HOME

TheInfoList



OR:

Web mapping or an online mapping is the process of using
map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between o ...
s, usually created through
geographic information systems A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database containing Geographic data and information, geographic data (that is, descriptions of phenomena for which location is relevant), combined with Geographic information system software, sof ...
(GIS), on the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a '' network of networks'' that consists of private, p ...
, more specifically in the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system enabling documents and other web resources to be accessed over the Internet. Documents and downloadable media are made available to the network through web se ...
(WWW). A web map or an online map is both served and consumed, thus web mapping is more than just web
cartography Cartography (; from grc, χάρτης , "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and , "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science, aesthetics and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality (or an im ...
, it is a service by which consumers may choose what the map will show. Web GIS emphasizes
geodata Geographic data and information is defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to Earth (a geographic location or geographic position). It is also call ...
processing aspects more involved with design aspects such as data acquisition and server software architecture such as data storage and algorithms, than it does the end-user reports themselves. The terms ''web GIS'' and ''web mapping ''remain somewhat synonymous. Web GIS uses web maps, and end users who are ''web mapping'' are gaining analytical capabilities. The term ''
location-based service A location-based service (LBS) is a general term denoting software services which use geographic data and information to provide services or information to users. LBS can be used in a variety of contexts, such as health, indoor object detection, o ...
s'' refers to ''web mapping'' consumer goods and services. Web mapping usually involves a
web browser A web browser is application software for accessing websites. When a User (computing), user requests a web page from a particular website, the browser retrieves its Computer file, files from a web server and then displays the page on the user' ...
or other user agent capable of client-server interactions. Questions of quality, usability, social benefits, and legal constraints are driving its evolution. The advent of web mapping can be regarded as a major new trend in cartography. Until recently cartography was restricted to a few
companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity representing an association of people, whether natural, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. Company members share a common purpose and unite to achieve specific, declared ...
, institutes and mapping agencies, requiring relatively expensive and complex hardware and software as well as skilled cartographers and
geomatics Geomatics is defined in the ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 211 is a standard technical committee formed within ISO, tasked with covering the areas of digital geographic information (such as used by geographic information systems A geographic inform ...
engineers. Web mapping has brought many geographical datasets, including free ones generated by
OpenStreetMap OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free, open geographic database updated and maintained by a community of volunteers via open collaboration. Contributors collect data from surveying, surveys, trace from aerial imagery and also import from other freely li ...
and proprietary datasets owned by HERE,
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. It designs, develops, produces and sells telecommunications equip ...
,
Google Google LLC () is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company focusing on Search Engine, search engine technology, online advertising, cloud computing, software, computer software, quantum computing, e-commerce, ar ...
,
Tencent Tencent Holdings Ltd. () is a Chinese Multinational corporation, multinational technology and entertainment Conglomerate (company), conglomerate and holding company headquartered in Shenzhen. It is one of the highest grossing multimedia companie ...
,
TomTom TomTom N.V. is a Dutch multinational developer and creator of location technology and consumer electronics. Founded in 1991 and headquartered in Amsterdam, TomTom released its first generation of satellite navigation devices to market in 2004. ...
, and others. A range of free software to generate maps has also been conceived and implemented alongside proprietary tools like
ArcGIS ArcGIS is a family of client software, client, server software, server and online geographic information system (GIS) software developed and maintained by Esri. ArcGIS was first released in 1999 and originally was released as ArcInfo, ARC/INFO, a ...
. As a result, the
barrier to entry In theories of Competition (economics), competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a fixed cost that must be incurred by a new entrant, regardless of production or sales activities, into a Market (economics) ...
for serving maps on the web has been lowered.


Types

A first classification of web maps has been made by Kraak in 2001.
Kraak, Menno Jan Menno-Jan Kraak (born 28 March 1958, Vaassen) is a Dutch cartography, cartographer and professor of Geovisual Analytics and Cartography at the Faculty of Geoinformation Sciences and Earth Observation at the University of Twente. He is known for his ...
(2001): ''Settings and needs for web cartography'', in: Kraak and Allan Brown (eds), Web Cartography, Francis and Taylor, New York, p. 3–4. see also webpag

Accessed 2007-01-04.
He distinguished ''static'' and ''dynamic'' web maps and further distinguished ''interactive'' and ''view only'' web maps. Today there an increased number of dynamic web maps types, and static web map sources.


