HOME
TheInfoList



Vojvodina ( ) is an
autonomous province Autonomous province is a term for a type of province that has administrative autonomy.Collins Dictionary< ...
that occupies the northernmost part of
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, is a cou ...
. It lies within the
Pannonian Basin alt=The Roman empire in red with a land in darker red; water is in pale blue, and non-Roman land in grey, The highlighted borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in ...

Pannonian Basin
, bordered to the south by the national capital Belgrade and the Sava and Danube Rivers. The administrative center,
Novi Sad Novi Sad ( sr-cyr, Нови Сад, ; hu, Újvidék, ; see below for other names) is the second largest city in Serbia and the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is located in the southern portion of the Pannonian Plain on the bor ...

Novi Sad
, is the second-largest city in Serbia. The historic regions of
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the ...
,
Bačka Bačka ( sr, Бачка / ''Bačka'', ; hu, Bácska, ) is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east. It is divided between Serbia and Hunga ...
, and
Syrmia Syrmia ( sr, Srem/Срем, hr, Srijem) is a region of the southern Pannonian Plain, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia and Croatia. Most of the region is flat, with the exception of the low Fruška gora m ...

Syrmia
overlap the province. Modern Vojvodina is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, with some 26 ethnic groups and six official languages. About two million people, nearly 27% of Serbia's population (excluding
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeastern Europe. It lies at the centre of the Balkans, occupying an area of , with a population of 1.8 million; and is ...
), live in the province.


Name

''Vojvodina'' is also the Serbian word for
voivodeship A voivodeship is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe. Voivodeships have existed since medieval times and the area of extent of voivodeship resembles that of a duchy in western medieval ...
, a type of duchy overseen by a
voivode ''. An early 19th-century hand-drawn lubok, attributed to Mikhail Grigoriev. Voivode (, also spelled Voievod, Voivoda, Vojvoda or Wojewoda) is a title denoting a "military-leader" or "warlord" in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe since the Ea ...
. The Serbian Voivodeship, a precursor to modern Vojvodina, was an Austrian province from 1849 to 1860. The official name is the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. In the province's six official languages this is: *
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refer to: ** Serbian language ...
: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / ''Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina'' () *
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
: ''Vajdaság Autonóm Tartomány'' * Slovak: ''Autonómna pokrajina Vojvodina'' *
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania **Romanians, an ethnic group **Romanian language, a Romance language ***Romanian dialects, variants of the Romanian language **Romanian cuisine, traditional ...
: ''Provincia Autonomă Voivodina'' *
Croatian
Croatian
: ''Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina'' *
Pannonian Rusyn 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the City of Novi Sad (Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, and Rusyn). Pannonian Rusyn, or simply Rusyn (руски язик (''ruski jazik''), руска бешеда (''ruska bešeda''), р ...
: Автономна Покраїна Войводина (''Avtonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina'')


History


Pre-Roman times and Roman rule

In the Neolithic period, two important archaeological cultures flourished in this area: the
Starčevo culture The Starčevo culture is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between ''c.'' 6200 and 4500 BCE. It originates in the spread of the Neolithic package of peoples and technological innovations including farm ...
and the
Vinča culture The Vinča culture, îːntʃaalso known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, was a Neolithic archaeological culture in southeastern Europe, in present-day Serbia, and smaller parts of Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia and Romania (particul ...
.
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...
peoples first settled in the territory of present-day Vojvodina in 3200 BC. During the
Eneolithic#REDIRECT Asterisk The asterisk , from Late Latin , from Ancient Greek , ''asteriskos'', "little star", is a typographical symbol. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star. Computer scientists and mathematicians of ...
period, the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron s ...
and the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly app ...
, several Indo-European archaeological cultures were centered in or around Vojvodina, including the
Vučedol culture The Vučedol culture ( hr, Vučedolska kultura) flourished between 3000 and 2200 BCE (the Eneolithic period of earliest copper-smithing), centered in Syrmia and eastern Slavonia on the right bank of the Danube river, but possibly spreading throughout ...
, the
Vatin culture
Vatin culture
, and the
Bosut culture Bosut culture (Serbian: ''Bosutska kultura'' / Босутска култура or ''Bosutska grupa'' / Босутска група) is a name of an prehistoric Iron Age culture, which was named after Gradina on Bosut archaeological site in Serbia. ...

Bosut culture
, among others. Before the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC, Indo-European peoples of Illyrian,
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied the a ...
and
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts, an ethnolinguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe *Celts (modern), a modern cultural creation based on the older Celtic peoples *Celtic lang ...

