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In
geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...

geography
, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage ba ...
joins a larger
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of wate ...

river
(
main stem In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
); or where two streams meet to become the
source Source or subsource or ''variation'', may refer to: Research * Historical document * Historical source * Source (intelligence) or subsource, typically a confidential provider of non open-source intelligence * Source (journalism), a person, public ...
of a river of a new name (such as the confluence of the
Monongahela
Monongahela
and Allegheny rivers at
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County. A population of 302,971 residents lives within the city limit ...

Pittsburgh
, forming the
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
); or where two separated channels of a river (forming a
river island A river island is any exposed land surrounded by river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at ...

river island
) rejoin at the downstream end.


Scientific study of confluences

Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences.
Hydrology Hydrology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion, bars, and scour pools. The water flows and their consequences are often studied with
mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environm ...
s. Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms (i.e.,
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biol ...
) as well; "the general pattern ownstream of confluencesof increasing stream flow and decreasing slopes drives a corresponding shift in habitat characteristics." Another science relevant to the study of confluences is
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
, because sometimes the mixing of the waters of two streams triggers a chemical reaction, particularly in a polluted stream. The
United States Geological Survey The United States Geological Survey, abbreviated USGS and formerly simply known as the Geological Survey, is a scientific government agency, agency of the Federal government of the United States, United States government. The scientists of the ...
gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with
acid mine drainage Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mining, mines or Coal mining, coal mines. Acid rock drainage occurs naturally within some environments as part of ...

acid mine drainage
combines with a stream with near-neutral
pH
pH
water; these reactions happen very rapidly and influence the subsequent transport of metals downstream of the mixing zone." A natural phenomenon at confluences that is obvious even to casual observers is a difference in color between the two streams; see images in this article for several examples. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals,
sediments Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. ...
and biologic content – usually
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Co ...

algae
." Lynch also notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they finally blend completely.


River confluence flow zones

Hydrodynamic behaviour of flow in a confluence can be divided into six distinct features which are commonly called confluence flow zones (CFZ). These include # Stagnation zone # Flow deflection zone # Flow separation zone / recirculation zone # Maximum velocity zone # Flow recovery zone # Shear layers


Confluences and mankind

Since rivers often serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
. Various examples are found in the list below. A number of major cities, such as
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingu ...

Chongqing
,
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State ( ...

St. Louis
, and
Khartoum Khartoum or Khartum ( ; ar, الخرطوم, Al-Khurṭūm) is the capital of Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is ...

Khartoum
, arose at confluences; further examples appear in the list. Within a city, a confluence often forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in
Koblenz Koblenz (), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, Drusus around 8 ...

Koblenz
,
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...
, and
Winnipeg Winnipeg () is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a at the of the country. It is Canada's , with a population of 1,278,365 as of 2016. The easternmost of the three , Manitoba covers of widely varied ...
. Cities also often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County. A population of 302,971 residents lives within the city limit ...
. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...
or
Mannheim Mannheim (; Palatine GermanPalatine German may refer to: * Palatine German language * German Palatines See also *Palatinate (region) *Palatinate (disambiguation) {{disambig Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...: or ), officiall ...
. Often a confluence lies in the shared
floodplain A floodplain or flood plain or bottomlands is an area of land adjacent to a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows int ...
of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at
Manaus Manaus (; ) is the List of capitals of subdivisions of Brazil, capital and largest city of the States of Brazil, Brazilian state of Amazonas (Brazilian state), Amazonas. It is the List of largest cities in Brazil, seventh-largest city in Brazil, ...

Manaus
, described below. One other way that confluences may be exploited by humans is as sacred places in
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
s. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
in northwest Europe, watery locations were often sacred, especially sources and confluences. Pre-Christian
Slav Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...
ic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites. In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, the confluence of two sacred rivers often is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to
Mayanism Mayanism is a non-codified eclectic collection of New Age beliefs, influenced in part by Pre-Columbian Maya mythology Maya mythology is part of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in North America ...
consider their city's confluence to be sacred.


