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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

—— Tannaitic ——

* Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta

—— Amoraic ( Gemara ) ——

* Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud

—— Later ——

* Minor Tractates

HALAKHIC MIDRASH

—— Exodus ——

* Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael * Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon bar Yohai

—— Leviticus ——

* Sifra (Torat Kohanim)

—— Numbers and Deuteronomy ——

* Sifre * Sifrei Zutta on Numbers * (Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim)

AGGADIC MIDRASH

—— Tannaitic ——

* Seder Olam Rabbah * Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva
Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva
* Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules * Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules * Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle

—— 400–600 ——

* Genesis Rabbah * Lamentations Rabbah * Pesikta de-Rav Kahana * Esther Rabbah * Midrash Iyyob * Leviticus Rabbah * Seder Olam Zutta * Tanhuma * Megillat Antiochus

—— 650–900 ——

* Avot of Rabbi Natan * Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer * Tanna Devei Eliyahu * Alphabet of Sirach * Ecclesiastes Rabbah * Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah * Deuteronomy Rabbah * Devarim Zutta * Pesikta Rabbati * Midrash Shmuel * Midrash Proverbs * Ruth Rabbah * Baraita of Samuel * Targum Sheni

—— 900–1000 ——

* Ruth Zuta * Eichah Zuta * Midrash Tehillim * Midrash Hashkem * Exodus Rabbah
Exodus Rabbah
* Shir ha-Shirim Zutta

—— 1000–1200 ——

* Midrash Tadshe * Sefer haYashar

—— Later ——

* Yalkut Shimoni * Machir ben Abba Mari * Midrash Jonah
Midrash Jonah
* Ein Yaakov
Ein Yaakov
* Midrash HaGadol * Numbers Rabbah * Smaller midrashim

TARGUM

—— Torah
Torah
——

* Targum Onkelos * Targum Pseudo-Jonathan * Fragment Targum * Targum Neofiti

—— Nevi\'im ——

* Targum Jonathan

—— Ketuvim ——

* Targum Tehillim * Targum Mishlei * Targum Iyyov * Targum to the Five Megillot * Targum Sheni to Esther * Targum to Chronicles

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

JUDAISM

Movements

* Orthodox

* Haredi * Hasidic * Modern

* Conservative * Reform

* Karaite * Reconstructionist * Renewal * Humanistic * Haymanot
Haymanot

Philosophy

* Principles of faith * Kabbalah
Kabbalah
* Messiah
Messiah
* Ethics * Chosenness * Names of God * Musar movement

Texts

* Tanakh

* Torah
Torah
* Nevi\'im * Ketuvim

* Ḥumash * Siddur * Piyutim * Zohar
Zohar

* Rabbinic

* Mishnah
Mishnah
* Talmud * Midrash * Tosefta

Law

* Mishneh Torah
Torah
* Tur * Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
* Mishnah
Mishnah
Berurah * Aruch HaShulchan * Kashrut * Tzniut * Tzedakah * Niddah * Noahide laws

Holy cities / places

* Jerusalem
Jerusalem
* Safed
Safed
* Hebron * Tiberias
Tiberias

-------------------------

* Synagogue
Synagogue
* Beth midrash * Mikveh * Sukkah * Chevra kadisha * Holy Temple * Tabernacle
Tabernacle

Important figures

* Abraham
Abraham
* Isaac
Isaac
* Jacob
Jacob

* Moses
Moses
* Aaron
Aaron
* David
David
* Solomon
Solomon

* Sarah
Sarah
* Rebecca
Rebecca
* Rachel
Rachel
* Leah

* RABBINIC SAGES Chazal

* Tannaim * Amoraim * Savoraim

* Geonim * Rishonim * Acharonim

Religious roles

* Rabbi
Rabbi
* Rebbe
Rebbe
* Posek * Hazzan * Dayan * Rosh yeshiva * Mohel * Kohen

Culture and education

* Brit * Pidyon haben * Bar and Bat Mitzvah * Marriage * Bereavement

-------------------------

* Yeshiva
Yeshiva
* Kolel * Cheder
Cheder

Ritual objects

* Sefer Torah
Torah
* Tallit
Tallit
* Tefillin
Tefillin
* Tzitzit * Kippah * Mezuzah
Mezuzah
* Menorah * Shofar

* Four species

* _ Etrog _ * _ Lulav _ * _ Hadass _ * _Arava _

* Kittel
Kittel
* Gartel

Prayers

* Shema (Sh\'ma) * Amidah * Aleinu * Kaddish * Minyan * Birkat Hamazon * Shehecheyanu * Hallel * Havdalah * Tachanun * Kol Nidre * Selichot (S\'lichot)

Major holidays

* Rosh Hashana * Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
* Sukkot
Sukkot
* Pesach
Pesach
* Shavuot

Other religions

* Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
* Hinduism * Islam

* Abrahamic religions * Judeo-Christian * Pluralism

Related topics

* Jews
Jews
* Zionism * Israel
Israel
* Criticism * Antisemitism * Anti- Judaism
Judaism
* Holocaust theology * Music * Jesus
Jesus
* Muhammad

* Judaism
Judaism
portal

* v * t * e

The TALMUD (/ˈtɑːlmʊd, -məd, ˈtæl-/ ; Hebrew : תַּלְמוּד‎ _talmūd_ "instruction, learning", from a root _LMD_ "teach, study") is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
. It is also traditionally referred to as _SHAS_ (ש״ס‎), a Hebrew abbreviation of _shisha sedarim_, the "six orders", a reference to the six orders of the Mishnah
Mishnah
. The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the BABYLONIAN TALMUD _( Talmud
Talmud
Bavli)_, although there is also an earlier collection known as the JERUSALEM TALMUD _( Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi)_ or PALESTINIAN TALMUD . When referring to post-biblical periods, namely those of the creation of the Talmud, the Talmudic academies and the Babylonian exilarchate , Jewish sources use the term "Babylonia" long after it had become obsolete in geopolitical terms.

The Talmud
The Talmud
has two components; the Mishnah
Mishnah
(Hebrew: משנה, c. 200 CE), a written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah
Torah
; and the Gemara (c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible . "Talmud" translates literally as "instruction" in Hebrew, and the term may refer to either the Gemara alone, or the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Gemara together.

The entire Talmud
Talmud
consists of 63 tractates, and in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Tannaitic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis (dating from before the Common Era through the fifth century CE) on a variety of subjects, including Halakha (law), Jewish ethics , philosophy, customs, history, lore and many other topics. The Talmud
The Talmud
is the basis for all codes of Jewish law , and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Structure

* 2.1 Mishnah
Mishnah
* 2.2 Baraita * 2.3 Gemara * 2.4 Halakha and Aggadah * 2.5 Minor tractates

* 3 Bavli and Yerushalmi

* 3.1 _ Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi_ ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud) * 3.2 Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
* 3.3 Comparison of style and subject matter

* 4 Language

* 5 Printing

* 5.1 Bomberg Talmud
Talmud
1523 * 5.2 Benveniste Talmud
Talmud
1645 * 5.3 Slavuta Talmud
Talmud
1795 and Vilna Talmud
Talmud
1835 * 5.4 Goldschmidt Talmud
Talmud
1897–1909, and German translation * 5.5 Critical editions * 5.6 Editions for a wider audience

* 6 Translations

* 6.1 Talmud
Talmud
Bavli * 6.2 Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi

* 7 Talmud
Talmud
scholarship

* 7.1 Geonim * 7.2 Halakhic and Aggadic extractions * 7.3 Commentaries * 7.4 Pilpul * 7.5 Sephardic approaches * 7.6 Brisker method

* 7.7 Critical method

* 7.7.1 Textual emendations

* 7.8 Historical analysis, and higher textual criticism * 7.9 Contemporary scholarship

* 8 Role in Judaism
Judaism

* 8.1 Sadducees
Sadducees
* 8.2 Karaism * 8.3 Reform Judaism
Judaism
* 8.4 Humanistic Judaism
Judaism
* 8.5 Present day

* 9 Talmud
Talmud
in the visual arts

* 9.1 In Carl Schleicher\'s paintings * 9.2 Talmud
Talmud
in Jewish art

* 10 Other contexts

* 11 Criticism

* 11.1 Middle Ages * 11.2 19th century and after * 11.3 Contemporary accusations

* 12 See also * 13 Notes

* 14 References

* 14.1 Logic and methodology

* 14.2 Modern scholarly works

* 14.2.1 On individual tractates

* 14.3 Historical study

* 15 External links

* 15.1 General * 15.2 Refutation of allegations concerning the Talmud
Talmud
* 15.3 Full text resources * 15.4 Manuscripts and textual variants * 15.5 Layout * 15.6 "Daf Yomi" program * 15.7 Audio

HISTORY

Main article: Oral Torah
Torah
An early printing of the Talmud (Ta\'anit 9b); with commentary by Rashi The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a

Originally, Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah
Torah
(the written Torah
Torah
expressed in the Hebrew Bible) and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works (other than the Biblical books themselves), though some may have made private notes (_megillot setarim_), for example of court decisions. This situation changed drastically, mainly as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 CE and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the Rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism
Judaism
without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained. It is during this period that rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing. The earliest recorded oral Torah
Torah
may have been of the midrashic form, in which halakhic discussion is structured as exegetical commentary on the Pentateuch . But an alternative form, organized by subject matter instead of by biblical verse, became dominant about the year 200 CE, when Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah the Prince redacted the Mishnah
Mishnah
(משנה‎).

The Oral Torah
Torah
was far from monolithic; rather, it varied among various schools. The most famous two were the School of Shammai
Shammai
and the School of Hillel . In general, all valid opinions, even the non-normative ones, were recorded in the Talmud.

The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud (Cod.hebr. 95), dates from 1342 and is available online.

STRUCTURE

The structure of the Talmud
Talmud
follows that of the Mishnah, in which six orders (_sedarim_; singular: _seder_) of general subject matter are divided into 60 or 63 tractates (_masekhtot_; singular: _masekhet_) of more focused subject compilations, though not all tractates have Gemara. Each tractate is divided into chapters (_perakim_; singular: _perek_), 517 in total, that are both numbered according to the Hebrew alphabet and given names, usually using the first one or two words in the first mishnah. A _perek_ may continue over several (up to tens of) pages. Each _perek_ will contain several _mishnayot_ with their accompanying exchanges that form the "building-blocks" of the Gemara; the name for a passage of gemara is a _sugya _ (סוגיא‎; plural _sugyot_). A _sugya_, including _baraita_ or _tosefta_, will typically comprise a detailed proof-based elaboration of a Mishnaic statement, whether halakhic or aggadic . A _sugya_ may, and often does, range widely off the subject of the mishnah. The _sugya_ is not punctuated in the conventional sense used in the English language, but by using specific expressions that help to divide the sugya into components, usually including a statement, a question on the statement, an answer, a proof for the answer or a refutation of the answer with its own proof.

In a given _sugya_, scriptural, Tannaic and Amoraic statements are cited to support the various opinions. In so doing, the Gemara will highlight semantic disagreements between Tannaim and Amoraim (often ascribing a view to an earlier authority as to how he may have answered a question), and compare the Mishnaic views with passages from the Baraita . Rarely are debates formally closed; in some instances, the final word determines the practical law, but in many instances the issue is left unresolved. There is a whole literature on the procedural principles to be used in settling the practical law when disagreements exist: see under #Logic and methodology below.

MISHNAH

Main article: Mishnah
Mishnah

The _Mishnah_ is a compilation of legal opinions and debates. Statements in the Mishnah
Mishnah
are typically terse, recording brief opinions of the rabbis debating a subject; or recording only an unattributed ruling, apparently representing a consensus view. The rabbis recorded in the Mishnah
Mishnah
are known as the Tannaim.

