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Bostrichiformia Cucujiformia Elateriformia Scarabaeiformia Staphyliniformia

Polyphaga
Polyphaga
is the largest and most diverse suborder of beetles. It comprises 144 families in 16 superfamilies, and displays an enormous variety of specialization and adaptation, with over 300,000 described species, or approximately 90% of the beetle species so far discovered. Key characteristics of Polyphaga
Polyphaga
are that the hind coxa (base of the leg), does not divide the first and second abdominal/ventral plates which are known as sternites. Also, the notopleural suture (found under the pronotal shield) is not present.[1]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Classification 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of polyphaga is derived from two Greek words: poly-, meaning 'many', and phagein, meaning 'to eat', so the suborder is called the “eaters of many things”. Classification[edit] The five infraorders are:

Bostrichiformia
Bostrichiformia
— including furniture beetles and skin beetles Cucujiformia
Cucujiformia
— includes lady beetles, longhorn beetles, weevils, checkered beetles and leaf beetles Elateriformia
Elateriformia
— includes click beetles and fireflies Scarabaeiformia
Scarabaeiformia
— includes scarab beetles, stag beetles, and dung beetles Staphyliniformia
Staphyliniformia
— includes rove beetles and water scavenger beetles

The internal classification of Polyphaga
Polyphaga
involves several superfamilies or series, whose constituents are relatively stable, although some smaller families (whose rank even is disputed) are allocated to different clades by different authors. Large superfamilies include Hydrophiloidea, Staphylinoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Buprestoidea, Byrrhoidea, Elateroidea, and Bostrichoidea. The infraorder Cucujiformia
Cucujiformia
includes the vast majority of phytophagous (plant-eating) beetles, united by cryptonephric Malpighian tubules of the normal type, a cone ommatidium with open rhabdom, and lack of functional spiracles on the eighth abdominal segment. Constituent superfamilies of Cucujiformia
Cucujiformia
are Cleroidea, Cucujoidea, Tenebrionoidea, Chrysomeloidea, and Curculionoidea. Evidently adoption of a phytophagous lifestyle correlates with taxon diversity in beetles, with Cucujiformia, especially weevils (Curculionoidea), forming a major radiation. See also[edit]

List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera

References[edit]

^ Johnson, Norman F.; Triplehorn, Charles A. (2004). Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects (7th ed.). Belmont: Brooks/Cole. pp. 365–400, 428–429. ISBN 0-03-096835-6. 

Peter S. Cranston and Penny J. Gullan, University of California,Phylogeny of Insects, page 893.

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Polyphaga
Polyphaga
(Coleoptera)

Phylogeny of Insects Site devoted to Staphyliniformia Project devoted to studying rove beetles Image of a click beetle site devoted to stag beetles news article highlighting the damage caused by Longhorn beetles

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Extant Coleoptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder
Suborder
Archostemata

Crowsoniellidae (Crowsoniella relicta) Cupedidae
Cupedidae
(reticulated beetles) Jurodidae (Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae) Micromalthidae (telephone-pole beetle) Ommatidae

Suborder
Suborder
Adephaga

Extant families

Amphizoidae (trout-stream beetles) Aspidytidae Carabidae (ground beetles) Dytiscidae
Dytiscidae
(predaceous diving beetles) Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) Haliplidae
Haliplidae
(crawling water beetles) Hygrobiidae Meruidae (Meru phyllisae) Noteridae
Noteridae
(burrowing water beetles) Rhysodidae
Rhysodidae
(wrinkled bark beetles) Trachypachidae
Trachypachidae
(false ground beetles)

Suborder
Suborder
Myxophaga

Hydroscaphidae
Hydroscaphidae
(skiff beetles) Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae

Suborder
Suborder
Polyphaga

Bostrichiformia

Bostrichoidea

Anobiidae
Anobiidae
(furniture beetles, death watch beetles, spider beetles) Bostrichidae
Bostrichidae
(auger beetles) Dermestidae
Dermestidae
(skin beetles) Jacobsoniidae
Jacobsoniidae
(Jacobson's beetles) Nosodendridae
Nosodendridae
(wounded-tree beetles)

Derodontoidea

Derodontidae
Derodontidae
(tooth-necked fungus beetles)

Cucujiformia

Chrysomeloidea

Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) Disteniidae Megalopodidae Orsodacnidae Oxypeltidae Vesperidae

Cleroidea

Acanthocnemidae (Acanthocnemus nigricans) Chaetosomatidae Cleridae
Cleridae
(checkered beetles) Melyridae
Melyridae
(soft-wing flower beetles) Phloiophilidae (Phloiophilus edwardsi) Phycosecidae Prionoceridae Trogossitidae
Trogossitidae
(bark-gnawing beetles)

Cucujoidea

Alexiidae Biphyllidae
Biphyllidae
(false skin beetles) Boganiidae Bothrideridae
Bothrideridae
(dry bark beetles) Byturidae
Byturidae
(fruitworm beetles) Cavognathidae Cerylonidae
Cerylonidae
(minute bark beetles) Coccinellidae
Coccinellidae
(lady beetles, or God's cows) Corylophidae
Corylophidae
(minute fungus beetles) Cryptophagidae
Cryptophagidae
(silken fungus beetles) Cucujidae
Cucujidae
(flat bark beetles) Cyclaxyridae Discolomatidae Endomychidae
Endomychidae
(handsome fungus beetles) Erotylidae
Erotylidae
(pleasing fungus beetles) Helotidae Hobartiidae Kateretidae
Kateretidae
(short-winged flower beetles) Laemophloeidae
Laemophloeidae
(lined flat bark beetles) Lamingtoniidae (Lamingtonium binnaberrense) Latridiidae
Latridiidae
(minute brown scavenger beetles) Monotomidae (root-eating beetles) Myraboliidae Nitidulidae (sap beetles) Passandridae
Passandridae
(parasitic flat bark beetles) Phalacridae
Phalacridae
(shining flower beetles) Phloeostichidae Propalticidae Protocucujidae Silvanidae
Silvanidae
(silvanid flat bark beetles) Smicripidae (palmetto beetles) Sphindidae
Sphindidae
(dry-fungus beetles)