Celtic
origin inhabited this area. The first states organized in this area were the Celtic State of the Scordisci (3rd century BC-1st century AD) with capital in
Singidunum Singidunum ( sr, Сингидунум/''Singidunum'') was an ancient city which later evolved into modern Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. The name is of Celtic origin, going back to the time when Celtic tribe Scordisci settled the area in the 3rd ...
(
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and th ...
), and the
Dacian Kingdom Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae (east of Dacia) and the Romans called them Daci. Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube), in Greek sources the '' ...
of
Burebista Burebista ( grc, Βυρεβίστας, Βοιρεβίστας) was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61BC to 45/44BC. He was the first king who successfully unified the tribes of the Dacian Kingdom, which comprised the area l ...
(1st century BC). During Roman rule,
Sirmium Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia, located on the Sava river, on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica in northern Serbia. First mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by ...
(modern
Sremska Mitrovica Sremska Mitrovica ( sr-Cyrl, Сремска Митровица, ) is a city and the administrative center of the Srem District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated on the left bank of the Sava river. , the city has a total ...

Sremska Mitrovica
) was one of the four capital cities of the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire
, and six
Roman Emperors The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it r ...
were born in this city or in its surroundings. The city was also the capital of several Roman administrative units, including
Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Inferior, lit. Lower Pannonia, was a province of the Roman Empire. Its capital was Sirmium. It was one of the border provinces on the Danube. It was formed in the year 103 AD by Emperor Trajan who divided the former province of Pannonia ...
,
Pannonia Secunda Pannonia Secunda was one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was formed in the year 296, during the reign of emperor Diocletian. The capital of the province was Sirmium (today Sremska Mitrovica). Pannonia Secunda included parts of present-day ...

Pannonia Secunda
, the
Diocese of Pannonia 250px, Diocese of Illyricum (Diocese of Pannonia) in 400 AD The Diocese of Pannonia ( la, Dioecesis Pannoniarum, lit. "Diocese of the Pannonias"), from 395 known as the Diocese of Illyricum, was a diocese of the Late Roman Empire. The seat of the ' ...
, and the
Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum ( la, praefectura praetorio per Illyricum; el, ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία ῶν πραιτωρίωντοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ, also termed simply the Prefecture of Illyricum) was one of four praet ...
. Roman rule lasted until the 5th century, after which the region came into the possession of various peoples and states. While
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the ...
was a part of the Roman province of
Dacia Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae (east of Dacia) and the Romans called them Daci. Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube), in Greek sources the '' ...
,
Syrmia Syrmia ( sr, Srem/Срем, hr, Srijem) is a region of the southern Pannonian Plain, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia and Croatia. Most of the region is flat, with the exception of the low Fruška gora m ...

Syrmia
belonged to the Roman province of
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province of the Roman Empire bounded on the north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located in the territory of present-day we ...
.
Bačka Bačka ( sr, Бачка / ''Bačka'', ; hu, Bácska, ) is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east. It is divided between Serbia and Hunga ...
was not part of the Roman Empire and was populated and ruled by Sarmatian
Iazyges (ruled 117–138), showing the location of the Iazyges in the plain of the Tisza river., alt=A physical map of Europe under Emperor Hadrian with the borders of Rome in red. The Iazyges (),, singular Ἰάζυξ. were an ancient Sarmatians, Sa ...
.


Early Middle Ages and Slavic settlement

After the Romans were driven away from this region, various Indo-European and Turkic peoples and states ruled in the area. These peoples included Goths, Sarmatians, Huns, Gepids and Avars. For regional history, the largest in importance was a Gepid state, which had its capital in Sirmium. According to the 7th-century ''
Miracles of Saint Demetrius The ''Miracles of Saint Demetrius'', also known by the Latin title ''Miracula Sancti Demetrii'', is a 7th-century collection of homilies, written in Greek, accounting the miracles performed by the patron saint of Thessalonica, Saint Demetrius. It is ...
'', Avars gave the region of Syrmia to a Bulgar leader named Kuber circa 680. The Bulgars of Kuber moved south with Maurus to Macedonia where they co-operated with
Tervel Khan Tervel ( bg, Тервел) also called ''Tarvel'', or ''Terval'', or ''Terbelis'' in some Byzantine sources, was the khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century. In 705 Emperor Justinian II named hi ...
in the 8th century.
Slavs Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern and Southeaster ...
settled today's Vojvodina in the 6th and 7th centuries, before some of them crossed the rivers Sava and Danube and settled in the Balkans. Slavic tribes that lived in the territory of present-day Vojvodina included Abodrites, Severans, Braničevci and Timočani. In the 9th century, after the fall of the Avar state, the first forms of Slavic statehood emerged in this area. The first Slavic states that ruled over this region included the Bulgarian Empire,
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predomin ...

