition of David ben Solomon Altaras , publ. Venice 1737. The Altaras edition was republished in Mantua
Mantua
in 1777, in Pisa
Pisa
in 1797 and 1810 and in Livorno
Livorno
in many editions from 1823 until 1936: reprints of the vocalized Livorno
Livorno
editions were published in Israel in 1913, 1962, 1968 and 1976. These editions show some textual variants by bracketing doubtful words and passages, though they do not attempt detailed textual criticism. The Livorno
Livorno
editions are the basis of the Sephardic tradition for recitation.

As well as being printed on its own, the Mishnah
Mishnah
is included in all editions of the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. Each paragraph is printed on its own, and followed by the relevant Gemara discussion. However, that discussion itself often cites the Mishnah
Mishnah
line by line. While the text printed in paragraph form has generally been standardized to follow the Vilna
Vilna
edition, the text cited line by line in the Gemara often preserves important variants, which sometimes reflect the readings of older manuscripts.

The nearest approach to a critical edition is that of Hanoch Albeck . There is also an edition by Yosef Qafiḥ of the Mishnah
Mishnah
together with the commentary of Maimonides
Maimonides
, which compares the base text used by Maimonides
Maimonides
with the Napoli and Vilna
Vilna
editions and other sources.

ORAL TRADITIONS AND PRONUNCIATION

_ Amar Rabbi
Rabbi
Elazar A traditional setting of the last passage of the first tractate, Berakhot , which describes how scholars of the Talmud
Talmud
create peace in the world. Performed by Cantor Meyer Kanewsky in 1919 for Edison Records . -------------------------

Problems playing this file? See media help ._

The Mishnah
Mishnah
was and still is traditionally studied through recitation (out loud). Many medieval manuscripts of the Mishnah
Mishnah
are vowelized, and some of these contain partial Tiberian cantillation . Jewish communities around the world preserved local melodies for chanting the Mishnah, and distinctive ways of pronouncing its words.

Most vowelized editions of the Mishnah
Mishnah
today reflect standard Ashkenazic vowelization, and often contain mistakes. The Albeck edition of the Mishnah
Mishnah
was vowelized by Hanokh Yalon, who made careful eclectic use of both medieval manuscripts and current oral traditions of pronunciation from Jewish communities all over the world. The Albeck edition includes an introduction by Yalon detailing his eclectic method.

Two institutes at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem have collected major oral archives which hold (among other things) extensive recordings of Jews chanting the Mishnah
Mishnah
using a variety of melodies and many different kinds of pronunciation. These institutes are the Jewish Oral Traditions Research Center and the National Voice Archives (the _Phonoteca_ at the Jewish National and University Library). See below for external links.

COMMENTARIES

* The two main commentaries on the Mishnah
Mishnah
are the Babylonian Talmud and the Jerusalem Talmud. Neither work covers the whole Mishnah, but each work is on about 50–70% of the text. The reason that the Talmud is not usually viewed as a commentary on the Mishnah, is because it also has many other goals, and can get involved in long tangential discussions. However, the main purpose of the Talmud
Talmud
is as a commentary on the Mishnah. * In 1168, Maimonides
Maimonides
(Rambam) published a comprehensive commentary on the Mishnah. It was written in transliterated Judeo-Arabic (using Hebrew
Hebrew
letters) and was one of the first commentaries of its kind. In it, Rambam condensed the associated Talmudical debates , and offered his conclusions in a number of undecided issues. Of particular significance are the various introductory sections – as well as the introduction to the work itself – these are widely quoted in other works on the Mishnah, and on the Oral law in general. Perhaps the most famous is his introduction to the tenth chapter of tractate Sanhedrin where he enumerates the thirteen fundamental beliefs of Judaism
Judaism
. * Rabbi
Rabbi
Samson of Sens ( France
France
) was, apart from Maimonides, one of the few rabbis of the early medieval era to compose a Mishnah commentary on some tractates. It is printed in many editions of the Mishnah. It is interwoven with his commentary on major parts of the Tosefta. * The Rosh 's commentary on some tractates * The Meiri 's commentary on most of the Mishnah * Rabbi
Rabbi
Obadiah ben Abraham of Bertinoro (15th century) wrote one of the most popular Mishnah
Mishnah
commentaries. He draws on Maimonides' work but also offers Talmudical material (in effect a summary of the Talmudic discussion ) largely following the commentary of Rashi . In addition to its role as a commentary on the Mishnah, this work is often referenced by students of Talmud
Talmud
as a review-text, and is often referred to as "the _Bartenura_" or "the _Ra'V_". * Yomtov Lipman Heller wrote a commentary called _ Tosafot Yom Tov._ In the introduction Heller says that his aim is to make additions (tosafoth ) to Bertinoro’s commentary. The glosses are sometimes quite detailed and analytic. That is why it is sometimes compared to the Tosafot – discussions of Babylonian gemara by French and German scholars of the 12th–13th centuries. In many compact Mishnah printings, a condensed version of his commentary, titled _Ikar Tosafot Yom Tov_, is featured. * An 11th-century CE commentary of the Mishnah, composed by Rabbi Nathan ben Abraham , President of the Academy in _Eretz Israel_. This relatively unheard-of commentary was first printed in Israel in 1955.