Analytical web maps

Analytical web maps offer GIS analysis. The geodata can be a static provision, or need updates. The borderline between analytical web maps and web GIS is fuzzy. Parts of the analysis can be carried out by the GIS geodata server. As web clients gain capabilities processing is distributed.


Animated and realtime

Realtime maps show the situation of a phenomenon in close to Real-time computing, realtime (only a few seconds or minutes delay). They are usually animated. Data is collected by sensors and the maps are generated or updated at regular intervals or on demand. Animated maps show changes in the map over time by animating one of the graphical or temporal variables. Technologies enabling client-side display of animated web maps include
scalable vector graphics Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for defining two-dimensional graphics, having support for interactivity and animation. The SVG specification is an open standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium since ...
(SVG), Adobe Flash, Java, QuickTime, and others. Web maps with real-time animation include weather maps,
traffic congestion map A traffic congestion map is a graphical, Real time business intelligence, realtime or near-realtime representation of traffic flow for some particular area. Data is typically collected via anonymous GPS datapoints and loop sensors embedded in the ...
s and vehicle monitoring systems.
CartoDB CARTO (formerly CartoDB) is a software as a service (SaaS) cloud computing platform that provides geographic information system, GIS, web mapping, and spatial data science tools. The company is positioned as a Location Intelligence platform due to ...
launched an open source library, Torque, which enables the creation of dynamic animated maps with millions of records. Twitter uses this technology to create maps to reflect how users reacted to news and events worldwide.


Collaborative web maps

Collaborative maps are a developing potential. In proprietary or open source collaborative software, users collaborate to create and improve the web mapping experience. Some collaborative web mapping projects are: *
Google Map Maker Google Map Maker is a defunct map editing service launched by Google in June 2008. In geographies where it is hard to find providers of good map data, user contributions were used to increase map quality. Changes to Google Map Maker were intende ...
*
Here Map Creator Here Technologies (stylised and Trade name, trading as HERE and here) is an American-Dutch Multinational corporation, multinational group dealing with Data mapping, mapping, location data and related automotive services to individuals and comp ...
*
OpenStreetMap OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free, open geographic database updated and maintained by a community of volunteers via open collaboration. Contributors collect data from surveying, surveys, trace from aerial imagery and also import from other freely li ...
*
WikiMapia Wikimapia is a Geography, geographic online encyclopedia project. The project implements an interactive "clickable" web map that utilizes Google Maps with a geographically-referenced wiki system, with the aim to mark and describe all geographic ...
* meta:Maps - a survey of
Wikimedia movement According to the Wikimedia Foundation, the Wikimedia movement is the global community of contributors to the #Projects, Wikimedia projects. This community directly builds and administers the projects. It is committed to using open standards and ...
web mapping proposals


Online atlases

The traditional
atlas An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or of a region of Earth. Atlases have traditionally been bound into book form, but today many atlases are in multimedia formats. In addition to presenting geographic ...
goes through a remarkably large transition when hosted on the web. Atlases can cease their printed editions or offer printing on demand. Some atlases also offer raw data downloads of the underlying geospatial data sources.


