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Coleoptera
See subgroups of the order Coleoptera BEETLES are a group of insects that form the order COLEOPTERA, in the superorder Endopterygota
Endopterygota
. Their front pair of wings is hardened into wing-cases, elytra , distinguishing them from most other insects. The Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting almost 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms; new species are discovered frequently. The largest of all families , the Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(weevils) with some 70,000 member species, belongs to this order. They are found in almost every habitat except the sea and the polar regions . They interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles often feed on plants and fungi , break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates
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Invertebrate
INVERTEBRATES are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord . This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata . Familiar examples of invertebrates include insects ; crabs, lobsters and their kin ; snails, clams, octopuses and their kin ; starfish, sea-urchins and their kin ; jellyfish , and worms . The majority of animal species are invertebrates; one estimate puts the figure at 97%. Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata. Some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the term "invertebrate" paraphyletic and hence almost meaningless for taxonomic purposes
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Polar Region
The POLAR REGIONS OF EARTH, also known as Earth
Earth
's FRIGID ZONES , are the regions of Earth
Earth
surrounding its geographical poles (the North and South Poles ). These regions are dominated by Earth's polar ice caps , the northern resting on the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
and the southern on the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica

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Fungus
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina
Agaricomycotina
Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla incertae sedis Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals
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Taxonomic Rank
In biological classification , TAXONOMIC RANK is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon ) in a taxonomic hierarchy . Examples of taxonomic ranks are species , genus , family , order , class , phylum , kingdom , domain , etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two. Consider a particular species, the red fox , Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: its next rank, the genus Vulpes
Vulpes
, comprises all the 'true foxes'
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Scale Insect
The SCALE INSECTS are small insects of the order Hemiptera , suborder Sternorrhyncha . They comprise the superfamily COCCOIDEA, previously placed in the now obsolete group called " Homoptera ". There are about 8,000 described species of scale insects. Armored scale insects:(A) Lepidosaphes gloverii, adult females. (B) Parlatoria oleae, adult females (circular, with dark spot) and immatures (oblong). (C) Diaspidiotus juglansregiae, adult female walnut scale with waxy scale cover removed
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Suborder (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Aphid
APHIDS, also known as PLANT LICE and in Britain and the Commonwealth as GREENFLIES, BLACKFLIES, or WHITEFLIES (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice " or true whiteflies ), are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily APHIDOIDEA. Many species are green but other commonly occurring species may be white and wooly , brown, or black . Aphids are among the most destructive insect pests on cultivated plants in temperate regions. They are capable of extremely rapid increase in numbers by asexual reproduction . The damage they do to plants has made them enemies of farmers and gardeners around the world. From a zoological standpoint they are a highly successful group of organisms. About 4,400 species are known, all included in the family Aphididae. Around 250 species are serious pests for agriculture and forestry as well as an annoyance for gardeners . They vary in length from 1 to 10 millimetres (0.04 to 0.39 in)
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Volkswagen Beetle
The VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE – officially the VOLKSWAGEN TYPE 1, informally in Germany
Germany
the KäFER (German, "beetle") and in parts of the English-speaking world the BUG – is a two-door, four-passenger, rear-engine economy car that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen
Volkswagen
(VW) from 1938 until 2003. The need for this kind of car, and its functional objectives, was formulated by the leader of Nazi Germany
Germany
, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
, who wanted a cheap, simple car to be mass-produced for his country's new road network . Hitler contracted Ferdinand Porsche in 1934 to design and build it. Porsche and his team took until 1938 to finalise the design. The influence on Porsche's design of other contemporary cars, such as the Tatra V570 and the work of Josef Ganz remains a subject of dispute
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Exoskeleton
An EXOSKELETON (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton" ) is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton ) of, for example, a human . In usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "SHELLS ". Examples of animals with exoskeletons include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches , and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters . The shells of certain sponges and the various groups of shelled molluscs, including those of snails , clams , tusk shells , chitons and nautilus , are also exoskeletons. Some animals, such as the tortoise , have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton
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Holocene
? Preboreal (10.3–9 ka ) Boreal (9–7.5 ka ) Atlantic (7.5 –5 ka ) Subboreal (5 –2.5 ka ) Subatlantic (2.5 ka –present) Holocene
Holocene
Epoch This box: * view * talk * edit ↑ Pleistocene HoloceneThe HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the current geological epoch . It began after the Pleistocene , approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) (informally UPPER TERTIARY or LATE TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene
Pliocene
. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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Ordovician
The ORDOVICIAN ( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/ ) is a geologic period and system , the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era . The Ordovician
Ordovician
spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya. The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices , was defined by Charles Lapworth in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
and Roderick Murchison , who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian systems, respectively. Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian
Silurian
systems, and placed them in a system of their own
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