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The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a
Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The T ...

Germanic people
who ruled most of the
Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Reg ...
from 568 to 774, with origins near the
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
in northern Germany and
Scania Scania, also known by its native name of Skåne (, ), is the southernmost of the historical (''landskap'') of . The former province is roughly conterminous with , created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still feature ...

Scania
in southern Sweden before the
Migration Period The Migration Period, also known as the Barbarian Invasions (from the Roman and Greek perspective), is a term sometimes used for the period in the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the ...
. The medieval Lombard historian
Paul the Deacon Paul the Deacon ( 720s 13 April in 796, 797, 798, or 799 CE), also known as ''Paulus Diaconus'', ''Warnefridus'', ''Barnefridus'', or ''Winfridus'', and sometimes suffixed ''Cassinensis'' (''i.e.'' "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scr ...
wrote in the ''
History of the Lombards The ''History of the Lombards'' or the ''History of the Langobards'' ( la, Historia Langobardorum) is the chief work by Paul the Deacon Paul may refer to: *Paul (name), a given name (includes a list of people with that name) *Paul (surname), a l ...
'' (written between 787 and 796) that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili,Priester, 16. From
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
'' winna-'', meaning "to fight, win".
who dwelt in southern
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
Harrison, D.; Svensson, K. (2007). ''Vikingaliv'' Fälth & Hässler, Värnamo. p. 74 (''Scadanan'') before migrating to seek new lands. By the time of the Roman-era - historians wrote of the Lombards in the 1st century AD, as being one of the
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and Czechia, the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their ow ...
an peoples, in what is now northern Germany, near the Elbe river. They continued to migrate south. By the end of the fifth century, the Lombards had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
north of the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
, where they subdued the
Heruls The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Ger ...
and later fought frequent wars with the
Gepid The Gepids ( la, Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe who lived in the area of modern Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast ...
s. The Lombard king
Audoin Alduin ( Langobardic: ''Aldwin'' or ''Hildwin'', ; also called Auduin or Audoin) was king of the Lombards from 547 to 560. Life Aldoin was of the Gausi, a prominent Lombard ruling clan, and according to the ''Historia Langobardorum'', the so ...
defeated the
Gepid The Gepids ( la, Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe who lived in the area of modern Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast ...
leader
Thurisind Thurisind (Latin: ''Turisindus'', died ) was king of the Gepids, an Germanic peoples, East Germanic Goths, Gothic people, from c. 548 to 560. He was the penultimate Gepid king, and succeeded King Elemund by staging a coup d'état and forcing the ki ...
in 551 or 552, and his successor
Alboin Alboin (530s – 28 June 572) was king of the from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their by settling in Italy, the northern part of which Alboin conquered between 569 and 572. He had a lasting effect on Italy and the ; ...
eventually destroyed the Gepids in 567. The Lombards settled in modern-day Hungary in Pannonia. Archaeologists have unearthed burial sites in the area of Szólád of Lombard men and women buried together as families, a practice that was uncommon for Germanic peoples at the time. Traces have also been discovered of Mediterranean Greeks and of a woman whose skull suggests French ancestry, possibly indicating that migrations into the Lombard territory occurred from Greece and France. Following Alboin's victory over the Gepids, he led his people into North Eastern Italy, which had become severely depopulated and devastated after the long
Gothic War (535–554) The Gothic War between the East Roman The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλε ...
between the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
and the
Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communi ...

Ostrogothic Kingdom
. The Lombards were joined by numerous
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxons
,
Heruls The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Ger ...
, Gepids,
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadi ...

Bulgars
,
Thuringians The Thuringii, Toringi or Teuriochaimai, were an early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic lang ...
and
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mention ...
, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed. By late 569, they had conquered all of northern Italy and the principal cities north of the
Po River The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; grc, Πάδος, Pádos, or , ; Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps; it, Alpi Cozie , photo=Monviso_Cottian_ ...
, except
Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po River, Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was ...

Pavia
, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in central and southern Italy. They established a
Lombard Kingdom The term Lombard refers to people or things related to Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative , in the of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming mo ...
in north and central Italy, later named ''
Regnum Italicum The Kingdom of Italy ( la, Regnum Italiae or ''Regnum Italicum''; it, Regno d'Italia; german: Königreich Italien), also called Imperial Italy (german: Reichsitalien, links=no), was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire ...
'' ("Kingdom of Italy"), which reached its zenith under the eighth-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the kingdom was conquered by the
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
king
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
and integrated into the
Frankish Empire Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks ( la, Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankland or Frankish Empire, was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most popu ...

Frankish Empire
. However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the
Italian peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Reg ...
well into the 11th century, when they were conquered by the
Normans The Normans (Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of N ...

Normans
and added to the
County of Sicily The County of Sicily, also known as County of Sicily and Calabria, was a Italo-Normans, Norman state comprising the islands of Sicily and Malta and part of Calabria from 1071 until 1130. The county began to form during the Norman conquest of sout ...
. In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Lombard domination was known to the foreigners by the name Langbarðaland (Land of the Lombards), as inscribed in the Norse
runestones A runestone is typically a raised stone with a inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on . The tradition began in the 4th century and lasted into the 12th century, but most of the runestones date from the ...
. Their legacy is also apparent in the name of the region of
Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...
in northern Italy.


Name

According to their own traditions, the Lombards initially called themselves the ''Winnili''. After a reported major victory against the
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
in the first century, they changed their name to ''Lombards''. The name ''Winnili'' is generally translated as 'the wolves', related to the Proto-Germanic root ''*wulfaz'' 'wolf'.' The name ''
Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...
'' was reportedly derived from the distinctively long beards of the Lombards. It is probably a compound of the
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
elements *''langaz'' (long) and *''bardaz'' (beard).


History


Early history


Legendary origins

According to their own legends the Lombards originated in southern Scandinavia. including modern day Denmark. The Northern European origins of the Lombards is supported by genetic, anthropological, archaeological and earlier literary evidence. A legendary account of Lombard origins, history, and practices is the ''Historia Langobardorum'' (''History of the Lombards'') of
Paul the Deacon Paul the Deacon ( 720s 13 April in 796, 797, 798, or 799 CE), also known as ''Paulus Diaconus'', ''Warnefridus'', ''Barnefridus'', or ''Winfridus'', and sometimes suffixed ''Cassinensis'' (''i.e.'' "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scr ...
, written in the eighth century. Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the seventh-century ''
Origo Gentis Langobardorum The ''Origo Gentis Langobardorum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through th ...

Origo Gentis Langobardorum
'' (''Origin of the Lombard People''). The ''Origo Gentis Langobardorum'' tells the story of a small tribe called the ''Winnili'' dwelling in southern
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
(''Scadanan'') (the '' Codex Gothanus'' writes that the Winnili first dwelt near a river called ''Vindilicus'' on the extreme boundary of
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
). The Winnili were split into three groups and one part left their native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was probably
overpopulation Overpopulation or overabundance occurs when a species' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classifica ...
. The departing people were led by Gambara and her sons Ybor and Aio and arrived in the lands of ''Scoringa'', perhaps the
Baltic Baltic may refer to: Geography Northern Europe * Baltic Sea, a sea in Europe * Baltic region, an ambiguous term referring to the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea * Baltic states (also Baltics, Baltic nations, Baltic countries or Baltic rep ...