Notable confluences


Africa

* At
Lokoja Lokoja is a city in Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , ...

Lokoja
,
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
, the
Benue River The Benue River (french: la Bénoué), previously known as the Chadda River or Tchadda, is the major tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the ...
flows into the
Niger ) , official_languages = French , languages_type = National language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed languag ...

Niger
. * At
Kazungula Kazungula is a small border town in Zambia, lying on the north bank of the Zambezi River The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater ...
in
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" ...

Zambia
, the
Chobe River The Cuando River is a river in south-central Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it ...

Chobe River
flows into the
Zambezi The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the List of rivers by length, fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its drainage ba ...

Zambezi
. The confluence defines the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
of
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" ...

Zambia
(north of the rivers),
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label=Setswana; Kalanga language, Kalanga: ''Hango yeBotswana''), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 ...

Botswana
(south of the rivers) and
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east a ...

Namibia
(west of the rivers). The land border between Botswana and
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...

Zimbabwe
to the east also reaches the Zambezi at this confluence, so there is a second tripoint (Zambia-Botswana-Zimbabwe) only 150 meters downstream from the first. See
Kazungula Kazungula is a small border town in Zambia, lying on the north bank of the Zambezi River The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater ...
and
Quadripoint A quadripoint is a point on Earth where four distinct territories meet. The territories can be of different types, such as national and provincial. Several examples exist throughout the world that use other names. In North America, several such p ...
, and Gallery below for image. * The Sudanese capital of
Khartoum Khartoum or Khartum ( ; ar, الخرطوم, Al-Khurṭūm) is the capital of Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is ...

Khartoum
is located at the confluence of the
White Nile The White Nile ( ar, النيل الأبيض ') is a river in Africa, one of the two main tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom ...

White Nile
and the
Blue Nile The Blue Nile (; ), is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course ...

Blue Nile
, the beginning of the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
.


Asia

* 82 km north of
Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Basra
in
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
at the town of
Al-Qurnah Al-Qurnah (Kurnah or Qurna, meaning connection/joint in Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle Eas ...
is the confluence of the rivers
Tigris The Tigris () is the easternmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of the Armenian Highlands through the Syrian Desert, Syrian and Arabian Deserts, and empti ...

Tigris
and
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). O ...
, forming the
Shatt al-Arab , name_other = Arvand Rud , image = Shat al-arab-22.JPG , image_caption = Shatt al-Arab pictured near Basra, Iraq , map = File:Tigr-euph.png , map_size = , map_caption = Drainage basin and ...
. * * At
Devprayag Devprayag (Deva prayāga) is a town and a nagar panchayat (municipality) in Tehri Garhwal district in the state of Uttarakhand, India, and is the final one of the Panch Prayag (five confluences) of Alaknanda River where Alaknanda meets the Bha ...
in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, the
Ganges River The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is de ...

Ganges River
originates at the confluence of the
Bhagirathi The Bhāgīrathī (Pron:/ˌbʌgɪˈɹɑːθɪ/) is a turbulent Himalayan river in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and one of the two headstreams of the Ganges, the major river of Northern India and the holy river of Hinduism. In the Hinduism, ...

Bhagirathi
and the
Alaknanda
Alaknanda
; see images above. * Near
Allahabad Allahabad (), List of renamed Indian cities and states, officially known as Prayagraj, also known as Ilahabad, is a metropolis in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.The other five cities were: Agra, Kanpur, Kanpur (Cawnpore), Lucknow, Meerut ...

Allahabad
, India, the
Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani language, Hindustani: ) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganga by discharge and the longest tributary in List of major rivers of India, India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of on the ...

Yamuna
flows into the Ganges. In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, this is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing; during a
Kumbh Mela Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela () is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years, to celebrate every revolution Brihaspati (Jupiter) completes, at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: the Allahab ...
event tens of millions of people visit the site. In Hindu belief the site is held to be a ''triple'' confluence (
Triveni Sangam In Hindu tradition, Triveni Sangam is the confluence (Sanskrit: ''sangama'') of three rivers that is also a sacred place, with a bath here said to flush away all of one's sins and free one from the cycle of rebirth Triveni Sangam in Allahabad ...