* Other Acharonim who have written Mishnah
Mishnah
commentaries:

* The _Melechet Shlomo_ (Rav Shelomo Adeni ; early 17th century) * The Vilna
Vilna
Gaon (_Shenot Eliyahu_ on parts of the Mishnah, and glosses _Eliyaho Rabba_, _Chidushei HaGra_, _Meoros HaGra_) * Rabbi Akiva Eiger (glosses, rather than a commentary) * The _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah_ on _Zeraim_ and the _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Acharonah_ on _Tehorot_ (Rav Efrayim Yitzchok from Premishla) * The _Sidrei Tehorot_ on _Kelim_ and _Ohalot_ (the commentary on the rest of _Tehorot_ and on _Eduyot_ is lost) by Gershon Henoch Leiner , the Radziner Rebbe * The _Gulot Iliyot_ (Rav Dov Ber Lifshitz) on _Mikvaot_ * The _Ahavat Eitan_ by Rav Avrohom Abba Krenitz (the great grandfather of Rav Malkiel Kotler ) * The _ Chazon Ish _ on _Zeraim_ and _Tohorot_

* A prominent commentary from the 19th century is _Tiferet Yisrael_ by Rabbi
Rabbi
Israel Lipschitz . It is subdivided into two parts, one more general and the other more analytical, titled _Yachin_ and _Boaz_ respectively (after two large pillars in the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
). Although Rabbi
Rabbi
Lipschutz has faced some controversy in certain Hasidic circles, he was greatly respected by such sages as Rabbi Akiva Eiger , whom he frequently cites, and is widely accepted in the Yeshiva
Yeshiva
world. The _Tiferet Yaakov_ is an important gloss on the _Tiferet Yisrael_. * Symcha Petrushka's commentary was written in Yiddish in 1945 (published in Montreal). Its vocalization is supposed to be of high quality. * The commentary by Rabbi
Rabbi
Pinhas Kehati , which is written in Modern Israeli Hebrew
Hebrew
and based on classical and contemporary works, has become popular in the late 20th century. The commentary is designed to make the Mishnah
Mishnah
accessible to a wide readership. Each tractate is introduced with an overview of its contents, including historical and legal background material, and each Mishnah
Mishnah
is prefaced by a thematic introduction. The current version of this edition is printed with the Bartenura commentary as well as Kehati's. * The encyclopedic editions put out by _Mishnat Rav Aharon_ (_Beis Medrosho Govoah_, Lakewood) on _Peah_, _Sheviit_, _Challah_, and _Yadayim_. * The above-mentioned edition edited by Hanokh Albeck and vocalized by Hanokh Yellin (1952–59) includes the former's extensive commentary on each Mishnah, as well as introductions to each tractate (Masekhet) and order (Seder). This commentary tends to focus on the meaning of the mishnayot themselves, without as much reliance on the Gemara's interpretation and is, therefore, considered valuable as a tool for the study of Mishnah
Mishnah
as an independent work. * Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda Leib Ginsburg wrote a commentary on ethical issues, _Musar HaMishnah_. The commentary appears for the entire text except for Tohorot and Kodashim . * Shmuel Safrai , Chana Safrai and Ze\'ev Safrai have half completed a 45 volume socio-historic commentary "Mishnat Eretz Yisrael ".