Baltic
coast or the
Bardengau The Bardengau was a medieval county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The t ...
on the banks of the
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
. Scoringa was ruled by the
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war. The Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying "It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute."PD, VII. The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan (the god
Odin Odin (; from non, Óðinn, ) is a widely revered god in Germanic mythology. Norse mythology, the source of most surviving information about him, associates him with wisdom, healing, death, royalty, the gallows, knowledge, war, battle, victor ...

Odin
), who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise.PD, VIII. The Winnili were fewer in number and Gambara sought help from Frea (the goddess
Frigg Frigg (; Old Norse: ) is a goddess in Germanic mythology. In Norse mythology, the source of most surviving information about her, she is associated with marriage, prophecy, clairvoyance and motherhood, and dwells in the wetland halls of Fensal ...
), who advised that all Winnili women should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards and march in line with their husbands. At sunrise, Frea turned her husband's bed so that he was facing east, and woke him. So Godan spotted the Winnili first and asked, "Who are these long-beards?," and Frea replied, "My lord, thou hast given them the name, now give them also the victory." From that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the ''Longbeards'' (Latinised as ''Langobardi'', Italianised as ''Longobardi'', and Anglicized as ''Langobards'' or ''Lombards''). When Paul the Deacon wrote the ''Historia'' between 787 and 796 he was a
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
monk and devoted
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
. He thought the
pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...
stories of his people "silly" and "laughable". Paul explained that the name "Langobard" came from the length of their beards. A modern theory suggests that the name "Langobard" comes from ''Langbarðr'', a name of Odin. Priester states that when the Winnili changed their name to "Lombards", they also changed their old agricultural
fertility cult Fertility rites are religious ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, ...
to a cult of Odin, thus creating a conscious tribal tradition. Fröhlich inverts the order of events in Priester and states that with the Odin cult, the Lombards grew their beards in resemblance of the Odin of tradition and their new name reflected this. Bruckner remarks that the name of the Lombards stands in close relation to the worship of Odin, whose many names include "the Long-bearded" or "the Grey-bearded", and that the Lombard given name ''Ansegranus'' ("he with the beard of the gods") shows that the Lombards had this idea of their chief deity. The same Old Norse root Barth or Barði, meaning "beard", is shared with the Heaðobards mentioned in both ''
Beowulf ''Beowulf'' (; ang, Bēowulf ) is an Old English epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literat ...

Beowulf
'' and in ''
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Widsið), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the ''Exeter Book The Exeter Book, Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3501, also known as the Codex Exoniensis, is a 10th-centu ...
'', where they are in conflict with the
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a lang ...
. They were possibly a branch of the Langobards.The article ''Hadubarder'' in ''Nordisk familjebok'' (1909).
/ref> Alternatively some etymological sources suggest an Old High German root, barta, meaning “axe” (and related to English halberd), while
Edward Gibbon Edward Gibbon (; 8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Eng ...

Edward Gibbon
puts forth an alternative suggestion which argues that:
…Börde (or Börd) still signifies “a fertile plain by the side of a river,” and a district near Magdeburg is still called the lange Börde. According to this view Langobardi would signify “inhabitants of the long bord of the river;” and traces of their name are supposed still to occur in such names as Bardengau and Bardewick in the neighborhood of the Elbe.
According to the
Gallaeci The Gallaeci, Callaeci or Callaici were a largely Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe ...
an Christian priest,
historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the stu ...
and
theologian Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
Paulus Orosius Paulus Orosius (; born 375/385 – 420 AD), less often Paul Orosius in English, was a Roman priest, historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A hi ...
(translated by
Daines Barrington Daines Barrington, Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS, Society of Antiquaries of London, FSA (1727/2814 March 1800) was an English lawyer, antiquary and naturalist. He was one of the correspondents to whom Gilbert White wrote extensively on natura ...

Daines Barrington
), the Lombards or Winnili lived originally in the Vinuiloth (Vinovilith) mentioned by
Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century bureaucrat widely believed to be of who became a historian later in life. Late in life he wrote two works, one on Roman history and the other on the Goths. The latter, alon ...
, in his masterpiece
Getica ''De origine actibusque Getarum'' (''The Origin and Deeds of the Getae oths'), commonly abbreviated ''Getica'', written in Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...
, to the north of
Uppsala Uppsala (, or all ending in , ; archaically spelled ''Upsala'') is the county seat of Uppsala County Uppsala County ( sv, Uppsala län) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesC ...

Uppsala
, Sweden. Scoringa was near the province of
Uppland Uppland () is a historical province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivis ...

Uppland
, so just north of
Östergötland Östergötland (; English language, English exonym: East Gothland) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (''landskap'' in Swedish language, Swedish) in the south of Sweden. It borders Småland, Västergötland, Närke, Södermanland and th ...
. The footnote then explains the etymology of the name Scoringa:
The shores of Uppland and Östergötland are covered with small rocks and rocky islands, which are called in German Schæren and in Swedish Skiaeren. Heal signifies a port in the ; consequently Skiæren-Heal is the port of the Skiæren, a name well adapted to the port of
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
, in the Upplandske Skiæren, and the country may be justly called Scorung or Skiærunga.
The legendary king
Sceafa Sceafa ( ang, Scēafa , also spelled ''Scēaf'', ''Scēf'') was an ancient List of kings of the Lombards, Lombardic king in Anglo-Saxon paganism, English legend. According to his story, Sceafa appeared mysteriously as a child, coming out of the sea ...
of
Scandza Scandza was described as a "great island" by the Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes 200px, The Mediterranean area 550 AD as Jordanes wrote his ''Getica''. The Eastern Roman Empire, capital Constantinople, is shown in pink. Conquests of Justinia ...

Scandza
was an ancient Lombardic king in Anglo-Saxon legend. The Old English poem
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Widsið), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the ''Exeter Book The Exeter Book, Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3501, also known as the Codex Exoniensis, is a 10th-centu ...
, in a listing of famous kings and their countries, has Sceafa eoldLongbeardum, so naming
Sceafa Sceafa ( ang, Scēafa , also spelled ''Scēaf'', ''Scēf'') was an ancient List of kings of the Lombards, Lombardic king in Anglo-Saxon paganism, English legend. According to his story, Sceafa appeared mysteriously as a child, coming out of the sea ...
as ruler of the Lombards. Similarities between Langobardic and Gothic migration traditions have been noted among scholars. These early migration legends suggest that a major shifting of tribes occurred sometime between the first and second century BC, which would coincide with the time that the
Teutoni The Teutons ( la, Teutones, , grc, Τεύτονες) were an ancient northern European tribe mentioned by Ancient Rome, Roman authors. The Teutons are best known for their participation, together with the Cimbri and other groups, in the Cimbria ...
and
Cimbri The Cimbri (Greek Κίμβροι, ''Kímbroi''; Latin ''Cimbri'') were an ancient tribe in Europe. Ancient authors described them variously as a Celtic people The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS loc ...
left their homelands in
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...
and migrated through Germany, eventually invading Roman Italy.


Archaeology and migrations

The first mention of the Lombards occurred between AD 9 and 16, by the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
court historian
Velleius Paterculus Marcus Velleius Paterculus (; c. 19 BC – c. AD 31) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to '' ...
, who accompanied a Roman expedition as prefect of the cavalry. Paterculus says that under
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Tiberius
the "power of the Langobardi was broken, a race surpassing even the Germans in savagery". From the combined testimony of
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
(AD 20) and
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
(AD 117), the Lombards dwelt near the mouth of the
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
shortly after the beginning of the Christian era, next to the
Chauci The Chauci (german: Chauken, and identical or similar in other regional modern languages) were an ancient Germanic tribe This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes ...
.Menghin, 15. Strabo states that the Lombards dwelt on both sides of the Elbe. He treats them as a branch of the
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and Czechia, the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their ow ...
, and states that:
Now as for the tribe of the Suebi, it is the largest, for it extends from the Rhenus to the Albis; and a part of them even dwells on the far side of the Albis, as, for instance, the Hermondori and the Langobardi; and at the present time these latter, at least, have, to the last man, been driven in flight out of their country into the land on the far side of the river.
Suetonius Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (), commonly known as Suetonius ( ; c. AD 69 – after AD 122), was a Roman historianRoman historiography stretches back to at least the 3rd century BC and was indebted to earlier Greek historiography. The Romans ...