Static web maps

Static web pages are '' view only'' without
animation Animation is a method by which image, still figures are manipulated to appear as Motion picture, moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited ...
or
interactivity Across the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of the term "interactivity", but mos ...
. These files are created once, often manually, and infrequently updated. Typical graphics formats for static web maps are PNG,
JPEG JPEG ( ) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image ...
,
GIF The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF; or , see pronunciation) is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS ...
, or
TIFF Tag Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is an image file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers. TIFF is widely supported by image scanner, scanning, FAX, faxi ...
(e.g., drg) for raster files, SVG,
PDF Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format A file format is a Computer standard, standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode informatio ...
or SWF for
vector Vector most often refers to: *Euclidean vector In mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities ...
files. These include scanned paper maps not designed as screen maps. Paper maps have a much higher
resolution Resolution(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Resolution (debate) This is a glossary of policy debate terms. Affirmative In policy debate (also called ''cross-examination debate'' in some circuits, namely the University Interscholastic L ...
and information density than typical
computer displays A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or textual form. A discrete monitor comprises a electronic visual display, visual display, support electronics, power supply, Housing (engineering), housing, electric ...
of the same physical size, and might be unreadable when displayed on screens at the wrong
resolution Resolution(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Resolution (debate) This is a glossary of policy debate terms. Affirmative In policy debate (also called ''cross-examination debate'' in some circuits, namely the University Interscholastic L ...
.


Web GIS in the cloud

Various companies now offer web mapping as a cloud based
software as a service Software as a service (SaaS ) is a software licensing and software delivery, delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally Internet hosting service, hosted. SaaS is also known as "on-demand software" and We ...
. These service providers allow users to create and share maps by uploading data to their servers (cloud storage). The maps are created either by using an in browser editor or writing scripts that leverage the service providers API's.