Since it sequences its laws by subject matter instead of by biblical context, the Mishnah
Mishnah
discusses individual subjects more thoroughly than the Midrash, and it includes a much broader selection of halakhic subjects than the Midrash. The Mishnah's topical organization thus became the framework of the Talmud
Talmud
as a whole. But not every tractate in the Mishnah
Mishnah
has a corresponding Gemara. Also, the order of the tractates in the Talmud
Talmud
differs in some cases from that in the _Mishnah_.

* v * t * e

The Six Orders of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(ששה סדרי משנה‎)

Zeraim (Seeds) (זרעים‎) Moed (Festival) (מועד‎) Nashim (Women) (נשים‎) Nezikin (Damages) (נזיקין‎) Kodashim (Holies) (קדשים‎) Tohorot (Purities) (טהרות‎)

* Berakhot * Pe\'ah * Demai * Kil\'ayim * Shevi\'it * Terumot * Ma\'aserot * Ma\'aser Sheni * Hallah * Orlah * Bikkurim

* Shabbat * Eruvin * Pesahim * Shekalim * Yoma * Sukkah * Beitza * Rosh Hashanah * Ta\'anit * Megillah * Mo\'ed Katan * Hagigah

* Yevamot * Ketubot * Nedarim * Nazir * Sotah * Gittin * Kiddushin

* Bava Kamma * Bava Metzia * Bava Batra * Sanhedrin * Makkot * Shevu\'ot * Eduyot * Avodah Zarah * Avot * Horayot

* Zevahim * Menahot * Hullin * Bekhorot * Arakhin * Temurah * Keritot * Me\'ilah * Tamid * Middot * Kinnim

* Keilim * Oholot * Nega\'im * Parah * Tohorot * Mikva\'ot * Niddah * Makhshirin * Zavim * Tevul Yom * Yadayim * Uktzim

BARAITA

Main article: Baraita

In addition to the Mishnah, other tannaitic teachings were current at about the same time or shortly thereafter. The Gemara frequently refers to these tannaitic statements in order to compare them to those contained in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and to support or refute the propositions of the Amoraim. All such non-Mishnaic tannaitic sources are termed _baraitot _ (lit. outside material, "works external to the Mishnah"; sing. baraita ברייתא‎).

The _baraitot_ cited in the Gemara are often quotations from the Tosefta (a tannaitic compendium of halakha parallel to the Mishnah) and the Midrash halakha (specifically Mekhilta, Sifra and Sifre ). Some _baraitot_, however, are known only through traditions cited in the Gemara, and are not part of any other collection.

GEMARA

Main article: Gemara

In the three centuries following the redaction of the Mishnah, rabbis in Israel
Israel
and Babylonia
Babylonia
analyzed, debated, and discussed that work. These discussions form the Gemara (גמרא‎). _Gemara_ means “completion” (from the Hebrew _gamar_ גמר‎: "to complete") or "learning" (from the Aramaic : "study"). The Gemara mainly focuses on elucidating and elaborating the opinions of the Tannaim. The rabbis of the Gemara are known as Amoraim (sing. _Amora_ אמורא‎).

Much of the Gemara consists of legal analysis. The starting point for the analysis is usually a legal statement found in a Mishnah. The statement is then analyzed and compared with other statements used in different approaches to Biblical exegesis in rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
(or - simpler - interpretation of text in Torah
Torah
study ) exchanges between two (frequently anonymous and sometimes metaphorical) disputants, termed the _makshan_ (questioner) and _tartzan_ (answerer). Another important function of Gemara is to identify the correct Biblical basis for a given law presented in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the logical process connecting one with the other: this activity was known as _talmud_ long before the existence of the "Talmud" as a text.

HALAKHA AND AGGADAH

The Talmud
The Talmud
is a wide-ranging document that touches on a great many subjects. Traditionally Talmudic statements are classified into two broad categories, _halakhic_ and _aggadic _ statements. Halakhic statements directly relate to questions of Jewish law and practice (halakha ). Aggadic statements are not legally related, but rather are exegetical, homiletical, ethical, or historical in nature.

MINOR TRACTATES

Main article: Minor tractate

In addition to the six Orders, the Talmud
Talmud
contains a series of short treatises of a later date, usually printed at the end of Seder Nezikin. These are not divided into Mishnah
Mishnah
and Gemara.

BAVLI AND YERUSHALMI

The process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were then the two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Galilee and Babylonia
Babylonia
. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud
Talmud
were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
or the _ Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi_. It was compiled in the 4th century CE in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was compiled about the year 500, although it continued to be edited later. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud.

While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently; Louis Jacobs writes, "If the editors of either had had access to an actual text of the other, it is inconceivable that they would not have mentioned this. Here the argument from silence is very convincing."

_TALMUD YERUSHALMI_ (JERUSALEM TALMUD)

Main article: Jerusalem Talmud A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud
Talmud
manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza

The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, also known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael ( Talmud
Talmud
of the Land of Israel), was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel
Israel
. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias, Sepphoris and Caesarea. It is written largely in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic , a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart .

This Talmud
Talmud
is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah
Mishnah
that was developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee (principally those of Tiberias
Tiberias
and Caesarea
Caesarea
.) Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, this Talmud
Talmud
was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the _ Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi_ (" Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud"), but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem. It has more accurately been called " The Talmud
The Talmud
of the Land of Israel".

Its final redaction probably belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity
Christianity
had become the state religion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
, the first Christian emperor, said "let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an outcast and pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud consequently lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended. The text is evidently incomplete and is not easy to follow.

The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah , formal scholarly ordination. Some modern scholars have questioned this connection: for more detail see Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud: Place and date of composition .

Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land. It was also an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
by the Kairouan
Kairouan
school of Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob
Jacob
, with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah
Torah
of Maimonides
Maimonides
.

Following the formation of the modern state of Israel
Israel
there is some interest in restoring _Eretz Yisrael_ traditions. For example, Rabbi David
David
Bar-Hayim of the _Makhon Shilo_ institute has issued a siddur reflecting _Eretz Yisrael_ practice as found in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud and other sources.

BABYLONIAN TALMUD

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud

The BABYLONIAN TALMUD (_ Talmud
Talmud
Bavli_) consists of documents compiled over the period of Late Antiquity (3rd to 5th centuries). During this time the most important of the Jewish centres in Mesopotamia, a region called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources and later known as Iraq, were Nehardea , Nisibis (modern Nusaybin
Nusaybin
), Mahoza (al-Mada\'in , just to the south of what is now Baghdad
Baghdad
), Pumbedita (near present-day al Anbar Governorate ), and the Sura Academy , probably located about 60 km south of Baghdad.

The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
comprises the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Babylonian Gemara, the latter representing the culmination of more than 300 years of analysis of the Mishnah
Mishnah
in the Talmudic Academies in Babylonia . The foundations of this process of analysis were laid by Abba Arika , a disciple of Judah the Prince . Tradition ascribes the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
in its present form to two Babylonian sages, Rav Ashi and Ravina II . Rav Ashi was president of the Sura Academy from 375-427. The work begun by Rav Ashi was completed by Ravina, who is traditionally regarded as the final Amoraic expounder. Accordingly, traditionalists argue that Ravina’s death in 475 CE is the latest possible date for the completion of the redaction of the Talmud. However, even on the most traditional view a few passages are regarded as the work of a group of rabbis who edited the Talmud
Talmud
after the end of the Amoraic period, known as the _ Savoraim _ or _Rabbanan Savora'e_ (meaning "reasoners" or "considerers").

The question as to when the Gemara was finally put into its present form is not settled among modern scholars. Some, like Louis Jacobs , argue that the main body of the Gemara is not simple reportage of conversations, as it purports to be, but a highly elaborate structure contrived by the _Savoraim_, who must therefore be regarded as the real authors. On this view the text did not reach its final form until around 700. Some modern scholars use the term _Stammaim_ (from the Hebrew _Stam_, meaning "closed", "vague" or "unattributed") for the authors of unattributed statements in the Gemara. (See eras within Jewish law .)

COMPARISON OF STYLE AND SUBJECT MATTER

There are significant differences between the two Talmud compilations. The language of the Jerusalem Talmud is a western Aramaic dialect, which differs from the form of Aramaic in the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud
The Talmud
Yerushalmi is often fragmentary and difficult to read, even for experienced Talmudists. The redaction of the Talmud
Talmud
Bavli, on the other hand, is more careful and precise. The law as laid down in the two compilations is basically similar, except in emphasis and in minor details. The Jerusalem Talmud has not received much attention from commentators, and such traditional commentaries as exist are mostly concerned with comparing its teachings to those of the Talmud
Talmud
Bavli.

Neither the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
nor the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
covers the entire Mishnah: for example, a Babylonian Gemara exists only for 37 out of the 63 tractates of the Mishnah. In particular:

* The Jerusalem Talmud covers all the tractates of Zeraim, while the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
covers only tractate Berachot. The reason might be that most laws from the Orders Zeraim (agricultural laws limited to the land of Israel) had little practical relevance in Babylonia
Babylonia
and were therefore not included. The Jerusalem Talmud has a greater focus on the Land of Israel
Israel
and the Torah
Torah
's agricultural laws pertaining to the land because it was written in the Land of Israel
Israel
where the laws applied. * The Jerusalem Talmud does not cover the Mishnaic order of Kodashim , which deals with sacrificial rites and laws pertaining to the Temple , while the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
does cover it. It is not clear why this is, as the laws were not directly applicable in either country following the Temple's 70 CE destruction. * In both Talmuds, only one tractate of Tohorot (ritual purity laws) is examined, that of the menstrual laws, Niddah .

The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
records the opinions of the rabbis of the _Ma'arava_ (the West, meaning Israel/Palestine) as well as of those of Babylonia, while the Jerusalem Talmud only seldom cites the Babylonian rabbis. The Babylonian version also contains the opinions of more generations because of its later date of completion. For both these reasons it is regarded as a more comprehensive collection of the opinions available. On the other hand, because of the centuries of redaction between the composition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Babylonian Talmud, the opinions of early _amoraim_ might be closer to their original form in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud.

The influence of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
has been far greater than that of the _Yerushalmi_. In the main, this is because the influence and prestige of the Jewish community of Israel
Israel
steadily declined in contrast with the Babylonian community in the years after the redaction of the Talmud
Talmud
and continuing until the Gaonic era. Furthermore, the editing of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was superior to that of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
version, making it more accessible and readily usable. According to Maimonides
Maimonides
(whose life began almost a hundred years after the end of the Gaonic era), all Jewish communities during the Gaonic era formally accepted the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
as binding upon themselves, and modern Jewish practice follows the Babylonian Talmud's conclusions on all areas in which the two Talmuds conflict.

LANGUAGE

Of the two main components of the Babylonian Talmud, the Mishnah
Mishnah
is written in Mishnaic Hebrew . Within the Gemara , the quotations from the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Baraitas and verses of Tanakh quoted and embedded in the Gemara are in Hebrew. The rest of the Gemara, including the discussions of the Amoraim and the overall framework, is in a characteristic dialect of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic . There are occasional quotations from older works in other dialects of Aramaic, such as Megillat Taanit . Overall, Hebrew constitutes somewhat less than half of the text of the Talmud.

