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Ascomycota
ASCOMYCOTA is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota , form the subkingdom Dikarya . Its members are commonly known as the SAC FUNGI or ASCOMYCETES. They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species . The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus " (from Greek : ἀσκός (_askos_), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores , called ascospores , are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota are asexual , meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores. Previously placed in the Deuteromycota along with asexual species from other fungal taxa, asexual (or anamorphic ) ascomycetes are now identified and classified based on morphological or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa , and by phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences
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Sarcoscypha Coccinea
edibility: INEDIBLE or EDIBLE _SARCOSCYPHA COCCINEA_, commonly known as the SCARLET ELF CUP, SCARLET ELF CAP, or the SCARLET CUP, is a species of fungus in the family Sarcoscyphaceae of the order Pezizales . The fungus, widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere , has been found in Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, and Australia. The type species of the genus _ Sarcoscypha _, _S. coccinea_ has been known by many names since its first appearance in the scientific literature in 1772. Phylogenetic analysis shows the species to be most closely related to other _Sarcoscypha_ species that contain numerous small oil droplets in their spores , such as the North Atlantic island species _S. macaronesica _. Due to similar physical appearances and sometimes overlapping distributions, _S. coccinea_ has often been confused with _S. occidentalis _, _S. austriaca _, and _S. dudleyi _
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Fungus
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla _incertae sedis _ Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/ ; plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals
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Dikarya
Ascomycota Basidiomycota SYNONYMS Carpomycetaceae Bessey (1907) Neomycota Caval.-Sm. (1998) DIKARYA is a subkingdom of Fungi that includes the divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota , both of which in general produce dikaryons , may be filamentous or unicellular , but are always without flagella . The Dikarya
Dikarya
are most of the so-called "higher fungi", but also include many anamorphic species that would have been classified as molds in historical literature. Phylogenetically the two divisions regularly group together. In a 1998 publication, Thomas Cavalier-Smith referred to this group as the Neomycota
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Berk.
MILES JOSEPH BERKELEY (1 April 1803 – 30 July 1889) was an English cryptogamist and clergyman, and one of the founders of the science of plant pathology . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFEBerkeley was born at Biggin Hall , Benefield , Northamptonshire, and educated at Rugby School and Christ\'s College, Cambridge . Taking holy orders , he became incumbent of Apethorpe in 1837, and vicar of Sibbertoft, near Market Harborough
Market Harborough
, in 1868. He acquired an enthusiastic love of cryptogamic botany (lichens ) in his early years, and soon was recognized as the leading British authority on fungi and plant pathology . Christ's College made him an honorary fellow in 1883
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Caval.-Sm.
Gonville and Caius College
Gonville and Caius College
, Cambridge King\'s College London KNOWN FOR His system of classification of all organisms AWARDS Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(1998)
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Pezizomycotina
PEZIZOMYCOTINA contains the filamentous ascomycetes and is a subdivision of the ASCOMYCOTA (fungi that form their spores in a sac-like _ascus_). It is more or less synonymous with the older taxon EUASCOMYCOTA. These fungi reproduce by fission rather than budding and this subdivision includes almost all the ascus fungi that have fruiting bodies visible to the naked eye (exception: genus _Neolecta _, which belongs to the Taphrinomycotina ). See the taxobox for a list of the classes that make up the Pezizomycotina. The old class Loculoascomycetes (consisting of all the bitunicate Ascomycota) has been replaced by the two classes EUROTIOMYCETES and DOTHIDEOMYCETES . The rest of the Pezizomycotina also include the previously defined hymenial groups Discomycetes (now LEOTIOMYCETES ) and Pyrenomycetes (SORDARIOMYCETES )
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Arthoniomycetes
ARTHONIOMYCETES are a class of ascomycete fungi . It includes the single order Arthoniales. Most of the taxa in this class are tropical and subtropical lichens . CONTENTS * 1 Systematics * 2 Characteristics * 3 References * 4 External links SYSTEMATICS Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