Triveni Sangam
), the third river being the metaphysical (not physically present)
Sarasvati Saraswati ( sa, सरस्वती, ) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, speech, wisdom, and learning. She is a part of the trinity ('' Tridevi'') of Saraswati, Lakshmi Lakshmi (; ''IAST, Lakṣmī'', ), also known a ...

Sarasvati
. *
Karad Karad is a city in Satara district Satara district is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, s ...

Karad
, in
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper) ...

Maharashtra
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, is the site of the
Pritisangam Pritisangam is a place where Krishna river and Koyna River, Koyna river meet each other. Both rivers originate from Mahabaleshwar and meet each other at Karad from front. This Confluence, sangam is very rare in world where two rivers come from fro ...

Pritisangam
(meaning: Lovely Confluence), a T-shaped confluence of
Krishna River The Krishna River is the fourth-largest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganges The Ganges ( ) (in India: Ganga ( ); in Bangladesh: Padma River, Padma ( )). "The Ganges Basin, known in India as ...

Krishna River
and
Koyna River The Koyna River (Marathi language, Marathi pronunciation: Help:IPA/Marathi, oːj(ə)naː is a tributary of the Krishna River which originates in Mahableshwar, Satara district, western Maharashtra, India. It rises near Mahableshwar, Mahabalesh ...

Koyna River
, where Koyna River mergers into Krishna River forming a T-shape and then the merged rivers flow to the east as Krishna River. *
Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast Asia#Asia , pushpin_map_caption = , coordinates = , su ...

Kuala Lumpur
, the capital of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, is where the
Gombak River The Gombak River ( ms, Sungai Gombak) is a river which flows through Selangor and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. It is a tributary of the Klang River. The point where it meets the Klang River is the origin of Kuala Lumpur's name. Gombak River was used ...
(previously known as Sungai Lumpur, which means "muddy river") flows into the
Klang River Klang River ( Malay: ''Sungai Klang'') is a river which flows through Kuala Lumpur , anthem = ''Maju dan Sejahtera'' , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Malaysia#Southeast ...
at the site of the
Jamek Mosque Jamek Mosque, officially Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque ( ms, Masjid Jamek Sultan Abdul Samad) is one of the oldest mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, is a p ...
. Recently, the Kolam Biru (Blue Pool), a pool with elaborate fountains, has been installed at the apex of the confluence. *Both
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
and
New Taipei New Taipei City (known as Taipei County until 2010) is a special municipality in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's ...
are where the Dahan and Xindian meet and flow into the
Tamsui River The Tamsui River (formerly Chinese romanization, romanized as Danshui River, ) is a river in northern Taiwan. Geography The Tamsui River begins at the confluence of Xindian River and Dahan River at the western boundary of Taipei and New Taipei ...
. * The
Nam Khan Nam Khan is a river in Laos. It fl ...
River flows into the Mekong at
Luang Prabang Luang Phabang, (Lao language, Lao: wikt:ຫລວງພະບາງ, ຫລວງພະບາງ/wikt:ຫຼວງພະບາງ, ຫຼວງພະບາງ) or ''Louangphabang'' (pronounced ), commonly Transliteration, transliterated into We ...

Luang Prabang
in Laos. * The
Jialing
Jialing
flows into the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
at
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingu ...

Chongqing
in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
. The confluence forms a focal point in the city, marked by Chaotianmen Square, built in 1998. * In the Far East, the
Amur The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably t ...

Amur
forms the international boundary between China and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. The
Ussuri The Ussuri or Wusuli (russian: Уссури; ) runs through Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хаба́ровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987 ...

Ussuri
, which also demarcates the border, flows into the Amur at a point midway between Fuyuan in China and
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хабaровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...