This difference in language is due to the long time period elapsing between the two compilations. During the period of the Tannaim (rabbis cited in the Mishnah), a late form of Hebrew known as Rabbinic or Mishnaic Hebrew was still in use as a spoken vernacular among Jews
Jews
in Judaea (alongside Greek and Aramaic), whereas during the period of the Amoraim (rabbis cited in the Gemara), which began around 200 CE, the spoken vernacular was almost exclusively Aramaic. Hebrew continued to be used for the writing of religious texts, poetry, and so forth.

PRINTING

BOMBERG TALMUD 1523

The first complete edition of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was printed in Venice
Venice
by Daniel Bomberg 1520–23. In addition to the _Mishnah_ and _Gemara_, Bomberg's edition contained the commentaries of Rashi and Tosafot . Almost all printings since Bomberg have followed the same pagination. Bomberg's edition was considered relatively free of censorship.

BENVENISTE TALMUD 1645

Following Ambrosius Frobenius 's publication of most of the Talmud
Talmud
in installments in Basel, Immanuel Benveniste published the whole Talmud in installments in Amsterdam 1644–1648, Though according to Raphael Rabbinovicz the Benveniste Talmud
Talmud
may have been based on the Lublin Talmud
Talmud
and included many of the censors' errors.

SLAVUTA TALMUD 1795 AND VILNA TALMUD 1835

The edition of the Talmud
Talmud
published by the Szapira brothers in Slavuta in 1795 is particularly prized by many rebbes of Hasidic Judaism
Judaism
. In 1835, after an acrimonious dispute with the Szapira family, a new edition of the Talmud
Talmud
was printed by Menachem Romm of Vilna. Known as the _ Vilna Edition Shas _, this edition (and later ones printed by his widow and sons, the Romm publishing house ) has been used in the production of more recent editions of Talmud
Talmud
Bavli.

A page number in the Vilna Talmud
Talmud
refers to a double-sided page, known as a _daf_, or folio in English; each daf has two _amudim_ labeled א‎ and ב‎, sides A and B ( Recto
Recto
and Verso
Verso
). The referencing by _daf_ is relatively recent and dates from the early Talmud
Talmud
printings of the 17th century. Earlier rabbinic literature generally refers to the tractate or chapters within a tractate (e.g. Berachot Chapter 1, ברכות פרק א׳‎). It sometimes also refers to the specific Mishnah
Mishnah
in that chapter, where "Mishnah" is replaced with "Halakha", here meaning route, to "direct" the reader to the entry in the Gemara corresponding to that Mishna (e.g. Berachot Chapter 1 Halakha 1, ברכות פרק א׳ הלכה א׳‎ would refer to the first Mishnah
Mishnah
of the first chapter in Tractate Berachot, and its corresponding entry in the Gemara). However, this form is nowadays more commonly (though not exclusively) used when referring to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. Nowadays, reference is usually made in format (e.g. Berachot 23b, ברכות כג ב׳‎). Increasingly, the symbols "." and ":" are used to indicate Recto
Recto
and Verso, respectively (thus, e.g. Berachot 32:, :ברכות כג‎. These references always refer to the pagination of the Vilna Talmud. In the Vilna edition of the Talmud
Talmud
there are 5,894 folio pages.

GOLDSCHMIDT TALMUD 1897–1909, AND GERMAN TRANSLATION

Lazarus Goldschmidt published an edition from the "uncensored text" of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
with a German translation in 9 vols. (commenced Leipzig, 1897–1909, edition completed, following emigration to England in 1933, by 1936).

CRITICAL EDITIONS

The text of the Vilna editions is considered by scholars not to be uniformly reliable, and there have been a number of attempts to collate textual variants.

* In the early 20th century Nathan Rabinowitz published a series of volumes called _Dikduke Soferim_ showing textual variants from early manuscripts and printings. * In 1960 work started on a new edition under the name of _Gemara Shelemah_ (complete Gemara) under the editorship of Menachem Mendel Kasher : only the volume on the first part of tractate Pesachim appeared before the project was interrupted by his death. This edition contained a comprehensive set of textual variants and a few selected commentaries. * Some thirteen volumes have been published by the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud
Talmud
(a division of Yad
Yad
Harav Herzog), on lines similar to Rabinowitz, containing the text and a comprehensive set of textual variants (from manuscripts, early prints and citations in secondary literature) but no commentaries.

There have been critical editions of particular tractates (e.g. Henry Malter 's edition of _Ta'anit_), but there is no modern critical edition of the whole Talmud. Modern editions such as those of the Oz ve-Hadar Institute correct misprints and restore passages that in earlier editions were modified or excised by censorship but do not attempt a comprehensive account of textual variants. One edition, by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Amar, represents the Yemenite tradition, and takes the form of a photostatic reproduction of a Vilna-based print to which Yemenite vocalization and textual variants have been added by hand, together with printed introductory material. Collations of the Yemenite manuscripts of some tractates have been published by Columbia University.

EDITIONS FOR A WIDER AUDIENCE

A number of editions have been aimed at bringing the Talmud
Talmud
to a wider audience. The main ones are as follows.

* The Steinsaltz Talmud
Talmud
, which contains the text with punctuation, detailed explanations and translation. The Steinsaltz Edition is available in two formats: one with the traditional Vilna page and one without. It is available in modern Hebrew (first volume published 1969), English (first volume published 1989), French, Russian and other languages. * In May 2012, Koren Publishers Jerusalem
Jerusalem
launched the new Koren Talmud
Talmud
Bavli, a new version of the Steinsaltz Talmud
Talmud
which features a new, modern English translation and the commentary of Rabbi
Rabbi
Adin Steinsaltz . This edition won widespread praise as "America's most important Jewish event", and for its "beautiful page" and "clean type". It includes color photos and illustrations, and Steinsaltz's historical, biographical and linguistic notes in modern English translation. Opened as a Hebrew book, this edition preserves the traditional Vilna page layout and includes vowels and punctuation; the Rashi commentary too is punctuated. Opened as an English book, this edition breaks down the Talmud
Talmud
text into small, thematic units and features the supplementary notes along the margins. * The Schottenstein Talmud
Talmud
, published by ArtScroll : the first volume was published in 1990, and the series was completed in 2004. Each page is printed in the traditional Vilna format, and accompanied by an expanded paraphrase in English, in which the translation of the text is shown in bold and explanations are interspersed in normal type. * The Metivta edition, published by the Oz ve-Hadar Institute. This contains the full text in the same format as the Vilna-based editions, with a full explanation in modern Hebrew on facing pages as well as an improved version of the traditional commentaries. * A previous project of the same kind, called Talmud
Talmud
El Am , "Talmud to the people", was published in Israel
Israel
in the 1960s-80s. The Talmud El Am contains Hebrew text, English translation and commentary by Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr A. Ehrman , with short 'realia', marginal notes, often illustrated, written by experts in the field for the whole of Tractate Berakhot, 2 chapters of Bava Mezia and the halachic section of Qiddushin, chapter 1.

See also under Translations , below.

TRANSLATIONS

TALMUD BAVLI

Part of a series of articles on

EDITIONS OF THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD

Editions:

* Neusner Translation * Rodkinson Translation * Schottenstein Edition * Soncino Edition * Steinsaltz Edition

* v * t * e

There are six contemporary translations of the Talmud
Talmud
into English:

* The Noé Edition of the _Koren Talmud
Talmud
Bavli _, Adin Steinsaltz , Koren Publishers Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. This work was launched in 2012. Opened from the Hebrew side, this edition features the traditional Vilna page with vowels and punctuation in the original Aramaic text. The Rashi commentary appears in Rashi script with vowels and punctuation. Opened from the English side, the edition features bi-lingual text with side-by-side English/Aramaic translation. The margins include color maps, illustrations and notes based on Rabbi
Rabbi
Adin Steinsaltz ’s Hebrew language translation and commentary of the Talmud. Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr. Tzvi Hersh Weinreb serves as the Editor-in-Chief. As of March 2017, 28 volumes have been published. The entire set will be 42 volumes.

_ Koren Talmud
Talmud
Bavli

* The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition _ Adin Steinsaltz , Random House. This work is an English edition of Rabbi
Rabbi
Steinsaltz' complete Hebrew language translation of and commentary on the entire Talmud. Incomplete—22 volumes and a reference guide. * _Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud
Talmud
_, Mesorah Publications (73 volumes). In this translation, each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. The English pages are elucidated and heavily annotated; each Aramaic/Hebrew page of Talmud
Talmud
typically requires three English pages of translation. Complete. * _The Soncino Talmud_, Isidore Epstein , Soncino Press (26 volumes; also formerly an 18 volume edition was published). Notes on each page provide additional background material. This translation is published both on its own and in a parallel text edition, in which each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. It is available also on CD-ROM. Complete. * _ The Talmud
The Talmud
of Babylonia. An American Translation_, Jacob
Jacob
Neusner , Tzvee Zahavy, others. Atlanta: 1984-1995: Scholars Press for Brown Judaic Studies. Complete. * _The Babylonian Talmud_, translated by Michael L. Rodkinson . (1903, contains all of the tractates in the Orders of _Mo'ed_/Festivals and _Nezikin_/Damages, plus some additional material related to these Orders.) This is inaccurate and was wholly superseded by the Soncino translation: it is sometimes linked to from the internet because, for copyright reasons, it was until recently the only translation freely available on the Web (see below, under Full text resources ).

There is one translation of the Talmud
Talmud
into Arabic, published in 2012 in Jordan
Jordan
by the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. The translation was carried out by a group of 90 Muslim and Christian scholars. The introduction was characterized by Dr. Raquel Ukeles, Curator of the Israel
Israel
National Library's Arabic collection, as "racist", but she considers the translation itself as "not bad".

In February 2017, the _William Davidson Talmud_ was released to Sefaria . This translation is a version of the Steinsaltz edition which was released under creative commons license.

TALMUD YERUSHALMI

* _ Talmud
Talmud
of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation_ Jacob
Jacob
Neusner , Tzvee Zahavy, others. University of Chicago Press. This translation uses a form-analytical presentation that makes the logical units of discourse easier to identify and follow. This work has received many positive reviews. However, some consider Neusner's translation methodology idiosyncratic. One volume was negatively reviewed by Saul Lieberman of the Jewish Theological Seminary. * _Schottenstein Edition of the Yerushalmi Talmud_ Mesorah/Artscroll. This translation is the counterpart to Mesorah/Artscroll's Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud
Talmud
(i.e. Babylonian Talmud). * _The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, Edition, Translation and Commentary_, ed. Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany * German Edition, _Übersetzung des Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi_, published by Martin Hengel, Peter Schäfer, Hans-Jürgen Becker, Frowald Gil Hüttenmeister, Mohr already in the 15th century, the ethical tract _Orhot Zaddikim_ ("Paths of the Righteous" in Hebrew) criticized pilpul for an overemphasis on intellectual acuity. Many 16th- and 17th-century rabbis were also critical of pilpul. Among them may be noted Judah Loew ben Bezalel (the _Maharal_ of Prague), Isaiah Horowitz , and Yair Bacharach .

By the 18th century, pilpul study waned. Other styles of learning such as that of the school of Elijah b. Solomon, the Vilna Gaon , became popular. The term "pilpul" was increasingly applied derogatorily to novellae deemed casuistic and hairsplitting. Authors referred to their own commentaries as "al derekh ha-peshat" (by the simple method) to contrast them with pilpul.

SEPHARDIC APPROACHES

Among Sephardi and Italian Jews
Jews
from the 15th century on, some authorities sought to apply the methods of Aristotelian logic , as reformulated by Averroes
Averroes
. This method was first recorded, though without explicit reference to Aristotle, by Isaac
Isaac
Campanton (d. Spain, 1463) in his _Darkhei ha-Talmud_ ("The Ways of the Talmud"), and is also found in the works of Moses
Moses
Chaim Luzzatto .

