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The Lombards
Lombards
or Longobards (Latin: Langobardi, Italian: Longobardi [loŋɡoˈbardi], Lombard: Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
from 568 to 774. The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards
Lombards
descended from a small tribe called the Winnili,[1] who dwelt in southern Scandinavia[2] (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in northwestern Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia
Slovakia
north of the Danube
Danube
river, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids. The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid
Gepid
leader Thurisind
Thurisind
in 551 or 552; his successor Alboin
Alboin
eventually destroyed the Gepids
Gepids
in 567. Following this victory, Alboin
Alboin
decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become severely depopulated and devastated after the long Gothic War (535–554)
Gothic War (535–554)
between the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
there. The Lombards
Lombards
were joined by numerous Saxons, Heruls, Gepids, Bulgars, Thuringians, and Ostrogoths, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered all north of Italy and the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in central Italy and southern Italy. They established a Lombard Kingdom in north and central Italy, later named Regnum Italicum ("Kingdom of Italy"), which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish King Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and integrated into his Empire. However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula, well into the 11th century when they were conquered by the Normans
Normans
and added to their County of Sicily. In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known by the name Langbarðaland (Land of the Lombards) in the Norse runestones.[3] Their legacy is also apparent in the regional name Lombardy
Lombardy
(in the north of Italy).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history

1.1.1 Legendary origins and name 1.1.2 Archaeology and migrations

1.2 Kingdom in Italy, 568–774

1.2.1 Invasion and conquest of the Italian peninsula

1.2.1.1 Langobardia major 1.2.1.2 Langobardia minor

1.2.2 Arian monarchy 1.2.3 Catholic monarchy

1.3 Later history

1.3.1 United Principality of Benevento, 774–849 1.3.2 Southern Italy and the Arabs, 836–915 1.3.3 Lombard principalities in the 10th century 1.3.4 Norman conquest, 1017–1078

2 Culture

2.1 Language 2.2 Social structure

2.2.1 Migration Period
Migration Period
society 2.2.2 Society of the Catholic kingdom 2.2.3 Lombard states

2.3 Religious history

2.3.1 Paganism 2.3.2 Christianisation 2.3.3 Beneventan Christianity

2.4 Art

2.4.1 Architecture

3 List of rulers 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] Legendary origins and name[edit] Further information: Hundings

Wodan
Wodan
(Godan) and Frigg
Frigg
(Frea) looking out of a window in the heavens...

...and spotting the Lombard women with their long hair tied as to appear as beards

Paul the Deacon, historian of the Lombards, circa 720-799

The fullest account of Lombard origins, history, and practices is the Historia Langobardorum
Historia Langobardorum
(History of the Lombards) of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century. Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum
Origo Gentis Langobardorum
(Origin of the Lombard People). The Origo Gentis Langobardorum
Origo Gentis Langobardorum
tells the story of a small tribe called the Winnili[1] dwelling in southern Scandinavia[2] (Scadanan) (the Codex Gothanus writes that the Winnili first dwelt near a river called Vindilicus on the extreme boundary of Gaul).[4] The Winnili were split into three groups and one part left their native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was probably overpopulation.[5] The departing people were led by the brothers Ybor and Aio and their mother Gambara[6][7] and arrived in the lands of Scoringa, perhaps the Baltic coast[8] or the Bardengau on the banks of the Elbe.[9] Scoringa was ruled by the Vandals
Vandals
and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war. The Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying "It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute."[10] The Vandals
Vandals
prepared for war and consulted Godan (the god Odin[2]), who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise.[11] The Winnili were fewer in number[10] and Gambara sought help from Frea (the goddess Frigg[2]), who advised that all Winnili women should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards and march in line with their husbands. At sunrise, Frea turned her husband's bed so that he was facing east, and woke him. So Godan spotted the Winnili first and asked, "Who are these long-beards?," and Frea replied, "My lord, thou hast given them the name, now give them also the victory."[12] From that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the Longbeards (Latinised as Langobardi, Italianised as Longobardi, and Anglicized as Longobards or Lombards). When Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
wrote the Historia between 787 and 796 he was a Catholic monk and devoted Christian. He thought the pagan stories of his people "silly" and "laughable".[11][13] Paul explained that the name "Langobard" came from the length of their beards.[14] A modern theory suggests that the name "Langobard" comes from Langbarðr, a name of Odin.[15] Priester states that when the Winnili changed their name to "Lombards", they also changed their old agricultural fertility cult to a cult of Odin, thus creating a conscious tribal tradition.[16] Fröhlich inverts the order of events in Priester and states that with the Odin
Odin
cult, the Lombards
Lombards
grew their beards in resemblance of the Odin
Odin
of tradition and their new name reflected this.[17] Bruckner remarks that the name of the Lombards
Lombards
stands in close relation to the worship of Odin, whose many names include "the Long-bearded" or "the Grey-bearded", and that the Lombard given name Ansegranus ("he with the beard of the gods") shows that the Lombards had this idea of their chief deity.[18] The same Old Norse
Old Norse
root Barth or Barði, meaning "beard", is shared with the Heaðobards mentioned in both Beowulf
Beowulf
and in Widsith, where they are in conflict with the Danes. They were possibly a branch of the Langobards.[19][20] Alternatively some etymological sources suggest an Old High German root, barta, meaning “axe” (and related to English halberd), while Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
puts forth an alternative suggestion which argues that:

…Börde (or Börd) still signifies “a fertile plain by the side of a river,” and a district near Magdeburg is still called the lange Börde. According to this view Langobardi would signify “inhabitants of the long bord of the river;” and traces of their name are supposed still to occur in such names as Bardengau and Bardewick in the neighborhood of the Elbe.[21]

Alternatively, according to the Gallaecian Christian priest, historian and theologian Paulus Orosius, the Lombards
Lombards
or Winnili lived originally in the Vinuiloth (Vinovilith) mentioned by Jordanes, in his masterpiece Getica, to the north of Uppsala, Sweden. Scoringa was near the province of Uppland, so just north of Östergötland. The historian then explains the etymology of the name Scoringa:

The shores of Uppland
Uppland
and Östergötland
Östergötland
are covered with small rocks and rocky islands, which are called in German Schæren and in Swedish Skiaeren. Heal signifies a port in the northern languages; consequently Skiæren-Heal is the port of the Skiæren, a name well adapted to the port of Stockholm, in the Upplandske Skiæren, and the country may be justly called Scorung or Skiærunga.[22]

The legendary king Sceafa
Sceafa
of Scandza
Scandza
was an ancient Lombardic king in Anglo-Saxon legend. The Old English poem Widsith, in a listing of famous kings and their countries, has Sceafa
Sceafa
[weold] Longbeardum, so naming Sceafa
Sceafa
as ruler of the Lombards.[23] Similarities between Langobardic and Gothic migration traditions have been noted among scholars. These early migration legends suggest that a major shifting of tribes occurred sometime between the 1st and 2nd century BC, which would coincide with the time that the Teutoni
Teutoni
and Cimbri
Cimbri
left their homelands in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and migrated through Germany, eventually invading Roman Italy. Archaeology and migrations[edit]