Curculionoidea (weevils)

Anthribidae
Anthribidae
(fungus weevils) Attelabidae
Attelabidae
(leaf-rolling weevils) Belidae
Belidae
(primitive weevils) Brentidae
Brentidae
(straight snout weevils, New York weevil) Caridae Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(true weevils, bark beetles, ambrosia beetles) Nemonychidae
Nemonychidae
(pine flower weevils)

Lymexyloidea

Lymexylidae
Lymexylidae
(ship-timber beetles)

Tenebrionoidea

Aderidae
Aderidae
(ant-like leaf beetles) Anthicidae
Anthicidae
(ant-like flower beetles) Archeocrypticidae (cryptic fungus beetles) Boridae
Boridae
(conifer bark beetles) Chalcodryidae Ciidae
Ciidae
(minute tree-fungus beetles) Melandryidae
Melandryidae
(false darkling beetles) Meloidae (blister beetles) Mordellidae
Mordellidae
(tumbling flower beetles) Mycetophagidae
Mycetophagidae
(hairy fungus beetles) Mycteridae (palm and flower beetles) Oedemeridae
Oedemeridae
(false blister beetle) Perimylopidae, or Promecheilidae Prostomidae
Prostomidae
(jugular-horned beetles) Pterogeniidae Pyrochroidae (fire-coloured beetles) Pythidae
Pythidae
(dead log bark beetles) Ripiphoridae
Ripiphoridae
(wedge-shaped beetles) Salpingidae
Salpingidae
(narrow-waisted bark beetles) Scraptiidae
Scraptiidae
(false flower beetles) Stenotrachelidae
Stenotrachelidae
(false longhorn beetles) Synchroidae
Synchroidae
(synchroa bark beetles) Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles) Tetratomidae (polypore fungus beetles) Trachelostenidae Trictenotomidae Ulodidae Zopheridae
Zopheridae
(ironclad beetles, cylindrical bark beetles)

Elateriformia

Buprestoidea

Buprestidae
Buprestidae
(jewel beetles, or metallic wood-boring beetles) Schizopodidae

Byrrhoidea

Byrrhidae
Byrrhidae
(pill beetles) Callirhipidae (cedar beetles) Chelonariidae (turtle beetles) Cneoglossidae Dryopidae
Dryopidae
(long-toed water beetles) Elmidae
Elmidae
(riffle beetles) Eulichadidae (forest stream beetles) Heteroceridae
Heteroceridae
(variegated mud-loving beetles) Limnichidae (minute mud beetles) Lutrochidae (travertine beetles) Psephenidae (water-penny beetles) Ptilodactylidae

Dascilloidea

Dascillidae (soft bodied plant beetles) Rhipiceridae
Rhipiceridae
(cicada beetle, cicada parasite beetles)

Elateroidea

Anischiidae Artematopodidae
Artematopodidae
(soft-bodied plant beetles) Brachypsectridae (Texas beetles) Cantharidae (soldier beetles) Cerophytidae (rare click beetles) Drilidae Elateridae (click beetles) Eucnemidae
Eucnemidae
(false click beetles) Lampyridae (fireflies) Lycidae
Lycidae
(net-winged beetles) Omalisidae Omethidae
Omethidae
(false fireflies) Phengodidae
Phengodidae
(glowworm beetles, long-lipped beetles) Plastoceridae (Plastocerus angulosus) Podabrocephalidae Rhagophthalmidae Rhinorhipidae (Rhinorhipus tamborinensis) Throscidae (false metallic wood-boring beetles)

Scirtoidea

Clambidae Decliniidae (Declinia relicta) Eucinetidae
Eucinetidae
(plate-thigh beetles) Scirtidae

Scarabaeiformia

Scarabaeoidea

Belohinidae ( Belohina inexpectata) Bolboceratidae Ceratocanthidae Diphyllostomatidae (false stag beetles) Geotrupidae
Geotrupidae
(dor beetles) Glaphyridae
Glaphyridae
(bumble bee scarab beetles) Glaresidae (enigmatic scarab beetles) Hybosoridae
Hybosoridae
(scavenger scarab beetles) Lucanidae (stag beetles) Ochodaeidae
Ochodaeidae
(sand-loving scarab beetles) Passalidae
Passalidae
(betsy beetles) Pleocomidae (rain beetles) Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
(scarabs) Trogidae
Trogidae
(hide beetles)

Staphyliniformia

Histeroidea

Histeridae
Histeridae
(clown beetles) Sphaeritidae (false clown beetles) Synteliidae

Hydrophiloidea

Epimetopidae Georissidae (minute mud-loving beetles) Helophoridae Hydrochidae Hydrophilidae
Hydrophilidae
(water scavenger beetles) Spercheidae

Staphylinoidea

Agyrtidae
Agyrtidae
(primitive carrion beetles) Hydraenidae Leiodidae
Leiodidae
(round fungus beetles) Ptiliidae
Ptiliidae
(feather-winged beetles) Scydmaenidae
Scydmaenidae
(ant-like stone beetles) Silphidae
Silphidae
(carrion beetles) Staphylinidae (rove beetles)

List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q147877 ADW: Polyphaga BugGuide: 40606 EoL: 8914097 Fauna Europaea: 11014 Fossilworks: 69199 ITIS: 112747 NCBI: 41084

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