HOME

TheInfoList




Video is an
electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow b ...
medium for the recording,
copyingCopying is the duplication of information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at a restaurant is data – this becom ...
, playback,
broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functi ...

broadcasting
, and display of moving
visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological organization spans several scales and are determined ba ...

visual
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
. Video was first developed for
mechanical television Mechanical television or mechanical scan television is a television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, a ...
systems, which were quickly replaced by
cathode ray tube A cathode-ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns, the beams of which are manipulated to display images on a phosphorescent screen. The images may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (televisi ...

cathode ray tube
(CRT) systems which were later replaced by
flat panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or Touch, tactile form (the latter ...
s of several types. Video systems vary in
display resolution The display resolution or display modes of a digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape ...
,
aspect ratio The aspect ratio of a geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμό ...
,
refresh rate The refresh rate (or "vertical refresh rate", "vertical scan rate", terminology originating with the cathode ray tubes) is the number of times per second that a Raster scan, raster-based display device displays a new image. This is independent from ...
, color capabilities and other qualities. Analog and digital variants exist and can be carried on a variety of media, including
radio broadcast , Sweden , Norway Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data". Many distinct type ...
,
magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for , made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of . It was developed in Germany in 1928, based on . Devices that record and playback audio and video using magnetic tape are s and s respectively. A ...

magnetic tape
,
optical disc In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest ...
s,
computer files A computer file is a System resource, computer resource for recording Data (computing), data in a Computer data storage, computer storage device. Just as words can be written to paper, so can data be written to a computer file. Files can be edite ...
, and
network streaming Network and networking may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Network (1976 film), ''Network'' (1976 film), a 1976 American film * Network (2019 film), ''Network'' (2019 film), an Indian film * Network (album), ''Network'' (album), a 2004 ...
.


History


Analog video

Video technology was first developed for
mechanical television Mechanical television or mechanical scan television is a television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, a ...
systems, which were quickly replaced by
cathode ray tube A cathode-ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns, the beams of which are manipulated to display images on a phosphorescent screen. The images may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (televisi ...

cathode ray tube
(CRT)
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3D television, three dimensions and sound. The ...

television
systems, but several new technologies for video
display device s, LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic ...
s have since been invented. Video was originally exclusively a
live Live may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Live!'' (2007 film), 2007 American film * ''Live'' (2014 film), a 2014 Japanese film *'' ''Live'' (Apocalyptica DVD) Music *Live (band), American alternative rock band * List of albums ...
technology.
Charles Ginsburg Charles Paulson Ginsburg (July 27, 1920 – April 9, 1992) was an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structu ...
led an
Ampex Ampex is an electronics company founded in 1944 by as a spin-off of Dalmo-Victor. The name AMPEX is a , created by its founder, which stands for Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence.AbramsoThe History of television, 1942 to 2000– McFarland, ...
research team developing one of the first practical
video tape recorder A video tape recorder (VTR) is a tape recorder An audio tape recorder, also known as a tape deck, tape player or tape machine or simply a tape recorder, is a sound recording and reproduction device that records and plays back sounds usu ...
s (VTR). In 1951 the first VTR captured live images from
television camera A professional video camera (often called a television camera even though its use has spread beyond television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in m ...
s by writing the camera's electrical signal onto magnetic
videotape Videotape is magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material. Thicker plastic material i ...
. Video recorders were sold for US$50,000 in 1956, and videotapes cost US$300 per one-hour reel. However, prices gradually dropped over the years; in 1971, Sony began selling
videocassette recorder Not all video tape recorders use a cassette to contain the videotape. Early models of consumer video tape recorders (Video tape recorder">VTRs), and most professional broadcast analog videotape machines (e.g. Type C videotape, 1-inch Type C ...
(VCR) decks and tapes into the
consumer market A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or primarily for personal, , family, household and similar needs, not directly related to entrepreneurial or business activities. Consumer righ ...
.