AS A HISTORICAL SOURCE

Both the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
contain little serious biographical studies of the people discussed therein, and the same tractate will conflate the points of view of many different people. Yet, sketchy biographies of the Mishnaic sages can often be constructed with historical detail from Talmudic and Midrashic sources.

According to the Encyclopaedia Judaica (Second Edition), it is accepted that Judah the Prince added, deleted, and re wrote his source material during the process of redacting the Mishnah. Modern authors who have provided examples of these changes include J.N. Epstein, and S. Friedman.

Following Judah the Prince's redaction there remained a number of different versions of the Mishnah
Mishnah
in circulation. The Mishnah
Mishnah
used in the Babylonian rabbinic community differing markedly from that used in the Palestinian one. Indeed within these rabbinic communities themselves there are indications of different versions being used for study. These differences are shown in divergent citations of individual Mishnah
Mishnah
passages in the Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi and the Talmud Bavli, and in variances of medieval manuscripts and early editions of the Mishnah. The best known examples of these differences is found in J.N.Epstein’s Introduction to the Text of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(1948).

Epstein has also concluded that the period of the Amoraim was one of further deliberate changes to the text of the Mishnah, which he views as attempts to return the text to what was regarded as its original form. These lessened over time, as the text of the Mishnah
Mishnah
became more and more regarded as authoritative.

Many modern historical scholars have focused on the timing and the formation of the Mishnah. A vital question is whether it is composed of sources which date from its editor's lifetime, and to what extent is it composed of earlier, or later sources. Are Mishnaic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines, and in what ways do different sections derive from different schools of thought within early Judaism? Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? In response to these questions, modern scholars have adopted a number of different approaches.

* Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Mishnah
Mishnah
(and later, in the Talmud.) Lacking outside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can say little for certain about their authorship. In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, the works of Louis Jacobs , Baruch M. Bokser, Shaye J. D. Cohen , Steven D. Fraade. * Some scholars hold that the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
have been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sources which we can identify and describe with some level of reliability. In this view, sources can be identified to some extent because each era of history and each distinct geographical region has its own unique feature, which one can trace and analyze. Thus, the questions above may be analyzed. See, for example, the works of Goodblatt, Lee Levine, David C. Kraemer and Robert Goldenberg. * Some scholars hold that many or most of the statements and events described in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
usually occurred more or less as described, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study. In this view, historians do their best to tease out later editorial additions (itself a very difficult task) and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliable historical text. See, for example, the works of Saul Lieberman , David Weiss Halivni , Avraham Goldberg and Dov Zlotnick.

CULTURAL REFERENCES

A notable literary work on the composition of the Mishnah
Mishnah
is Milton Steinberg 's novel _ As a Driven Leaf _.

SEE ALSO

* Judaism
Judaism
portal

* Mishnah Yomis —daily cycle of Mishna studying * Baraita * Jewish commentaries on the Bible * Mishneh Torah
Torah
* Tosefta