Khabarovsk
in Russia. The apex of the confluence is located in a rural area, part of China, where a commemorative park, Dongji Square, has been built; it features an enormous sculpture representing the Chinese character for "East". The Amur-Ussuri border region was the location of the
Sino-Soviet border conflict The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 ...
of 1969; the borderline near the confluence was settled peacefully by treaty in 2008. * In
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
, in the town of
Pasanauri Pasanauri ( ka, ფასანაური, also spelled ''Passanauri'') is a small town (''Daba (settlement), daba'') in Georgia (country), Georgia, situated in the Dusheti district, Mtskheta-Mtianeti mkhare, region. Pasanauri lies about north o ...
on the southern slopes of the
Caucasus Mountains The Caucasus Mountains, : pronounced * hy, Կովկասյան լեռներ, : pronounced * az, Qafqaz dağları, pronounced * rus, Кавка́зские го́ры, Kavkázskiye góry, kɐfˈkasːkʲɪje ˈɡorɨ * tr, Kafkas Dağla ...

Caucasus Mountains
, the Tetri Aragvi ("White Aragvi") is joined by the Shavi Aragvi ("Black Aragvi"). Together, these two rivers continue as the
Aragvi River , name_native_lang = , name_other = , name_etymology = , image = View upstream Aragvi River from Jvari monastery, 2008-07-07.jpg , image_size = , image_caption = View upstream Aragvi River and along ...
. The conflux is known for its dramatic visual contrast of the two rivers.


Australia

* The two largest rivers in Australia, the
Murray
Murray
and its tributary the
Darling Darling is a term of endearment A term of endearment is a word or phrase used to address or describe a person, animal or inanimate object for which the speaker feels love or affection. Terms of endearment are used for a variety of reasons, suc ...

Darling
, converge at
Wentworth, New South Wales Wentworth is a small border town in the far south west of the state of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It bord ...
.


Europe


Seine

* The
Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''lati ...

Seine
divides in the historical center of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, flowing around two river islands, the
Île Saint-Louis 250px, thumbnail, Map of Île Saint-Louis The Île Saint-Louis () is one of two natural islands in the Seine river, in Paris, France (the other natural island is Île de la Cité; the Île aux Cygnes is Artificial island, artificial). The Î ...
and the
Île de la Cité The Île de la Cité (; English: City Island) is an island in the river in the center of Paris. In the 4th century, it was the site of the fortress of the Roman governor. In 508 , the first King of the Franks, established his palace on the is ...

Île de la Cité
. At the downstream confluence, where the river becomes a single channel again, the Île de la Cité is crossed by the famous
Pont Neuf The Pont Neuf (, "New Bridge") is the oldest standing bridge across the river Seine in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an esti ...

Pont Neuf
, adjacent to an equestrian statue of King
Henri IV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Antoine of Navarre , mother = Jeanne III of Navarre , religion =Protestantism 1553-1595 Roman Catholicism 1595-1610 , signature= Signature of Henry IV of France.svg , succe ...

Henri IV
and the historically more recent Vert Galant park. The site has repeatedly been portrayed by artists including
Monet Oscar-Claude Monet (, , ; 14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a French painter and founder of Impressionism, impressionist painting who is seen as a key precursor to modernism, especially in his attempts to paint nature as he percei ...
,
Renoir Pierre-Auguste Renoir (; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine Femininity (also called womanline ...
, and
Pissarro Camille Pissarro ( , ; 10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance ...
. * Further upstream, the Marne empties into the Seine at
Charenton-le-Pont Charenton-le-Pont () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what ...
and
Alfortville Alfortville () is a Communes of France, commune in the Val-de-Marne Departments of France, department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the Kilometre Zero, center of Paris. History The commune of Alfortville was cre ...

Alfortville
, just southeast of the Paris city limits. The site is dominated by the Huatian Chinagora, a four-star hotel under Chinese management.