Digital video

The use of
digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology a ...
techniques in video created
digital video Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video Video is an Electronics, electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving picture, moving image, visual Media (commun ...
. It could not initially compete with analog video, due to early digital
uncompressed video Uncompressed video is digital video that either has never been compressed or was generated by decompressing previously compressed digital video. It is commonly used by video cameras, video monitors, video recording devices (including general-pur ...
requiring impractically high
bitrate In telecommunications and computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hard ...
s. Practical digital video was made possible with
discrete cosine transform A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to ...
(DCT) coding, a
lossy compression In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compression, data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content. These techniques are used to r ...
process developed in the early 1970s. DCT coding was adapted into motion-compensated DCT
video compression In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Signal ...
in the late 1980s, starting with
H.261 H.261 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MP ...
, the first practical digital
video coding standard A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital video content (such as in a data file or bitstream). It typically uses a standardized video compression ...
. Digital video was later capable of higher quality and, eventually, much lower cost than earlier analog technology. After the invention of the
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electr ...

DVD
in 1997, and later the
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a Digital media, digital optical disc Data storage, storage format. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition video (HDTV 72 ...

Blu-ray Disc
in 2006, sales of videotape and recording equipment plummeted. Advances in
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
technology allows even inexpensive
personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician ...
s and
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
s to capture, store, edit and transmit digital video, further reducing the cost of
video production Video production is the process of producing video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and contro ...
, allowing program-makers and broadcasters to move to tapeless production. The advent of
digital broadcasting Digital broadcasting is the practice of using digital signal A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on, at most, one of a finite number of values ...
and the subsequent
digital television transition The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover (DSO), the analogue switch-off (ASO), the digital migration, or the analogue shutdown, is the process in which older analogue television Analog or analogue may refer to: Com ...
is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a
legacy technology In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwa ...
in most parts of the world. , with the increasing use of high-resolution video cameras with improved
dynamic range Dynamic range (abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR) is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemon ...
and
color gamut , displayed in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram The CIE 1931 color spaces are the first defined quantitative links between distributions of wavelengths in the electromagnetic visible spectrum, and physiologically perceived colors in human color ...
s, and high-dynamic-range
digital intermediate Digital intermediate (typically abbreviated to DI) is a motion picture finishing process which classically involves digitizing a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The ...
data formats with improved
color depth Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography ...
, modern digital video technology is converging with
digital film : Digital cinematography is the process of capturing (recording) a motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting ...
technology.


Characteristics of video streams


Number of frames per second

''
Frame rate Frame rate (expressed in or FPS) is the frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time A unit of time is any particular time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence an ...
'', the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (''frame/s'') for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras.
PAL PAL 300px, upright=1.2, Analog television encoding systems by nation; SECAM.html"_;"title="NTSC_(green),_SECAM">NTSC_(green),_SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue). Phase_Alternating_Line_(PAL)_is_a_colour_encoding_system_for_Analog_television.html" ...
standards (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.) and
SECAM SECAM, also written SÉCAM (, ''séquentiel couleur à mémoire'', French for ''color sequential with memory''), is an analog color television system first used in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no ...

SECAM
(France, Russia, parts of Africa etc.) specify 25 frame/s, while
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
standards (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.) specify 29.97 frame/s. Film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which slightly complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video. The minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of a
moving image A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These image ...
is about sixteen frames per second.


Interlaced vs progressive

Video can be
interlaced Interlaced video (also known as interlaced scan) is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra Bandwidth (signal processing), bandwidth. The interlaced signal contains two field (video), fields of ...
or
progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * Congressional Progressive Caucus, members within the Democratic Party in the United States Congress dedicated to th ...
. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence. When displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Interlacing was invented as a way to reduce flicker in early
mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nan ...
and
CRT CRT may refer to: Science and technology Medicine * Calreticulin, a protein *Capillary refill time, the rate at which blood refills empty capillaries *Cardiac resynchronization therapy, a treatment for heart failure, and CRT defibrillator (CRT-D ...