Evolving paper cartography

Compared to traditional techniques, mapping software has many advantages. The disadvantages are also stated. * Web maps can easily ''deliver up to date information''. If maps are generated automatically from
database In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically. Small databases can be stored on a file system, while large databases are hosted on computer clusters or cloud storage. The Databas ...
s, they can display information in almost Real-time computing, realtime. They don't need to be
printed Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and Printmaking, images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabo ...
, mastered and distributed. Examples: ** A map displaying
election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative ...
results, as soon as the election results become available. ** A
traffic congestion map A traffic congestion map is a graphical, Real time business intelligence, realtime or near-realtime representation of traffic flow for some particular area. Data is typically collected via anonymous GPS datapoints and loop sensors embedded in the ...
using traffic data collected by sensor networks. ** A map showing the current locations of
mass transit Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport for passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public unlike private transport, typical ...
vehicles such as
bus A bus (contracted from omnibus, with variants multibus, motorbus, autobus, etc.) is a road vehicle that carries significantly more passengers than an average car or van. It is most commonly used in public transport, but is also in use for char ...
es or
train In rail transport, a train (from Old French , from Latin , "to pull, to draw") is a series of connected vehicles that run along a railway track and Passenger train, transport people or Rail freight transport, freight. Trains are typically pul ...
s, allowing patrons to minimize their waiting time at stops or stations, or be aware of delays in service. **
Weather maps A weather map, also known as synoptic weather chart, displays various meteorological Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences (which include atmospheric chemistry and physics) with a major focus on weather forecasting Weathe ...
, such as
NEXRAD NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 160 high-resolution S-band pulse-Doppler radar, Doppler weather radars operated by the National Weather Service (NWS), an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ...
. * ''
Software Software is a set of computer programs and associated software documentation, documentation and data (computing), data. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and which actually performs the work. ...
and hardware
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of facilities and systems that serve a country, city, or other area, and encompasses the services and facilities necessary for its economy, households and firms to function. Infrastructure is composed of public and priv ...
for web maps is cheap.''
Web server A web server is computer software and underlying Computer hardware, hardware that accepts requests via Hypertext Transfer Protocol, HTTP (the network protocol created to distribute web content) or its secure variant HTTPS. A user agent, c ...
hardware is cheaply available and many
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized sof ...
tools exist for producing web maps.
Geodata Geographic data and information is defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to Earth (a geographic location or geographic position). It is also call ...
, on the other hand, is not; satellites and fleets of automobiles use expensive equipment to collect the information on an ongoing basis. Perhaps owing to this, many people are still reluctant to publish geodata, especially in places where geodata are expensive. They fear
copyright infringement Copyright infringement (at times referred to as piracy) is the use of Copyright#Scope, works protected by copyright without permission for a usage where such permission is required, thereby infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the cop ...
s by other people using their data without proper requests for permission. * ''Product updates can easily be distributed''. Because web maps distribute both logic and data with each request or loading, product updates can happen every time the web user reloads the application. In traditional
cartography Cartography (; from grc, χάρτης , "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and , "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science, aesthetics and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality (or an im ...
, when dealing with printed maps or interactive maps distributed on
offline In computer technology and telecommunications, online indicates a state of connectivity and offline indicates a disconnected state. In modern terminology, this usually refers to an Internet connection, but (especially when expressed "on line" or ...
media ( CD,
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 1995 and first released on November 1, 1996, in Japan. The medium can store any k ...
, etc.), a map update takes serious efforts, triggering a reprint or remastering as well as a redistribution of the media. With web maps, data and product updates are easier, cheaper, and faster, and occur more often. Perhaps owing to this, many web maps are of poor quality, both in symbolization, content and data accuracy. * ''Web maps can combine distributed data sources''. Using open standards and documented APIs one can integrate ('' mash up'') different data sources, if the projection system, map scale and data quality match. The use of centralized data sources removes the burden for individual organizations to maintain copies of the same data sets. The downside is that one has to rely on and trust the external data sources. In addition, with detailed information available and the combination of distributed data sources, it is possible to find out and combine a lot of private and personal information of individual persons. Properties and estates of individuals are now accessible through high resolution aerial and satellite images throughout the world to anyone. * ''Web maps allow for personalization''. By using user profiles, personal filters and personal styling and symbolization, users can configure and design their own maps, if the web mapping systems supports personalization.
Accessibility Accessibility is the design of products, devices, services, vehicles, or environments so as to be usable by people with disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e ...
issues can be treated in the same way. If users can store their favourite colors and patterns they can avoid color combinations they can't easily distinguish (e.g. due to
color blindness Color blindness or color vision deficiency (CVD) is the decreased ability to color vision, see color or differences in color. It can impair tasks such as selecting ripe fruit, choosing clothing, and reading traffic lights. Color blindness may ...
). Despite this, as with paper, web maps have the problem of limited screen space, but more so. This is in particular a problem for mobile web maps; the equipment carried usually has a very small screen, making it less likely that there is room for personalisation. * ''Web maps enable collaborative mapping'' similar to web mapping technologies such as
DHTML Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is a term which was used by some browser vendors to describe the combination of HTML, Style sheet (web development), style sheets and Dynamic web page#Client-side scripting, client-side scripts (JavaScript, VBScript, or a ...
/
Ajax Ajax may refer to: Greek mythology and tragedy * Ajax the Great :wikt:Αἴας, Ajax () or Aias (; grc, Αἴας, Aíās , ''Aíantos''; Archaic Greek alphabets, archaic ) is a Greek mythology, Greek mythological Greek hero cult, her ...
, SVG,
Java Java (; id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 151.6 million people, Java is the world's List ...
,
Adobe Flash Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash and FutureSplash) is a multimedia Computing platform, software platform used for production of Flash animation, animations, rich web applications, application software, desktop applications, mobile apps, mo ...
, etc. enable distributed data acquisition and collaborative efforts. Examples for such projects are the
OpenStreetMap OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free, open geographic database updated and maintained by a community of volunteers via open collaboration. Contributors collect data from surveying, surveys, trace from aerial imagery and also import from other freely li ...
project or the
Google Earth Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D computer graphics, 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposition, superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, and geog ...
community. As with other open projects, quality assurance is very important, however, and the reliability of the internet and web server infrastructure is not yet good enough. Especially if a web map relies on external, distributed data sources, the original author often cannot guarantee the availability of the information. * ''Web maps support
hyperlink In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a digital reference to Data (computing), data that the user (computing), user can follow or be guided by point and click, clicking or touchscreen, tapping. A hyperlink points to a whole document ...
ing to other information on the web''. Just like any other web page or a
wiki A wiki ( ) is an online hypertext publication Collaborative editing, collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience, using a web browser. A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of the project, and could be ...
, web maps can act like an index to other information on the web. Any sensitive area in a map, a label text, etc. can provide hyperlinks to additional information. As an example a map showing public transport options can directly link to the corresponding section in the online train time table. However, development of web maps is complicated enough as it is: Despite the increasing availability of free and commercial tools to create web mapping and web GIS applications, it is still a more complex task to create interactive web maps than to typeset and print images. Many technologies, modules, services and data sources have to be mastered and integrated The development and debugging environments of a conglomerate of different web technologies is still awkward and uncomfortable.