According to the present-day Sephardi scholar José Faur , traditional Sephardic Talmud
Talmud
study could take place on any of three levels.

* The most basic level consists of literary analysis of the text without the help of commentaries, designed to bring out the _tzurata di-shema'ta_, i.e. the logical and narrative structure of the passage.

* The intermediate level, _'iyyun_ (concentration), consists of study with the help of commentaries such as Rashi and the Tosafot , similar to that practised among the Ashkenazim. Historically Sephardim studied the _Tosefot ha-Rosh_ and the commentaries of Nahmanides in preference to the printed Tosafot. A method based on the study of Tosafot, and of Ashkenazi authorities such as _ Maharsha _ (Samuel Edels) and _Maharshal_ ( Solomon
Solomon
Luria ), was introduced in late seventeenth century Tunisia by Rabbis Abraham
Abraham
Hakohen (d. 1715) and Tsemaḥ Tsarfati (d. 1717) and perpetuated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Isaac Lumbroso and is sometimes referred to as _'Iyyun Tunisa'i_. * The highest level, _halachah_ (Jewish law), consists of collating the opinions set out in the Talmud
Talmud
with those of the halachic codes such as the Mishneh Torah
Torah
and the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
, so as to study the Talmud
Talmud
as a source of law. (A project called _Halacha Brura_, founded by Abraham
Abraham
Isaac
Isaac
Kook , presents the Talmud
Talmud
and a summary of the halachic codes side by side in book form so as to enable this kind of collation.)

Today most Sephardic yeshivot follow Lithuanian approaches such as the Brisker method: the traditional Sephardic methods are perpetuated informally by some individuals. _'Iyyun Tunisa'i_ is taught at the Kisse Rahamim yeshivah in Bnei Brak .

BRISKER METHOD

In the late 19th century another trend in Talmud
Talmud
study arose. Rabbi Hayyim Soloveitchik (1853–1918) of Brisk (Brest-Litovsk) developed and refined this style of study. Brisker method involves a reductionistic analysis of rabbinic arguments within the Talmud
Talmud
or among the Rishonim , explaining the differing opinions by placing them within a categorical structure. The Brisker method is highly analytical and is often criticized as being a modern-day version of pilpul . Nevertheless, the influence of the Brisker method is great. Most modern day Yeshivot study the Talmud
Talmud
using the Brisker method in some form. One feature of this method is the use of Maimonides
Maimonides
' _Mishneh Torah
Torah
_ as a guide to Talmudic interpretation, as distinct from its use as a source of practical _halakha_.

Rival methods were those of the Mir and Telz yeshivas .

CRITICAL METHOD

As a result of Jewish emancipation
Jewish emancipation
, Judaism
Judaism
underwent enormous upheaval and transformation during the 19th century. Modern methods of textual and historical analysis were applied to the Talmud.

Textual Emendations

The text of the Talmud
Talmud
has been subject to some level of critical scrutiny throughout its history. Rabbinic tradition holds that the people cited in both Talmuds did not have a hand in its writings; rather, their teachings were edited into a rough form around 450 CE ( Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi) and 550 CE ( Talmud
Talmud
Bavli.) The text of the Bavli especially was not firmly fixed at that time.

The Gaonic responsa literature addresses this issue. Teshuvot Geonim Kadmonim, section 78, deals with mistaken biblical readings in the Talmud. This Gaonic responsum states:

"...But you must examine carefully in every case when you feel uncertainty - what is its source? Whether a scribal error? Or the superficiality of a second rate student who was not well versed?....after the manner of many mistakes found among those superficial second-rate students, and certainly among those rural memorizers who were not familiar with the biblical text. And since they erred in the first place.... — Teshuvot Geonim Kadmonim, Ed. Cassel, Berlin 1858, Photographic reprint Tel Aviv 1964, 23b.

In the early medieval era, Rashi concluded that some statements in the extant text of the Talmud
Talmud
were insertions from later editors. On Shevuot 3b Rashi writes "A mistaken student wrote this in the margin of the Talmud, and copyists {subsequently} put it into the Gemara."

The emendations of Yoel Sirkis and the Vilna Gaon are included in all standard editions of the Talmud, in the form of marginal glosses entitled _Hagahot ha-Bach_ and _Hagahot ha-Gra_ respectively; further emendations by Solomon
Solomon
Luria are set out in commentary form at the back of each tractate. The Vilna Gaon's emendations were often based on his quest for internal consistency in the text rather than on manuscript evidence; nevertheless many of the Gaon's emendations were later verified by textual critics, such as Solomon
Solomon
Schechter , who had Cairo Genizah texts with which to compare our standard editions.

In the 19th century Raphael Nathan Nota Rabinovicz published a multi-volume work entitled _Dikdukei Soferim_, showing textual variants from the Munich and other early manuscripts of the Talmud, and further variants are recorded in the Complete Israeli Talmud
Talmud
and _ Gemara Shelemah_ editions (see Printing , above).

Today many more manuscripts have become available, in particular from the Cairo Geniza . The Academy of the Hebrew Language has prepared a text on CD-ROM for lexicographical purposes, containing the text of each tractate according to the manuscript it considers most reliable, and images of some of the older manuscripts may be found on the website of the Jewish National and University Library . The JNUL, the Lieberman Institute (associated with the Jewish Theological Seminary of America ), the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud
Talmud
(part of Yad
Yad
Harav Herzog) and the Friedberg Jewish Manuscript Society all maintain searchable websites on which the viewer can request variant manuscript readings of a given passage.

Further variant readings can often be gleaned from citations in secondary literature such as commentaries, in particular those of Alfasi , Rabbenu Ḥananel and Aghmati , and sometimes the later Spanish commentators such as Nachmanides and Solomon
Solomon
ben Adret .

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, AND HIGHER TEXTUAL CRITICISM

Historical study of the Talmud
Talmud
can be used to investigate a variety of concerns. One can ask questions such as: Do a given section's sources date from its editor's lifetime? To what extent does a section have earlier or later sources? Are Talmudic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines? In what ways do different sections derive from different schools of thought within early Judaism? Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? Investigation of questions such as these are known as _higher textual criticism_. (The term "criticism", it should be noted, is a technical term denoting academic study.)

Religious scholars still debate the precise method by which the text of the Talmuds reached their final form. Many believe that the text was continuously smoothed over by the _savoraim _.

In the 1870s and 1880s Rabbi
Rabbi
Raphael Natan Nata Rabbinovitz engaged in historical study of Talmud
Talmud
Bavli in his _Diqduqei Soferim_. Since then many Orthodox rabbis have approved of his work, including Rabbis Shlomo Kluger, Yoseph Shaul Ha-Levi Natanzohn, Yaaqov Ettlinger, Isaac Elhanan Spektor and Shimon Sofer.

During the early 19th century, leaders of the newly evolving Reform movement , such as Abraham
Abraham
Geiger and Samuel Holdheim
Samuel Holdheim
, subjected the Talmud
Talmud
to severe scrutiny as part of an effort to break with traditional rabbinic Judaism. They insisted that the Talmud
Talmud
was entirely a work of evolution and development. This view was rejected as both academically incorrect, and religiously incorrect, by those who would become known as the Orthodox movement . Some Orthodox leaders such as Moses
Moses
Sofer (the _Chatam Sofer_) became exquisitely sensitive to any change and rejected modern critical methods of Talmud study.

Some rabbis advocated a view of Talmudic study that they held to be in-between the Reformers and the Orthodox; these were the adherents of positive-historical Judaism, notably Nachman Krochmal and Zecharias Frankel . They described the Oral Torah
Torah
as the result of a historical and exegetical process, emerging over time, through the application of authorized exegetical techniques, and more importantly, the subjective dispositions and personalities and current historical conditions, by learned sages. This was later developed more fully in the five volume work _Dor Dor ve-Dorshav_ by Isaac
Isaac
Hirsch Weiss . (See Jay Harris _Guiding the Perplexed in the Modern Age_ Ch. 5) Eventually their work came to be one of the formative parts of Conservative Judaism
Judaism
.

Another aspect of this movement is reflected in Graetz 's _History of the Jews_. Graetz attempts to deduce the personality of the Pharisees based on the laws or aggadot that they cite, and show that their personalities influenced the laws they expounded.

The leader of Orthodox Jewry in Germany Samson Raphael Hirsch
Samson Raphael Hirsch
, while not rejecting the methods of scholarship in principle, hotly contested the findings of the Historical-Critical method. In a series of articles in his magazine _Jeschurun_ (reprinted in Collected Writings Vol. 5) Hirsch reiterated the traditional view, and pointed out what he saw as numerous errors in the works of Graetz, Frankel and Geiger.

On the other hand, many of the 19th century's strongest critics of Reform, including strictly orthodox Rabbis such as Zvi Hirsch Chajes , utilized this new scientific method. The Orthodox Rabbinical seminary of Azriel Hildesheimer was founded on the idea of creating a "harmony between Judaism
Judaism
and science". Another Orthodox pioneer of scientific Talmud
Talmud
study was David
David
Zvi Hoffman .

The Iraqi rabbi Yaakov Chaim Sofer notes that the text of the Gemara has had changes and additions, and contains statements not of the same origin as the original. See his _Yehi Yosef_ (Jerusalem, 1991) p. 132 "This passage does not bear the signature of the editor of the Talmud!"

Orthodox scholar Daniel Sperber writes in "Legitimacy, of Necessity, of Scientific Disciplines" that many Orthodox sources have engaged in the historical (also called "scientific") study of the Talmud. As such, the divide today between Orthodoxy and Reform is not about whether the Talmud
Talmud
may be subjected to historical study, but rather about the theological and halakhic implications of such study.

CONTEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIP

Some trends within contemporary Talmud
Talmud
scholarship are listed below.

* Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
maintains that the oral Torah
Torah
was revealed, in some form, together with the written Torah. As such, some adherents, most notably Samson Raphael Hirsch
Samson Raphael Hirsch
and his followers, resisted any effort to apply historical methods that imputed specific motives to the authors of the Talmud. Other major figures in Orthodoxy, however, took issue with Hirsch on this matter, most prominently David
David
Tzvi Hoffmann . * Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Talmud. Lacking outside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can say little for certain about their authorship. In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, the works of Louis Jacobs and Shaye J.D. Cohen . * Some scholars hold that the Talmud
Talmud
has been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sources we can identify and describe with some level of reliability. In this view, sources can be identified by tracing the history and analyzing the geographical regions of origin. See, for example, the works of Lee I. Levine and David
David
Kraemer. * Some scholars hold that many or most of the statements and events described in the Talmud
Talmud
usually occurred more or less as described, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study. In this view, historians do their best to tease out later editorial additions (itself a very difficult task) and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliable historical text. See, for example, the works of Saul Lieberman , David
David
Weiss Halivni , and Avraham Goldberg . * Modern academic study attempts to separate the different "strata" within the text, to try to interpret each level on its own, and to identify the correlations between parallel versions of the same tradition. In recent years, the works of R. David
David
Weiss Halivni and Dr. Shamma Friedman have suggested a paradigm shift in the understanding of the Talmud
Talmud
( Encyclopaedia Judaica 2nd ed. entry "Talmud, Babylonian"). The traditional understanding was to view the Talmud
Talmud
as a unified homogeneous work. While other scholars had also treated the Talmud
Talmud
as a multi-layered work, Dr. Halivni's innovation (primarily in the second volume of his _Mekorot u-Mesorot_) was to differentiate between the Amoraic statements, which are generally brief Halachic decisions or inquiries, and the writings of the later "Stammaitic" (or Saboraic) authors, which are characterised by a much longer analysis that often consists of lengthy dialectic discussion. It has been noted that the Jerusalem Talmud is in fact very similar to the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
minus Stammaitic activity (Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.), entry " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud"). Shamma Y. Friedman's _Talmud Aruch_ on the sixth chapter of Bava Metzia (1996) is the first example of a complete analysis of a Talmudic text using this method. S. Wald has followed with works on Pesachim ch. 3 (2000) and Shabbat ch. 7 (2006). Further commentaries in this sense are being published by Dr Friedman's "Society for the Interpretation of the Talmud". * Some scholars are indeed using outside sources to help give historical and contextual understanding of certain areas of the Babylonian Talmud. See for example the works of the Prof Yaakov Elman and of his student Dr. Shai Secunda, which seek to place the Talmud in its Iranian context, for example by comparing it with contemporary Zoroastrian texts.