CRT
video displays without increasing the number of complete
frames per second A frame is often a structural system that supports other components of a physical construction and/or steel frame frame at 30 St Mary Axe, London, UK. Steel frame is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel Steel is an ...
. Interlacing retains detail while requiring lower
bandwidth Bandwidth commonly refers to: * Bandwidth (signal processing) or ''analog bandwidth'', ''frequency bandwidth'', or ''radio bandwidth'', a measure of the width of a frequency range * Bandwidth (computing), the rate of data transfer, bit rate or thro ...
compared to progressive scanning. In interlaced video, the horizontal
scan line A scan line (also scanline) is one line, or row, in a raster scan A raster scan, or raster scanning, is the rectangular pattern of image capture and reconstruction in television. By analogy, the term is used for raster graphics file:Rgb-raste ...
s of each complete frame are treated as if numbered consecutively, and captured as two ''fields'': an ''odd field'' (upper field) consisting of the odd-numbered lines and an ''even field'' (lower field) consisting of the even-numbered lines. Analog display devices reproduce each frame, effectively doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned. When the image capture device acquires the fields one at a time, rather than dividing up a complete frame after it is captured, the frame rate for motion is effectively doubled as well, resulting in smoother, more lifelike reproduction of rapidly moving parts of the image when viewed on an interlaced CRT display. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. Abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an ''i'' to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is often described as ''576i50'', where ''576'' indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, ''i'' indicates interlacing, and ''50'' indicates 50 fields (half-frames) per second. When displaying a natively interlaced signal on a progressive scan device, overall spatial resolution is degraded by simple
line doubling A line doubler is a device or algorithm used to deinterlace video signals prior to display on a progressive scan Progressive scanning (alternatively referred to as noninterlaced scanning) is a format of displaying, storing, or transmitting movin ...

line doubling
—artifacts such as flickering or "comb" effects in moving parts of the image which appear unless special signal processing eliminates them. A procedure known as
deinterlacing Deinterlacing is the process of converting interlaced video Interlaced video (also known as interlaced scan) is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra Bandwidth (signal processing), bandwidt ...
can optimize the display of an interlaced video signal from an analog, DVD or satellite source on a progressive scan device such as an
LCD television Liquid-crystal-display televisions (LCD TVs) are television set A Sony Wega CRT television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a tuner, display, ...
, digital
video projector A video projector is an image projector that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system. Video projectors use a very bright Ultra-high-performance lamp (a special mercury arc lamp) ...
or plasma panel. Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce
video quality Video quality is a characteristic of a video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of el ...
that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material.


Aspect ratio

Aspect ratio The aspect ratio of a geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space that are ...
describes the proportional relationship between the width and height of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are
rectangular In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral A quadrilateral is a polygon in Euclidean geometry, Euclidean plane geometry with four Edge (geometry), edges (sides) and four Vertex (geometry), vertices (corners). Other names for ...

rectangular
, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height. The ratio width to height for a traditional television screen is 4:3, or about 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack (also known as the
Academy ratio 300px, Academy ratio 1.375:1 The Academy ratio of 1.375:1 (abbreviated as 1.37:1) is an aspect ratio The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For exampl ...
) is 1.375:1.
Pixel In digital imaging Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imp ...

Pixel
s on computer monitors are usually square, but pixels used in
digital video Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video Video is an Electronics, electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving picture, moving image, visual Media (commun ...
often have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the
CCIR 601 ITU-R The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of ...
digital video standard, and the corresponding anamorphic widescreen formats. The 720 by 480 pixel raster uses thin pixels on a 4:3 aspect ratio display and fat pixels on a 16:9 display. The popularity of viewing video on mobile phones has led to the growth of
vertical video A vertical video is a video created either by a camera or computer that is intended for viewing in portrait mode, producing an image that is taller than it is wide. It thus sits in opposition to the multiple horizontal formats normalised by cinema ...
. Mary Meeker, a partner at Silicon Valley venture capital firm
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers Kleiner Perkins, formerly Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB), is an American venture capital firm which specializes in investing in incubation, early stage and growth companies. Since its founding in 1972, the firm has backed entrepreneurs ...
, highlighted the growth of vertical video viewing in her 2015 Internet Trends Report growing from 5% of video viewing in 2010 to 29% in 2015. Vertical video ads like
Snapchat Snapchat is an American multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory) Text may refer t ...
’s are watched in their entirety nine times more frequently than landscape video ads.