History

This section contains some of the milestones of web mapping, online mapping services and atlases.For technological context, see
History of the World Wide Web The World Wide Web ("WWW", "W3" or, simply, "the Web") is a global information medium which users can access via computers connected to the Internet. The term is often mistakenly used as a synonym for the Internet, but the Web is a service tha ...
and related topics under History of computer hardware.
* 1989: ''Birth of the WWW'',
WWW The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. From a soc ...
invented at
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN (; ; ), is an intergovernmental organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, it is based in a northwestern suburb of Gene ...
for the exchange of research documents.More details are in: History of the World Wide Web#1980–1991: Invention and implementation. * 1993: '' Xerox PARC Map Viewer'', The first mapserver based on CGI/
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. "Perl" refers to Perl 5, but from 2000 to 2019 it also referred to its redesigned "sister language", Perl 6, before the latter's name was offi ...
, allowed reprojection styling and definition of map extent. * 1994: ''The National Atlas of Canada'', The first version of the National Atlas of Canada was released. Can be regarded as the first online atlas. * 1995: ''The Gazetteer for Scotland'', The prototype version of the Gazetteer for Scotland was released. The first geographical database with interactive mapping. * 1995: ''Tiger Mapping Service'', from the U.S. Census Bureau, the first national street-level web map, and the first major web map from the U.S. government. * 1995: '' MapGuide'', First introduced as Argus MapGuide. * 1996: Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies Interactive Mapper, Based on CGI/
C shell The C shell (csh or the improved version, tcsh) is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s. It has been widely distributed, beginning with the 2BSD release of the B ...
/
GRASS Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous Family (biology), family of monocotyledonous flowering plants commonly known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species culti ...
would allow the user to select a geographic extent, a raster base layer, and number of vector layers to create personalized map. * 1996: ''
Mapquest MapQuest (stylized as mapquest) is an American free online web mapping service. It was launched in 1996 as the first commercial web mapping service. MapQuest vies for market share with Comparison of web map services, competitors such as Google Map ...
'', The first popular online Address Matching and Routing Service with mapping output. * 1996: ''
MultiMap In computer science, a multimap (sometimes also multihash, multidict or multidictionary) is a generalization of a associative array, map or associative array abstract data type in which more than one value may be associated with and returned for a ...
'', The UK-based MultiMap website launched offering online mapping, routing and location based services. Grew into one of the most popular UK web sites. * 1996: '' MapGuide'', Autodesk acquired Argus Technologies.and introduced Autodesk MapGuide 2.0. * 1997: ''US Online National Atlas Initiative'', The
USGS The United States Geological Survey (USGS), formerly simply known as the Geological Survey, is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States The United Stat ...
received the mandate to coordinate and create the online
National Atlas of the United States The ''National Atlas of the United States'' was an atlas published by the United States Department of the Interior from 1874 to 1997. Older editions were printed, but the most recent edition was available online. Since it is a publication of ...
. * 1997: UMN
MapServer MapServer is an Open-source software development, open-source development environment for building spatially enabled internet applications, built in the C language, and is widely known as one of the fastest Web mapping engines available. It can r ...
1.0, Developed at the University of Minnesota (UMN) as Part of the
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil List of government space agencies, space program ...
ForNet Project. Grew out of the need to deliver
remote sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information Information is an Abstraction, abstract concept that refers to that which has the power to Communication, inform. At the most fundamental level information pertains to the Interpretation ...
data across the web for foresters. * 1998: '' Terraserver USA'', A
Web Map Service A Web Map Service (WMS) is a standard protocol developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium in 1999 for serving georeferenced map images over the Internet. These images are typically produced by a mapping server, map server from data provided by a ...