Suetonius
wrote that Roman general
Nero Claudius Drusus Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (14 January 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), also called Drusus the Elder, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th ce ...
defeated a large force of Germans and drove some “to the farther side of the Albis (Elbe)” river. It is conceivable that these refugees were the Langobardi and the Hermunduri mentioned by Strabo not long after. The German archaeologist Willi Wegewitz defined several
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
burial sites at the
Lower Elbe The Unterelbe or, in English usually the Lower Elbe, refers to the lower reaches of the river Elbe in Germany influenced by the tides. It starts at kilometre 586, at the sluice of Geesthacht, where the Elbe forms the border between Lower Sax ...

Lower Elbe
as ''Langobardic''. The burial sites are crematorial and are usually dated from the sixth century BC through the third century AD, so a settlement breakoff seems unlikely. The lands of the lower Elbe fall into the zone of the
Jastorf Culture Archeological cultures of Central Europe in the Late Nordic group House Urns culture Oksywie culture late phase Jastorf culture Gubin, Poland, Gubin group of Jastorf Przeworsk culture Western Balt culture Eastern Balt forest zone cultures ...
and became Elbe-Germanic, differing from the lands between
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
,
Weser The Weser () is a river of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany. It begins at Hann. Münden, Hannoversch Münden through the confluence of the Werra and Fulda (river), Fulda. It passes through the Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city of Bremen. Its m ...
, and the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
. Archaeological finds show that the Lombards were an agricultural people.
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
also counted the Lombards as a remote and aggressive
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and Czechia, the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their ow ...
an tribe, one of those united in worship of the deity
Nerthus In Germanic paganism, Nerthus is a goddess associated with fertility goddess, fertility. Nerthus is attested by first century AD Roman historian Tacitus in his ethnographic work ''Germania (book), Germania''. In ''Germania'', Tacitus records that ...
, whom he referred to as "Mother Earth", and also as subjects of Marobod the King of the
Marcomanni The Marcomanni were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Soc ...
.Tacitus, Annals, II, 45. Marobod had made peace with the Romans, and that is why the Lombards were not part of the Germanic confederacy under
Arminius Gaius Julius Arminius (german: Hermann; 18/17 BC – 21 AD) was a Roman officer and later chieftain of the Germanic peoples, Germanic Cherusci tribe who is best known for commanding an alliance of Germanic tribes at the Battle of the Teutoburg F ...

Arminius
at the
Battle of Teutoburg Forest The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (, , or ), described as the Varian Disaster () by Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman peopl ...
in AD 9. In AD 17, war broke out between Arminius and Marobod. Tacitus records: In 47, a struggle ensued amongst the
Cherusci The Cherusci were an early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic langu ...
and they expelled their new leader, the nephew of Arminius, from their country. The Lombards appeared on the scene with sufficient power to control the destiny of the tribe that had been the leader in the struggle for independence thirty-eight years earlier, for they restored the deposed leader to sovereignty. To the south,
Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (; ) or Dio Cassius ( ''Dion Kassios'')), Cassius Lucius Dio or Cassius Claudius Dio; alleged to have the ' (nickname) Cocceianus was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek and Roman origin. He published 80 volumes of the ...
reported that just before the
Marcomannic Wars The Marcomannic Wars (: ''bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum'', "German and Sarmatian War") were a series of wars lasting from about 166 AD until 180. These wars pitted the against, principally, the and and the ; there were related conflicts w ...
, 6,000 Lombards and Obii (sometimes thought to be
Ubii 350px, The Ubii around AD 30 The Ubii were a Germanic tribe This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes ...
) crossed the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
and invaded
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...

Pannonia
. The two tribes were defeated, whereupon they ceased their invasion and sent Ballomar, King of the Marcomanni, as ambassador to Aelius Bassus, who was then administering Pannonia. Peace was made and the two tribes returned to their homes, which in the case of the Lombards was the lands of the lower Elbe. At about this time, in his ''Germania (book), Germania'' Tacitus says that "their scanty numbers are a distinction" because "surrounded by a host of most powerful tribes, they are safe, not by submitting, but by daring the perils of war". In the mid-2nd century, the Lombards supposedly appeared in the Rhineland, because according to Claudius Ptolemy, the Suebic Lombards lived "below" the Bructeri and Sugambri, and between these and the Tencteri. To their east stretching northwards to the central Elbe are the Suebi Angili. But Ptolemy also mentions the "Laccobardi" to the north of the above-mentioned Suebic territories, east of the Angrivarii on the
Weser The Weser () is a river of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany. It begins at Hann. Münden, Hannoversch Münden through the confluence of the Werra and Fulda (river), Fulda. It passes through the Hanseatic League, Hanseatic city of Bremen. Its m ...
, and south of the
Chauci The Chauci (german: Chauken, and identical or similar in other regional modern languages) were an ancient Germanic tribe This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes ...
on the coast, probably indicating a Lombard expansion from the Elbe to the Rhine. This double mention has been interpreted as an editorial error by Gudmund Schütte, in his analysis of Ptolemy. However, the ''Codex Gothanus'' also mentions ''Patespruna'' (Paderborn) in connection with the Lombards. From the second century onwards, many of the Germanic tribes recorded as active during the Principate started to unite into bigger tribal unions, such as the Franks, Alamanni, Bavarii, and
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxons
.Priester, 14. Menghin, 16. The Lombards are not mentioned at first, perhaps because they were not initially on the border of Rome, or perhaps because they were subjected to a larger tribal union, like the Saxons. It is, however, highly probable that, when the bulk of the Lombards migrated, a considerable part remained behind and afterwards became absorbed by the Saxon tribes in the Elbe region, while the emigrants alone retained the name of Lombards. However, the ''Codex Gothanus'' states that the Lombards were subjected by the Saxons around 300 but rose up against them under their first king, Agelmund, who ruled for 30 years. In the second half of the 4th century, the Lombards left their homes, probably due to bad harvests, and embarked on their migration. The migration route of the Lombards in 489, from their homeland to "Rugiland", encompassed several places: ''Scoringa'' (believed to be their land on the Elbe shores), ''Mauringa'', ''Golanda'', ''Anthaib'', ''Banthaib'', and ''Vurgundaib'' (''Burgundaib''). According to the Ravenna Cosmography, Mauringa was the land east of the Elbe. The crossing into Mauringa was very difficult. The Assipitti (possibly the Usipetes) denied them passage through their lands and a fight was arranged for the strongest man of each tribe. The Lombard was victorious, passage was granted, and the Lombards reached Mauringa. The Lombards departed from Mauringa and reached Golanda. Scholar Ludwig Schmidt thinks this was further east, perhaps on the right bank of the Oder. Schmidt considers the name the equivalent of Gotland, meaning simply "good land." This theory is highly plausible;
Paul the Deacon Paul the Deacon ( 720s 13 April in 796, 797, 798, or 799 CE), also known as ''Paulus Diaconus'', ''Warnefridus'', ''Barnefridus'', or ''Winfridus'', and sometimes suffixed ''Cassinensis'' (''i.e.'' "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scr ...
mentions the Lombards crossing a river, and they could have reached ''Rugiland'' from the Upper Oder area via the Moravian Gate. Moving out of Golanda, the Lombards passed through Anthaib and Banthaib until they reached Vurgundaib, believed to be the old lands of the Burgundes. In Vurgundaib, the Lombards were stormed in camp by "
Bulgars The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadi ...