Great Moravia
and Ljudevit's Pannonian Duchy. During the Bulgarian administration (9th century), local Bulgarian dukes,
Salan on the eve of the "Hungarian Conquest": a map based primarily on the narration of the ''Gesta Hungarorum'' Image:Salan.png, 300px, Voivodship (duchy) of Salan according tcurug.rastko.net] Salan, Dux Salanus or Zalan (Bulgarian language, Bulgaria ...

Salan
and Glad (duke), Glad, ruled over the region. Salan's residence was Titel, while that of Glad was possibly in the rumoured rampart of Galad or perhaps in the Kladovo (Gladovo) in eastern Serbia. Glad's descendant was the duke Ahtum, another local ruler from the 11th century who opposed the establishment of Hungarian rule over the region. In the village of
Čelarevo Čelarevo ( sr-Cyrl, Челарево) is a village located in the Bačka Palanka municipality, in the South Bačka District of Serbia. It is situated in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and its population ...
archaeologists have also found traces of people who practised the Judaic religion. Bunardžić dated Avar-Bulgar graves excavated in Čelarevo, containing skulls with Mongolian features and Judaic symbols, to the late 8th and 9th centuries. Erdely and Vilkhnovich consider the graves to belong to the
Kabars The Kabars ( el, Κάβαροι), also known as Qavars (Qabars) or Khavars were Khazar rebels who joined the Magyar confederation in the 9th century as well as the Rus' Khaganate. Sources The Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII is the principal s ...
who eventually broke ties with the Khazar Empire between the 830s and 862. (Three other
Khazar The Khazars (, ; he, כוזרים, ''Kuzarim''; tr, Hazarlar; az, Xəzərlər; ba, Хазарҙар; tt, Хәзәрләр, ''Xäzärlär''; ''Xazar''; fa, خزر; uk, Хоза́ри, ''Khozáry''; rus, Хаза́ры, ''Khazáry''; hu, Kazá ...
tribes joined the
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( hu, magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary ( hu, Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common ancestry, culture, history and language. Hungarian belongs to the Uralic lan ...
and took part in the Magyar conquest of the Carpathian basin including what is now Vojvodina in 895–907.)


Hungarian rule

Following territorial disputes with Byzantine and Bulgarian states, most of Vojvodina became part of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
between the 10th and 12th century and remained under Hungarian administration until the 16th century (Following periods of Ottoman and Habsburg administrations, Hungarian political dominance over most of the region was established again in 1867 and over entire region in 1882, after abolition of the Habsburg Military Frontier). The regional demographic balance started changing in the 11th century when Magyars began to replace the local Slavic population. But from the 14th century, the balance changed again in favour of the Slavs when Serbian refugees fleeing from territories conquered by the Ottoman army settled in the area. Most of the Hungarians left the region during the Ottoman conquest and early period of Ottoman administration, so the population of Vojvodina in Ottoman times was predominantly Serbs (who comprised an absolute majority of Vojvodina at the time), with significant presence of Muslims of various ethnic backgrounds.


Ottoman rule

After the defeat of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of th ...
at
Mohács Mohács (; Croatian and Bunjevac: ''Mohač''; german: Mohatsch; sr, Мохач; tr, Mohaç) is a town in Baranya county, Hungary on the right bank of the Danube. Etymology The name probably comes from the Slavic ''*Mъchačь'',''*Mocháč'': ''m ...
by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան պ ...

Ottoman Empire
, the region fell into a period of anarchy and civil wars. In 1526
Jovan Nenad Jovan Nenad ( sr-cyr, Јован Ненад; ca. 1492 – 26 July 1527), known as ''the Black'' was a Serb military commander in the service of the Kingdom of Hungary who took advantage of a Hungarian military defeat at Mohács and subsequent strugg ...
, a leader of Serb mercenaries, established his rule in
Bačka Bačka ( sr, Бачка / ''Bačka'', ; hu, Bácska, ) is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east. It is divided between Serbia and Hunga ...
, northern
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the ...
and a small part of
Syrmia Syrmia ( sr, Srem/Срем, hr, Srijem) is a region of the southern Pannonian Plain, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia and Croatia. Most of the region is flat, with the exception of the low Fruška gora m ...