The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):    Settlements before 750 BC    New settlements by 500 BC    New settlements by 250 BC    New settlements by AD 1

Distribution of Langobardic burial fields at the Lower Elbe
Elbe
Lands (according to W. Wegewitz)

The first mention of the Lombards
Lombards
occurred between AD 9 and 16, by the Roman court historian Velleius Paterculus, who accompanied a Roman expedition as prefect of the cavalry.[24] Paterculus says that under Tiberius
Tiberius
the "power of the Langobardi was broken, a race surpassing even the Germans in savagery".[25] From the combined testimony of Strabo
Strabo
(AD 20) and Tacitus
Tacitus
(AD 117), the Lombards
Lombards
dwelt near the mouth of the Elbe
Elbe
shortly after the beginning of the Christian era, next to the Chauci.[24] Strabo
Strabo
states that the Lombards
Lombards
dwelt on both sides of the Elbe.[24] He treats them as a branch of the Suebi, and states that:

Now as for the tribe of the Suebi, it is the largest, for it extends from the Rhenus to the Albis; and a part of them even dwell on the far side of the Albis, as, for instance, the Hermondori and the Langobardi; and at the present time these latter, at least, have, to the last man, been driven in flight out of their country into the land on the far side of the river.[26]

Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote that Roman general Nero Drusus defeated a large force of Germans and drove some “to the farther side of the Albis (Elbe)” river. It is conceivable that these refugees were the Langobardi and the Hermunduri
Hermunduri
mentioned by Strabo
Strabo
not long after.[27] The German archaeologist Willi Wegewitz defined several Iron Age burial sites at the Lower Elbe
Elbe
as Langobardic.[28] The burial sites are crematorial and are usually dated from the 6th century BC through the 3rd century AD, so a settlement breakoff seems unlikely.[29] The lands of the lower Elbe
Elbe
fall into the zone of the Jastorf Culture
Jastorf Culture
and became Elbe-Germanic, differing from the lands between Rhine, Weser, and the North Sea.[30] Archaeological finds show that the Lombards were an agricultural people.[31] Tacitus
Tacitus
also counted the Lombards
Lombards
as a remote and aggressive Suebian tribe, one of those united in worship of the deity Nerthus, who he referred to as "Mother Earth", and also as subjects of Marobod the King of the Marcomanni.[32] Marobod had made peace with the Romans, and that is why the Lombards
Lombards
were not part of the Germanic confederacy under Arminius
Arminius
at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest
Battle of Teutoburg Forest
in AD 9. In AD 17, war broke out between Arminius
Arminius
and Marobod. Tacitus
Tacitus
records:

Not only the Cheruscans and their confederates... took arms, but the Semnones
Semnones
and Langobards, both Suebian nations, revolted to him from the sovereignty of Marobod... The armies... were stimulated by reasons of their own, the Cheruscans and the Langobards fought for their ancient honor or their newly acquired independence. . . "[32]

In 47, a struggle ensued amongst the Cherusci
Cherusci
and they expelled their new leader, the nephew of Arminius, from their country. The Lombards appeared on the scene with sufficient power to control the destiny of the tribe that had been the leader in the struggle for independence thirty-eight years earlier, for they restored the deposed leader to sovereignty again.[33]

Lombard migration from Scandinavia

To the south, Cassius Dio reported that just before the Marcomannic Wars, 6,000 Lombards
Lombards
and Obii (sometimes thought to be Ubii), crossed the Danube
Danube
and invaded Pannonia.[34] The two tribes were defeated, whereupon they ceased their invasion and sent Ballomar, King of the Marcomanni, as ambassador to Aelius Bassus, who was then administering Pannonia. Peace was made and the two tribes returned to their homes, which in the case of the Lombards
Lombards
was the lands of the lower Elbe.[35] At about this time, in his Germania
Germania
Tacitus
Tacitus
says that "their scanty numbers are a distinction" because "surrounded by a host of most powerful tribes, they are safe, not by submitting, but by daring the perils of war".[36] In the mid-2nd century, the Lombards
Lombards
apparently appeared in the Rhineland, because according to Claudius Ptolemy, the Suebic Lombards lived "below" the Bructeri
Bructeri
and Sugambri, and between these and the Tencteri. To their east stretching northwards to the central Elbe
Elbe
are the Suebi
Suebi
Angili.[37] But Ptolemy also mentions the "Laccobardi" to the north of the above-mentioned Suebic territories, east of the Angrivarii
Angrivarii
on the Weser, and south of the Chauci
Chauci
on the coast, probably indicating a Lombard expansion from the Elbe
Elbe
to the Rhine.[38] This double mention has been interpreted as an editorial error by Gudmund Schütte, in his analysis of Ptolemy.[39] However, the Codex Gothanus also mentions Patespruna (Paderborn) in connection with the Lombards.[40] From the 2nd century onwards, many of the Germanic tribes recorded as active during the Principate
Principate
started to unite into bigger tribal unions, such as the Franks, Alamanni, Bavarii, and Saxons.[41] The Lombards
Lombards
are not mentioned at first, perhaps because they were not initially on the border of Rome, or perhaps because they were subjected to a larger tribal union, like the Saxons.[41] It is, however, highly probable that, when the bulk of the Lombards
Lombards
migrated, a considerable part remained behind and afterwards became absorbed by the Saxon tribes in the Elbe
Elbe
region, while the emigrants alone retained the name of Lombards.[42] However, the Codex Gothanus states that the Lombards
Lombards
were subjected by the Saxons
Saxons
around 300 but rose up against them under their first king, Agelmund, who ruled for 30 years.[43] In the second half of the 4th century, the Lombards
Lombards
left their homes, probably due to bad harvests, and embarked on their migration.[44] The migration route of the Lombards
Lombards
in 489, from their homeland to "Rugiland", encompassed several places: Scoringa (believed to be their land on the Elbe
Elbe
shores), Mauringa, Golanda, Anthaib, Banthaib, and Vurgundaib (Burgundaib).[45] According to the Ravenna
Ravenna
Cosmography, Mauringa was the land east of the Elbe.[46] The crossing into Mauringa was very difficult. The Assipitti (possibly the Usipetes) denied them passage through their lands and a fight was arranged for the strongest man of each tribe. The Lombard was victorious, passage was granted, and the Lombards
Lombards
reached Mauringa.[47] The Lombards
Lombards
departed from Mauringa and reached Golanda. Scholar Ludwig Schmidt thinks this was further east, perhaps on the right bank of the Oder.[48] Schmidt considers the name the equivalent of Gotland, meaning simply "good land."[49] This theory is highly plausible; Paul the Deacon mentions the Lombards
Lombards
crossing a river, and they could have reached Rugiland from the Upper Oder
Oder
area via the Moravian Gate.[50] Moving out of Golanda, the Lombards
Lombards
passed through Anthaib and Banthaib until they reached Vurgundaib, believed to be the old lands of the Burgundes.[51][52] In Vurgundaib, the Lombards
Lombards
were stormed in camp by "Bulgars" (probably Huns)[53] and were defeated; King Agelmund was killed and Laimicho was made king. He was in his youth and desired to avenge the slaughter of Agelmund.[54] The Lombards
Lombards
themselves were probably made subjects of the Huns
Huns
after the defeat but rose up and defeated them with great slaughter,[55] gaining great booty and confidence as they "became bolder in undertaking the toils of war."[56] In the 540s, Audoin (ruled 546–560) led the Lombards
Lombards
across the Danube
Danube
once more into Pannonia, where they received Imperial subsidies as Justinian
Justinian
encouraged them to battle the Gepids. In 552, the Byzantines aided by a large contingent of Foederati, notably Lombards, Heruls
Heruls
and Bulgars, defeated the last Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
led by Teia
Teia
in the Battle of Taginae.[57] Kingdom in Italy, 568–774[edit] Main article: Kingdom of the Lombards Invasion and conquest of the Italian peninsula[edit]