Rhine

* The Rhine carries much river traffic, and major inland ports are found at its confluence with the Ruhr (river), Ruhr at Duisburg, and with the Neckar at Mannheim; see Mannheim Harbour. * The Main River, Main flows into the Rhine just south of Mainz. * The Moselle (river), Mosel flows into the Rhine further north at Koblenz. The name "Koblenz" itself has its origin in the Latin name "Confluentes". In German, this confluence is known as the "Deutsches Eck" ("German corner") and is the site of an imposing monument to German unification featuring an equestrian statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I. * Upstream in Switzerland, a small town also named Koblenz, Switzerland, Koblenz (for the same reason) is where the Aare River, Aare joins the Rhine.


Danube basin

* Passau, Germany, sometimes called the (City of Three Rivers), is the site of a triple confluence, described thus in a guidebook: "from the north the little Ilz sluices brackish water down from the peat-rich Bavarian Forest, meeting the cloudy brown of the Danube as it flows from the west and the pale snow-melt jade of the Inn River, Inn from the south [i.e., the Alps] to create a murky tricolour." * The Thaya River, Thaya flows into the Morava (river), Morava in a rural location near Hohenau an der March in Austria, forming the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
of Austria, Czechia, and Slovakia. * The Morava flows into the Danube at Devín, on the border between Slovakia and Austria. * The Sava flows into the Danube at Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. * In karst, karst topography, which arises in soluble rock, rivers sometimes flow underground and form subterranean confluences, as at Planina Cave in Slovenia, where the Pivka (river), Pivka and Rak (river), Rak merge to form the Unica (river), Unica.


Other

* Lyon, France lies where the Saône flows into the Rhone. A major new museum of science and anthropology, the Musée des Confluences, opened on the site in 2014. * Near Toulouse, France lies where the Ariège (river) flows into the Garonne. Both take their source in the Pyrenees. * The Lusatian Neisse flows into the Oder at a rural location in Poland opposite the German village of Ratzdorf. The two rivers form the Oder-Neisse line, the postwar boundary of Germany and Poland. * The Triangle of Three Emperors, a former political
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
, lies in present-day Poland. The empires that abutted (in the decades before World War I) were the Austrian Empire, Austrian, German Empire, German, and Russian Empire, Russian. * Rovaniemi, the capital of Finland, Finnish Lapland (Finland), Lapland and one of the largest towns above the Arctic Circle, is at the confluence of rivers Ounasjoki and Kemijoki. * Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine is located (and named after) on the confluence of the Saksahan and Inhulets River. * The Oka River, Oka Spit of Nizhny Novgorod, flows into the Volga at Nizhny Novgorod in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Nizhny Novgorod, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral overlooks the site. * The English city of Southampton is built at the confluence of the tidal estuaries of the River Test and River Itchen, Hampshire, River Itchen which combine to form Southampton Water estuary.


North America

Mississippi basin * The Greater Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota features two important Mississippi confluences. Near historical Fort Snelling and the town of Mendota, Minnesota, Mendota—about 9 miles downstream on the Mississippi from Minneapolis—the Minnesota River flows into the Mississippi at Pike Island. The area around this confluence is a location of spiritual, cultural, and historical significance to the Dakota people and is also the site of the earliest European settlements in the Twin Cities area. About 30 miles further downstream from the Minnesota-Mississippi confluence—and 25 miles downstream from St. Paul—the Mississippi joins with the St. Croix River (Wisconsin-Minnesota), St. Croix River near Hastings, Minnesota, and Prescott, Wisconsin. * Vicksburg, Mississippi lies atop bluffs overlooking the confluence of the Mississippi River with its tributary the Yazoo River, Yazoo. Both rivers, as well as the bluffs, played an important role in the Vicksburg Campaign, a pivotal event of the American Civil War. * The Missouri River flows into the Mississippi River at Jones-Confluence Point State Park, just north of St. Louis, Missouri. Slightly further upstream, the Illinois River flows into the Mississippi. * The Madison River, Madison, Jefferson River, Jefferson and Gallatin River, Gallatin Rivers in Three Forks, Montana form the confluence of the Missouri River. * At Keokuk, Iowa, the Des Moines River flows into the Mississippi. This forms the political
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
between the U.S. states of Iowa, Missouri, and Illinois. * Just south of Cairo, Illinois, the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi, forming the tripoint between the states of Illinois, Missouri, and Kentucky. * The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the
Monongahela
Monongahela
and Allegheny rivers, located in
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County. A population of 302,971 residents lives within the city limit ...

