HOME
The Info List - Dynastinae


--- Advertisement ---



6-8, see text

Oryctes
Oryctes
nasicornis

Dynastinae
Dynastinae
or rhinoceros beetles are a subfamily of the scarab beetle family (Scarabaeidae). Other common names – some for particular groups of rhinoceros beetles – include Hercules beetles, unicorn beetles or horn beetles. Over 300 species of rhinoceros beetles are known. Many rhinoceros beetles are well known for their unique shapes and large sizes. Some famous species are, for example, the Atlas beetle ( Chalcosoma
Chalcosoma
atlas), common rhinoceros beetle ( Xylotrupes ulysses), elephant beetle ( Megasoma
Megasoma
elephas), European rhinoceros beetle ( Oryctes
Oryctes
nasicornis), Hercules beetle
Hercules beetle
( Dynastes
Dynastes
hercules), Japanese rhinoceros beetle or kabutomushi ( Allomyrina
Allomyrina
dichotoma), ox beetle (Strategus aloeus) and the Eastern Hercules beetle
Hercules beetle
( Dynastes
Dynastes
tityus).

Contents

1 Description and ecology 2 Use by humans 3 Tribes, with selected genera and species 4 Notes 5 Further reading 6 External links

Description and ecology[edit]

Oryctes
Oryctes
rhinoceros[verification needed] (Oryctes) – three stages from larva to adult: Larva
Larva
(back), pupa (center), imago (front)

The Dynastinae
Dynastinae
are among the largest of beetles, reaching more than 150 mm (6 in) in length, but are completely harmless to humans because they cannot bite or sting. Some species have been anecdotally claimed to lift up to 850 times their own weight.[1] Their common names refer to the characteristic horns borne only by the males of most species in the group. Each has a horn on the head and another horn pointing forward from the center of the thorax. The horns are used in fighting other males during mating season, and for digging. The size of the horn is a good indicator of nutrition and physical health.[2] The body of an adult rhinoceros beetle is covered by a thick exoskeleton. A pair of thick wings lie atop another set of membranous wings underneath, allowing the rhinoceros beetle to fly, although not very efficiently, owing to its large size. Their best protection from predators is their size and stature. Additionally, since they are nocturnal, they avoid many of their predators during the day. When the sun is out, they hide under logs or in vegetation to camouflage themselves from the few predators big enough to want to eat them. If rhinoceros beetles are disturbed, some can release very loud, hissing squeaks. The hissing squeaks are created by rubbing their abdomens against the ends of their wing covers. Rhinoceros beetles are relatively resilient; a healthy adult male can live up to 2–3 years. The females rarely live long after they mate.[citation needed] These beetles' larval stages can be several years long. The larvae feed on rotten wood and the adults feed on nectar, plant sap and fruit. First, the larvae hatch from eggs and later develop into pupae before they reach adult status (see picture at left). The females lay 50 eggs on average. Contrary to what their size may imply, adult rhinoceros beetles do not eat large amounts, unlike their larvae, which eat a significant amount of rotting wood Use by humans[edit] Rhinoceros beetles have become popular pets in parts of Asia,[3] due to being relatively clean, easy to maintain, and safe to handle. Also in Asia, male beetles are used for gambling fights.[4] Since males naturally have the tendency to fight each other for the attention of females, they are the ones used for battle. To get the two male beetles to lock in combat, a female beetle is used, or a small noisemaker duplicating the female's mating call. Entomologist Séverin Tchibozo suggests the larvae contain much more protein (40%), than chicken (20%) and beef (approximately 18%) and they could become a protein source for a large human population.[5] In fact, they are used as such in most of the world, with the exception of industrialized countries. Some species can become major pests, e.g., in tree plantations. Usually though, beetle population densities are not as high as in some other pest insects, and food trees which are typically already sick or dying from some other cause are preferred. Some species' larvae, however, will attack healthy trees or even root vegetables, and when they occur in large numbers, can cause economically significant damage. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
Metarhizium anisopliae
is a proven biocontrol agent for beetle infestation in crops. Dr. MinJun Kim, leading a team of engineers in National Science Foundation-funded research, examined the function and aerodynamics of the Allomyrina
Allomyrina
dichotoma beetle, with the help of researchers in Drexel University's Mechanical Engineering Department and in collaboration with Konkuk University
Konkuk University
in South Korea. Rhinoceros beetles could play a big part in the next generation of aircraft design.[6] Tribes, with selected genera and species[edit]

Eupatorus gracilicornis
Eupatorus gracilicornis
(Dynastini)

Pentodon idiota (Pentodontini)

Xylotrupes sp. - From Kerala, India

Xylotrupes sp. - From Kerala, India

Agaocephalini Burmeister, 1847 (disputed)

Aegopsis Agaocephala

Cyclocephalini Laporte, 1840

Cyclocephala

Dynastini MacLeay, 1819

Allomyrina
Allomyrina
Arrow, 1911 (including Trypoxylus)

Allomyrina
Allomyrina
dichotoma – Japanese rhinoceros beetle

Chalcosoma
Chalcosoma
Hope, 1837

Chalcosoma
Chalcosoma
atlas – Atlas beetle Chalcosoma
Chalcosoma
moellenkampi - Moellenkampi beetle Chalcosoma
Chalcosoma
caucasus - Caucasus beetle