Color model and depth

The
color model A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''categories'', with names such as ...
the video color representation and maps encoded color values to visible colors reproduced by the system. There are several such representations in common use: typically
YIQ An image along with its Y, I, and Q components. YIQ is the color space A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports reproducible representations of co ...
is used in NTSC television,
YUV YUV is a color encoding system typically used as part of a color image pipelineAn image pipeline or video pipeline is the set of components commonly used between an image source (such as a camera, a scanner, or the rendering engine in a compute ...
is used in PAL television,
YDbDr An image along with its Y, D_B and D_R components. YDbDr, sometimes written YDBDR, is the colour space A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports repr ...
is used by SECAM television and
YCbCr YCbCr, Y′CbCr, or Y Pb/Cb Pr/Cr, also written as YCBCR or Y′CBCR, is a family of color space A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports repr ...
is used for digital video. The number of distinct colors a pixel can represent depends on
color depth Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography ...
expressed in the number of bits per pixel. A common way to reduce the amount of data required in digital video is by
chroma subsampling Chroma subsampling is the practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for chroma information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For examp ...
(e.g., 4:4:4, 4:2:2, etc.). Because the human eye is less sensitive to details in color than brightness, the luminance data for all pixels is maintained, while the chrominance data is averaged for a number of pixels in a block and that same value is used for all of them. For example, this results in a 50% reduction in chrominance data using 2-pixel blocks (4:2:2) or 75% using 4-pixel blocks (4:2:0). This process does not reduce the number of possible color values that can be displayed, but it reduces the number of distinct points at which the color changes.


Video quality

Video quality Video quality is a characteristic of a video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of el ...
can be measured with formal metrics like
Peak signal-to-noise ratio Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is an engineering term for the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and ...
(PSNR) or through
subjective video quality Subjective video quality is video quality as experienced by humans. It is concerned with how video is perceived by a viewer (also called "observer" or "subject") and designates their opinion on a particular video sequence. It is related to the fi ...
assessment using expert observation. Many subjective video quality methods are described in the
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
recommendation BT.500. One of the standardized methods is the ''Double Stimulus Impairment Scale'' (DSIS). In DSIS, each expert views an ''unimpaired'' reference video followed by an ''impaired'' version of the same video. The expert then rates the ''impaired'' video using a scale ranging from "impairments are imperceptible" to "impairments are very annoying".


Video compression method (digital only)

Uncompressed video Uncompressed video is digital video that either has never been compressed or was generated by decompressing previously compressed digital video. It is commonly used by video cameras, video monitors, video recording devices (including general-pur ...
delivers maximum quality, but with a very high data rate. A variety of methods are used to compress video streams, with the most effective ones using a group of pictures (GOP) to reduce spatial and temporal redundancy. Broadly speaking, spatial redundancy is reduced by registering differences between parts of a single frame; this task is known as ''
intraframe Intra-frame coding is used in video coding (compression). It is part of an intra-frame codec like ProRes Apple ProRes is a high quality, lossy In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compress ...
compression'' and is closely related to
image compression Image compression is a type of data compression In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image proc ...
. Likewise, temporal redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames; this task is known as '' interframe compression'', including
motion compensation Motion compensation is an algorithmic technique used to predict a frame in a video, given the previous and/or future frames by accounting for motion of the camera and/or objects in the video. It is employed in the encoding of video data for video ...
and other techniques. The most common modern compression standards are
MPEG-2 MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as was defined by the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communicati ...
, used for
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electr ...

DVD
,
Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray
and
satellite television Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunication signals v ...
, and
MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression Compression may refer to: Physical science *Compression (physics), size reduction due to forces *Compression member, a structural element such as a column *Compressibility, susceptibility to compression ...
, used for
AVCHD AVCHD (Advanced Video Coding High Definition) is a file-based format for the digital recording In digital recording, an audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), phy ...

AVCHD
, Mobile phones (3GP) and Internet.


Stereoscopic

Stereoscopic Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis Stereopsis (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything o ...
video for
3d film 3D films are motion picture A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pi ...

3d film
and other applications can be displayed using several different methods: * Two channels: a right channel for the right eye and a left channel for the left eye. Both channels may be viewed simultaneously by using light-polarizing filters 90 degrees off-axis from each other on two video projectors. These separately polarized channels are viewed wearing eyeglasses with matching polarization filters. *
Anaglyph 3D Anaglyph 3D is the stereoscopic 3D effect achieved by means of encoding each eye's image using filters of different (usually chromatically opposite) colors, typically red and cyan Cyan () is a greenish-blue color. It is evoked by light with ...
where one channel is overlaid with two color-coded layers. This left and right layer technique is occasionally used for network broadcast or recent anaglyph releases of 3D movies on DVD. Simple red/cyan plastic glasses provide the means to view the images discretely to form a stereoscopic view of the content. * One channel with alternating left and right frames for the corresponding eye, using
LCD shutter glasses A pair of CrystalEyes shutter glasses An active shutter 3D system (a.k.a. alternate frame sequencing, alternate image, AI, alternating field, field sequential or eclipse method) is a technique of displaying stereoscopic 3D images. It works by only ...
that synchronize to the video to alternately block the image to each eye, so the appropriate eye sees the correct frame. This method is most common in computer
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality Virtual reality applications are applications that make use of virtual reality Virtual ...

virtual reality
applications such as in a , but reduces effective video framerate by a factor of two.