ROLE IN JUDAISM

The Talmud
The Talmud
represents the written record of an oral tradition . It became the basis for many rabbinic legal codes and customs, most importantly for the Mishneh Torah
Torah
and for the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
. Orthodox and, to a lesser extent, Conservative Judaism
Judaism
accepts the Talmud
Talmud
as authoritative, while Samaritan, Karaite, Reconstructionist, and Reform Judaism
Judaism
do not. This section briefly outlines past and current movements and their view of the Talmud's role.

SADDUCEES

The Jewish sect of the Sadducees
Sadducees
flourished during the Second Temple period. Principal distinctions between them and the Pharisees (later known as Rabbinic Judaism) involved their rejection of an _Oral Torah_ and their denying a resurrection after death.

KARAISM

Another movement that rejected the oral Torah
Torah
was Karaism . It arose within two centuries of the completion of the Talmud. Karaism developed as a reaction against the Talmudic Judaism
Judaism
of Babylonia. The central concept of Karaism is the rejection of the Oral Torah
Torah
, as embodied in the Talmud, in favor of a strict adherence to the Written Torah
Torah
only. This opposes the fundamental Rabbinic concept that the Oral Torah
Torah
was given to Moses
Moses
on Mount Sinai together with the Written Torah. Some later Karaites took a more moderate stance, allowing that some element of tradition (called _sevel ha-yerushah_, the burden of inheritance) is admissible in interpreting the Torah
Torah
and that some authentic traditions are contained in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Talmud, though these can never supersede the plain meaning of the Written Torah.

REFORM JUDAISM

The rise of Reform Judaism
Judaism
during the 19th century saw more questioning of the authority of the Talmud. Reform Jews
Jews
saw the Talmud as a product of late antiquity, having relevance merely as a historical document. For example, the "Declaration of Principles" issued by the Association of Friends of Reform Frankfurt in August 1843 states among other things that:

The collection of controversies, dissertations, and prescriptions commonly designated by the name Talmud
Talmud
possesses for us no authority, from either the dogmatic or the practical standpoint.

Some took a critical-historical view of the written Torah
Torah
as well, while others appeared to adopt a neo-Karaite "back to the Bible" approach, though often with greater emphasis on the prophetic than on the legal books.

HUMANISTIC JUDAISM

Within Humanistic Judaism
Judaism
, Talmud
Talmud
is studied as a historical text, in order to discover how it can demonstrate practical relevance to living today.

PRESENT DAY

_See also Halakha: Views today and Halakha: The sources and process of Halakha _.

Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
continues to stress the importance of Talmud
Talmud
study as a central component of Yeshiva
Yeshiva
curriculum, in particular for those training to become Rabbis. This is so even though _Halakha_ is generally studied from the medieval codes and not directly from the Talmud. Talmudic study amongst the laity is widespread in Orthodox Judaism, with daily or weekly Talmud
Talmud
study particularly common in Haredi Judaism
Judaism
and with Talmud
Talmud
study a central part of the curriculum in Orthodox Yeshivas and day schools. The regular study of Talmud among laymen has been popularized by the _ Daf Yomi _, a daily course of Talmud
Talmud
study initiated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir Shapiro in 1923; its 13th cycle of study began on August, 2012. The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute has popularized the "MyShiur - Explorations in Talmud" to show how the Talmud
Talmud
is relevant to a wide range of people.

Conservative Judaism
Judaism
similarly emphasizes the study of Talmud
Talmud
within its religious and rabbinic education. Generally, however, Conservative Jews
Jews
study the Talmud
Talmud
as a historical source-text for Halakha . The Conservative approach to legal decision-making emphasizes placing classic texts and prior decisions in historical and cultural context, and examining the historical development of Halakha . This approach has resulted in greater practical flexibility than that of the Orthodox. Talmud
Talmud
study forms part of the curriculum of Conservative parochial education at many Conservative day-schools , and an increase in Conservative day-school enrollments has resulted in an increase in Talmud
Talmud
study as part of Conservative Jewish education among a minority of Conservative Jews. See also: _The Conservative Jewish view of the Halakha _.

Reform Judaism
Judaism
does not emphasize the study of Talmud
Talmud
to the same degree in their Hebrew schools, but they do teach it in their rabbinical seminaries; the world view of liberal Judaism
Judaism
rejects the idea of binding Jewish law , and uses the Talmud
Talmud
as a source of inspiration and moral instruction. Ownership and reading of the Talmud is not widespread among Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, who usually place more emphasis on the study of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh .

TALMUD IN THE VISUAL ARTS

IN CARL SCHLEICHER\'S PAINTINGS

Rabbis and talmudists studying and debating Talmud
Talmud
abound in the art of Austrian painter Carl Schleicher (1825-1903); active in Vienna, esp. c. 1859–1871.

*

_Jewish Scene II_ *

_A Controversy Whatsoever on Talmud_. *

_At the Rabbi's_. *

_Jewish Scene I_.

TALMUD IN JEWISH ART

*

_ Jews
Jews
studying Talmud_, París, _c_. 1880-1905 *

Samuel Hirszenberg, _Talmudic School_, c. 1895-1908. *

Ephraim Moses
Moses
Lilien , _ The Talmud
The Talmud
Students_, engraving, 1915 *

Maurycy Trębacz, _The Dispute_, _c_. 1920-1940 *

_Solomon's Haggadoth_, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah, Jerusalem, by Benno Elkan, 1956. *

_Hilel's Teachings_, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah *

_Jewish Mysticism: Jochanan ben Sakkai_, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah

OTHER CONTEXTS

The study of Talmud
Talmud
is not restricted to those of the Jewish religion and has attracted interest in other cultures.

Christian scholars have long expressed an interest in the study of Talmud
Talmud
which has helped illuminate their own scriptures. Talmud contains biblical exegesis and commentary on Tanakh that will often clarify elliptical and esoteric passages. The Talmud
The Talmud
contains possible references to Jesus
Jesus
Christ and his disciples, while the Christian canon makes mention of Talmudic figures and contains teachings that can be paralleled within the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash . The Talmud
The Talmud
provides cultural and historical context to the Gospel
Gospel
and the writings of the Apostles
Apostles
.

South Koreans reportedly hope to emulate Jews' high academic standards by studying Jewish literature. Almost every household has a translated copy of a book they call "Talmud", which parents read to their children, and the book is part of the primary-school curriculum. The "Talmud" in this case is usually one of several possible volumes, the earliest translated into Korean from the Japanese. The original Japanese books were created through the collaboration of Japanese writer Hideaki Kase and Marvin Tokayer , an Orthodox American rabbi serving in Japan in the 1960s and 70s. The first collaborative book was _5,000 Years of Jewish Wisdom: Secrets of the Talmud Scriptures_, created over a three-day period in 1968 and published in 1971. The book contains actual stories from the Talmud, proverbs, ethics, Jewish legal material, biographies of Talmudic rabbis, and personal stories about Tokayer and his family. Tokayer and Kase published a number of other books on Jewish themes together in Japanese.

The first South Korean publication of _5,000 Years of Jewish Wisdom_ was in 1974, by Tae Zang publishing house. Many different editions followed in both Korea and China, often by black-market publishers. Between 2007 and 2009, Reverend Yong-soo Hyun of the Shema Yisrael Educational Institute published a 6-volume edition of the Korean Talmud, bringing together material from a variety of Tokayer's earlier books. He worked with Tokayer to correct errors and Tokayer is listed as the author. Tutoring centers based on this and other works called "Talmud" for both adults and children are popular in Korea and "Talmud" books (all based on Tokayer's works and not the original Talmud) are widely read and known.

CRITICISM

Part of a series on

CRITICISM OF RELIGION

BY RELIGION

* Buddhism * Christianity
Christianity

* Christian fundamentalism

* Catholic

* Catholicism * Opus Dei

* Latter Day Saint movement

* Mormonism

* Jehovah\'s Witnesses * Protestantism * Orthodoxy * Seventh-day Adventist * Unification Church * Westboro Baptist Church

* Hinduism

* Islam

* Islamism * Twelver Shi’ism * Wahhabism

* Jainism

* Judaism
Judaism

* Conservative Judaism
Judaism

* New religious movement * Scientology * Sikhism * Yazdânism * Zoroastrianism

BY RELIGIOUS FIGURE

* Aisha * Charles Taze Russell * Ellen White * Jesus
Jesus
* Moses
Moses
* Muhammad * Saul

BY TEXT

* * Bible * Quran * Hadiths

* Mormon sacred texts

* Book of Mormon

* Talmud
Talmud

RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE

* Buddhism

* Christianity
Christianity

* Mormonism

* Judaism
Judaism
* Islam

* Persecution

* By Christians

* Sectarian violence * Segregation

* Terrorism

* Christian * Hindu * Islamic * Sikh * Jewish

* War

* In Islam * In Judaism
Judaism

RELATED TOPICS

* Abuse

* Apostasy
Apostasy

* In Islam * In Christianity
Christianity

* Criticism of atheism
Criticism of atheism
* Criticism of monotheism
Criticism of monotheism
* Sexuality * Slavery

* v * t * e

Historian Michael Levi Rodkinson , in his book _The History of the Talmud_, wrote that detractors of the Talmud, both during and subsequent to its formation, "have varied in their character, objects and actions" and the book documents a number of critics and persecutors, including Nicholas Donin , Johannes Pfefferkorn , Johann Andreas Eisenmenger , the Frankists , and August Rohling . Many attacks come from antisemitic sources, particularly Christians such as Justinas Pranaitis , Elizabeth Dilling or David
David
Duke . Criticisms also arise from Muslim sources, Jewish sources, and atheists and skeptics. Accusations against the Talmud
Talmud
include alleged:

* Anti-Christian or anti-Gentile content * Absurd or sexually immoral content * Falsification of scripture

Defenders of the Talmud
Talmud
argue that many of these criticisms, particularly those in antisemitic sources, are based on quotations that are taken out of context, and thus misrepresent the meaning of the Talmud's text. Sometimes the misrepresentation is deliberate, and other times simply due to an inability to grasp the subtle and sometimes confusing narratives in the Talmud. Some quotations provided by critics deliberately omit passages in order to generate quotes that appear to be offensive or insulting.

MIDDLE AGES

At the very time that the Babylonian _savoraim _ put the finishing touches to the redaction of the Talmud, the emperor Justinian issued his edict against _deuterosis_ (doubling, repetition) of the Hebrew Bible . It is disputed whether, in this context, _deuterosis_ means "Mishnah" or " Targum ": in patristic literature, the word is used in both senses.