Bulgars
" (probably Huns) and were defeated; King Agelmund was killed and Laimicho was made king. He was in his youth and desired to avenge the slaughter of Agelmund. The Lombards themselves were probably made subjects of the Huns after the defeat but rose up and defeated them with great slaughter, gaining great booty and confidence as they "became bolder in undertaking the toils of war." In the 540s,
Audoin Alduin ( Langobardic: ''Aldwin'' or ''Hildwin'', ; also called Auduin or Audoin) was king of the Lombards from 547 to 560. Life Aldoin was of the Gausi, a prominent Lombard ruling clan, and according to the ''Historia Langobardorum'', the so ...
(ruled 546–560) led the Lombards across the Danube once more into
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...

Pannonia
, where they received Imperial subsidies as Justinian encouraged them to battle the Gepids. In 552, the Byzantines, aided by a large contingent of Foederati, notably Lombards, Heruls and Bulgars, defeated the last Ostrogoths led by Teia in the Battle of Taginae.


Kingdom in Italy, 568–774


Invasion and conquest of the Italian peninsula

In approximately 560, Audoin was succeeded by his son
Alboin Alboin (530s – 28 June 572) was king of the from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their by settling in Italy, the northern part of which Alboin conquered between 569 and 572. He had a lasting effect on Italy and the ; ...
, a young and energetic leader who defeated the neighboring Gepidae and made them his subjects; in 566, he married Rosamund (Lombard), Rosamund, daughter of the Gepid king Cunimund. The next year the Lombards and their allies, the Pannonian Avars, Avars, destroyed the Gepid kingdom in the Lombard–Gepid War (567), Lombard-Gepid War. In the spring of 568, Alboin, now fearing the aggressive Avars, led the Lombard migration into Italy (Roman Empire), Italy. According to the ''History of the Lombards,'' "Then the Langobards, having left
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...

Pannonia
, hastened to take possession of Italy (Roman Empire), Italy with their wives and children and all their goods." Various other peoples who either voluntarily joined or were subjects of Alboin, King Alboin were also part of the migration.
Whence, even until today, we call the villages in which they dwell Gepids, Gepidan, Bulgars, Bulgarian, Sarmatian, Pannonians, Pannonian, Suebi, Suabian, Taurisci, Norican, or by other names of this kind."
At least 20,000 Saxon warriors, old allies of the Lombards, and their families joined them in their new migration. The first important city to fall was ''Forum Iulii'' (Cividale del Friuli) in northeast Italy, northeastern Italy, in 569. There, Alboin created the first Lombard duchy, which he entrusted to his nephew Gisulf II of Friuli, Gisulf. Soon Vicenza, Verona and Brescia fell into Germanic hands. In the summer of 569, the Lombards conquered the main Roman centre of northern Italy, Milan. The area was then recovering from the terrible Gothic War (535–552), Gothic Wars, and the small Byzantine Empire, Byzantine army left for its defence could do almost nothing. Longinus, the Exarch sent to Italy by Emperor Justin II, could only defend coastal cities that could be supplied by the powerful Byzantine fleet.
Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po River, Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was ...

Pavia
fell after a siege of three years, in 572, becoming the first capital city of the new Lombard kingdom of Italy. In the following years, the Lombards penetrated further south, conquering Tuscany and establishing two duchies, Duchy of Spoleto, Spoleto and Duchy of Benevento, Benevento under Zotto, which soon became semi-independent and even outlasted the northern kingdom, surviving well into the 12th century. Wherever they went, they were joined by the Ostrogothic population, which was allowed to live peacefully in Italy with their Rugian allies under Roman sovereignty. The Byzantine Empire, Byzantines managed to retain control of the area of Ravenna and Rome, linked by a thin corridor running through Perugia. When they entered Italy, some Lombards retained their native form of Germanic paganism, paganism, while some were Arianism, Arian Christians. Hence they did not enjoy good relations with the Early Christian Church. Gradually, they adopted Roman or Romanized titles, names, and traditions, and partially converted to orthodoxy (in the seventh century), though not without a long series of religious and ethnic conflicts. By the time
Paul the Deacon Paul the Deacon ( 720s 13 April in 796, 797, 798, or 799 CE), also known as ''Paulus Diaconus'', ''Warnefridus'', ''Barnefridus'', or ''Winfridus'', and sometimes suffixed ''Cassinensis'' (''i.e.'' "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scr ...
was writing, the Lombard language, dress and even hairstyles had nearly all disappeared ''in toto''. The whole Lombard territory was divided into 36 duchies, whose leaders settled in the main cities. The king ruled over them and administered the land through emissaries called ''gastaldi''. This subdivision, however, together with the independent indocility of the duchies, deprived the kingdom of unity, making it weak even when compared to the Byzantines, especially since these had begun to recover from the initial invasion. This weakness became even more evident when the Lombards had to face the increasing power of the Franks. In response, the kings tried to centralize power over time, but they definitively lost control over Spoleto and Benevento in the attempt.


=Langobardia major

= *Duchy of Friuli *Duchy of Tridentum, Duchy of Trent *Duchy of Persiceta *Duchy of Pavia *Duchy of Tuscia


=Langobardia minor

= *Duchy of Spoleto and List of Dukes of Spoleto *Duchy of Benevento and List of Dukes and Princes of Benevento


Arian monarchy

In 572, Alboin was murdered in Verona in a plot led by his wife, Rosamund, who later fled to Ravenna. His successor, Cleph, was also assassinated, after a ruthless reign of 18 months. His death began an interregnum of years (the "Rule of the Dukes") during which the Duke (Lombard), dukes did not elect any king, a period regarded as a time of violence and disorder. In 586, threatened by a Frankish invasion, the dukes elected Cleph's son, Authari, as king. In 589, he married Theodelinda, daughter of Garibald I of Bavaria, the Duke of Duchy of Bavaria, Bavaria. The Catholic Theodelinda was a friend of Pope Gregory I and pushed for Christianization. In the meantime, Authari embarked on a policy of internal reconciliation and tried to reorganize royal administration. The dukes yielded half their estates for the maintenance of the king and his court in Pavia. On the foreign affairs side, Authari managed to thwart the dangerous alliance between the Byzantines and the Franks. Authari died in 591 and was succeeded by Agilulf, the duke of Duchy of Turin, Turin, who also married Theodelinda in the same year. Agilulf successfully fought the rebel dukes of northern Italy, conquering Padua in 601, Cremona and Mantua in 603, and forcing the Exarch of Ravenna to pay tribute. Agilulf died in 616; Theodelinda reigned alone until 628 when she was succeeded by Adaloald. Arioald, the head of the Arian opposition who had married Theodelinda's daughter Gundeperga, later deposed Adaloald. Arioald was succeeded by Rothari, regarded by many authorities as the most energetic of all Lombard kings. He extended his dominions, conquering Liguria in 643 and the remaining part of the Byzantine territories of inner Veneto, including the Roman city of ''Opitergium'' (Oderzo). Rothari also made the famous edict bearing his name, the ''Edictum Rothari'', which established the laws and the customs of his people in Latin: the edict did not apply to the tributaries of the Lombards, who could retain their own laws. Rothari's son Rodoald succeeded him in 652, still very young, and was killed by his opponents. At the death of King Aripert I in 661, the kingdom was split between his children Perctarit, who set his capital in Milan, and Godepert, who reigned from
Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po River, Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was ...