Formats

Different layers of video transmission and storage each provide their own set of formats to choose from. For transmission, there is a physical connector and signal protocol (see List of video connectors). A given physical link can carry certain display standards that specify a particular refresh rate,
display resolution The display resolution or display modes of a digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape ...
, and
color space A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports reproducible representations of color -- whether such representation entails an analog signal, analog or a ...
. Many analog and digital
recording format A recording format is a content format, format for encoding data for storage on a storage medium. The format can be container information such as Cylinder-head-sector, sectors on a disk, or user/audience information (Content (media and publishin ...
s are in use, and digital
video clip Video clips (or movie clips) are short clips of video or movie, usually part of a longer recording. The term is also more loosely used to mean any short video less than the length of a traditional television program. On the Internet With the s ...
s can also be stored on a
computer file system In computing, file system or filesystem (often abbreviated to fs) is a method and data structure that the operating system uses to control how data is Computer data storage, stored and retrieved. Without a file system, data placed in a storage med ...
as files, which have their own formats. In addition to the physical format used by the
data storage device Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium. Handwriting, Phonograph record, phonographic recording, magnetic tape, and optical discs are all examples of storage media. Some authors even propose that DNA ...
or transmission medium, the stream of ones and zeros that is sent must be in a particular digital
video coding format A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Ha ...
, of which a number are available (see List of video coding formats).


Analog video

Analog video is a video signal represented by one or more
analog signal An analog signal is any continuous signal In mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which to model variables that evolve over time. Discrete time Discrete time views values of vari ...

analog signal
s. Analog color video signals include
luminance Luminance is a photometricPhotometry can refer to: * Photometry (optics), the science of measurement of visible light in terms of its perceived brightness to human vision * Photometry (astronomy), the measurement of the flux or intensity of an ...
, brightness (Y) and
chrominance Chrominance (''chroma'' or ''C'' for short) is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture, separately from the accompanying Luma (video), luma signal (or Y' for short). Chrominance is usually represented as two ...
(C). When combined into one channel, as is the case, among others with
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
,
PAL PAL 300px, upright=1.2, Analog television encoding systems by nation; SECAM.html"_;"title="NTSC_(green),_SECAM">NTSC_(green),_SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue). Phase_Alternating_Line_(PAL)_is_a_colour_encoding_system_for_Analog_television.html" ...
and
SECAM SECAM, also written SÉCAM (, ''séquentiel couleur à mémoire'', French for ''color sequential with memory''), is an analog color television system first used in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no ...

SECAM
it is called
composite video Composite video is an analog video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electro ...

composite video
. Analog video may be carried in separate channels, as in two channel
S-Video S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition Standard-definition television (SDTV, SD, often shortened to standard definition) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not cons ...
(YC) and multi-channel
component video Component video is an analog video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electron ...
formats. Analog video is used in both consumer and professional
television production A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called the television, TV, TV set, tube, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a ...
applications. Composite-video-cable.jpg,
Composite video Composite video is an analog video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electro ...

Composite video

(single channel RCA) Close-up_of_S-video_female_connector.jpg,
S-Video S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition Standard-definition television (SDTV, SD, often shortened to standard definition) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not cons ...

(2-channel YC) Component-cables.jpg,
Component video Component video is an analog video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electron ...

(3-channel
YPbPr YPbPr or Y'PbPr, also written as , is a used in , in particular in reference to cables. YPbPr is color space (it is not analog that was used for analog TV, though is an interface); the two are numerically equivalent but YPbPr is designed f ...
) SCART_20050724_002.jpg,
SCART SCART (also known as or , especially in France, 21-pin EuroSCART in marketing by Sharp Sharp or SHARP may refer to: Short for *Self Help Addiction Recovery Program, a charitable organisation founded in 1991 by Barbara Bach and Pattie Boy ...

SCART
Vga-cable.jpg,
VGA Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a video display controller A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also ...