serving aerial images (mainly b+w) and USGS DRGs was released. One of the first popular WMS. This service is a joint effort of USGS,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...
and HP. * 2003: ''
NASA World Wind NASA WorldWind is an open-source software, open-source (released under the NASA Open Source Agreement, NOSA license and the Apache 2.0 license) virtual globe. According to the website (https://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov/), "WorldWind is a ...
'', NASA World Wind Released. An open
virtual globe A virtual globe is a three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3D space, 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called ''parameters'') are required to determine the position (geomet ...
that loads data from distributed resources across the internet. Terrain and buildings can be viewed 3 dimensionally. The (
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
based) markup language allows users to integrate their own personal content. This virtual globe needs special software and doesn't run in a web browser. * 2004:
OpenStreetMap OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free, open geographic database updated and maintained by a community of volunteers via open collaboration. Contributors collect data from surveying, surveys, trace from aerial imagery and also import from other freely li ...
, an
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized sof ...
, open content world map founded by
Steve Coast Stephen Coast (born 20 December 1980) is a British entrepreneur and the founder of the OpenStreetMap community-based world mapping project and CloudMade, a geography-related company. Early life Coast grew up in Walderslade and London, United Kin ...
. * 2004: '' Yandex Maps'' is founded. * 2005: ''
Google Maps Google Maps is a web mapping platform and consumer application offered by Google. It offers satellite imagery, aerial photography, street maps, 360° interactive panorama, interactive panoramic views of streets (Google Street View, Street View) ...
'', The first version of Google Maps. Based on raster tiles organized in a quad tree scheme, data loading done with
XMLHttpRequest XMLHttpRequest (XHR) is an Application programming interface, API in the form of an object-oriented programming, object whose method (computer programming), methods transfer data between a web browser and a web server. The object is provided by t ...
s. This mapping application became highly popular on the web, also because it allowed other people to integrate google map services into their own website. * 2005: ''
Baidu Maps Baidu Maps is a desktop and mobile web mapping service application and technology provided by Baidu, offering satellite imagery, street maps, street view ("Panorama" - :zh:百度全景) and indoor view perspectives, as well as functions such as ...
'' is in beta. * 2005: '' MapGuide Open Source'' introduced as open source by Autodesk * 2005: ''
Google Earth Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D computer graphics, 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposition, superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, and geog ...
'', The first version of Google Earth was released building on the virtual globe metaphor. Terrain and buildings can be viewed 3 dimensionally. The KML (
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language and file format for storing, transmitting, and reconstructing arbitrary data. It defines a set of rules for encoding electronic document, documents in a format that is both Human-readable med ...
based) markup language allows users to integrate their own personal content. This virtual globe needs special software and doesn't run in a web browser. * 2005: '' OpenLayers'', the first version of the open source Javascript library OpenLayers. * 2006: ''
WikiMapia Wikimapia is a Geography, geographic online encyclopedia project. The project implements an interactive "clickable" web map that utilizes Google Maps with a geographically-referenced wiki system, with the aim to mark and describe all geographic ...
'' is launched * 2009:
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia) is a Finnish multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications industry, telecommunications, technology company, information technology, and consumer electronics corporatio ...
made '' Ovi Maps'' free on its smartphones. * 2012: ''
Apple Maps Apple Maps is a web mapping, web mapping service developed by Apple Inc. The default map system of iOS, iPadOS, macOS, and watchOS, it provides directions and estimated times of arrival for driving, walking, cycling, and public transportation ...
'', the first vector-tile based mapping app, is launched, replacing
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wh ...
's own Google Maps client as the default mapping app for its platforms. * 2020: '' Petal Maps'' is released.