Pavia
(Ticinum). Perctarit was overthrown by Grimoald I of Benevento, Grimoald, son of Gisulf, duke of Duchy of Friuli, Friuli and Duchy of Benevento, Benevento since 647. Perctarit fled to the Avars (Carpathians), Avars and then to the Franks. Grimoald managed to regain control over the duchies and deflected the late attempt of the Byzantine emperor Constans II (Byzantine Empire), Constans II to conquer southern Italy. He also defeated the Franks. At Grimoald's death in 671 Perctarit returned and promoted tolerance between Arians and Catholics, but he could not defeat the Arian party, led by Arachi, duke of Duchy of Tridentum, Trento, who submitted only to his son, the philo-Catholic Cunincpert. The Lombards engaged in fierce battles with Slavic peoples during these years: from 623 to 626 the Lombards unsuccessfully attacked the Carantanians, and, in 663–64, the Slavs raided the Vipava Valley and the Friuli.


Catholic monarchy

Religious strife and the Slavic raids remained a source of struggle in the following years. In 705, the Friuli Lombards were defeated and lost the land to the west of the Soča River, namely the Gorizia Hills and the Venetian Slovenia. A new ethnic border was established that has lasted for over 1200 years up until the present time. The Lombard reign began to recover only with Liutprand the Lombard (king from 712), son of Ansprand and successor of the brutal Aripert II. He managed to regain a certain control over Spoleto and Benevento, and, taking advantage of the disagreements between the Pope and Byzantine Empire, Byzantium concerning the Byzantine Iconoclasm, reverence of icons, he annexed the Exarchate of Ravenna and the duchy of Rome. He also helped the Frankish marshal Charles Martel drive back the Arabs. The Slavs were defeated in the Battle of Lavariano, when they tried to conquer the Friulian Plain in 720. Liutprand's successor Aistulf conquered Ravenna for the Lombards for the first time but had to relinquish it when he was subsequently defeated by the king of the Franks, Pippin III, who was called by the Pope. After the death of Aistulf, Ratchis attempted to become king of Lombardy, but he was deposed by Desiderius, duke of March of Tuscany, Tuscany, the last Lombard to rule as king. Desiderius managed to take Ravenna definitively, ending the Byzantine presence in northern Italy. He decided to reopen struggles against the Pope, who was supporting the dukes of Spoleto and Benevento against him, and entered Rome in 772, the first Lombard king to do so. But when Pope Hadrian I called for help from the powerful Frankish king
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
, Desiderius was defeated at Susa, Italy, Susa and besieged in
Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po River, Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was ...

Pavia
, while his son Adalgis, Adelchis was forced to open the gates of Verona to Frankish troops. Desiderius surrendered in 774, and Charlemagne, in an utterly novel decision, took the title "King of the Lombards". Before then the Germanic kingdoms had frequently conquered each other, but none had adopted the title of King of another people. Charlemagne took part of the Lombard territory to create the Papal States. The
Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...
region in Italy, which includes the cities of Brescia, Bergamo, Milan, and the old capital Pavia, is a reminder of the presence of the Lombards.


Later history


Falling to the Franks and the Duchy of Benevento, 774–849

Though the kingdom centred on Pavia in the north fell to Charlemagne and the Franks in 774, the Lombard-controlled territory to the south of the Papal States was never subjugated by Charlemagne or his descendants. In 774, Duke Arechis II of Benevento, whose duchy had only nominally been under royal authority, though certain kings had been effective at making their power known in the south, claimed that Benevento was the successor state of the kingdom. He tried to turn Benevento into a ''secundum Ticinum'': a second Pavia. He tried to claim the kingship, but with no support and no chance of a coronation in Pavia. Charlemagne came down with an army, and his son Louis the Pious sent men, to force the Beneventan duke to submit, but his submission and promises were never kept and Arechis and his successors were ''de facto'' independent. The Beneventan dukes took the title ''prínceps'' (prince) instead of that of king. The Lombards of southern Italy were thereafter in the anomalous position of holding land claimed by two empires: the Carolingian Empire to the north and west and the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
to the east. They typically made pledges and promises of tribute to the Carolingians, but effectively remained outside Frankish control. Benevento meanwhile grew to its greatest extent yet when it imposed a tribute on the Duchy of Naples, which was tenuously loyal to Byzantium and even conquered the Neapolitan city of Amalfi in 838. At one point in the reign of Sicard of Benevento, Sicard, Lombard control covered most of southern Italy save the very south of Apulia and Calabria and Naples, with its nominally attached cities. It was during the ninth century that a strong Lombard presence became entrenched in formerly Greek Apulia. However, Sicard had opened up the south to the invasive actions of the Saracens in his war with Andrew II of Naples and when he was assassinated in 839, Amalfi declared independence and two factions fought for power in Benevento, crippling the principality and making it susceptible to external enemies. The civil war lasted ten years and ended with a peace treaty imposed in 849 by Emperor Louis II, the only Frankish king to exercise actual sovereignty over the Lombard states. The treaty divided the kingdom into two states: the Principality of Benevento and the Principality of Salerno, with its capital at Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea.


Southern Italy and the Arabs, 836–915

Andrew II of Naples hired Islamic mercenaries and formed a Muslim-Christian alliance for his war with Sicard of Benevento in 836; Sicard responded with other Muslim mercenaries. The Saracens initially concentrated their attacks on Sicily and Byzantine Italy, but soon Radelchis I of Benevento called in more mercenaries, who destroyed Capua in 841. Landulf I of Capua, Landulf the Old founded the present-day Capua, "New Capua", on a nearby hill. In general, the Lombard princes were less inclined to ally with the Saracens than with their Greek neighbours of Amalfi, Gaeta, Naples, and Sorrento. Guaifer of Salerno, however, briefly put himself under Muslim suzerainty. In 847 a large Muslim force seized Bari, until then a Lombard gastaldate under the control of Pandenulf of Bari, Pandenulf. Saracen incursions proceeded northwards until Adelchis of Benevento sought the help of his suzerain, Louis II, who allied with the Byzantine emperor Basil I in an effort to Louis II's campaign against Bari (866–871), expel the Arabs from Bari in 869. An Arab landing force was defeated by the emperor in 871. Adelchis and Louis remained at war until the death of Louis in 875. Adelchis regarded himself as the true successor of the Lombard kings, and in that capacity he amended the ''Edictum Rothari'', the last Lombard ruler to do so. After the death of Louis, Landulf II of Capua briefly flirted with a Saracen alliance, but Pope John VIII convinced him to break it off. Guaimar I of Salerno fought the Saracens with Byzantine troops. Throughout this period the Lombard princes swung in allegiance from one party to another. Finally, towards 915, Pope John X managed to unite the Christian princes of southern Italy against the Saracen establishments on the Garigliano river. The Saracens were ousted from Italy in the Battle of the Garigliano in 915.


