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Authari
Authari
Authari
(c. 540 – 5 September 590) was king of the Lombards
Lombards
from 584 to his death. Authari
Authari
was the son of Cleph, King of the Lombards. When the latter died in 574, the Lombard nobility refused to appoint a successor, resulting in ten years interregnum known as the Rule of the Dukes. In 574 and 575 the Lombards
Lombards
invaded Provence, then part of the kingdom of Burgundy of the Merovingian
Merovingian
Guntram. The latter, in alliance with his nephew, the king of Austrasia
Austrasia
Childebert II, replied by invading northern Italy. The Austrasian army descended the valley of the Adige and took Trent
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Exarch Of Ravenna
The Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
or of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Esarcato d'Italia) was a region of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.[1] It was one of two exarchates established following the western reconquests under Emperor Justinian to more effectively administrate the territories, along with the Exarchate of Africa.Contents1 Introduction 2 Lombard invasion and Byzantine reaction 3 Exarchate 4 End of the Exarchate 5 Exarchs of Ravenna 6 References 7 SourcesIntroduction[edit] Ravenna
Ravenna
became the capital of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in 402 under Honorius, due to its fine harbour with access to the Adriatic
Adriatic
and its ideal defensive location amidst impassable marshes
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Brenner Pass
Brenner Pass
Brenner Pass
(German: Brennerpass [ˈbʁɛnɐpas]; Italian: Passo del Brennero [ˈpasso del ˈbrɛnnero]) is a mountain pass through the Alps
Alps
which forms the border between Italy
Italy
and Austria. It is one of the principal passes of the Eastern Alpine range and has the lowest altitude among Alpine passes of the area. Dairy cattle graze in alpine pastures throughout the summer in valleys beneath the pass and on the mountains above it
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Brescello
Brescello
Brescello
(Barsèl in the local dialect, Bersèl in the Reggio Emilia dialect) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Emilia in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Bologna
Bologna
and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Reggio Emilia
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Po Valley
The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Italian: Pianura Padana [pjaˈnuːra paˈdaːna], or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy. It extends approximately 650 km (400 mi) in an east-west direction, with an area of 46,000 square kilometres (18,000 sq mi) including its Venetic extension not actually related to the Po river basin; it runs from the Western Alps
Alps
to the Adriatic Sea. The flatlands of Veneto
Veneto
and Friuli
Friuli
are often considered apart since they do not drain into the Po, but they effectively combine into an unbroken plain. The plain is the surface of an in-filled system of ancient canyons (the "Apennine Foredeep") extending from the Apennines
Apennines
in the south to the Alps
Alps
in the north, including the northern Adriatic
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Nuremberg Chronicle
The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible; it includes the histories of a number of important Western cities. Written in Latin
Latin
by Hartmann Schedel, with a version in German, translation by Georg Alt, it appeared in 1493. It is one of the best-documented early printed books—an incunabulum—and one of the first to successfully integrate illustrations and text. Latin
Latin
scholars refer to it as Liber Chronicarum (Book of Chronicles) as this phrase appears in the index introduction of the Latin
Latin
edition. English-speakers have long referred to it as the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Chronicle after the city in which it was published
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Smaragdus
Smaragdus
Smaragdus
was Exarch of Ravenna
Exarch of Ravenna
twice, from 585 to 589 and from 603 to 611. During his first tenure, Smaragdus
Smaragdus
made an alliance with the Franks and Avars against the perennial foes of the Exarchate, the Lombards, and appeared poised to extinguish the Lombard power before it had been fully established. However, the effort came to nothing, for the Franks were not as serious about fighting the Lombards
Lombards
as Smaragdus
Smaragdus
was.[1] One notable military achievement during his first reign was the recovery of Classis, the port of Ravenna, from the Lombards
Lombards
in 588. Smaragdus
Smaragdus
was also known for his violence toward the followers of the schismatic bishops during the schism of the Three Chapters
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Theudebert I
Theudebert I
Theudebert I
(French: Thibert/Théodebert) (c. 503 – 547 or 548) was the Merovingian
Merovingian
king of Austrasia
Austrasia
from 533 to his death in 548. He was the son of Theuderic I and the father of Theudebald. Sources[edit] Most of what we know about Theudebert comes from the Histories or History of the Franks written by Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