Syrmia
. He created an ephemeral independent state, with
Subotica Subotica ( sr-cyrl, Суботица, ; hu, Szabadka) is a city and the administrative center of the North Bačka District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Formerly the largest city of Vojvodina region, contemporary Subotica is no ...
as its capital. At the peak of his power, Jovan Nenad proclaimed himself Serbian Emperor in Subotica. Taking advantage of the extremely confused military and political situation, the Hungarian noblemen from the region joined forces against him and defeated the Serbian troops in the summer of 1527. Emperor Jovan Nenad was assassinated and his state collapsed. After the fall of emperor's state, the supreme military commander of Jovan Nenad's army,
Radoslav Čelnik Radoslav Čelnik ( sr-cyrl, Радослав Челник, hu, Cselnik Radoszláv; 1526–1532), known as Vojvoda Rajko (), was a Serb general (''vojvoda'') in the army of Jovan Nenad, the titular Serbian Emperor who held present-day Vojvodina, who ...
, established his own temporary state in the region of Syrmia, where he ruled as Ottoman vassal. A few decades later, the whole region was added to the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան պ ...

Ottoman Empire
, which ruled over it until the end of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, when it was incorporated into the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire is a modern umbrella term coined by historians to denote the numerous lands and kingdoms of the Habsburg dynasty, especially for th ...
. The
Treaty of Karlowitz The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (today in Serbia), concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. It marks the end o ...
of 1699, between Holy League and
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան պ ...

Ottoman Empire
, marked the withdrawal of the Ottoman forces from
Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a common histo ...
, and the supremacy of the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire is a modern umbrella term coined by historians to denote the numerous lands and kingdoms of the Habsburg dynasty, especially for th ...
in that part of the continent. According to the treaty, the western part of Vojvodina passed to Habsburgs. The eastern part (eastern Syrmia and Province of Tamışvar) remained in Ottoman hands until Austrian conquest in 1716. This new border change was ratified by the
Treaty of Passarowitz The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac ( sr-cyr, Пожаревац, german: Passarowitz), a town in the Ottoman Empire (today in Serbia), on 21 July 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side ...
in 1718.


Habsburg rule


Hungarian Crown land (1699–1849)

During the
Great Serb Migration The Great Migrations of the Serbs ( sr, Велике сеобе Срба), also known as the Great Exoduses of the Serbs, refers mainly to two large migrations of Serbs from various territories under the rule of Ottoman Empire to regions under th ...
, Serbs from Ottoman territories settled in the Habsburg Monarchy at the end of the 17th century (in 1690). Most settled in what is now Hungary, with the lesser part settling in western Vojvodina. All Serbs in the Habsburg Monarchy gained the status of a recognized nation with extensive rights, in exchange for providing a border militia (in the
Military Frontier The Military Frontier (german: Militärgrenze, sh, Vojna krajina/Vojna granica, Војна крајина/Војна граница; hu, Katonai határőrvidék; ro, Graniță militară) was a borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Aust ...
) that could be mobilized against invaders from the south (such as the Ottomans), as well as in case of civil unrest in the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Wallachian Right became the point of reference in the 18th century for military settlement in lowland region. The Vlachs who settled there were mainly Serbs, although there were also and Romanians while Greek-Vlachian Cincari lived in the urban areas. At the beginning of Habsburg rule, most of the region was integrated into the Military Frontier, while western parts of Bačka were put under civil administration within the County of Bač. Later, the civil administration was expanded to other (mostly northern) parts of the region, while southern parts remained under military administration. The eastern part of this area was held again by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան պ ...

Ottoman Empire
between 1787–88, during the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), Russo-Turkish War. In 1716, Vienna temporarily forbade settlement by Hungarians and Jews in the area, while large numbers of German speakers were settled in the region from Bavaria and southern areas, in order to repopulate it and develop agriculture. From 1782, Protestantism, Protestant Hungarians and ethnic Germans settled in larger numbers. During the Revolutions of 1848, 1848–49 revolutions, Vojvodina was a site of a war between Serbs and Hungarians, due to the opposite national conceptions of these two peoples. At the May Assembly in Sremski Karlovci (13–15 May 1848), Serbs declared the constitution of the ''Serbian Vojvodina, Serbian Voivodship'' (''Serbian Duchy''), a Serbian autonomous region within the Austrian Empire. The Serbian Voivodship consisted of Srem, Bačka, Banat, and Baranya (region), Baranja. The head of the Metropolitanate of Karlovci, metropolitanate of Sremski Karlovci, Josif Rajačić, was elected Patriarchate of Karlovci, patriarch, while Stevan Šupljikac was chosen as first Voivode, voivod (duke). The ethnic war erupted harshly in this area, with both sides committing terrible atrocities against the civilian populations.