analysis supports the monophyly of this class. Dothideomycetes is a sister group. CHARACTERISTICSTaxa have apothecia, cup- or saucer- shaped ascoma in which the hymenium is exposed at maturity. These apothecia are bitunicate - with clearly differentiated inner and out walls. REFERENCES * ^ Spatafora JW, Sung GH, Johnson D, et al. (2006). "A five-gene phylogeny of Pezizomycotina". Mycologia . 98 (6): 1018–28. doi :10.3852/mycologia.98.6.1018 . PMID 17486977 . * ^ Lumbsch HT, Schmitt I, Lindemuth R, et al
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Dothideomycetes
Dothideomycetidae Capnodiales Dothideales Myriangiales Pleosporomycetidae Hysteriales Jahnulales Mytilinidiales Pleosporales Incertae sedis Botryosphaeriales Microthyriales Patellariales Trypetheliales DOTHIDEOMYCETES is the largest and most diverse class of ascomycete fungi . It comprises 11 orders 90 families , 1300 genera and over 19,000 known species . Traditionally, most of its members were included in the loculoascomycetes, which is not part of the currently accepted classification. This indicates that several traditional morphological features in the class are not unique and DNA sequence comparisons are important to define the class. The designation loculoascomycetes was first proposed for all fungi which have ascolocular development
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Eurotiomycetes
The EUROTIOMYCETES are a class of ascomycetes within the subphylum Pezizomycotina
Pezizomycotina
. Some members of the Eurotiomycetes
Eurotiomycetes
were previously grouped in the class Plectomycetes . CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Morphology * 3 References * 4 External links NOMENCLATUREThe scientific classification for this particular class is particularly tricky, with one particular species having both the anamorph , and teleomorph names used in reference to them. * e.g. anamorph form = Penicillium
Penicillium
; teleomorph form = Talaromyces or Eupenicillium . MORPHOLOGYMany members (Eurotiales, Onygenales) produce an enclosed structure cleistothecium within which they produce their spores. REFERENCES * ^ N. Gunde-Cimerman; A. Oren; A. Plemenitaš, eds. (2006). Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
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Geoglossomycetes
GEOGLOSSACEAE is a family of fungi in the order GEOGLOSSALES, class GEOGLOSSOMYCETES. These fungi are broadly known as EARTH TONGUES. The ascocarps of most species in the family Geoglossaceae are terrestrial and are generally small, dark in color, and club-shaped with a height of 2–8 cm. The ascospores are typically light-brown to dark-brown and are often multiseptate. Other species of fungi have been known to parasitize ascocarps. The use of a compound microscope is needed for accurate identification. SYSTEMATICS Geoglossum difforme Geoglossum simile Geoglossum sphagnophilum Geoglossum cookeanum , G. glabrum Geoglossum umbratile Geoglossum nigritum Geoglossum barlae Trichoglossum (T. hirsutum , T
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Laboulbeniomycetes
Laboulbeniales
Laboulbeniales
Pyxidiophorales The LABOULBENIOMYCETES are a unique group of fungi that are apparent external parasites of insects and other arthropods , both terrestrial and aquatic. These fungi are minute; their fruiting bodies commonly measure less than one millimeter. They live on the antennae, the mouthparts or other body regions of their arthropod hosts. Although several species of Laboulbeniomycetes
Laboulbeniomycetes
have more or less extensive, root-like hyphal systems (haustoria ) inside their hosts, as a group these fungi are apparently harmless to the animals they live on. These fungi are usually apparent only on adult hosts; apparently immature arthropods eliminate them during ecdysis (adult arthropods no longer molt). Some fungi in the Laboulbeniomycetes
Laboulbeniomycetes
have separate female and male individuals, like Herpomyces
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Lecanoromycetes
Subclass Acarosporomycetidae * Acarosporales Subclass Lecanoromycetidae * Lecanorales * Peltigerales * Teloschistales Subclass Ostropomycetidae * Agyriales * Baeomycetales * Ostropales * Pertusariales incertae sedis (not placed in a subclass) * Candelariales * Umbilicariales LECANOROMYCETES is the largest class of lichenized fungi . It belongs to the subphylum Pezizomycotina in the phylum Ascomycota . The asci (spore -bearing cells) of the Lecanoromycetes
Lecanoromycetes
most often release spores by rostrate dehiscence . REFERENCES * ^ A B Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, F; Hofstetter, V; Fraker, E; Grube, M; Hafellner, J; Reeb, V; Hodkinson, BP; et al. (2006)
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Leotiomycetes
Cyttariales Erysiphales Helotiales Leotiales
Leotiales
Rhytismatales Thelebolales FAMILIES INCERTAE SEDIS Thelocarpaceae Vezdaeaceae GENERA INCERTAE SEDIS Amylocarpus Catinella Chaetomella Cyclaneusma Discohainesia Eleutheromyces Geniculospora Hainesia Hyphozyma Leohumicola Meliniomyces Naemacyclus The LEOTIOMYCETES are a class of ascomycete fungi . Many of them cause serious plant diseases . SYSTEMATICSThe class Leotiomycetes
Leotiomycetes
contains numerous species with an anamorph placed within the fungi imperfecti (deuteromycota), that have only recently found their place in the phylogenetic system. The older classifications placed Leotiomycetes
Leotiomycetes
into the Discomycetes clade (inoperculate Discomycetes)
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