HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Ascomycota
ASCOMYCOTA is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi
Fungi
that, together with the Basidiomycota , form the subkingdom Dikarya . Its members are commonly known as the SAC FUNGI or ASCOMYCETES. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species . The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus " (from Greek : ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores , called ascospores , are formed
[...More...]

"Ascomycota" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Physiological
PHYSIOLOGY (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/ ; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of' ) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms , and their interactions, which works within a living system . A sub-discipline of biology , its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs , cells , and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans ), plant physiology , cellular physiology , microbial physiology (microbial metabolism ), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells
[...More...]

"Physiological" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from taxonomy ) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping
[...More...]

"Taxon" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Phylogenetic
In biology , PHYLOGENETICS /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/ (Greek : φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth) is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species , or populations ). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree ) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end," or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes
[...More...]

"Phylogenetic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Morphology (biology)
MORPHOLOGY is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape , structure , colour , pattern , size ), i.e. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or eidonomy ), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs , i.e. INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or anatomy ). This is in contrast to physiology , which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions of morphology * 3 Morphology and classification * 4 3D cell morphology:classification * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research"
[...More...]

"Morphology (biology)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Sexual Reproduction
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm . Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division , which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis . The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In a process called genetic recombination , genetic material ( DNA
DNA
) joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information
[...More...]

"Sexual Reproduction" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
[...More...]

"Species" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
[...More...]

"Greek Language" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine , guanine , adenine or thymine ), a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group
[...More...]

"DNA" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Monophyly
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
[...More...]

"Monophyly" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Caval.-Sm.
Gonville and Caius College , Cambridge King\'s College London THESIS Organelle Development in Chlamydomonas reinhardii\' (1967) KNOWN FOR His system of classification of all organisms NOTABLE AWARDS Fellow of the Royal Society (1998) International Prize for Biology (2004) The Linnean Medal (2007) Frink Medal (2007) WEBSITE www.zoo.ox.ac.uk/people/view/cavaliersmith_t.htm THOMAS (TOM) CAVALIER-SMITH, FRS , FRSC , NERC Professorial Fellow (born 21 October 1942), is a Professor of Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford . His research has led to discovery of a number of unicellular organisms (protists ) and definition of taxonomic positions, such as introduction of the kingdom Chromista , and other groups including Chromalveolata , Opisthokonta , Rhizaria , and Excavata . He is well known for his system of classification of all organisms
[...More...]

"Caval.-Sm." on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Truffle
A TRUFFLE is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber . Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi and are therefore usually found in close association with tree roots. Spore
Spore
dispersal is accomplished through fungivores , animals that eat fungi. Some of the truffle species are highly prized as food. French gourmet Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin called truffles "the diamond of the kitchen". Edible truffles are held in high esteem in French , Croatian , Georgian , Bulgarian , Greek , Italian , Middle Eastern , and Spanish cuisine , as well as in international haute cuisine
[...More...]

"Truffle" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Baker's Yeast
BAKER\'S YEAST is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol . Baker's yeast
Baker's yeast
is of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which is the same species (but a different strain ) commonly used in alcoholic fermentation, which is called brewer\'s yeast . Baker's yeast
Baker's yeast
is also a single-cell microorganism found on and around the human body. The use of steamed or boiled potatoes , water from potato boiling, or sugar in a bread dough provides food for the growth of yeasts; however, too much sugar will dehydrate them. Yeast
Yeast
growth is inhibited by both salt and sugar, but more so with salt than sugar
[...More...]

"Baker's Yeast" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
[...More...]

"Taxonomy (biology)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Pathogen
In biology , a PATHOGEN (Greek : πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease ; the term came into use in the 1880s. Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus , bacterium , protozoa , prion , a fungus , or other micro-organism. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases
[...More...]

"Pathogen" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Berk.
MILES JOSEPH BERKELEY (1 April 1803 – 30 July 1889) was an English cryptogamist and clergyman, and one of the founders of the science of plant pathology . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Family * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links LIFEBerkeley was born at Biggin Hall , Benefield
Benefield
, Northamptonshire, and educated at Rugby School
Rugby School
and Christ\'s College, Cambridge . Taking holy orders , he became incumbent of Apethorpe
Apethorpe
in 1837, and vicar of Sibbertoft, near Market Harborough
Market Harborough
, in 1868. He acquired an enthusiastic love of cryptogamic botany (lichens ) in his early years, and soon was recognized as the leading British authority on fungi and plant pathology . Christ's College made him an honorary fellow in 1883
[...More...]

"Berk." on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.