Pittsburgh
, Pennsylvania. The site is of great historical significance; in the 1970s it was upgraded by the creation of Point State Park, highlighted by a large fountain. Atlantic watersheds * At Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, the Shenandoah River flows into the Potomac River, at the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
of the U.S. states of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland. * At Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Schuylkill River flows into the Delaware River, next to the former Philadelphia Naval Shipyard; the site remains industrial. * At Cohoes, New York, a few miles north of Albany, New York, Albany, the Mohawk River flows into the Hudson River, Hudson in three channels separated by islands. The confluence is historically important: upstream traffic on or along the Hudson often took a left turn at the Mohawk, which offers a uniquely level passageway through the Appalachian Mountains that assisted commerce and the settlement of the West. * At Ottawa, the capital of Canada, the Rideau River flows—unusually, as a waterfall—into the Ottawa River; see Rideau Falls. On the island separating the two portions of the falls is a park with military monuments, among them the Ottawa Memorial. * The Hochelaga Archipelago, including the island and city of Montreal, is located where the Ottawa River flows into the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada. * Winnipeg, Canada, is at the confluence of the Red River of the North, Red River, and the Assiniboine River. The area is referred to as The Forks, Winnipeg, The Forks by locals, and has been an important trade location for over 6000 years. Pacific watersheds * The Green River (Colorado River), Green River flows into the Colorado River at the heart of Canyonlands National Park in Utah's Canyon Country. * The Snake River flows into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities (WA), Tri-Cities of Washington (U.S. state), Washington. * In Portland, Oregon, the Willamette River flows into the Columbia at Kelley Point Park, built on land acquired from the Port of Portland in 1984. * Lytton, British Columbia, Canada, is located at the confluence of the muddy Fraser River and the clearer Thompson River.


South America

*
Manaus Manaus (; ) is the List of capitals of subdivisions of Brazil, capital and largest city of the States of Brazil, Brazilian state of Amazonas (Brazilian state), Amazonas. It is the List of largest cities in Brazil, seventh-largest city in Brazil, ...

Manaus
, Brazil is on the Rio Negro (Amazon), Rio Negro near its confluence with the Amazon River, Amazon (see Meeting of Waters). It is the chief port and a hub for the region's extensive river system. * The Iguazu River, Iguazú flows into the Paraná River, Paraná at the "Triple Frontier" ( es, La Triple Frontera, pt, Tríplice Fronteira), the
tripoint A tripoint, trijunction, triple point, or tri-border area is a geography, geographical point at which the boundaries of three country, countries or Subnational administrative division, subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 inte ...

tripoint
for Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. * In Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela there is a confluence between Orinoco River and Caroní River.


Confluences of two waterways

Occasionally "confluence" is used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water, such as two canals or a canal and a lake. A one-mile (1.6 km) portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal; therefore those three waterways are confluent there. The term confluence also applies to the merger of the flow of two glaciers.Vladimir Kotlyakov and Anna Komarova (2006) ''Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German''. Elsevier. Passage cited may be accessed on Google Books.


See also

* *


Notes


References

* Letizia, Chiara (2017) "The Sacred Confluence, between Nature and Culture," in Marie Lecomte-Tilouine (ed.) ''Nature, Culture and Religion at the Crossroads of Asia''. Routledge. Extracts available on line at Google Books.


External links



A collection of full-size, vivid photographs of confluences, most of them mentioned in the list above. {{Rivers, streams and springs Physical geography Rivers Bodies of water River morphology