Lombard grave goods (6th-7th century) - Milan, Lombardy

In 560 circa, Audoin was succeeded by his son Alboin, a young and energetic leader who defeated the neighboring Gepidae
Gepidae
and made them his subjects; in 566, he married Rosamund, daughter of the Gepid
Gepid
king Cunimund. In the spring of 568, Alboin
Alboin
led the Lombard migration into Italy:[58]

"Then the Langobards, having left Pannonia, hastened to take possession of Italy with their wives and children and all their goods." B.2-Ch.7

Various other people who either voluntarily joined or were subjects of King Alboin
Alboin
were also part of the migration:[58]

"Whence, even until today, we call the villages in which they dwell Gepidan, Bulgarian, Sarmatian, Pannonian, Suabian, Norican, or by other names of this kind." B.2-Ch.26

At least 20,000 Saxon warriors, old allies of the Lombards, joined them with their families in their new migration.[59] The first important city to fall was Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli) in northeastern Italy, in 569. There, Alboin
Alboin
created the first Lombard duchy, which he entrusted to his nephew Gisulf. Soon Vicenza, Verona and Brescia
Brescia
fell into Germanic hands. In the summer of 569, the Lombards
Lombards
conquered the main Roman centre of northern Italy, Milan. The area was then recovering from the terrible Gothic Wars, and the small Byzantine army left for its defence could do almost nothing. Longinus, the Exarch
Exarch
sent to Italy by Emperor Justin II, could only defend coastal cities that could be supplied by the powerful Byzantine fleet. Pavia
Pavia
fell after a siege of three years, in 572, becoming the first capital city of the new Lombard kingdom of Italy. In the following years, the Lombards
Lombards
penetrated further south, conquering Tuscany
Tuscany
and establishing two duchies, Spoleto
Spoleto
and Benevento under Zotto, which soon became semi-independent and even outlasted the northern kingdom, surviving well into the 12th century. Wherever they went, they were joined by the Ostrogothic population, who was allowed to live peacefully in Italy with their Rugian allies under Roman sovereignty.[60] The Byzantines managed to retain control of the area of Ravenna
Ravenna
and Rome, linked by a thin corridor running through Perugia. When they entered Italy, some Lombards
Lombards
retained their native form of paganism, while some were Arian Christians. Hence they did not enjoy good relations with the Early Christian Church. Gradually, they adopted Roman or Romanized titles, names, and traditions, and partially converted to orthodoxy (in the 7th century), though not without a long series of religious and ethnic conflicts. By the time Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
was writing, the Lombard language, dress and even hairstyles had nearly all disappeared in toto.[61] The whole Lombard territory was divided into 36 duchies, whose leaders settled in the main cities. The king ruled over them and administered the land through emissaries called gastaldi. This subdivision, however, together with the independent indocility of the duchies, deprived the kingdom of unity, making it weak even when compared to the Byzantines, especially since these had begun to recover from the initial invasion. This weakness became even more evident when the Lombards
Lombards
had to face the increasing power of the Franks. In response, the kings tried to centralize power over time, but they definitively lost control over Spoleto
Spoleto
and Benevento
Benevento
in the attempt. Langobardia major[edit]

Duchy of Friuli Duchy of Trent Duchy of Persiceta Duchy of Pavia Duchy of Tuscia

Langobardia minor[edit]

Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
and List of Dukes of Spoleto Duchy of Benevento
Duchy of Benevento
and List of Dukes and Princes of Benevento

Arian monarchy[edit]

The Frankish Merovingian
Merovingian
King Chlothar II
Chlothar II
in combat with the Lombards

In 572, Alboin
Alboin
was murdered in Verona
Verona
in a plot led by his wife, Rosamund, who later fled to Ravenna. His successor, Cleph, was also assassinated, after a ruthless reign of 18 months. His death began an interregnum of years (the "Rule of the Dukes") during which the dukes did not elect any king, a period regarded as a time of violence and disorder. In 584, threatened by a Frankish invasion, the dukes elected as king Cleph's son, Authari. In 589, he married Theodelinda, daughter of Garibald I of Bavaria, the Duke of Bavaria. The Catholic Theodelinda
Theodelinda
was a friend of Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I
and pushed for Christianization. In the meantime, Authari
Authari
embarked on a policy of internal reconciliation and tried to reorganize royal administration. The dukes yielded half their estates for the maintenance of the king and his court in Pavia. On the foreign affairs side, Authari
Authari
managed to thwart the dangerous alliance between the Byzantines and the Franks. Authari
Authari
died in 591 and was succeeded by Agilulf, the duke of Turin, who also married Theodelinda
Theodelinda
in the same year. Agilulf
Agilulf
successfully fought the rebel dukes of northern Italy, conquering Padua
Padua
in 601, Cremona
Cremona
and Mantua
Mantua
in 603, and forcing the Exarch
Exarch
of Ravenna
Ravenna
to pay tribute. Agilulf
Agilulf
died in 616; Theodelinda
Theodelinda
reigned alone until 628 when she was succeeded by Adaloald. Arioald, the head of the Arian opposition who had married Theodelinda's daughter Gundeperga, later deposed Adaloald. Arioald
Arioald
was succeeded by Rothari, regarded by many authorities as the most energetic of all Lombard kings. He extended his dominions, conquering Liguria
Liguria
in 643 and the remaining part of the Byzantine territories of inner Veneto, including the Roman city of Opitergium (Oderzo). Rothari
Rothari
also made the famous edict bearing his name, the Edictum Rothari, which established the laws and the customs of his people in Latin: the edict did not apply to the tributaries of the Lombards, who could retain their own laws. Rothari's son Rodoald succeeded him in 652, still very young, and was killed by his opponents. At the death of King Aripert I
Aripert I
in 661, the kingdom was split between his children Perctarit, who set his capital in Milan, and Godepert, who reigned from Pavia
Pavia
(Ticinum). Perctarit
Perctarit
was overthrown by Grimoald, son of Gisulf, duke of Friuli
Friuli
and Benevento
Benevento
since 647. Perctarit
Perctarit
fled to the Avars and then to the Franks. Grimoald managed to regain control over the duchies and deflected the late attempt of the Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
Constans II to conquer southern Italy. He also defeated the Franks. At Grimoald's death in 671 Perctarit
Perctarit
returned and promoted tolerance between Arians and Catholics, but he could not defeat the Arian party, led by Arachi, duke of Trento, who submitted only to his son, the philo-Catholic Cunincpert. The Lombards
Lombards
engaged in fierce battles with Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
during these years: In 623–26 the Lombards
Lombards
unsuccessfully attacked Carantanians; in 663–64, the Slavs raided the Vipava Valley
Vipava Valley
and the Friuli. Catholic monarchy[edit]