Dynastes
Dynastes
Kirby, 1825

Dynastes
Dynastes
hercules - Hercules beetle

Eupatorus
Eupatorus
Burmeister, 1847

Eupatorus gracilicornis
Eupatorus gracilicornis
- five-horned rhinoceros beetle Eupatorus
Eupatorus
siamensis - Siamese eupatorus beetle

Megasoma
Megasoma
Kirby, 1825

Megasoma
Megasoma
mars

Xylotrupes Hope, 1837

Xylotrupes gideon - Siamese rhinoceros beetle Xylotrupes ulysses

Hexodontini (disputed)

Hexodon Hyboschema

Oryctini Mulsant, 1842

Coelosis Hope, 1837 Enema Hope,1837 Heterogomphus Burmeister, 1847 Megaceras Hope, 1837

Megaceras briansaltini

Oryctes
Oryctes
Illiger, 1798

Oryctes nasicornis
Oryctes nasicornis
– European rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros
Oryctes rhinoceros
– Asiatic rhinoceros beetle

Strategus Hope, 1837

Strategus aloeus
Strategus aloeus
– ox beetle

Trichogomphus Burmeister, 1847

Oryctoderini

Chalcocrates Oryctoderus

Pentodontini Mulsant, 1842

Bothynus Hope, 1837 Pentodon Hope, 1837 Pericoptus Burmeister, 1847 Thronistes Burmeister, 1847 Tomarus
Tomarus
Erichson, 1847

Phileurini Burmeister, 1847

Homophileurus Kolbe, 1910 Phileurus Latreille, 1807

Notes[edit]

^ Rodger Kram: Inexpensive Load Carrying By Rhinoceros Beetles. The Journal of Experimental Biology 199, 609–612 (1996) ^ "Why horn size matters when picking a mate". New Scientist.  ^ "WHO? KNEW" (May 6, 2005) Current Science Vol.90 No.16 ^ Rhinoceros beetle
Rhinoceros beetle
gambling in Thailand ^ Global Steak - Demain nos enfants mangeront des criquets (2010 French documentary) ^ "Engineers Unlock Secrets of Beetle
Beetle
Flight" (news story). ScienceDaily. April 11, 2012. ScienceDaily (Apr. 10, 2012) — Rhinoceros beetles could play a big part.... 

Further reading[edit]

Endrödi S. 1985. The Dynastinae
Dynastinae
of the World. Dr. W. Junk Publishers Dechambre (R.-P.) & Lachaume (G.) The Beetles of the World, volume 27, The genus Oryctes
Oryctes
(Dynastidae), Hillside Books, Canterbury [1]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dynastinae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Dynastinae

Family SCARABAEIDAE Subfamily
Subfamily
Dynastinae Voila French site on Dynastinae, illustrated.

v t e

Insects in culture

Aspects of insects in culture

In the arts

Insects in art

Beetlewing John Hampson

Insects in film Insects in literature Insects in music

List of insect-inspired songs

Insects on stamps

In fishing

Fishing bait Fly fishing Artificial fly Fly tying Maggot Mayfly Mealworm

In medicine

Apitherapy

Apitoxin Melittin

Maggot Spanish fly

Cantharidin

In mythology

Bee Butterfly Cicada Dragonfly Praying mantis Scarab

Entomophagy (as food)

Adults

Ant Cicada Cricket Grasshopper Termite

Larvae

Bamboo worm Darkling beetle Mealworm Mopani worm Rhinoceros beetle Silkworm Waxworm Witchetty grub

Other aspects

Biomimicry Cricket fighting Entomological warfare Flea
Flea
circus Insects in religion Jingzhe

Economic entomology

Beneficial insects

Pest control

Encarsia formosa Ichneumon wasp Ladybird

Pollination

Bees

crops pollinated Bumblebee Honey
Honey
bee

western

Beetles Flies Lepidoptera

Products

Beekeeping

Bee
Bee
pollen Beeswax Honey Propolis Royal jelly

Other insects

Carmine/Cochineal

Polish

Chitin Kermes Sericulture

Silk

Lac/Shellac

Model organism

Drosophila melanogaster

Harmful insects

Crop pests

Aphid Boll weevil Colorado potato beetle Cottony cushion scale Japanese beetle Locust Phylloxera Western corn rootworm

Livestock pests

Botfly Horn fly Horse-fly Screwworm fly Tsetse fly Warble fly

Biting/stinging

Insect
Insect
bites and stings Insect
Insect
sting allergy Bed bug Bee
Bee
sting Flea Horse-fly Louse Mosquito Wasp

Wood-eating

Deathwatch beetle Furniture beetle House longhorn beetle Termite Woodworm

Other pests

Home-stored product entomology Clothes moth Cockroach Housefly

Pioneers

Jan Swammerdam Alfred Russel Wallace Jean-Henri Fabre Hans Zinsser
Hans Zinsser
(Rats, Lice and History) Lafcadio Hearn
Lafcadio Hearn
( Insect
Insect
Literature)

Related

Living things in culture

Arthropods Birds Fish Fungi Mammals Microbes Molluscs Reptiles Plants

Zoomusicology

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q641142 BugGuide: 12431 EoL: 2655269 Fauna Europaea: 246911 Fossilworks: 70053 iNaturalist: 136361 ITIS:

.