Lombard principalities in the tenth century

The independent state of Salerno inspired the prince of Capua, gastalds of Capua to move towards independence, and by the end of the century they were styling themselves "princes" and as a third Lombard state. The Capuan and Beneventan states were united by Atenulf I of Capua in 900. He subsequently declared them to be in perpetual union, and they were separated only in 982, on the death of Pandulf Ironhead. With all of the Lombard south under his control, except Salerno, Atenulf felt safe to use the title ''Princeps Gentis Langobardorum'' ("prince of the Lombard people"), which Arechis II had begun using in 774. Among Atenulf's successors the principality was ruled jointly by fathers, sons, brothers, cousins, and uncles for the greater part of the century. Meanwhile, the prince Gisulf I of Salerno began using the title ''Langobardorum Gentis Princeps'' around mid-century, but the ideal of a united Lombard principality was realised only in December 977, when Gisulf died and his domains were inherited by Pandulf Ironhead, who temporarily held almost all Italy south of Rome and brought the Lombards into alliance with the Holy Roman Empire. His territories were divided upon his death. Landulf II of Benevento, Landulf the Red of Benevento and Capua tried to conquer the principality of Salerno with the help of John III of Naples, but with the aid of Mastalus I of Amalfi, Gisulf repulsed him. The rulers of Benevento and Capua made several attempts on Catapanate of Italy, Byzantine Apulia at this time, but late in the century, the Byzantines, under the stiff rule of Basil II, gained ground on the Lombards. The principal source for the history of the Lombard principalities in this period is the ''Chronicon Salernitanum'', composed late in the tenth century at Salerno.


Norman conquest, 1017–1078

The diminished Beneventan principality soon lost its independence to the papacy and declined in importance until it fell in the Norman conquest of southern Italy. The Normans, first called in by the Lombards to fight the Byzantines for control of Apulia and Calabria (under the likes of Melus of Bari and Arduin the Lombard, Arduin, among others), had become rivals for hegemony in the south. The Salernitan principality experienced a golden age under Guaimar III of Salerno, Guaimar III and Guaimar IV of Salerno, Guaimar IV, but under Gisulf II of Salerno, Gisulf II, the principality shrank to insignificance and fell in 1078 to Robert Guiscard, who had married Gisulf's sister Sichelgaita. The Capua principality was hotly contested during the reign of the hated Pandulf IV of Capua, Pandulf IV, the ''Wolf of the Abruzzi'', and, under his son, it fell, almost without contest, to the Norman Richard I of Aversa, Richard Drengot (1058). The Capuans revolted against Norman rule in 1091, expelling Richard's grandson Richard II of Capua, Richard II and setting up one Lando IV of Capua, Lando IV. Capua was again put under Norman rule after the Siege of Capua of 1098 and the city quickly declined in importance under a series of ineffective Norman rulers. The independent status of these Lombard states is in general attested by the ability of their rulers to switch suzerains at will. Often the legal vassal of the pope or the emperor (either Byzantine or Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman), they were the real power-brokers in the south until their erstwhile allies, the Normans, rose to preeminence. The Lombards regarded the Normans as barbarians and the Byzantines as oppressors. Regarding their own civilisation as superior, the Lombards did indeed provide the environment for the illustrious Schola Medica Salernitana.


Genetics

A genetic study published in ''Nature Communications'' in September 2018 found strong genetic similarities between Lombards of Italy and earlier Lombards of Central Europe. The Lombards of Central Europe displayed no genetic similarities with earlier populations of this region, but were on the other hand strikingly similar genetically to Bronze Age Scandinavians. Lombard males were primarily carriers of subclades of haplogroup R1b and Haplogroup I-M438#I2a2a, I2a2a1, both of whom are common among Germanic peoples. Lombard males were found to be more genetically homogenous than Lombard females. The evidence suggested that the Lombards originated in Northern Europe, and were a patriarchal people who settled Central Europe and then later Italy through a migration from the north.. "Late Bronze Age Hungarians show almost no resemblance to populations from modern central/northern Europe, especially compare to Bronze Age Germans and in particular Scandinavians, who, in contrast, show considerable overlap with our Szólád and Collegno central/northern ancestry samples... Our results are thus consistent with an origin of barbarian groups such as the Longobards somewhere in Northern and Central Europe..." A genetic study published in ''Science Advances'' in September 2018 examined the remains of a Lombard male buried at an Alemannic graveyard. He was found to be a carrier of the paternal haplogroup Haplogroup R-M269#R1b1a1a2a1a1 (R-U106), R1b1a2a1a1c2b2b and the maternal haplogroup Haplogroup H (mtDNA)#H2, H6 and H8, H65a. The graveyard also included the remains of a
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
and a Byzantine Empire, Byzantine male, both of whom were also carriers of subclades of the paternal haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1. The Lombard, Frankish and Byzantine males were all found to be closely related, and displayed close genetic links to Northern Europe, particularly Lithuania and Iceland. A genetic study published in the ''European Journal of Human Genetics'' in January 2019 examined the mtDNA of a large number of early medieval Lombard remains from Central Europe and Italy. These individuals were found to be closely related and displayed strong genetic links to Northern Europe. The evidence suggested that the Lombard settlement of Italy was the result of a migration from the north involving both males and females.. "[T]he presence in this cluster of haplogroups that reach high frequency in Northern European populations, suggests a possible link between this core group of individuals and the proposed homeland of different ancient barbarian Germanic groups... This supports the view that the spread of Longobards into Italy actually involved movements of people, who gave a substantial contribution to the gene pool of the resulting populations...This is even more remarkable thinking that, in many studied cases, military invasions are movements of males, and hence do not have consequences at the mtDNA level. Here, instead, we have evidence of maternally linked genetic similarities between LC in Hungary and Italy, supporting the view that immigration from Central Europe involved females as well as males."


Culture


Language

The Lombardic language is extinct (unless Cimbrian language, Cimbrian and Mocheno represent surviving dialects). It declined beginning in the seventh century, but may have been in scattered use until as late as about the year 1000. Only fragments of the language have survived, the main evidence being individual words quoted in Latin texts. In the absence of Lombardic texts, it is not possible to draw any conclusions about the language's Morphology (linguistics), morphology and syntax. The genetic classification of the language depends entirely on phonology. Since there is evidence that Lombardic participated in, and indeed shows some of the earliest evidence for, the High German consonant shift, it is usually classified as an Elbe Germanic or Upper German dialect. Lombardic fragments are preserved in rune, runic inscriptions. Primary source texts include short inscriptions in the Elder Futhark, among them the "bronze capsule of Schretzheim" (c. 600) and the silver belt buckle found in Pforzen, Ostallgäu (Schwaben). A number of Latin texts include Lombardic names, and Lombardic legal texts contain terms taken from the legal vocabulary of the vernacular. In 2005, Emilia Denčeva argued that the inscription of the Pernik sword may be Lombardic. The Italian language preserves a large number of Lombardic words, although it is not always easy to distinguish them from other Germanic borrowings such as those from Gothic language, Gothic or from Frankish language, Frankish. They often bear some resemblance to English words, as Lombardic was akin to Old Saxon. For instance, ''landa'' from ''land'', ''guardia'' from ''wardan'' (warden), ''guerra'' from ''werra'' (war), ''ricco'' from ''rikki'' (rich), and ''guadare'' from ''wadjan'' (to wade). The ''Codice diplomatico longobardo'', a collection of legal documents, makes reference to many Lombardic terms, some of them still in use in the Italian language: ''barba'' (beard), ''marchio'' (mark), ''maniscalco'' (blacksmith), ''aia'' (courtyard), ''braida'' (suburban meadow), ''borgo'' (burg, village), ''fara'' (fundamental unity of Lombard social and military organization, presently used as toponym), ''picco'' (peak, mountain top, also used as toponym), ''sala'' (hall, room, also used as toponym), ''staffa'' (stirrup), ''stalla'' (stable), ''sculdascio'', ''faida'' (feud), ''manigoldo'' (scoundrel), ''sgherro'' (henchman); ''fanone'' (baleen), ''stamberga'' (hovel); ''anca'' (hip), ''guancia'' (cheek), ''nocca'' (knuckle), ''schiena'' (back); ''gazza'' (magpie), ''martora'' (marten); ''gualdo'' (wood, presently used as toponym), ''pozza'' (pool); verbs like ''bussare'' (to knock), ''piluccare'' (to peck), ''russare'' (to snore).