King Liutprand - (712-744) "was a zealous Catholic, generous and a great founder of monasteries"[62]

Religious strife and the Slavic raids remained a source of struggle in the following years. In 705, the Friuli
Friuli
Lombards
Lombards
were defeated and lost the land to the west of the Soča
Soča
River, namely the Gorizia Hills and the Venetian Slovenia.[63] A new ethnic border was established that has lasted for over 1200 years up until the present time.[63][64] The Lombard reign began to recover only with Liutprand the Lombard (king from 712), son of Ansprand
Ansprand
and successor of the brutal Aripert II. He managed to regain a certain control over Spoleto
Spoleto
and Benevento, and, taking advantage of the disagreements between the Pope and Byzantium concerning the reverence of icons, he annexed the Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
and the duchy of Rome. He also helped the Frankish marshal Charles Martel
Charles Martel
drive back the Arabs. The Slavs were defeated in the Battle of Lavariano, when they tried to conquer the Friulian Plain
Friulian Plain
in 720.[63] Liutprand's successor Aistulf
Aistulf
conquered Ravenna
Ravenna
for the Lombards
Lombards
for the first time but had to relinquish it when he was subsequently defeated by the king of the Franks, Pippin III, who was called by the Pope. After the death of Aistulf, Ratchis
Ratchis
attempted to become king of Lombardy, but he was deposed by Desiderius, duke of Tuscany, the last Lombard to rule as king. Desiderius
Desiderius
managed to take Ravenna definitively, ending the Byzantine presence in northern Italy. He decided to reopen struggles against the Pope, who was supporting the dukes of Spoleto
Spoleto
and Benevento
Benevento
against him, and entered Rome
Rome
in 772, the first Lombard king to do so. But when Pope Hadrian I
Pope Hadrian I
called for help from the powerful Frankish king Charlemagne, Desiderius
Desiderius
was defeated at Susa and besieged in Pavia, while his son Adelchis was forced to open the gates of Verona
Verona
to Frankish troops. Desiderius surrendered in 774, and Charlemagne, in an utterly novel decision, took the title "King of the Lombards". Before then the Germanic kingdoms had frequently conquered each other, but none had adopted the title of King of another people. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
took part of the Lombard territory to create the Papal States. The Lombardy
Lombardy
region in Italy, which includes the cities of Brescia, Bergamo, Milan, and the old capital Pavia, is a reminder of the presence of the Lombards. Later history[edit] United Principality of Benevento, 774–849[edit]

Lombard Duchy of Benevento
Duchy of Benevento
in the 8th century

Though the kingdom centred on Pavia
Pavia
in the north fell to Charlemagne, the Lombard-controlled territory to the south of the Papal States
Papal States
was never subjugated by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
or his descendants. In 774, Duke Arechis II of Benevento, whose duchy had only nominally been under royal authority, though certain kings had been effective at making their power known in the south, claimed that Benevento
Benevento
was the successor state of the kingdom. He tried to turn Benevento
Benevento
into a secundum Ticinum: a second Pavia. He tried to claim the kingship, but with no support and no chance of a coronation in Pavia. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
came down with an army, and his son Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
sent men, to force the Beneventan duke to submit, but his submission and promises were never kept and Arechis and his successors were de facto independent. The Beneventan dukes took the title prínceps (prince) instead of that of king. The Lombards
Lombards
of southern Italy were thereafter in the anomalous position of holding land claimed by two empires: the Carolingian Empire to the north and west and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
to the east. They typically made pledges and promises of tribute to the Carolingians, but effectively remained outside Frankish control. Benevento
Benevento
meanwhile grew to its greatest extent yet when it imposed a tribute on the Duchy of Naples, which was tenuously loyal to Byzantium and even conquered the Neapolitan city of Amalfi
Amalfi
in 838. At one point in the reign of Sicard, Lombard control covered most of southern Italy save the very south of Apulia
Apulia
and Calabria
Calabria
and Naples, with its nominally attached cities. It was during the 9th century that a strong Lombard presence became entrenched in formerly Greek Apulia. However, Sicard had opened up the south to the invasive actions of the Saracens in his war with Andrew II of Naples and when he was assassinated in 839, Amalfi
Amalfi
declared independence and two factions fought for power in Benevento, crippling the principality and making it susceptible to external enemies. The civil war lasted ten years and ended with a peace treaty imposed in 849 by Emperor Louis II, the only Frankish king to exercise actual sovereignty over the Lombard states. The treaty divided the kingdom into two states: the Principality of Benevento
Benevento
and the Principality of Salerno, with its capital at Salerno
Salerno
on the Tyrrhenian Sea. Southern Italy and the Arabs, 836–915[edit] Main article: History of Islam in southern Italy Andrew II of Naples hired Saracen mercenaries for his war with Sicard of Benevento
Benevento
in 836; Sicard responded with other Muslim mercenaries. The Saracens
Saracens
initially concentrated their attacks on Sicily
Sicily
and Byzantine Italy, but soon Radelchis I of Benevento
Benevento
called in more mercenaries, who destroyed Capua
Capua
in 841. Landulf the Old founded the present-day Capua, "New Capua", on a nearby hill. In general, the Lombard princes were less inclined to ally with the Saracens
Saracens
than with their Greek neighbours of Amalfi, Gaeta, Naples, and Sorrento. Guaifer of Salerno, however, briefly put himself under Muslim suzerainty. In 847 a large Muslim force seized Bari, until then a Lombard gastaldate under the control of Pandenulf. Saracen incursions proceeded northwards until Adelchis of Benevento
Benevento
sought the help of his suzerain, Louis II, who allied with the Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
Basil I to expel the Arabs
Arabs
from Bari
Bari
in 869. An Arab landing force was defeated by the emperor in 871. Adelchis and Louis remained at war until the death of Louis in 875. Adelchis regarded himself as the true successor of the Lombard kings, and in that capacity he amended the Edictum Rothari, the last Lombard ruler to do so. After the death of Louis, Landulf II of Capua
Capua
briefly flirted with a Saracen alliance, but Pope John VIII
Pope John VIII
convinced him to break it off. Guaimar I of Salerno
Salerno
fought the Saracens
Saracens
with Byzantine troops. Throughout this period the Lombard princes swung in allegiance from one party to another. Finally, towards 915, Pope John X
Pope John X
managed to unite the Christian princes of southern Italy against the Saracen establishments on the Garigliano
Garigliano
river. The Saracens
Saracens
were ousted from Italy in the Battle of the Garigliano
Garigliano
in 915. Lombard principalities in the 10th century[edit]

Italy around the turn of the millennium, showing the Lombard states in the south on the eve of the arrival of the Normans.