in the second half of the sixth century. In addition, we have diplomatic correspondence composed at the Austrasian court (known as the Austrasian Letters), the poems of Venantius Fortunatus, an account from Procopius' work[1] and a small number of other sources. History[edit] During his father's reign, the young Theudebert had shown himself to be an able warrior
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Brunhilda Of Austrasia
Brunhilda[1] (c. 543–613) was a Queen of Austrasia
Austrasia
by marriage to the Merovingian
Merovingian
King Sigebert I
Sigebert I
of Austrasia, part of Francia. In her long and complicated career she ruled the eastern Frankish kingdoms of Austrasia
Austrasia
and Burgundy for three periods as regent for her son Childebert II
Childebert II
from 575 until 583; her grandson Theudebert II
Theudebert II
from 595 until 599; and great-grandson Sigebert in 613. The period was marked by tension between the royal house and the powerful nobles vying for power. Brunhilda was apparently an efficient ruler, but this and her forceful personality brought her into conflict with her nobles, the church, and the other Merovingians
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Mont Cenis
Mont Cenis
Mont Cenis
(Italian: Moncenisio) is a massif (el. 3,612 m / 11,850 ft) and pass (el. 2081 m / 6827 ft) in Savoie (France), which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps.Contents1 Route 2 History 3 Name 4 History 5 Bicycle racing history 6 Points of interest 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksRoute[edit] The pass connects Val-Cenis in France
France
in the northwest with Susa in Italy
Italy
in the southeast. In the Middle Ages, pilgrims passing through Moncenisio and Susa Valley
Susa Valley
came to Turin
Turin
along a road called the Via Francigena, with a final destination of Rome. It was one of the most used Alpine passes from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century
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Milan
Milan
Milan
(/mɪˈlæn, -ˈlɑːn/;[3] Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] ( listen); Lombard: Milan
Milan
[miˈlãː] (Milanese variant))[4][5] is the capital of Lom
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Demesne
In the feudal system, the demesne (/dɪˈmeɪn/ di-MAYN) was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants
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Verona
Verona
Verona
(Italian pronunciation: [veˈroːna] ( listen); Venetian: Verona
Verona
or Veròna) is a city on the Adige
Adige
river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona
Verona
covers an area of 1,426 km2 (550.58 sq mi) and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants.[1] It is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, owing to its artistic heritage, several annual fairs, shows, and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheater built by the Romans. Two of Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
and The Two Gentlemen of Verona
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Poison
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.[1][2] The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin, and from a venom. Toxins are poisons produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to animals). The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. Industry, agriculture, and other sectors employ poisonous substances for reasons other than their toxicity. Most poisonous industrial compounds have associated material safety data sheets and are classed as hazardous substances. Hazardous substances are subject to extensive regulation on production, procurement and use in overlapping domains of occupational safety and health, public health, drinking water quality standards, air pollution and environmental protection
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Padua
Padua
Padua
(/ˈpædjuə/ or US: /ˈpædʒuə/, Italian: Padova [ˈpaːdova] ( listen); Venetian: Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Padua
Padua
and the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000 (as of 2011[update]). The city is sometimes included, with Venice
Venice
(Italian Venezia) and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso- Venice
Venice
Metropolitan Area, which has a population of c. 1,600,000. Padua
Padua
stands on the Bacchiglione
Bacchiglione
River, 40 kilometres (25 miles) west of Venice
Venice
and 29 km (18 miles) southeast of Vicenza. The Brenta River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern districts. Its agricultural setting is the Venetian Plain (Pianura Veneta)
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Ravenna
Ravenna
Ravenna
(Italian pronunciation: [raˈvenna], also locally [raˈvɛnna] ( listen); Romagnol: Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
until the invasion of the Lombards
Lombards
in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although an inland city, Ravenna
Ravenna
is connected to the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by the Candiano Canal
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