Social structure


Migration Period society

During their stay at the mouth of the Elbe, the Lombards came into contact with other western Germanic populations, such as the Saxons and the Frisians. From these populations, which had long been in contact with the Celts (especially the Saxons), they adopted a rigid social organization into castes, rarely present in other Germanic peoples. The Lombard kings can be traced back as early as c. 380 and thus to the beginning of the Migration Period, Great Migration. Kingship developed among the Germanic peoples when the unity of a single military command was found necessary. Schmidt believed that the Germanic tribes were divided into canton (country subdivision), cantons and that the earliest government was a general assembly that selected canton chiefs and war leaders in times of conflict. All such figures were probably selected from a caste of nobility. As a result of the wars of their wanderings, royal power developed such that the king became the representative of the people, but the influence of the people on the government did not fully disappear. Paul the Deacon gives an account of the Lombard tribal structure during the migration:
. . . in order that they might increase the number of their warriors, [the Lombards] confer liberty upon many whom they deliver from the yoke of bondage, and that the freedom of these may be regarded as established, they confirm it in their accustomed way by an arrow, uttering certain words of their country in confirmation of the fact.
Complete emancipation appears to have been granted only among the Franks and the Lombards.


Society of the Catholic kingdom

Lombard society was divided into classes comparable to those found in the other Germanic successor states of Rome, Frankish Empire, Frankish Gaul and Hispania, Spain under the Visigoths. There was a noble class, a class of free persons beneath them, a class of unfree non-slaves (serfs), and finally slaves. The aristocracy itself was poorer, more urbanised, and less landed than elsewhere. Aside from the richest and most powerful of the dukes and the king himself, Lombard noblemen tended to live in cities (unlike their Frankish counterparts) and hold little more than twice as much in land as the merchant class (a far cry from provincial Frankish aristocrats who held vast swathes of land, hundreds of times larger than those beneath his status). The aristocracy by the eighth century was highly dependent on the king for means of income related especially to judicial duties: many Lombard nobles are referred to in contemporary documents as ''iudices'' (judges) even when their offices had important military and legislative functions as well. The freemen of the Lombard kingdom were far more numerous than in Frankish lands, especially in the eighth century, when they are almost invisible in surviving documentary evidence. Smallholders, owner-cultivators, and rentiers are the most numerous types of person in surviving diplomata for the Lombard kingdom. They may have owned more than half of the land in Lombard Italy. The freemen were ''exercitales'' and ''viri devoti'', that is, soldiers and "devoted men" (a military term like "retainers"); they formed the Conscription#Medieval levies, levy of the Lombard army, and they were sometimes, if infrequently, called to serve, though this seems not to have been their preference. The small landed class, however, lacked the political influence necessary with the king (and the dukes) to control the politics and legislation of the kingdom. The aristocracy was more thoroughly powerful politically if not economically in Italy than in contemporary Gaul and Spain. The urbanisation of Lombard Italy was characterised by the ''città ad isole'' (or "city as islands"). It appears from archaeology that the great cities of Lombard Italy—
Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po River, Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was ...

Pavia
, Lucca, Siena, Arezzo, Milan—were themselves formed of small urban cores within the old Roman city walls. The cities of the Roman Empire had been partially destroyed in the series of wars of the fifth and sixth centuries. Many sectors were left in ruins and ancient monuments became fields of grass used as pastures for animals, thus the Roman Forum became the ''Campo Vaccino'', the field of cows. The portions of the cities that remained intact were small, modest, contained a cathedral or major church (often sumptuously decorated), and a few public buildings and townhouses of the aristocracy. Few buildings of importance were stone, most were wood. In the end, the inhabited parts of the cities were separated from one another by stretches of pasture even within the city walls.


Lombard states

*Lombard state on the Carpathians (6th century) *Lombard state in Pannonia (6th century) *Kingdom of Italy (Lombard), Kingdom of Italy and Kings of the Lombards, List of Kings of the Lombards *Principality of Benevento and List of Dukes and Princes of Benevento *Principality of Salerno and List of Princes of Salerno *Principality of Capua and List of Princes of Capua


Religious history

The legend from Origo may hint that initially, before the passage from Scandinavia to the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, the Lombards worshiped the Vanir. Later, in contact with other Germanic populations, they adopted the worship of the Æsir: an evolution that marked the passage from the adoration of deities related to fertility and the earth to the cult of warlike gods. In chapter 40 of his ''Germania (book), Germania'', Roman historian
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
, discussing the Suebian tribes of Germania, writes that the Lombards were one of the Suebian tribes united in worship of the deity Nerthus, who is often identified with the Norse mythology, Norse goddess Freyja. The other tribes were the Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suarines and Nuitones.Tacitus', ''Germania'', wikisource:Germania#XL, 40, Medieval Source Book. Code and format by Northveg

Barbatus of Benevento, St. Barbatus of Benevento observed many pagan rituals and traditions among the Lombards authorised by the Romuald I of Benevento, Duke Romuald, son of Grimoald I of Benevento, King Grimoald:


Christianisation

The Lombards first adopted Christianity while still in Pannonia, but their conversion and Christianisation was largely nominal and far from complete. During the reign of Wacho, they were Orthodox Catholics allied with the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
, but
Alboin Alboin (530s – 28 June 572) was king of the from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their by settling in Italy, the northern part of which Alboin conquered between 569 and 572. He had a lasting effect on Italy and the ; ...
converted to Arianism as an ally of the
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mention ...
and invaded Italy. All these Christian conversions primarily affected the aristocracy, while the common people remained pagan. In Italy, the Lombards were intensively Christianised, and the pressure to convert to Catholicism was great. With the Duchy of Bavaria, Bavarian queen Theodelinda, a Catholic, the monarchy was brought under heavy Catholic influence. After initial support for the anti-Rome party in the Schism of the Three Chapters, Theodelinda remained a close contact and supporter of Pope Gregory I. In 603, Adaloald, the heir to the throne, received Catholic baptism. During the next century, Arianism and paganism continued to hold out in Austria (Lombard), Austria (the northeast of Italy) and in the Duchy of Benevento. A succession of Arian kings was militarily aggressive and presented a threat to the Papacy in Rome. In the seventh century, the nominally Christian aristocracy of Benevento was still practising pagan rituals such as sacrifices in "sacred" woods. By the end of the reign of Cunincpert, however, the Lombards were more or less completely Catholicised. Under Liutprand Catholicism became tangible as the king sought to justify his title ''rex totius Italiae'' by uniting the south of the peninsula with the north, thereby bringing together his Italo-Roman and Germanic subjects into one Catholic State.