The independent state of Salerno
Salerno
inspired the gastalds of Capua
Capua
to move towards independence, and by the end of the century they were styling themselves "princes" and as a third Lombard state. The Capuan and Beneventan states were united by Atenulf I of Capua
Capua
in 900. He subsequently declared them to be in perpetual union, and they were separated only in 982, on the death of Pandulf Ironhead. With all of the Lombard south under his control, except Salerno, Atenulf felt safe to use the title Princeps Gentis Langobardorum ("prince of the Lombard people"), which Arechis II had begun using in 774. Among Atenulf's successors the principality was ruled jointly by fathers, sons, brothers, cousins, and uncles for the greater part of the century. Meanwhile, the prince Gisulf I of Salerno
Salerno
began using the title Langobardorum Gentis Princeps around mid-century, but the ideal of a united Lombard principality was realised only in December 977, when Gisulf died and his domains were inherited by Pandulf Ironhead, who temporarily held almost all Italy south of Rome
Rome
and brought the Lombards
Lombards
into alliance with the Holy Roman Empire. His territories were divided upon his death. Landulf the Red of Benevento
Benevento
and Capua
Capua
tried to conquer the principality of Salerno
Salerno
with the help of John III of Naples, but with the aid of Mastalus I of Amalfi, Gisulf repulsed him. The rulers of Benevento
Benevento
and Capua
Capua
made several attempts on Byzantine Apulia
Apulia
at this time, but late in the century, the Byzantines, under the stiff rule of Basil II, gained ground on the Lombards. The principal source for the history of the Lombard principalities in this period is the Chronicon Salernitanum, composed late in the 10th century at Salerno. Norman conquest, 1017–1078[edit] Main article: Norman conquest of southern Italy The diminished Beneventan principality soon lost its independence to the papacy and declined in importance until it fell in the Norman conquest of southern Italy. The Normans, first called in by the Lombards
Lombards
to fight the Byzantines for control of Apulia
Apulia
and Calabria (under the likes of Melus of Bari
Bari
and Arduin, among others), had become rivals for hegemony in the south. The Salernitan principality experienced a golden age under Guaimar III and Guaimar IV, but under Gisulf II, the principality shrank to insignificance and fell in 1078 to Robert Guiscard, who had married Gisulf's sister Sichelgaita. The Capua
Capua
principality was hotly contested during the reign of the hated Pandulf IV, the Wolf of the Abruzzi, and, under his son, it fell, almost without contest, to the Norman Richard Drengot (1058). The Capuans revolted against Norman rule in 1091, expelling Richard's grandson Richard II and setting up one Lando IV. Capua
Capua
was again put under Norman rule after the Siege of Capua
Capua
of 1098 and the city quickly declined in importance under a series of ineffectual Norman rulers. The independent status of these Lombard states is in general attested by the ability of their rulers to switch suzerains at will. Often the legal vassal of pope or emperor (either Byzantine or Holy Roman), they were the real power-brokers in the south until their erstwhile allies, the Normans, rose to preeminence: The Lombards
Lombards
regarded the Normans
Normans
as barbarians and the Byzantines as oppressors. Regarding their own civilisation as superior, the Lombards did indeed provide the environment for the illustrious Schola Medica Salernitana. Culture[edit] Language[edit] Main article: Lombardic language

The runic inscription from the Pforzen buckle
Pforzen buckle
may be the earliest written example of Lombardic language

The Lombardic language is extinct (unless Cimbrian and Mocheno represent surviving dialects).[65] The Germanic language declined, beginning in the 7th century, but may have been in scattered use until as late as about the year 1000. Only fragments of the language have survived, the main evidence being individual words quoted in Latin texts. In the absence of Lombardic texts, it is not possible to draw any conclusions about the language's morphology and syntax. The genetic classification of the language depends entirely on phonology. Since there is evidence that Lombardic participated in, and indeed shows some of the earliest evidence for, the High German consonant shift, it is usually classified as an Elbe
Elbe
Germanic or Upper German dialect.[66] Lombardic fragments are preserved in runic inscriptions. Primary source texts include short inscriptions in the Elder Futhark, among them the "bronze capsule of Schretzheim" (c. 600) and the silver belt buckle found in Pforzen, Ostallgäu
Ostallgäu
(Schwaben). A number of Latin texts include Lombardic names, and Lombardic legal texts contain terms taken from the legal vocabulary of the vernacular. In 2005, Emilia Denčeva argued that the inscription of the Pernik sword may be Lombardic.[67] The Italian language
Italian language
preserves a large number of Lombardic words, although it is not always easy to distinguish them from other Germanic borrowings such as those from Gothic or from Frankish. They often bear some resemblance to English words, as Lombardic was akin to Saxon. For instance, landa from land, guardia from wardan (warden), guerra from werra (war), ricco from rikki (rich), and guadare from wadjan (to wade). From the Codice diplomatico longobardo, a collection of legal documents that makes reference to many Lombardic terms, we obtain several terms still in use in the Italian language: Barba (beard), marchio (mark), maniscalco (blacksmith), aia (courtyard), braida, borgo (village), fara (toponym), pizzo (toponym), sala (toponym), staffa (stirrup), stalla (stable), sculdascio, faida (feud), manigoldo (scoundrel), sgherro; fanone (baleen), stamberga (hovel); anca (hip), guancia (cheek), nocca (knuckle), schiena (back); gazza (magpie), martora (marten); gualdo, pozza (pool); verbs like bussare (to knock), piluccare (to peck), russare (to snore). Social structure[edit] Migration Period
Migration Period
society[edit] During their stay at the mouth of the Elbe, the Lombards
Lombards
came into contact with other western Germanic populations, such as the Saxons and the Frisians. From these populations, which for long had been in contact with the Celts
Celts
(especially the Saxons), they learned a rigid social organization into castes, rarely present in other Germanic peoples.[68] The Lombard kings can be traced back as early as c. 380 and thus to the beginning of the Great Migration. Kingship developed amongst the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
when the unity of a single military command was found necessary. Schmidt believed that the Germanic tribes were divided according to cantons and that the earliest government was a general assembly that selected canton chiefs and war leaders in times of conflict. All such figures were probably selected from a caste of nobility. As a result of the wars of their wanderings, royal power developed such that the king became the representative of the people, but the influence of the people on the government did not fully disappear.[69] Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
gives an account of the Lombard tribal structure during the migration:

. . . in order that they might increase the number of their warriors, [the Lombards] confer liberty upon many whom they deliver from the yoke of bondage, and that the freedom of these may be regarded as established, they confirm it in their accustomed way by an arrow, uttering certain words of their country in confirmation of the fact.