VGA
3.5mm.jpg, TRRC D4_video_connector.jpg,
D-Terminal The D-Terminal or D-tanshi () is a type of analog video connector found on Japanese consumer electronics, typically HDTV High-definition television (HD) describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resoluti ...


Digital video

Digital video Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data. This is in contrast to analog video, which represents moving visual images in the form of analog signals. Digital video comprises ...
signal formats have been adopted, including
serial digital interface Serial digital interface (SDI) is a family of digital video Interface (computing), interfaces first standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) in 1989. For example, ITU-R BT.656 and SMPTE 259M define digital v ...
(SDI),
Digital Visual Interface Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working GroupThe Digital Display Working Group (DDWG) was a group whose purpose was to define and maintain the Digital Visual Interface standard. It was ...

Digital Visual Interface
(DVI),
High-Definition Multimedia Interface High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a proprietary hardware, proprietary audio/video Interface (computing), interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant s ...

High-Definition Multimedia Interface
(HDMI) and
DisplayPort DisplayPort (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association VESA (), formally known as Video Electronics Standards Association, is an ...

DisplayPort
Interface. BNC_connector_%28male%29.jpg,
Serial digital interface Serial digital interface (SDI) is a family of digital video Interface (computing), interfaces first standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) in 1989. For example, ITU-R BT.656 and SMPTE 259M define digital v ...
(SDI) Dvi-cable.jpg,
Digital Visual Interface Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working GroupThe Digital Display Working Group (DDWG) was a group whose purpose was to define and maintain the Digital Visual Interface standard. It was ...

Digital Visual Interface
(DVI) HDMI-Connector.jpg,
HDMI High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a proprietary hardware, proprietary audio/video Interface (computing), interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant s ...

HDMI
Displayport-cable.jpg,
DisplayPort DisplayPort (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association VESA (), formally known as Video Electronics Standards Association, is an ...

DisplayPort


Transport medium

Video can be transmitted or transported in a variety of ways including wireless
terrestrial television Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized fun ...
as an analog or digital signal, coaxial cable in a closed-circuit system as an analog signal. Broadcast or studio cameras use a single or dual coaxial cable system using
serial digital interface Serial digital interface (SDI) is a family of digital video Interface (computing), interfaces first standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) in 1989. For example, ITU-R BT.656 and SMPTE 259M define digital v ...
(SDI). See List of video connectors for information about physical connectors and related signal standards. Video may be transported over networks and other shared digital communications links using, for instance,
MPEG transport stream MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS, MTS) or simply transport stream (TS) is a standard digital container format A container format (informally, sometimes called a wrapper) is a file format that allows multiple data streams to be embedded int ...
,
SMPTE 2022 SMPTE 2022 is a standard from the (SMPTE) that describes how to send over an . Video formats supported include and The standard was introduced in 2007 and has been expanded in the years since. The standard is published in eight parts. *ST 2022 ...
and
SMPTE 2110 SMPTE 2110 is a suite of standards from the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) (, rarely ), founded in 1916 as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers or SMPE, i ...
.


Display standards


Digital television

Digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media 200px, Graphical representations of electrical audio data. Electronic media uses either analog (red) or digital (blue) signal pr ...
broadcasts use the
MPEG-2 MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as was defined by the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communicati ...
and other
video coding format A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Ha ...
s and include: *
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable and satellite networks. It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC standard and, like that ...
– United States,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
,
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
*
Digital Video Broadcasting Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of international open standard An open standard is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification No ...
(DVB) –
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
*
ISDB Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB; Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white ...
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
**
ISDB-Tb ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
– uses the MPEG-4 video coding format –
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
*
Digital Multimedia Broadcasting Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) is a digital radio transmission Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz ...
(DMB) –
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea


Analog television

Analog television Analog or analogue may refer to: Computing and electronics * Analog signal An analog signal is any continuous signal In mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which to model variab ...
broadcast standards include: *
Field-sequential color system A field-sequential color system (FSC) is a color television Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English lang ...
(FCS) – US, Russia; obsolete *
Multiplexed Analogue Components Multiplexed analogue components (MAC) was a television transmission standard, originally proposed for use on a Europe-wide terrestrial HDTV system, although it was never used terrestrially. However, tests have been done in France with terrestri ...
(MAC) – Europe; obsolete *
Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding) was an analog high-definition television system, using dot-interlacing and digital video compression to deliver 1125-line (1920x1035) high definition video signals to the home. Japan had the earliest w ...
(MUSE) – Japan *
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
*
PAL PAL 300px, upright=1.2, Analog television encoding systems by nation; SECAM.html"_;"title="NTSC_(green),_SECAM">NTSC_(green),_SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue). Phase_Alternating_Line_(PAL)_is_a_colour_encoding_system_for_Analog_television.html" ...
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
,
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
,
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
**
PAL-M PAL-M is the analogue TV system used in Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both and . At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) ...
– PAL variation.
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
**
PALplusPALplus (or ''PAL+'') is an analogue television broadcasting system aimed to improve and enhance the PAL format while remaining compatible with existing television receivers. It followed experiences with the HD-MAC and D2-MAC, hybrid analogue-digi ...
– PAL extension,
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
*
RS-343 Here is a list of American Electronic Industries Alliance The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA; until 1997 Electronic Industries Association) was an American standards and trade organization composed as an alliance of trade associations fo ...
(military) *
SECAM SECAM, also written SÉCAM (, ''séquentiel couleur à mémoire'', French for ''color sequential with memory''), is an analog color television system first used in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no ...

SECAM
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, former
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
,
Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhab ...

Central Africa
* CCIR System A *
CCIR System B CCIR System B (originally known as the "Gerber Standard") was the 625-line analog broadcast television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochro ...
*
CCIR System G CCIR System G is an analog broadcast television system used in many countries. There are several systems in use and letter G is assigned for the European UHF system which is also used in the majority of Asian and African countries. (However some ...
*
CCIR System H Comité consultatif international pour la radio, CCIR System H is an analog broadcast television system primarily used in Belgium, the Balkans and Malta on the UHF bands. Specifications Some of the important specs are listed below.Reference Data ...
*
CCIR System ICCIR is a four-letter abbreviation that may stand for: * California Coalition for Immigration Reform, a California political advocacy group for immigration reduction * Campaign for Comprehensive Immigration Reform, a Washington, DC organization for ...
*
CCIR System M CCIR (or FCC The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different ...
An analog video format consists of more information than the visible content of the frame. Preceding and following the image are lines and pixels containing metadata and synchronization information. This surrounding margin is known as a ''blanking interval'' or ''blanking region''; the horizontal and vertical front porch and back porch are the building blocks of the blanking interval.


Computer displays

Computer display standard Computer display standards are a combination of Display aspect ratio, aspect ratio, display size, display resolution, color depth, and refresh rate. They are associated with specific expansion cards, Audio and video interfaces and connectors#Vide ...
s specify a combination of aspect ratio, display size, display resolution, color depth, and refresh rate. A
list of common resolutions This article lists that are or in common use. Most of them use certain . Computer graphics ; (PAR): The horizontal to vertical ratio of each, rectangular, physical pixel ; (SAR): The horizontal to vertical ratio of solely the number of pix ...
is available.


Recording

Early television was almost exclusively a live medium with some programs recorded to film for distribution of historical purposes using
Kinescope Kinescope , shortened to kine , also known as telerecording in Britain, is a recording of a television program on motion picture film Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures A film, also calle ...
. The analog
video tape recorder A video tape recorder (VTR) is a tape recorder An audio tape recorder, also known as a tape deck, tape player or tape machine or simply a tape recorder, is a sound recording and reproduction device that records and plays back sounds usu ...
was commercially introduced in 1951. In approximate chronological order. All formats listed were sold to and used by broadcasters, video producers or consumers; or were important historically (VERA). * 2" Quadruplex videotape (
Ampex Ampex is an electronics company founded in 1944 by as a spin-off of Dalmo-Victor. The name AMPEX is a , created by its founder, which stands for Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence.AbramsoThe History of television, 1942 to 2000– McFarland, ...
1956) * VERA (
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
experimental format ca. 1958) * 1" Type A videotape (
Ampex Ampex is an electronics company founded in 1944 by as a spin-off of Dalmo-Victor. The name AMPEX is a , created by its founder, which stands for Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence.AbramsoThe History of television, 1942 to 2000– McFarland, ...
) * 1/2" EIAJ (1969) *
U-matic #REDIRECT U-matic #REDIRECT U-matic#REDIRECT U-matic U-matic is an analogue recording videocassette format first shown by Sony is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational conglomerate (company), conglomerate corporation ...