Beneventan Christianity

The Duchy and eventually Principality of Benevento in southern Italy developed a unique Christian rite in the seventh and eighth centuries. The Beneventan rite is more closely related to the liturgy of the Ambrosian rite than to the Roman rite. The Beneventan rite has not survived in its complete form, although most of the principal feasts and several feasts of local significance are extant. The Beneventan rite appears to have been less complete, less systematic, and more liturgically flexible than the Roman rite. Characteristic of this rite was the Beneventan chant, a Lombard-influenced chant that bore similarities to the Ambrosian chant of Milan. The Beneventan chant is largely defined by its role in the liturgy of the Beneventan rite; many Beneventan chants were assigned multiple roles when inserted into Gregorian chantbooks, appearing variously as antiphons, offertories, and communions, for example. It was eventually supplanted by the Gregorian chant in the 11th century. The chief centre of the Beneventan chant was Montecassino, one of the first and greatest abbeys of Western monasticism. Gisulf II of Benevento had donated a large swathe of land to Montecassino in 744, and that became the basis for an important state, the ''Terra Sancti Benedicti'', which was a subject only to Rome. The Cassinese influence on Christianity in southern Italy was immense. Montecassino was also the starting point for another characteristic of Beneventan monasticism, the use of the distinct Beneventan script, a clear, angular script derived from the Roman cursive as used by the Lombards.


Art

During their nomadic phase, the Lombards primarily created art that was easily carried with them, like arms and jewellery. Though relatively little of this has survived, it bears resemblance to the similar endeavours of other Germanic tribes of northern and central Europe from the same era. The first major modifications to the Germanic style of the Lombards came in Pannonia and especially in Italy, under the influence of local, Byzantine art and architecture, Byzantine, and early Christian art and architecture, Christian styles. The conversions from nomadism and paganism to settlement and Christianity also opened up new arenas of artistic expression, such as architecture (especially churches) and its accompanying decorative arts (such as frescoes). File:Langobard Shield Boss 7th Century.jpg, Lombard shield boss
northern Italy, 7th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art File:Langobardic - Fibula - Walters 542440.jpg, Lombard Fibula (brooch), S-shaped fibula File:Arte longobarda, da sutri, bicchiere a forma di corno, fine VI-inizio VII sec.JPG, A glass drinking horn from Castel Trosino File:Langobardic - Shroud Cross - Walters 571773.jpg, Lombard ''Goldblattkreuz'' File:Cividale fibula1.jpg, Lombard Fibula (brooch), fibulae File:Cividale Ratchis1.JPG, Altar of Ratchis File:Cividale Tempietto Longobardo - Westwand Märtyrerinnen 1.jpg, 8th-century Lombard sculpture depicting female martyrs, based on a Byzantine model. ''Tempietto Longobardo'', Cividale del Friuli


Architecture

Few Lombard buildings have survived. Most have been lost, rebuilt, or renovated at some point, so they preserve little of their original Lombard structure. Lombard architecture was well-studied in the 20th century, and the four-volume ''Lombard Architecture'' (1919) by Arthur Kingsley Porter is a "monument of illustrated history". The small Oratorio di Santa Maria in Valle in Cividale del Friuli is probably one of the oldest preserved examples of Lombard architecture, as Cividale was the first Lombard city in Italy. Parts of Lombard constructions have been preserved in
Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po River, Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. The city was ...

Pavia
(San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, crypts of Sant'Eusebio and San Giovanni Domnarum) and Monza (Cathedral of Monza, cathedral). The ''Basilic autariana'' in Fara Gera d'Adda near Bergamo and the church of San Salvatore in Brescia also have Lombard elements. All these buildings are in northern Italy (Langobardia major), but by far the best-preserved Lombard structure is in southern Italy (Langobardia minor). The Santa Sofia, Benevento, Church of Santa Sofia in Benevento was erected in 760 by Arechis II of Benevento, Duke Arechis II, and it preserves Lombard frescoes on the walls and even Lombard capitals on the columns. Lombard architecture flourished under the impulse provided by the Catholic monarchs like Theodelinda, Liutprand the Lombard, Liutprand, and Desiderius to the foundation of monasteries to further their political control. Bobbio Abbey was founded during this time. Some of the late Lombard structures of the ninth and tenth centuries have been found to contain elements of style associated with Romanesque architecture and so have been dubbed "first Romanesque". These edifices are considered, along with some similar buildings in southern France and Catalonia, to mark a transitory phase between the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, Pre-Romanesque and full-fledged Romanesque.


List of rulers


Notes and sources


Notes


Ancient sources

* ''Cosmographer of Ravenna'' * ''Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani'' in '' Codex Gothanus'' * ''Historia Langobardorum'' * ''
Origo Gentis Langobardorum The ''Origo Gentis Langobardorum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through th ...

Origo Gentis Langobardorum
'' *
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
. ''Annals'' * Tacitus. ''Germania (book), Germania''


Modern sources

* * * :de:Friedrich Bluhme, Bluhme, Friedrich (1868).
Die Gens Langobardorum und ihre Herkunft, ...und ihre Sprache
'. Bonn: A.Marcus. * * Bruckner, Wilhelm (1895).
Die Sprache der Langobarden
', Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach- und Culturgeschichte der germanischen Völker, 75. Strassburg: Karl J. Trübner. * * * * * * * Fröhlich, Hermann (1976)
"Zur Herkunft der Langobarden"
In ''Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken (QFIAB) 55/56''. Tübingen : Max Niemeyer. pp. 1–21. * In two volumes. Diss. Eberhard-Karls-Universität zu Tübingen. * * Jacob Grimm, Grimm, Jacob (1875–78) [1st ed. 1835]. ''Deutsche Mythologie'' * H. M. Gwatkin, Gwatkin, H. M., J. P. Whitney, Whitney, J. P. (ed) (1913). ''The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume II—The Rise of the Saracens and the Foundations of the Western Empire''. * * Hammerstein-Loxten, Wilhelm Freiherr von (1869).
Die Bardengau
'. Hannover: Hahn'sche Buchhandlung. * Hartmann, Ludo Moritz. ''Geschichte Italiens im Mittelalter II Vol.'' * Hodgkin, Thomas. ''Italy and Her Invaders''. Clarendon Press * * Menghin, Wilifred. ''Die Langobarden / Geschichte und Archäologie''. Theiss * * Charles Oman, Oman, Charles (1914) [1893] .
The Dark Ages 476–918
' (6th ed.). Periods of European History. London: Rivingtons. * Walter Pohl, Pohl, Walter and Erhart, Peter (2005). ''Die Langobarden : Herrschaft und Identität''. Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters, 9. Wien: VÖAW. * Priester, Karin (2004). ''Geschichte der Langobarden: Gesellschaft – Kultur – Altagsleben''. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss. * * Antonio Santosuosso, Santosuosso, Antonio (2004). ''Barbarians, Marauders, and Infidels: The Ways of Medieval Warfare''. * Schmidt, Dr. Ludwig (1885)
''Zur Geschichte der Langobarden''
Leipzig: Gustav Fock. Also in (1884) ''Älteste Geschichte der Langobarden. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Völkerwanderung''. Dissertation. Leipzig, Universität. * * Wegewitz, Willi. ''Das langobardische Brandgräberfeld von Putensen, Kreise Harburg'' * . * Wiese, Robert. ''Die älteste Geschichte der Langobarden'' * Zeuss, Kaspar. ''Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstämme'' * Carlo Troya, Giovanni Minervini (1852-1855) Codice diplomatico longobardo dal DLXVIII al DCCLXXIV: con note storiche, Napoli, Stamperia reale, 1855 * * * *


External links

* {{Authority control Lombards, Early Germanic peoples Migration Period Suebi