Technologies

Web mapping technologies require both server-side and client-side applications. The following is a list of technologies utilized in web mapping. *
Spatial databases Spatial may refer to: *Dimension In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a Space (mathematics), mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any Point (geometry), point with ...
are usually object relational databases enhanced with geographic data types, methods and properties. They are necessary whenever a web mapping application has to deal with dynamic data (that changes frequently) or with huge amount of geographic data. Spatial databases allow spatial queries, sub selects, reprojections, and geometry manipulations and offer various import and export formats.
PostGIS PostGIS ( ) is an open source software program that adds support for geographic objects to the PostgreSQL PostgreSQL (, ), also known as Postgres, is a free and open-source software, free and open-source relational database management system ...
is a prominent example; it is open source.
MySQL MySQL () is an Open-source software, open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter My, and "SQL", the acronym for Structured Query Language. A rel ...
also implements some spatial features. Oracle Spatial, Microsoft SQL Server (with the spatial extensions), and IBM DB2 are the commercial alternatives. The Open Geospacial Consortium's (OGC) specification "
Simple Features Simple Features (officially Simple Feature Access) is a set of standards that specify a common storage and access model of geographic feature made of mostly two-dimensional geometries (point, line, polygon, multi-point, multi-line, etc.) used by g ...
" is a standard geometry data model and operator set for spatial databases. Part 2 of the specification defines an implementation using SQL. *
Tiled web map A tiled web map, slippy map (in OpenStreetMap OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a free, open geographic database updated and maintained by a community of volunteers via open collaboration. Contributors collect data from surveying, surveys, trace from aer ...
s display rendered maps made up of raster image "tiles". * Vector tiles are also becoming more popular—Google and Apple have both transitioned to vector tiles. Mapbox.com also offers vector tiles. This new style of web mapping is resolution independent, and also has the advantage of dynamically showing and hiding features depending on the interaction. * WMS servers generate maps using parameters for user options such as the order of the layers, the styling and symbolization, the extent of the data, the data format, the projection, etc. The OGC standardized these options. Another WMS server standard is the Tile Map Service. Standard image formats include PNG, JPEG, GIF and SVG.


Impact on society

Web maps have become an essential tool for many, as illustrated by a 2021
labor strike Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to Labor (economics), work. A strike usually takes place in response to grievance (labour), employee grievance ...
demanding (among other things) a certain type of map.


See also

* Online cadastral map *
Comparison of web map services __TOC__ See also * GraphHopper * Navteq * Petal Maps * Online virtual globes * Tencent Maps * Traffic Message Channel (TMC) References {{Reflist External links Google MapsBing MapsMapQuest MapsMapy.czOpenStreetMapHereApple MapsYa ...
* Geographic Information Systems (GIS) * List of online map services * Neogeography * Geoweb * Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) * Soundmap * Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)


Notes and references


Further reading

* Fu, P., and J. Sun. 2010. ''Web GIS: Principles and Applications''. ESRI Press. Redlands, CA. . * Graham, M. 2010
Neogeography and the Palimpsests of Place
Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. 101(4), 422-436. * Kraak, Menno-Jan and Allan Brown (2001): ''Web Cartography – Developments and prospects'', Taylor & Francis, New York, . * Mitchell, Tyler (2005): ''Web Mapping Illustrated'', O'Reilly, Sebastopol, 350 pages, . This book discusses various Open Source Web Mapping projects and provides hints and tricks as well as examples. * Peterson, Michael P. (ed.) (2014): ''Mapping in the Cloud'', Guilford, . * Peterson, Michael P. (ed.) (2003): ''Maps and the Internet'', Elsevier, . * Rambaldi G, Chambers R., McCall M, And Fox J. 2006
Practical ethics for PGIS practitioners, facilitators, technology intermediaries and researchers
PLA 54:106-113, IIED, London, UK * Gaffuri J, 2012.
Toward web mapping with vector data
'. Vol. 7478 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Ch. 7, pp. 87–101
DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-33024-7_7
* Feldman, S 2010
History of Web Mapping - slide deck
an
History of Web Mapping - mind map


External links

Sites
UMN MapServer documentation and tutorials

Webmapping with SVG, Postgis and UMN MapServer tutorials

International Cartographic Association (ICA)
the world body for mapping and GIScience professionals
Comparison of Online Mapping Tools
Duke University {{DEFAULTSORT:Web Mapping Collaborative mapping Map types