Full-scale attacks on the Talmud
Talmud
took place in the 13th century in France, where Talmudic study was then flourishing. In the 1230s, Nicholas Donin , a Jewish convert to Christianity, pressed 35 charges against the Talmud
Talmud
to Pope Gregory IX by translating a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus
Jesus
, Mary or Christianity. There is a quoted Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. Donin also selected an injunction of the Talmud
Talmud
that permits Jews
Jews
to kill non-Jews. This led to the Disputation of Paris , which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX of France , where four rabbis, including Yechiel of Paris and Moses
Moses
ben Jacob
Jacob
of Coucy , defended the Talmud
Talmud
against the accusations of Nicholas Donin. The translation of the Talmud
Talmud
from Hebrew to non- Jewish languages stripped Jewish discourse from its covering, something that was resented by Jews
Jews
as a profound violation. The Disputation of Paris led to the condemnation and the first burning of copies of the Talmud
Talmud
in Paris in 1242. The burning of copies of the Talmud
Talmud
continued.

The Talmud
The Talmud
was likewise the subject of the Disputation of Barcelona in 1263 between Nahmanides ( Rabbi
Rabbi
Moses
Moses
ben Nahman) and Christian convert, Pablo Christiani . This same Pablo Christiani made an attack on the Talmud
Talmud
that resulted in a papal bull against the Talmud
Talmud
and in the first censorship, which was undertaken at Barcelona by a commission of Dominicans , who ordered the cancellation of passages deemed objectionable from a Christian perspective (1264).

At the Disputation of Tortosa in 1413, Geronimo de Santa Fé brought forward a number of accusations, including the fateful assertion that the condemnations of "pagans," "heathens," and "apostates" found in the Talmud
Talmud
were in reality veiled references to Christians. These assertions were denied by the Jewish community and its scholars, who contended that Judaic thought made a sharp distinction between those classified as heathen or pagan, being polytheistic, and those who acknowledge one true God (such as the Christians) even while worshipping the true monotheistic God incorrectly. Thus, Jews
Jews
viewed Christians as misguided and in error, but not among the "heathens" or "pagans" discussed in the Talmud.

Both Pablo Christiani and Geronimo de Santa Fé, in addition to criticizing the Talmud, also regarded it as a source of authentic traditions, some of which could be used as arguments in favour of Christianity. Examples of such traditions were statements that the Messiah
Messiah
was born around the time of the destruction of the Temple, and that the Messiah
Messiah
sat at the right hand of God.

In 1415, Antipope Benedict XIII , who had convened the Tortosa disputation, issued a papal bull (which was destined, however, to remain inoperative) forbidding the Jews
Jews
to read the Talmud, and ordering the destruction of all copies of it. Far more important were the charges made in the early part of the 16th century by the convert Johannes Pfefferkorn , the agent of the Dominicans. The result of these accusations was a struggle in which the emperor and the pope acted as judges, the advocate of the Jews
Jews
being Johann Reuchlin , who was opposed by the obscurantists; and this controversy, which was carried on for the most part by means of pamphlets, became in the eyes of some a precursor of the Reformation .

An unexpected result of this affair was the complete printed edition of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
issued in 1520 by Daniel Bomberg at Venice
Venice
, under the protection of a papal privilege. Three years later, in 1523, Bomberg published the first edition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. After thirty years the Vatican, which had first permitted the Talmud to appear in print, undertook a campaign of destruction against it. On the New Year, Rosh Hashanah (September 9, 1553) the copies of the Talmud
Talmud
confiscated in compliance with a decree of the Inquisition were burned at Rome
Rome
, in Campo dei Fiori (auto de fé). Other burnings took place in other Italian cities, such as the one instigated by Joshua dei Cantori at Cremona
Cremona
in 1559. Censorship of the Talmud
Talmud
and other Hebrew works was introduced by a papal bull issued in 1554; five years later the Talmud
Talmud
was included in the first Index Expurgatorius ; and Pope Pius IV commanded, in 1565, that the Talmud
Talmud
be deprived of its very name. The convention of referring to the work as "Shas" (_shishah sidre Mishnah_) instead of "Talmud" dates from this time.

The first edition of the expurgated Talmud, on which most subsequent editions were based, appeared at Basel
Basel
(1578–1581) with the omission of the entire treatise of 'Abodah Zarah and of passages considered inimical to Christianity, together with modifications of certain phrases. A fresh attack on the Talmud
Talmud
was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII (1575–85), and in 1593 Clement VIII renewed the old interdiction against reading or owning it. The increasing study of the Talmud
Talmud
in Poland led to the issue of a complete edition ( Kraków , 1602-5), with a restoration of the original text; an edition containing, so far as known, only two treatises had previously been published at Lublin (1559–76). In 1707 some copies of the Talmud
Talmud
were confiscated in the province of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, but were restored to their owners by command of Frederick, the first king of Prussia . A further attack on the Talmud
Talmud
took place in Poland (in what is now Ukrainian territory) in 1757, when Bishop Dembowski, at the instigation of the Frankists , convened a public disputation at Kamianets-Podilskyi , and ordered all copies of the work found in his bishopric to be confiscated and burned.

The external history of the Talmud
Talmud
includes also the literary attacks made upon it by some Christian theologians after the Reformation, since these onslaughts on Judaism
Judaism
were directed primarily against that work, the leading example being Eisenmenger 's _Entdecktes Judenthum_ ( Judaism
Judaism
Unmasked) (1700). In contrast, the Talmud
Talmud
was a subject of rather more sympathetic study by many Christian theologians, jurists and Orientalists from the Renaissance
Renaissance
on, including Johann Reuchlin , John Selden
John Selden
, Petrus Cunaeus , John Lightfoot and Johannes Buxtorf father and son .

19TH CENTURY AND AFTER

The Vilna edition of the Talmud
Talmud
was subject to Russian government censorship, or self-censorship to meet government expectations, though this was less severe than some previous attempts: the title "Talmud" was retained and the tractate Avodah Zarah was included. Most modern editions are either copies of or closely based on the Vilna edition, and therefore still omit most of the disputed passages. Although they were not available for many generations, the removed sections of the Talmud, Rashi, Tosafot and Maharsha were preserved through rare printings of lists of _errata_, known as _Chesronos Hashas_ ("Omissions of the Talmud"). Many of these censored portions were recovered from uncensored manuscripts in the Vatican Library . Some modern editions of the Talmud
Talmud
contain some or all of this material, either at the back of the book, in the margin, or in its original location in the text.

In 1830, during a debate in the French Chamber of Peers regarding state recognition of the Jewish faith, Admiral Verhuell declared himself unable to forgive the Jews
Jews
whom he had met during his travels throughout the world either for their refusal to recognize Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah
Messiah
or for their possession of the Talmud. In the same year the Abbé Chiarini published a voluminous work entitled _Théorie du Judaïsme_, in which he announced a translation of the Talmud, advocating for the first time a version that would make the work generally accessible, and thus serve for attacks on Judaism: only two out of the projected six volumes of this translation appeared. In a like spirit 19th-century anti-Semitic agitators often urged that a translation be made; and this demand was even brought before legislative bodies, as in Vienna
Vienna
. The Talmud
The Talmud
and the " Talmud
Talmud
Jew" thus became objects of anti-Semitic attacks, for example in August Rohling 's _Der Talmudjude_ (1871), although, on the other hand, they were defended by many Christian students of the Talmud, notably Hermann Strack .

Further attacks from anti-Semitic sources include Justinas Pranaitis ' _ The Talmud
The Talmud
Unmasked : The Secret Rabbinical Teachings Concerning Christians_ (1892) and Elizabeth Dilling 's _The Plot against Christianity_ (1964). The criticisms of the Talmud
Talmud
in many modern pamphlets and websites are often recognisable as verbatim quotes from one or other of these.

CONTEMPORARY ACCUSATIONS

Criticism of the Talmud
Talmud
is widespread, in great part through the internet. The Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
's report on this topic states that antisemitic critics of the Talmud
Talmud
frequently use erroneous translations or selective quotations in order to distort the meaning of the Talmud's text, and sometimes fabricate passages. In addition, the attackers rarely provide full context of the quotations, and fail to provide contextual information about the culture that the Talmud was composed in, nearly 2,000 years ago.

One such example concerns the line "If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explanation. Who ever will violate this order shall be put to death." alleged to be a quote from a book titled _Libbre David_ (alternatively _Livore David_). No such book exists in the Talmud
Talmud
or elsewhere. The title is assumed to be a corruption of _Dibre David_, a work published in 1671. Reference to the quote is found in an early Holocaust denial book, _The Six Million Reconsidered_ by William Grimstad.

Gil Student , an internet author, states that many attacks on the Talmud
Talmud
are merely recycling discredited material that originated in the 13th-century disputations, particularly from Raymond Marti and Nicholas Donin , and that the criticisms are based on quotations taken out of context, and are sometimes entirely fabricated.

SEE ALSO

* Judaism
Judaism
portal

* Baraita * Daf Yomi * Ein Yaakov
Ein Yaakov
* Hadran (Talmud) * Jesus
Jesus
in the Talmud
Talmud
* List of logical arguments in the Talmud * Minor Tractates * Rashi * Shas Pollak * Siyum * Siyum HaShas * Talmudic Academies in Babylonia * Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina * Talmudical hermeneutics