Complete emancipation appears to have been granted only among the Franks
Franks
and the Lombards.[70] Society of the Catholic kingdom[edit] See also: Duke (Lombard) Lombard society was divided into classes comparable to those found in the other Germanic successor states of Rome, Frankish Gaul
Gaul
and Visigothic Spain. There was a noble class, a class of free persons beneath them, a class of unfree non-slaves (serfs), and finally slaves. The aristocracy itself was poorer, more urbanised, and less landed than elsewhere. Aside from the richest and most powerful of the dukes and the king himself, Lombard noblemen tended to live in cities (unlike their Frankish counterparts) and hold little more than twice as much in land as the merchant class (a far cry from provincial Frankish aristocrats who held vast swathes of land, hundreds of times larger than those beneath his status). The aristocracy by the 8th century was highly dependent on the king for means of income related especially to judicial duties: many Lombard nobles are referred to in contemporary documents as iudices (judges) even when their offices had important military and legislative functions as well. The freemen of the Lombard kingdom were far more numerous than in Frank lands, especially in the 8th century, when they are almost invisible in surviving documentary evidence. Smallholders, owner-cultivators, and rentiers are the most numerous types of person in surviving diplomata for the Lombard kingdom. They may have owned more than half of the land in Lombard Italy. The freemen were exercitales and viri devoti, that is, soldiers and "devoted men" (a military term like "retainers"); they formed the levy of the Lombard army, and they were sometimes, if infrequently, called to serve, though this seems not to have been their preference. The small landed class, however, lacked the political influence necessary with the king (and the dukes) to control the politics and legislation of the kingdom. The aristocracy was more thoroughly powerful politically if not economically in Italy than in contemporary Gaul
Gaul
and Spain. The urbanisation of Lombard Italy was characterised by the città ad isole (or "city as islands"). It appears from archaeology that the great cities of Lombard Italy — Pavia, Lucca, Siena, Arezzo, Milan — were themselves formed of minute islands of urbanisation within the old Roman city walls. The cities of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
had been partially destroyed in the series of wars of the 5th and 6th centuries. Many sectors were left in ruins and ancient monuments became fields of grass used as pastures for animals, thus the Roman Forum became the Campo Vaccino, the field of cows. The portions of the cities that remained intact were small, modest, contained a cathedral or major church (often sumptuously decorated), and a few public buildings and townhomes of the aristocracy. Few buildings of importance were stone, most were wood. In the end, the inhabited parts of the cities were separated from one another by stretches of pasture even within the city walls. Lombard states[edit]

Lombard state on the Carpathians (6th century) Lombard state in Pannonia
Pannonia
(6th century) Kingdom of Italy and List of Kings of the Lombards Principality of Benevento
Benevento
and List of Dukes and Princes of Benevento Principality of Salerno
Principality of Salerno
and List of Princes of Salerno Principality of Capua
Capua
and List of Princes of Capua

Religious history[edit] Paganism[edit] The evidence contained in the myth hints that initially,[71] before the passage from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
to the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, the Lombards
Lombards
worshiped the Vanir. Later, in contact with other Germanic populations, they adopted the worship of the Æsir: an evolution that marked the passage from the adoration of deities related to fertility and the earth to the cult of warlike gods.[72][73] In chapter 40 of his Germania, Roman historian Tacitus, discussing the Suebian tribes of Germania, writes that the Lombards
Lombards
were one of the Suebian tribes united in worship of the deity Nerthus, who is often identified with the Norse goddess Freyja. The other tribes were the Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suarines, and Nuitones.[74] St. Barbatus of Benevento
Benevento
observed many pagan rituals and traditions amongst the Lombards
Lombards
authorised by the Duke Romuald, son of King Grimoald:[75]

"They expressed a religious veneration to a golden viper, and prostrated themselves before it: they paid also a superstitious honour to a tree, on which they hung the skin of a wild beast, and these ceremonies were closed by public games, in which the skin served for a mark at which bowmen shot arrows over their shoulder."

Christianisation[edit] The Lombards
Lombards
were first touched by Christianity
Christianity
while still in Pannonia, but only touched: Their conversion and Christianisation was largely nominal and far from complete. During the reign of Wacho, they were Orthodox Catholics allied with the Byzantine Empire, but Alboin converted to Arianism
Arianism
as an ally of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and invaded Italy. All these Christian conversions primarily affected the aristocracy, while the common people remained pagan.[citation needed] In Italy, the Lombards
Lombards
were intensively Christianised, and the pressure to convert to Catholicism
Catholicism
was great. With the Bavarian queen Theodelinda, a Catholic, the monarchy was brought under heavy Catholic influence. After initial support for the anti- Rome
Rome
party in the Schism of the Three Chapters, Theodelinda
Theodelinda
remained a close contact and supporter of Pope Gregory I. In 603, Adaloald, the heir to the throne, received a Catholic baptism. During the next century, Arianism
Arianism
and paganism continued to hold out in Austria
Austria
(the northeast of Italy) and in the Duchy of Benevento. A succession of Arian kings were militarily aggressive and presented a threat to the Papacy
Papacy
in Rome. In the 7th century, the nominally Christian aristocracy of Benevento
Benevento
was still practising pagan rituals, such as sacrifices in "sacred" woods. By the end of the reign of Cunincpert, however, the Lombards
Lombards
were more or less completely Catholicised. Under Liutprand, the Catholicism
Catholicism
became tangible, as the king sought to justify his title rex totius Italiae by uniting the south of the peninsula with the north and bringing together his Italo-Roman and Germanic subjects into one Catholic state. Beneventan Christianity[edit]

The Rule of Saint Benedict
Rule of Saint Benedict
in Beneventan (i.e. Lombard) script

The Duchy and eventually Principality of Benevento
Benevento
in southern Italy developed a unique Christian rite in the 7th and 8th centuries. The Beneventan rite is more closely related to the liturgy of the Ambrosian rite
Ambrosian rite
than to the Roman rite.[citation needed] The Beneventan rite has not survived in its complete form, although most of the principal feasts and several feasts of local significance are extant. The Beneventan rite appears to have been less complete, less systematic, and more liturgically flexible than the Roman rite. Characteristic of this rite was the Beneventan chant, a Lombard-influenced[citation needed] chant that bore similarities to the Ambrosian chant
Ambrosian chant
of Milan. The Beneventan chant
Beneventan chant
is largely defined by its role in the liturgy of the Beneventan rite; many Beneventan chants were assigned multiple roles when inserted into Gregorian chantbooks, appearing variously as antiphons, offertories, and communions, for example. It was eventually supplanted by the Gregorian chant in the 11th century. The chief centre of the Beneventan chant
Beneventan chant
was Montecassino, one of the first and greatest abbeys of Western monasticism. Gisulf II of Benevento
Benevento
had donated a large swathe of land to Montecassino
Montecassino
in 744, and that became the basis for an important state, the Terra Sancti Benedicti, which was a subject only to Rome. The Cassinese influence on Christianity
Christianity
in southern Italy was immense.[citation needed] Montecassino
Montecassino
was also the starting point for another characteristic of Beneventan monasticism, the use of the distinct Beneventan script, a clear, angular script derived from the Roman cursive
Roman cursive
as used by the Lombards.[citation needed] Art[edit] During their nomadic phase, the Lombards
Lombards
primarily created art that was easily carried with them, like arms and jewellery. Though relatively little of this has survived, it bears resemblance to the similar endeavours of other Germanic tribes of northern and central Europe from the same era. The first major modifications to the Germanic style of the Lombards came in Pannonia
Pannonia
and especially in Italy, under the influence of local, Byzantine, and Christian styles. The conversions from nomadism and paganism to settlement and Christianity
Christianity
also opened up new arenas of artistic expression, such as architecture (especially churches) and its accompanying decorative arts (such as frescoes).