Austrian Crown land (1849–1860)

Following the Habsburg-Russian and Serb victory over the Hungarians in 1849, a new administrative territory was created in the region in November 1849, in accordance with a decision made by the Austrian emperor. By this decision, the Serbian autonomous region created in 1848 was transformed into the new Austrian crown land known as Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar. It consisted of Banat, Bačka and Srem, excluding the southern parts of these regions which were part of the Military Frontier. An Austrian governor seated in Timișoara, Temeschwar ruled the area, while the title of Voivod belonged to the Austrian Emperor, emperor himself. The full title of the Austrian Emperor, emperor was "Grosswojwod, Grand Voivod of the Voivodship of Serbia" (German: ''Großwoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien''). German and Serbian were the official languages of the crown land. In 1860, the new province was abolished and most of it (with exception of Syrmia) was again integrated into the Habsburg
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
.


Hungarian rule


Hungarian Crown land (1860–1876)

Vojvodina remained Austrian Crown land until 1860, when Emperor Franz Joseph decided that it would be Hungarian Crown land again. After 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary became one of two self-governing parts of Austria-Hungary, and the territory was returned again to Hungarian administration.


Counties in the Kingdom of Hungary (1876–1920)

In 1876, a new county system was introduced. This territory was organized among Bács-Bodrog County, Bács-Bodrog, Torontál County, Torontál and Temes County, Temes counties. The era following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1876 was a period of economic flourishing. The Kingdom of Hungary had the second-fastest growing economy in Europe between 1867–1913, but ethnic relations were strained. According to the 1910 census, the last census conducted in Austria-Hungary, the population of Vojvodina included 510,754 (33.8%) Serbs; 425,672 (28.1%) Hungarians; and 324,017 (21.4%) Germans.


Kingdom of Yugoslavia

At the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed. On 29 October 1918, Syrmia became a part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. On 31 October 1918, the Banat Republic was proclaimed in Timișoara. The government of Hungary recognized its independence, but it was short-lived. On 25 November 1918, the Great People's Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs in Banat, Bačka and Baranja in Novi Sad proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina (Banat, Bačka and Baranja) with the Kingdom of Serbia (The assembly numbered 757 deputies, of which 578 were Serbs, 84 Bunjevci, 62 Slovaks, 21 Rusyns, Rusyn, 6 Germans, 3 Šokci, 2 Croats and 1 Magyars, Hungarian). One day before this, on 24 November, the Assembly of Syrmia also proclaimed the unification of Syrmia with Serbia. On 1 December 1918, Vojvodina (as part of the Kingdom of Serbia) officially became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Between 1929–41, the region was part of the Danube Banovina, a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Its capital city was Novi Sad. Apart from the core territories of Vojvodina and Baranja, it included significant parts of Šumadija and Braničevo (region), Braničevo regions south of the Danube (but not the Belgrade City Administration (1929–41), capital city of Belgrade).