NOTES

* ^ Goldberg, Abraham
Abraham
(1987). "The Palestinian Talmud". In Safrai, Shmuel. _The Literature of the Jewish People in the Period of the Second Temple and the Talmud, Volume 3 The Literature of the Sages_. Brill. doi :10.1163/9789004275133_008 . * ^ Jastrow, Morris Jr. ; Rogers, Robert W.; Gottheil, Richard ; Krauss, Samuel (1901–1906). _Jewish Encyclopedia_. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. Retrieved 17 September 2015. The Talmud
The Talmud
gives the boundaries of as much of Babylonia
Babylonia
as contained Jewish residents * ^ See, Strack, Hermann, _Introduction to the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash_, Jewish Publication Society, 1945. pp.11-12. " was handed down by word of mouth during a long period...The first attempts to write down the traditional matter, there is reason to believe, date from the first half of the second post-Christian century." Strack theorizes that the growth of a Christian canon (the New Testament) was a factor that influenced the Rabbis to record the oral Torah
Torah
in writing. * ^ The theory that the destruction of the Temple and subsequent upheaval led to the committing of Oral Torah
Torah
into writing was first explained in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon and often repeated. See, for example, Grayzel, _A History of the Jews_, Penguin Books, 1984, p. 193. * ^ For the meaning of "page" in this context see under #Printing . * ^ Jacobs, Louis, _Structure and form in the Babylonian Talmud_, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p.2 * ^ e.g. Pirkei Avot 5.21: "five for the Torah, ten for Mishnah, thirteen for the commandments, fifteen for _talmud_". * ^ "Talmud". _A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion_. Louis Jacobs. Oxford University Press, 1999, page 261 * ^ "Palestinian Talmud". _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online_. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2010. * ^ The Yerushalmi--the Talmud
Talmud
of the land of Israel: an introduction, Jacob
Jacob
Neusner, J. Aronson, 1993 * ^ Eusebius . "XVIII: He speaks of their Unanimity respecting the Feast of Easter, and against the Practice of the Jews". _Vita Constantini_. III (circa 330 CE ). Retrieved June 21, 2009. * ^ " Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash (Judaism) :: The making of the Talmuds: 3rd-6th century". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2013. * ^ Moshe Gil (2004). _ Jews
Jews
in Islamic Countries in the Middle Ages_. p. 507. * ^ Nosson Dovid Rabinowich (ed), _The Iggeres of Rav Sherira Gaon_, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1988, pp. 79, 116 * ^ Nosson Dovid Rabinowich (ed), _The Iggeres of Rav Sherira Gaon_, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1988, p. 116 * ^ Steinsaltz, Adin (1976). _The Essential Talmud_. BasicBooks, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-465-02063-1 . * ^ "Judaic Treasures of the Library of Congress: The Talmud". American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. * ^ Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde. 1996. A history of the Hebrew language. P.170-171: "There is general agreement that two main periods of RH (Rabbinical Hebrew) can be distinguished. The first, which lasted until the close of the Tannaitic era (around 200 CE), is characterized by RH as a spoken language gradually developing into a literary medium in which the Mishnah, Tosefta, _baraitot_, and Tannaitic _midrashim_ would be composed. The second stage begins with the _Amoraim_, and sees RH being replaced by Aramaic as the spoken vernacular, surviving only as a literary language. Then it continued to be used in later rabbinic writings until the 10th century in, for example, the Hebrew portions of the two Talmuds and in midrashic and haggadic literature." * ^ Amnon Raz-Krakotzkin. The Censor, the Editor, and the Text: The Catholic Church and the Shaping of the Jewish Canon in the Sixteenth Century. Trans. Jackie Feldman. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. viii + 314 ISBN 978-0-8122-4011-5 . p104 * ^ Christiane Berkvens-Stevelinck _Le Magasin De L'Univers - The Dutch Republic As the Centre of the European Book Trade (Brill's Studies in Intellectual History)_ * ^ Printing the Talmud: a history of the individual treatises p239 Marvin J. Heller - 1999 "The Benveniste Talmud, according to Rabbinovicz, was based on the Lublin
Lublin
Talmud
Talmud
which included many of the censors' errors" * ^ The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
Isaac
Isaac
Landman - 1941 "His greatest work was the translation of the entire Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
into German, which, as it was made from the uncensored text and was the only complete translation in a European language, was of great value for students." * ^ Friedman, “Variant Readings in the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
— A Methodological Study Marking the Appearance of 13 Volumes of the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud’s Edition,” Tarbiz 68 (1998). * ^ Amar, Yosef. " Talmud
Talmud
Bavli be-niqqud Temani". Nosachteiman.co.il. * ^ Julius Joseph Price, _The Yemenite ms. of Megilla (in the Library of Columbia university)_, 1916; _Pesahim_, 1913; _Mo'ed Katon_, 1920. * ^ Ackerman, Matthew. “America’s Most Important Jewish Event?”, 'Commentary', June 26, 2012. * ^ "Queen for a Day", _Tablet Magazine_, 5 February 2013 * ^ The other Oz ve-Hadar editions are similar but without the explanation in modern Hebrew. * ^ Introducing: Talmud
Talmud
in Arabic * ^ "Arab translation of Talmud
Talmud
includes anti-Israeli messages". * ^ " Talmud
Talmud
(William Davidson)". _www.sefaria.org_. Retrieved 4 June 2017. * ^ http://www.jta.org/2017/02/07/news-opinion/united-states/with-full-talmud-translation-online-library-hopes-to-make-sages-accessible * ^ As Pirkei Avot is a tractate of the Mishnah, and reached its final form centuries before the compilation of either Talmud, this refers to _talmud _ as an activity rather than to any written compilation. * ^ "HebrewBooks.org Sefer Detail: ספר הנר - ברכות -- אגמתי, זכריה בן יהודה". * ^ For a list see Ephraim Urbach, s.v. "Tosafot," in _Encyclopedia of Religion_. * ^ See _Pilpul_, Mordechai Breuer , in _Encyclopaedia Judaica_, Vol. 16, 2nd Ed (2007), Macmillan Reference, USA and H.H. Ben Sasson, _A History of the Jewish People_, pp. 627, 717. * ^ _Kol Melechet Higgayon_, the Hebrew translation of Averroes' epitome of Aristotle's logical works, was widely studied in northern Italy, particularly Padua
Padua
. * ^ Boyarin, _Sephardi Speculation_ (Hebrew) ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1989). * ^ For a comprehensive treatment, see Ravitzky, below. * ^ Faur is here describing the tradition of Damascus, though the approach in other places may have been similar. * ^ Examples of lessons using this approach may be found here. * ^ Cf. the distinction in the Ashkenazi yeshivah curriculum between _beki'ut_ (basic familiarization) and _'iyyun_ (in-depth study). * ^ David
David
ben Judah Messer Leon , _Kevod Ḥakhamim_, cited by Zimmels, _Ashkenazim and Sephardim_, pp. 151 and 154. * ^ Chaim Joseph David
David
Azulai , _Shem Gedolim_, cited Hirschberg, _A History of the Jews
Jews
in North Africa_, pp 125-6. * ^ Joseph Ringel, "A Third Way: _Iyyun Tunisai_ as a Traditional Critical Method of Talmud
Talmud
Study", _Tradition_ 2013 46:3. * ^ Rav Avraham Yitzchok Ha-Cohen Kook, zt"l, Late Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of Israel
Israel
(February 17, 2008). "A labor of great magnitude stands before us, to repair the break between the Talmudic deliberations and the halachic decisions... to accustom students of the Gemara to correlate knowledge of all the halacha with its source and reason...". Halacha Brura and Birur Halacha Institute. Retrieved 20 September 2010. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) It should not be confused with the halachic compendium of the same name by Rabbi
Rabbi
David
David
Yosef. * ^ For a humorous description of the different methods, see Gavriel Bechhofer's An Analysis of Darchei HaLimud (Methodologies of Talmud
Talmud
Study) Centering on a Cup of Tea. * ^ As Yonah Fraenkel shows in his book _Darko Shel Rashi be-Ferusho la- Talmud
Talmud
ha-Bavli_, one of Rashi's major accomplishments was textual emendation. Rabbenu Tam, Rashi's grandson and one of the central figures in the Tosafist academies, polemicizes against textual emendation in his less studied work _Sefer ha-Yashar_. However, the Tosafists, too, emended the Talmudic text (See e.g. _Baba Kamma_ 83b _s.v._ _af haka'ah ha'amurah_ or _Gittin_ 32a _s.v. mevutelet_) as did many other medieval commentators (see e.g. R. Shlomo ben Aderet, _Hiddushei ha-Rashb"a al ha-Sha"s_ to _Baba Kamma_ 83b, or Rabbenu Nissim's commentary to Alfasi on _Gittin_ 32a). * ^ Etkes, Immanuel (2002). _The Gaon of Vilna_. University of California Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-520-22394-2 . * ^ Solomon
Solomon
Schechter, _Studies in Judaism_ p.92. * ^ Introduction to Sokoloff, _Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic_. * ^ "אוצר כתבי יד תלמודיים". Archived from the original on 2006-12-12. * ^ See under #Manuscripts and textual variants , below. * ^ See particularly his controversial dissertation, _Mar Samuel_, available at archive.org (German). * ^ , entry interactive. "Igud HaTalmud". * ^ Yaacov Elman (November 2012). Steven Fine; Shai Secunda, eds. _Shoshannat Yaakov: Jewish and Iranian Studies in Honor of Yaakov Elman_. Brill Academic Pub Publishers. ISBN 978-9004235441 . Retrieved 11 November 2013. * ^ Shai Secunda (October 2013). _The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context_. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812245707 . Retrieved 18 November 2013. * ^ "Secular Talmud
Talmud
Study - The City Congregation for Humanistic Judaism". * ^ Lakein, Dvora (December 28, 2007). "Chabad Unveils Talmudic Study Program In 15 Cities". New York. Merkos L'inyonei Chinuch. * ^ See Schleicher's paintings at MutualArt. * ^ "Why Christians Should Study Torah
Torah
and Talmud". Bridges for Peace. Retrieved July 3, 2006. * ^ Hirschfield, Tzofia (2011-05-12). "Why Koreans study Talmud". _Jewish World_. Retrieved 27 June 2014. * ^ Alper, Tim (2011-05-12). "Why South Koreans are in love with Judaism". _The Jewish Chronicle_. Retrieved 27 June 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ross Arbes (June 23, 2015). "How the Talmud
Talmud
Became a Best-Seller in South Korea". The New Yorker. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rodkinson * ^ Lewis, Bernard, _Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice_, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, p. 134 * ^ Johnson, Paul, _A history of the Jews_, HarperCollins, 1988, p. 577 * ^ _Arab attitudes to Israel_, Yehoshafat Harkabi, p. 248, 272 * ^ Such as Uriel da Costa , Israel
Israel
Shahak and Baruch Kimmerling * ^ Such as Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
and Denis Diderot * ^ Hyam Maccoby , _ Judaism
Judaism
on Trial_ * ^ ADL report The Talmud
The Talmud
in Anti-Semitic Polemics Archived 2010-08-05 at the Wayback Machine ., Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
* ^ Student, Gil - Rebuttals to criticisms of Talmud * ^ Bacher, Wilhelm , "Talmud", article in _Jewish Encyclopedia_, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1901 * ^ "TALMUD - JewishEncyclopedia.com". * ^ "TALMUD - JewishEncyclopedia.com". * ^ Fraade, pp. 144-146 * ^ Kimmerling, Baruch , "Images of Gentiles" (book review), _Journal of Palestine Studies_, April 1997, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 96–98 * ^ Siedman, p. 137 * ^ Cohn-Sherbok, p. 48 * ^ Steinsaltz, pp. 268-270 * ^ See, for example, Uriel DaCosta, quoted by Nadler, p. 68 * ^ Cohn-Sherbok, p. 47 * ^ Wilhelm Bacher, "Talmud", article in _Jewish Encyclopedia_ * ^ ADL report, p. 1-2 * ^ For examples of some selective quoting and omissions, see:Responses to criticisms by Gil Student :Responses to criticisms by Michael Gruda * ^ Nov. 146.1.2. * ^ Naomi Seidman, _Faithful Renderings: Jewish-Christian Difference and the Politics of Translation_, pp. 136-138 * ^ Rodkinson, pp 66–69 * ^ Levy, p 701 * ^ For a Hebrew account of the Paris Disputation, see Jehiel of Paris, "The Disputation of Jehiel of Paris" (Hebrew), in _Collected Polemics and Disputations_, ed. J. D. Eisenstein, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1922; Translated and reprinted by Hyam Maccoby in _ Judaism
Judaism
on Trial: Jewish-Christian Disputations in the Middle Ages_, 1982 * ^ James Carroll _Constantine's sword: the church and the Jews
Jews
: a history_ * ^ Cohn-Sherbok, pp 50-54 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Maccoby * ^ Hyam Maccoby , op. cit. * ^ Roth, Norman, _Medieval Jewish civilization: an encyclopedia_, Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 83 * ^ Rodkinson, p 98 * ^ Hastings, James. _Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 23_, p 186 * ^ Rodkinson, pp 100-103 * ^ Rodkinson, p. 105 * ^ Levy, p. 210 * ^ Boettcher, Susan R., "Entdecktes Judenthum", article in Levy, p. 210 * ^ Berlin, George L., _Defending the faith: nineteenth-century American Jewish writings on Christianity
Christianity
and Jesus_, SUNY Press, 1989, p 156 * ^ Chesronos Hashas * ^ The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition , pp. 103-104 Heller, Marvin J. (1999). _Printing the Talmud: a history of the individual treatises printed from 1700 to 1750_. Basel: Brill Publishers . pp. 17, 166. * ^ "Page:Archives israelites 1851 tome12.djvu/647 - Wikisource". * ^ "CHIARINI, LUIGI - JewishEncyclopedia.com". * ^ Rodkinson, pp 109-114 * ^ Levy, p 564 * ^ Jeansonne, Glen, _Women of the Far Right: The Mothers' Movement and World War II_, University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp 168-169 * ^ Jones, Jeremy (June 1999). "Talmudic Terrors". Australia/Israel Review. Archived from the original on 2002-03-30. Retrieved 2008-06-12. If any reader doubts the maliciousness, virulence and prevalence of such material in cyber-space, it is well worth a visit to the Internet site known as Talmud
Talmud
Exposé (www.geocities.com/Athens/Cyprus/8815 ), in which Melbourne's David Maddison has performed the Herculean task of responding, one by one, to the hundreds of "anti-Talmud" quotes, lies and themes he has encountered on the Internet. . * ^ " The Talmud
The Talmud
in Anti-Semitic Polemics" (PDF) (Press release). Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
. February 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2010. By selectively citing various passages from the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash , polemicists have sought to demonstrate that Judaism
Judaism
espouses hatred for non- Jews
Jews
(and specifically for Christians), and promotes obscenity, sexual perversion, and other immoral behavior. To make these passages serve their purposes, these polemicists frequently mistranslate them or cite them out of context (wholesale fabrication of passages is not unknown).…In distorting the normative meanings of rabbinic texts, anti- Talmud
Talmud
writers frequently remove passages from their textual and historical contexts. Even when they present their citations accurately, they judge the passages based on contemporary moral standards, ignoring the fact that the majority of these passages were composed close to two thousand years ago by people living in cultures radically different from our own. They are thus able to ignore Judaism's long history of social progress and paint it instead as a primitive and parochial religion. Those who attack the Talmud frequently cite ancient rabbinic sources without noting subsequent developments in Jewish thought, and without making a good-faith effort to consult with contemporary Jewish authorities who can explain the role of these sources in normative Jewish thought and practice. * ^ Kominsky, Morris (1970). _The hoaxers: plain liars, fancy liars, and damned liars._ Boston: Branden Press. pp. 169–176. ISBN 08283-1288-5 . LCCN 76109134 . Libbre David
David
37. This is a complete fabrication. No such book exists in the Talmud
Talmud
or in the entire Jewish literature. * ^ Andrew J. Hurley (1991). _ Israel
Israel
and the New World Order_. Foundation for a New World Order, Santa Barbara,: Fithian Press. ISBN 9780931832994 . * ^ The Six Million Reconsidered: A Special
Special
Report by the Committee for Truth in History, p. 16 Historical Review Press , 1979 * ^ Student, Gil (2000). "The Real Truth About The Talmud". Retrieved September 16, 2010. Anti- Talmud
Talmud
accusations have a long history dating back to the 13th century when the associates of the Inquisition attempted to defame Jews
Jews
and their religion . The early material compiled by hateful preachers like Raymond Martini and Nicholas Donin remain the basis of all subsequent accusations against the Talmud. Some are true, most are false and based on quotations taken out of context, and some are total fabrications . On the Internet today we can find many of these old accusations being rehashed…