Lombard shield boss northern Italy, 7th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Lombard S-shaped fibula

A glass drinking horn from Castel Trosino

Lombard Goldblattkreuz

Lombard fibulae

Altar of Ratchis

8th-century Lombard sculpture depicting female martyrs, based on a Byzantine model. Tempietto Longobardo, Cividale del Friuli

Architecture[edit] Main articles: Lombard architecture
Lombard architecture
and Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568-774 A.D.)

Church of Santa Sofia, Benevento

Few Lombard buildings have survived. Most have been lost, rebuilt, or renovated at some point, so they preserve little of their original Lombard structure. Lombard architecture
Lombard architecture
was well-studied in the 20th century, and the four-volume Lombard Architecture (1919) by Arthur Kingsley Porter is a "monument of illustrated history". The small Oratorio di Santa Maria in Valle in Cividale del Friuli
Cividale del Friuli
is probably one of the oldest preserved examples of Lombard architecture, as Cividale was the first Lombard city in Italy. Parts of Lombard constructions have been preserved in Pavia
Pavia
(San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, crypts of Sant'Eusebio
Sant'Eusebio
and San Giovanni Domnarum) and Monza (cathedral). The Basilic autariana in Fara Gera d'Adda
Fara Gera d'Adda
near Bergamo and the church of San Salvatore in Brescia
Brescia
also have Lombard elements. All these buildings are in northern Italy (Langobardia major), but by far the best-preserved Lombard structure is in southern Italy (Langobardia minor). The Church of Santa Sofia in Benevento
Benevento
was erected in 760 by Duke Arechis II, and it preserves Lombard frescoes on the walls and even Lombard capitals on the columns. Lombard architecture
Lombard architecture
flourished under the impulse provided by the Catholic monarchs like Theodelinda, Liutprand, and Desiderius
Desiderius
to the foundation of monasteries to further their political control. Bobbio Abbey was founded during this time. Some of the late Lombard structures of the 9th and 10th centuries have been found to contain elements of style associated with Romanesque architecture and have been so dubbed "first Romanesque". These edifices are considered, along with some similar buildings in southern France and Catalonia, to mark a transitory phase between the Pre-Romanesque and full-fledged Romanesque. List of rulers[edit]

See List of kings of the Lombards.

References[edit]

Ancient Germanic culture portal

Notes

^ a b Priester, 16. From Proto-Germanic winna-, meaning "to fight, win". ^ a b c d Harrison, D.; Svensson, K. (2007). Vikingaliv Fälth & Hässler, Värnamo. ISBN 978-91-27-35725-9 p. 74 ^ 2. Runriket - Täby Kyrka Archived 2008-06-04 at Archive.is, an online article at Stockholm
Stockholm
County Museum, retrieved July 1, 2007. ^ CG, II. ^ Menghin, 13. ^ Priester, 16. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, I, 336. Old Germanic for "Strenuus", "Sibyl". ^ Ibor and Aio were called by Prosper of Aquitaine, Iborea and Agio; Saxo-Grammaticus calls them Ebbo and Aggo; the popular song of Gothland (Bethmann, 342), Ebbe and Aaghe (Wiese, 14). ^ Priester, 16 ^ Hammerstein-Loxton, 56. ^ a b PD, VII. ^ a b PD, VIII. ^ OGL, appendix 11. ^ Priester, 17 ^ PD, I, 9. ^ Pohl and Erhart. Nedoma, 449–445. ^ Priester, 17. ^ Fröhlich, 19. ^ Bruckner, 30–33. ^ The article Hadubarder in Nordisk familjebok (1909). ^ Wilson Chambers, Raymond (2010). Widsith: A Study in Old English Heroic Legend. Cambridge University Press. p. 205.  ^ Smith’s Dict. of Greek and Roman Geogr., vol. ii. p. 119 — S. ^ Orosius (417). The Anglo-Saxon Version, from the Historian
Historian
Orosius (Alfred the Great ed.). London: Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols and sold by S. Baker. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ Widsith, lines 31-33 ^ a b c Menghin, 15. ^ Velleius, Hist. Rom. II, 106. Schmidt, 5. ^ Strabo, VII, 1, 3. ^ Suetoniu, The Twelve Caesars, chapters II and III. ^ Wegewitz, Das langobardische Brandgräberfeld von Putensen, Kreis Harburg (1972), 1–29. Problemi della civilita e dell'economia Longobarda, Milan
Milan
(1964), 19ff. ^ Menghin, 17. ^ Menghin, 18. ^ Priester, 18. ^ a b Tacitus, Ann. II, 45. ^ Tacitus, Annals, XI, 16, 17. ^ Cassius Dio, 71, 3, 1. Menghin 16. ^ Priester, 21. Zeuss, 471. Wiese, 38. Schmidt, 35–36. ^ Tacitus, Germania, 38-40 ^ Ptolemy, Geogr. II, 11, 9. Menghin, 15. ^ Ptolemy, Geogr. II, 11, 17. Menghin, 15 ^ Schütte, Ptolemy's Maps of Northern Europe, pages 34, and 118 ^ Codex Gothanus, II. ^ a b Priester, 14. Menghin, 16. ^ Hartmann, II, pt I, 5. ^ Menghin, 17, 19. Codex Gothanus, II. ^ Zeuss, 471. Wiese, 38. Schmidt, 35–36. Priester, 21–22. HGL, X. ^ Hammerstein-Loxton, 56. Bluhme. HGL, XIII. ^ Cosmographer of Ravenna, I, 11. ^ Hodgkin, Ch. V, 92. HGL, XII. ^ Schmidt, 49. ^ Hodgkin, V, 143. ^ Menghin, Das Reich an der Donau, 21. ^ K. Priester, 22. ^ Bluhme, Gens Langobardorum Bonn, 1868 ^ Menghin, 14. ^ Hist. gentis Lang., Ch. XVII ^ Hist. gentis Lang., Ch. XVII. ^ PD, XVII. ^ Helmolt, Hans Ferdinand (1907). Battles The World's History: Central and northern Europe. London.  ^ a b Peters, Edward (2003). History of the Lombards: Translated by William Dudley Foulke. University of Pennsylvania Press.  ^ Paolo Diacono, Historia Langobardorum, FV, II, 4, 6, 7. ^ De Bello Gothico IV 32, pp. 241-245 ^ "The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 500-c. 700" by Paul Fouracre and Rosamond McKitterick (page 8) ^ Lot, Ferdinand (1931). The End of the Ancient World and the Beginnings of the Middle Ages. London.  ^ a b c Vidmar, Jernej. "Od kod prihajajo in kdo so solkanski Langobardi" [From Where Come and Who Are the Solkan Lombards] (in Slovenian). Retrieved 30 July 2012.  ^ Štih, Peter; Simoniti, Vasko; Vodopivec, Peter (2008). "The Settlement of the Slavs". In Lazarević, Žarko. A Slovene history: society - politics - culture. Ljubljana: Institute of Modern History. p. 22. ISBN 978-961-6386-19-7.  ^ Kortmann, Bernd (2011). The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: Vol.II. Berlin.  ^ Marcello Meli, Le lingue germaniche, p. 95. ^ Emilia Denčeva, Langobardische (?) Inschrift auf einem Schwert aus dem 8. Jahrhundert in bulgarischem Boden. ^ Cardini-Montesano, cit., pag. 82. ^ Schmidt, 76–77. ^ Schmidt, 47 n3. ^ Origo Gentis Langobardorum ^ Rovagnati, p. 99. ^ Karl Hauk, Lebensnormen und Kultmythen in germanischen Sammes- und Herrscher genealogien. ^ Tacitus', Germania, 40, Medieval Source Book. Code and format by Northvegr.[1] ^ Rev. Butler, Alban (1866). The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints: Vol.I. London. 