U-matic
3/4" (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * 1/2" Cartrivision ( Avco) * VCR, VCR-LP, SVR * 1" Type B videotape (
Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH (; ), commonly known as Bosch, is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple c ...
) * 1" Type C videotape (
Ampex Ampex is an electronics company founded in 1944 by as a spin-off of Dalmo-Victor. The name AMPEX is a , created by its founder, which stands for Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence.AbramsoThe History of television, 1942 to 2000– McFarland, ...
, Marconi and
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) *
Betamax Betamax (also known as Beta, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette Cassette may refer to: Technology * Cassette tape (or ''musicassette'', ''audio cassette'', ''cassette tape'', or ''tape''), a worldwide standard f ...
(Sony) *
VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a for consumer-level on tape . From the 1950s, video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized s (VTRs). At that time, the expensive devices were used only i ...

VHS
(
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
) *
Video 2000 Video 2000 (also known as V2000, with the tape standard Video Compact Cassette, or VCC) is a consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or Service (economics), services primarily ...
(
Philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. (in Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer t ...

Philips
) * 2" Helical Scan Videotape (International Video Corporation, IVC) * Compact Video Cassette, 1/4" CVC (Funai) * Betacam (Sony) * Sony HDVS, HDVS (Sony) * Betacam SP (Sony) * Video8 (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) (1986) * S-VHS (
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
) (1987) * VHS-C (
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
) * PXL-2000, Pixelvision (Fisher-Price) * Sony HDVS, UniHi 1/2" HD (Sony) * Hi8 (Sony) (mid-1990s) * W-VHS (
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
) (1994) Digital video tape recorders offered improved quality compared to analog recorders. * Betacam IMX (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * D-VHS (
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
) * D-Theater * D1 (Sony), D1 (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * D2 (video format), D2 (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * D3 (video), D3 * D5 HD * D6 HDTV VTR, D6 (
Philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. (in Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer t ...

Philips
) * Digital-S D9 (
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
) * Digital Betacam (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * Digital8 (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * DV (including DVC-Pro) * HDCAM (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * HDV * ProHD (
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
) * MicroMV * MiniDV Optical storage mediums offered an alternative, especially in consumer applications, to bulky tape formats. *
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a Digital media, digital optical disc Data storage, storage format. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition video (HDTV 72 ...

Blu-ray Disc
(
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) *
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electr ...

DVD
(was Super Density Disc, DVD Forum) * Professional Disc * Universal Media Disc (UMD) (
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) * Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD, Chinese government-sponsored) * HD DVD (NEC Corporation, NEC and Toshiba) * HD-VMD * Capacitance Electronic Disc * Laserdisc (Music Corporation of America, MCA and
Philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. (in Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer t ...

Philips
) * Television Electronic Disc (Teldec and Telefunken) * Video High Density, VHD (
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
)


Digital encoding formats

*
CCIR 601 ITU-R The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of ...
(
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
) *
H.261 H.261 is an ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MP ...
(
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
) * H.263 (
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
) * H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
+ International Organization for Standardization, ISO) * H.265 * MJPEG, M-JPEG (International Organization for Standardization, ISO) * MPEG-1 (International Organization for Standardization, ISO) *
MPEG-2 MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as was defined by the ITU 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communicati ...
(
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
+ International Organization for Standardization, ISO) *
MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression Compression may refer to: Physical science *Compression (physics), size reduction due to forces *Compression member, a structural element such as a column *Compressibility, susceptibility to compression ...
(International Organization for Standardization, ISO) * Ogg-Theora * VP8-WebM * VC-1 (SMPTE)


See also

;General * Index of video-related articles * Sound recording and reproduction * Video editing * Videography ;Video format * 360-degree video * Cable television * Color television * Telecine * Timecode * Volumetric video ;Video usage * Closed-circuit television * Fulldome, Fulldome video * Interactive video * Video art * Video feedback * Video sender * Video synthesizer * Videotelephony ;Video screen recording software * Bandicam * CamStudio * Camtasia * CloudApp * Fraps


References


External links

* *
Programmer's Guide to Video Systems: in-depth technical info on 480i, 576i, 1080i, 720p, etc.

Format Descriptions for Moving Images – www.digitalpreservation.gov
{{Authority control Video, Digital television Film and video technology High-definition television Video formats, Display technology Television terminology Video signal, History of television Media formats Articles containing video clips