REFERENCES

* Nathan T. Lopes Cardozo _The Infinite Chain: Torah, Masorah, and Man_ (Philipp Feldheim, 1989). ISBN 0-944070-15-9 * Aryeh Carmell (December 1986). _Aiding Talmud
Talmud
study_. Feldheim Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87306-428-6 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. (includes Samuel ha-Nagid's _Mevo ha-Talmud_, see next section) * Zvi Hirsch Chajes _Mevo Hatalmud_, transl. Jacob
Jacob
Shachter: _The Students' Guide Through The Talmud_ (Yashar Books, 2005). ISBN 1-933143-05-3 * Dan Cohn-Sherbok (1994). _ Judaism
Judaism
and other faiths_. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-10384-2 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. * Fraade, Steven D, "Navigating the Anomalous: Non- Jews
Jews
at the Intersection of Early Rabbinic Law and Narrative", in Laurence Jay Silberstein; Robert L. Cohn (1 August 1994). _The Other in Jewish thought and history: constructions of Jewish culture and identity_. NYU Press. pp. 145–165. ISBN 978-0-8147-7990-3 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. * R. Travers Herford (15 February 2007). _ Christianity
Christianity
in Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash_. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 978-0-88125-930-8 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. * D. Landesman _A Practical Guide to Torah
Torah
Learning_ (Jason Aronson , 1995). ISBN 1-56821-320-4 * Emmanuel Lévinas ; Annette Aronowicz (February 1994). _Nine Talmudic readings_. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-20876-7 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. * Levy, Richard S., _Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution, Volume 2_, ABC-CLIO, 2005. See articles: " Talmud
Talmud
Trials", "Entdecktes Judenthum", " The Talmud
The Talmud
Jew", "David Duke", "August Rohling", and "Johannes Pfefferkorn". * Hyam Maccoby ; Jehiel ben Joseph (of Paris) (1993). _ Judaism
Judaism
on trial: Jewish-Christian disputations in the Middle Ages_. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-1-874774-16-7 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. A compendium of primary source materials, with commentary. * Maimonides
Maimonides
_Introduction to the Mishneh Torah
Torah
_ (English translation) * Maimonides
Maimonides
_Introduction to the Commentary on the Mishnah
Mishnah
_ (Hebrew Fulltext), transl. Zvi Lampel (Judaica Press, 1998). ISBN 1-880582-28-7 * Aaron
Aaron
Parry _The Complete Idiot's Guide to The Talmud_ (Alpha Books, 2004). ISBN 1-59257-202-2 * Rodkinson, Michael Levi , _The history of the Talmud
Talmud
from the time of its formation, about 200 B.C., up to the present time_, The Talmud Society, 1918 * Jonathan Rosen (25 October 2001). _ The Talmud
The Talmud
and the Internet: A Journey Between Worlds_. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-5534-5 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. * Adin Steinsaltz (11 September 2006). _The essential Talmud_. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-08273-5 . Retrieved 29 August 2011. Read more here. See also here. * Adin Steinsaltz _The Talmud: A Reference Guide_ (Random House, 1996). ISBN 0-679-77367-3

LOGIC AND METHODOLOGY

* Samuel ha-Nagid , _Mevo ha-Talmud_ * Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin , _Mevo ha-Talmud_ * Zerachiah Halevi , _Sefer ha-Tzava_ * Samson of Chinon , _Sefer ha-Keritut_ * Jacob
Jacob
Hagiz , _Teḥillat Ḥochmah_ (included in most editions of _Keritut_) * collective, ed. Abraham
Abraham
ibn Akra , _Meharere Nemarim_ * Joseph ibn Verga , _She\'erit Yosef_ * Isaac
Isaac
Campanton , _Darche ha-Talmud_ * David
David
ben Solomon
Solomon
ibn Abi Zimra , _Kelale ha-Gemara_ * Bezalel Ashkenazi , _Kelale ha-Gemara_

* Yeshu’ah b. Yosef ha-Levi, _Halichot Olam_

* Joseph Caro , _Kelale ha-Gemara_ (commentary on _Halichot Olam_) * Solomon
Solomon
Algazi, _Yavin Shemu’ah_ (commentary on _Halichot Olam_)

* Yisrael Ya'akov Algazi, _Ar\'a de-Rabbanan_ * Serillo, Samuel, _Kelale Shemuel_ * Horowitz, Isaiah , _Shene Luchot ha-Berit_ (section on _Torah she-be-al-Pe_)

* Moses
Moses
Chaim Luzzatto , _Derech Tevunot_, translated into English as _The Ways of Reason_, Feldheim 1988, ISBN 978-0-87306-495-8

* same, _Sefer ha-Higgayon_, translated into English as _The Book of Logic_, Feldheim 1995, ISBN 978-0-87306-707-2

* de Oliveira, Solomon, _Darche Noam_ * Malachi ha-Cohen, _ Yad
Yad
Malachi_ * Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller , _Shev Shema\'tata _ * Goitein, B., _Kesef Nivhar_ * Ezechia Bolaffi, _Ben Zekunim_ vol. 1 * Moshe Amiel, _Ha-Middot le-Ḥeqer ha-Halachah_, vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3

MODERN SCHOLARLY WORKS

* Hanoch Albeck, _Mavo la-talmudim_ * Daniel Boyarin , _Sephardi Speculation: A Study in Methods of Talmudic Interpretation_ (Hebrew), Machon Ben Zvi: Jerusalem, 1989 * Yaakov Elman, "Order, Sequence, and Selection: The Mishnah’s Anthological Choices,” in David
David
Stern, ed. _The Anthology in Jewish Literature_ (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) 53-80 * Y. N. Epstein, _Mevo-ot le-Sifrut haTalmudim_ * David
David
Weiss Halivni , _Mekorot u-Mesorot_ (Jerusalem: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1982 on) * Louis Jacobs , "How Much of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
is Pseudepigraphic?" Journal of Jewish Studies 28, No. 1 (1977), pp. 46–59 * Saul Lieberman , _Hellenism in Jewish Palestine_ (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1950) * Moses
Moses
Mielziner , _Introduction to the Talmud_: repr. 1997, hardback ISBN 978-0-8197-0156-5 , paperback ISBN 978-0-8197-0015-5 * Jacob
Jacob
Neusner , _Sources and Traditions: Types of Compositions in the Talmud
Talmud
of Babylonia_ (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992). * Aviram Ravitzky, _Aristotelian Logic and Talmudic Methodology_ (Hebrew): Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009, ISBN 978-965-493-459-6 * Andrew Schumann, _Talmudic Logic_: (London: College Publications 2012), ISBN 978-1-84890-072-1 * Strack, Herman L. and Stemberger, Gunter, _Introduction to the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash_, tr. Markus Bockmuehl: repr. 1992, hardback ISBN 978-0-567-09509-1 , paperback ISBN 978-0-8006-2524-5

On Individual Tractates

* Moshe Benovitz, Berakhot chapter 1: _Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud_ (Hebrew, with English summary) * Stephen Wald, Shabbat chapter 7: _Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud_ (Hebrew, with English summary) * Aviad Stollman, Eruvin chapter 10: _Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud_ (Hebrew, with English summary) * Aaron
Aaron
Amit, Pesachim chapter 4: _Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud_ (Hebrew, with English summary) * Netanel Baadani, Sanhedrin chapter 5: _Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud_ (Hebrew, with English summary) * Moshe Benovitz, Sukkah chapters 4-5: _Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud_ (Hebrew, with English summary)

HISTORICAL STUDY

* Shalom Carmy (ed.) _Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations_ Jason Aronson, Inc. * Richard Kalmin _Sages, Stories, Authors and Editors in Rabbinic Babylonia_ Brown Judaic Studies * David
David
C. Kraemer, _On the Reliability of Attributions in the Babylonian Talmud,_ Hebrew Union College Annual 60 (1989), pp. 175–90 * Lee Levine, _Ma'amad ha-Hakhamim be-Eretz Yisrael_ (Jerusalem: Yad Yizhak Ben-Zvi, 1985), (=The Rabbinic Class of Roman Palestine in Late Antiquity) * Saul Lieberman , _Hellenism in Jewish Palestine_ (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1950) * John W. McGinley, '_The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly_. ISBN 0-595-40488-X * David
David
Bigman, Finding A Home for Critical Talmud
Talmud
Study

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikisource has original text related to this article: TALMUD

Wikiquote has quotations related to: TALMUD _

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to BABYLONIAN TALMUD _.

GENERAL

* Talmud, jewishencyclopedia.com * Talmud
Talmud
Commentaries, jewishencyclopedia.com * Jewish History: Talmud, aish.com * Talmud/Mishnah/Gemara, jewishvirtuallibrary.org * Jewish Law Research Guide, University of Miami Law Library * A survey of

.