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Codicis Gothani Historia Langobardorum Origo Gentis Langobardorum Bluhme, Friedrich. Gens Langobardorum Bruckner, Wilhelm. Die Sprache der Langobarden Christie, Neil (1995). The Lombards: the ancient Longobards. The Peoples of Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.  Everett, Nicholas (2003). Literacy in Lombard Italy, c. 568-774. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521819053.  Fröhlich, Harmann. Studien zur langobardischen Thronfolge - Zur Herkunft der Langobarden - Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken (QFIAB) Giess, Hildegard. "The Sculpture of the Cloister of Santa Sofia in Benevento",The Art Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 3. (September 1959), pp 249–256. Grimm, Jacob. Deutsche Mythologie Gwatkin, H. M., Whitney, J. P. (ed) - The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume II—The Rise of the Saracens
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and the Foundations of the Western Empire. Cambridge University Press, 1926. Hallenbeck, Jan T. " Pavia
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and Rome: The Lombard Monarchy and the Papacy
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in the Eighth Century" Transactions of the American Philosophical Society New Series, 72.4 (1982), pp. 1–186. Hammerstein-Loxten, Freiherren von. Bardengau Hartmann, Ludo Moritz. Geschichte Italiens im Mittelalter II Vol. Hodgkin, Thomas. Italy and Her Invaders. Clarendon Press Menghin, Wilifred. Die Langobarden / Geschichte und Archäologie. Theiss Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476–918. London, 1914. Pohl, Walter and Erhart, Peter. Die Langobarden / Herrschaft und Identität Priester, Karin. Geschichte der Langobarden / Gesellschaft - Kultur - Altagsleben. Theiss The Lombard Laws. Translated by Katherine Fischer Drew. foreword by Edward Peters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 1973. ISBN 0-8122-1055-7.  Santosuosso, Antonio. Barbarians, Marauders, and Infidels: The Ways of Medieval Warfare. 2004. ISBN 0-8133-9153-9 Schmidt, Dr. Ludwig. Älteste Geschichte der Langobarden Tacitus. Annals Tacitus. Germania Wegewitz, Willi. Das langobardische Brandgräberfeld von Putensen, Kreise Harburg Wickham, Christopher (1998). "Aristocratic Power in Eighth-Century Lombard Italy". In Goffart, Walter A.; Murray, Alexander C. After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History, Essays presented to Walter Goffart. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 153–170. ISBN 0-8020-0779-1. . Wiese, Robert. Die älteste Geschichte der Langobarden Zeuss, Kaspar. Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme Carlo Troya, Giovanni Minervini, Codice diplomatico longobardo dal DLXVIII al DCCLXXIV: con note storiche, Napoli, Stamperia reale, 1855

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lombards.

 Beck, Frederick George Meeson; Church, Richard William (1911). "Lombards". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 

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Germanic tribes

Alemanni Ambrones Ampsivarii Angles Angrivarii Bastarnae Batavi Bavarii Bructeri Burgundians Cananefates Chamavi Chasuarii Chatti Chattuarii Chauci Cherusci Cimbri Cugerni Dulgubnii Fosi Franks Frisii Gepids Goths Harii Hasdingi Helisii Hermunduri Herules Jutes Lacringi Lemovii Lombards Lugii Manimi Marcomanni Marobudui Marsi Mattiaci Naharvali Nemetes Nervii Ostrogoths Quadi Rugii Saxons Scirii Semnones Silingi Sitones Sicambri Suebi Swedes Tencteri Teutons Toxandri Treveri Triboci Tubantes Tudri Tungri Ubii Usipetes Vandals Vangiones Visigoths Warini

Germani cisrhenani Caeroesi Condrusi Eburones Paemani Segni

Tribal unions Ingaevones Irminones Istvaeones

See also List of ancient Germanic peoples Category:Ancient Germanic peoples

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Germanic peoples

Languages

Germanic parent language Proto-Germanic language North Germanic languages

Old Norse

West Germanic languages

Ingvaeonic languages South Germanic

Northwest Germanic East Germanic languages Germanic philology

Prehistory

Nordic Bronze Age Pre-Roman Iron Age
Iron Age
in Northern Europe Jastorf culture Nordwestblock Przeworsk culture Wielbark culture Oksywie culture Chernyakhov culture

Roman Iron Age in northern Europe

Magna Germania Germanic Wars Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Germania Irminones Ingaevones Istvaeones Chatti Marcomanni Suebi

Migration Period

Germanic Iron Age Alemanni Anglo-Saxons

Angles Jutes Saxons

Burgundians Danes Franks Frisii Geats Gepids Goths

Visigoths Ostrogoths Vagoth Gothic War (376–382)

Gotlander Heruli Lombards Rugii Scirii Suebi Swedes Vandals Varangians Vikings Christianization Romanization

Society and culture

Mead hall Alliterative verse Migration Period
Migration Period
art Runes

Runic calendar

Sippe Ancient Germanic law

Lawspeaker Thing

Germanic calendar Germanic kingship Germanic name Numbers in Norse mythology Romano-Germanic culture

Religion

Odin Thor Nerthus Veleda Tuisto Mannus Sacred trees and groves Paganism

Anglo-Saxon Continental Germanic Frankish Gothic Norse

Christianity

Anglo-Saxon Gothic

Dress

Bracteates Fibula Suebian knot

Warfare

Gothic and Vandal warfare Anglo-Saxon warfare Viking Age arms and armour Migration Period
Migration Period
spear Migration Period
Migration Period
sword

Burial practices

Tumulus Ship burial Norse funeral Alemannic grave fields Sutton Hoo Spong Hill

List of ancient Germanic peoples Portal:Ancient Germanic culture

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Tribal hegemony in the former Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from the decline of Rome
Rome
to 843

Huns
Huns
376–454 Vandals
Vandals
406–534 Visigoths
Visigoths
410–711 Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
493–553 Franks
Franks
509–843 Byzantines 553–568 Lombards
Lombards
568–77

.