NOTES

* ^ The same meaning is suggested by the term _Deuterosis_ ("doubling" or "repetition" in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
) used in Roman law and Patristic literature. However it is not always clear from the context whether the reference is to the Mishnah
Mishnah
or to the Targum , which could be regarded as a "doubling" of the Torah
Torah
reading. * ^ The list of joyful days known as Megillat Taanit is older, but according to the Talmud
Talmud
it is no longer in force. * ^ "Commentary on Tractate Avot with an Introduction (Shemona perakim)". World Digital Library
World Digital Library
. Retrieved 19 March 2013. * ^ _Encyclopaedia Judaica_, Second Edition, Volume 14, p. 319. * ^ Ronald L. Eisenberg, "Rabbinic Literature," in _The JPS Guide to Jewish Traditions_ (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 2004), pp. 499–500. * ^ _Yesod Hamishna Va'arichatah_ pp. 25–28 (" Hebrew
Hebrew
text". ) * ^ Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
, _Temurah_ 14b; _Gittin_ 60a. * ^ See, Strack, Hermann, _Introduction to the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash_, Jewish Publication Society, 1945. pp. 11–12. " was handed down by word of mouth during a long period. ... The first attempts to write down the traditional matter, there is reason to believe, date from the first half of the second post-Christian century." Strack theorizes that the growth of a Christian canon (the New Testament) was a factor that influenced the Rabbis to record the oral law in writing. * ^ The theory that the destruction of the Temple and subsequent upheaval led to the committing of Oral Law
Law
into writing was first explained in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon and often repeated. See, for example, Grayzel, _A History of the Jews_, Penguin Books, 1984, p. 193. * ^ Nosson Dovid Rabinowich , ed. (1988). _The Iggeres of Rav Sherira Gaon_. Jerusalem. pp. 28–29. OCLC
OCLC
20044324 . html. * ^ Though as shown below, there is some disagreement about whether the Mishnah
Mishnah
was originally put in writing. * ^ Outhwaite, Ben. "Mishnah". Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 16 September 2013. * ^ The plural term (singular TANNA) for the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah; from the Aramaic root _tanna_ (תנא) equivalent for the Hebrew
Hebrew
root _shanah_ (שנה), as in _Mishnah_. * ^ Abraham ben David calculated the date 189 CE. _Seder Ha-Kabbalah Leharavad_, Jerusalem 1971, p.16 (Hebrew) * ^ According to the Epistle (_Iggeret_) of Sherira Gaon . * ^ This theory was held by David Zvi Hoffman, and is repeated in the introduction to Herbert Danby 's Mishnah
Mishnah
translation. * ^ Shelomo Morag , _The Samaritan and Yemenite Tradition of Hebrew_ (published in: _The Traditions of Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic of the Jews of Yemen_; ed. Yosef Tobi), Tel-Aviv 2001, p. 183 (note 12) * ^ Daat.ac.il * ^ Daat.ac.il Maimonides\' introduction (Hebrew) * ^ Margolis, Rebecca (2009) Translating Jewish Poland into Canadian Yiddish: Symcha Petrushka’s Mishnayes in _TTR : traduction, terminologie, rédaction _. Vol. 22, No. 2; pp. 183-209 * ^ ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 327 * ^ ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 327 * ^ ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 327

REFERENCES

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS

* Philip Blackman . _Mishnayoth_. The Judaica Press, Ltd., 2000 (ISBN 978-0-910818-00-1 ). Online PDF at HebrewBooks : Zeraim, Moed, Nashim, Nezikin, Kodashim, Tehorot. * Herbert Danby . _The Mishnah_. Oxford, 1933 (ISBN 0-19-815402-X ). * Jacob Neusner . _The Mishnah: A New Translation_. New Haven, reprint 1991 (ISBN 0-300-05022-4 ). * Various editors. _The Mishnah, a new translation with commentary Yad Avraham_. New York: Mesorah publishers, since the 1980s. * _The Mishnah, a new integrated translation and commentary based on Rabbeinu Ovadiah M'Bartenurah, Machon Yisrael Trust, available online at eMishnah.com._

HISTORICAL STUDY

* Shalom Carmy (Ed.) _Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations_ Jason Aronson, Inc. * Shaye J.D. Cohen, "Patriarchs and Scholarchs", Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 48 (1981), pp. 57–87 * Steven D. Fraade, "The Early Rabbinic Sage," in _The Sage in Israel and the Ancient Near East_, ed. John G. Gammie and Leo G. Perdue (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1990), pp. 417–23 * Robert Goldenberg _The Sabbath- Law
Law
of Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir_ (Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press, 1978) * John W McGinley _'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly_ ISBN 0-595-40488-X * Jacob Neusner _Making the Classics in Judaism_ (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), pp. 1–13 and 19–44 * Jacob Neusner _Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah_ (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), pp. 14–22. * Gary Porton, _The Traditions of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael_ (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1982), vol. 4, pp. 212–25 * Dov Zlotnick, _The Iron Pillar Mishnah_ (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1988), pp. 8–9 * Reuvain Margolies, _Yesod Ha- Mishnah
Mishnah
V'Arichatah_ (Heb.) * David Tzvi Hoffman, _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Rishonah U'flugta D'tanna'e_ (Heb) * Hanokh Yalon, _Mavo le-nikud ha-Mishnah_ (Jerusalem 1964) (Heb) * Robert Brody, _Mishna and Tosefta Studies_ (Jerusalem 2014)

RECITATION

* Frank Alvarez-Pereyre, _La Transmission Orale de la Mishna. Une methode d'analyse appliquee a la tradition d'Alep_: Jerusalem 1990

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