World War II and immediate aftermath

Between 1941–44, during World War II, Nazi Germany and its allies, Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946), Hungary and the Independent State of Croatia, Occupation of Vojvodina, 1941-1944, occupied Vojvodina and divided. Bačka and Baranja were annexed by Hungary and Syrmia was included in the Independent State of Croatia. A smaller Danube Banovina (including Banat, Šumadija, and Braničevo) was designated as part of the area governed by the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, Military Administration in Serbia. The administrative center of this smaller province was Smederevo. But, Banat was a separate autonomous region ruled by its ethnic German minority. The occupying powers committed numerous crimes against the civilian population, especially against Serbs, Jews and Roma; the Jewish population of Vojvodina was almost completely killed or deported. In total, Axis Powers, Axis occupational authorities killed about 50,000 citizens of Vojvodina (mostly Serbs, Jews and Roma) while more than 280,000 people were interned, arrested, violated or tortured. Such crimes in varying regions of Vojvodina were carried out by Nazi Germans, Ustaše and Hungarian Axis forces. Many historians and authors describe the Ustashe regime's mass killings as Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, genocide of the Serbs, including Raphael Lemkin. In 1942, in the Novi Sad Raid, a military operation carried out by the Royal Hungarian Army, Királyi Honvédség, the armed forces of Kingdom of Hungary, Hungary, during World War II, after Hungarian occupation of Yugoslav territories, occupation and annexation of former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav territories. It resulted in the deaths of 3,000–4,000 civilians in the southern
Bačka Bačka ( sr, Бачка / ''Bačka'', ; hu, Bácska, ) is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east. It is divided between Serbia and Hunga ...
(Bácska) region. Under the Hungarian authority, 19,573 people were killed in Bačka, of which the majority of victims were of Serb, Jewish and Romani origin. When Axis occupation ended in 1944, the region was temporarily placed under a military administration (1944–45) run by the new communist authorities. During and after the military administration, several thousands of citizens were killed. Victims were mostly ethnic Germans, but Hungarian and Serb populations were also killed. Both the war-time Axis occupational authorities and the post-war communist authorities ran concentration/prison camps in the territory of Vojvodina. (see List of concentration and internment camps). While war-time prisoners in these camps were mostly Jews, Serbs and communists, post-war camps were formed for ethnic Germans (historically known as Danube Swabians). Most Vojvodina ethnic Germans (about 200,000) fled the region in 1944, together with the defeated German army. Most of those who remained in the region (about 150,000) were sent to some of the villages cordoned off as prisons. It is estimated that some 48,447 Germans died in the camps from disease, hunger, malnutrition, mistreatment, and cold. Some 8,049 Germans were killed by partisans during military administration in Vojvodina after October 1944. It has also been estimated that post-war communist authorities killed some 15,000–20,000 Hungarians and some 23,000–24,000 Serbs during Communist purges in Serbia in 1944–45. According t
Professor Dragoljub Živković
some 47,000 ethnic Serbs were murdered in Vojvodina between 1941–48. About half were killed by occupational Axis forces and the other half by the post-war Communist authorities. The region was politically restored in 1944 (incorporating Syrmia, Banat, Bačka, and Baranja) and became an autonomous province of Serbia in 1945. Instead of the previous name (Danube Banovina), the region regained its historical name of Vojvodina, while its capital city remained Novi Sad. When the final borders of Vojvodina were defined, Baranja was assigned to Croatia, while the northern part of the Mačva region was assigned to Vojvodina.


Socialist Yugoslavia

For decades, the province enjoyed only a small level of autonomy within Serbia. Under the 1974 Yugoslav constitution, it gained extensive rights of self-rule, as both Kosovo and Vojvodina were given ''de facto'' veto power in the Serbian and Yugoslav parliaments. Changes to their status could not be made without the consent of the two Provincial Assemblies. The 1974 Serbian constitution, adopted at the same time, reiterated that "the Socialist Republic of Serbia comprises the Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, which originated in the common struggle of nations and nationalities of Yugoslavia in the National Liberation War (the Second World War) and socialist revolution". In 1990s, during the Croatian War of Independence, war in Croatia in persecution of Croats in Serbia during Yugoslav Wars was organized and participated in the expulsion of the Croats in some places in Vojvodina. Based on an investigation by the ''Humanitarian Law Fund'' from Belgrade in the course of June, July, and August 1992, more than 10,000 Croats from Vojvodina exchanged their property for the property of Serbs from Croatia, and altogether about 20,000 Croats left Serbia. According to other estimations, the number of Croats which have left Serbia under political pressure of Milošević's regime might be between 20,000 and 40,000. According to Petar Kuntić of Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina, 50,000 Croats were pressured to move out from Serbia during the Yugoslav wars. Under the rule of Serbian president Slobodan Milošević, a series of protests against Vojvodina's party leadership took place during the summer and autumn of 1988, which forced it to resign. Eventually Vojvodina and Kosovo had to accept Serbia's constitutional amendments that practically dismissed the autonomy of the provinces in Serbia. Vojvodina and Kosovo lost elements of statehood in September 1990 when the new constitution of the Republic of Serbia was adopted. Vojvodina was still referred to as an autonomous province of Serbia, but most of its autonomous powers – including, crucially, its vote on the Yugoslav collective presidency – were transferred to the control of Belgrade, the capital. The province still had its own parliament and government, and some other autonomous functions as well. According to Đorđe Tomić, this is an example of a phantom border.


Contemporary period

The fall of Milošević in 2000 created a new political climate in Vojvodina. Following talks between the political parties, the level of the province's wikt:autonomy, autonomy was somewhat increased by the omnibus law (Serbia), omnibus law in 2002. The Vojvodina provincial assembly adopted a new statute on 15 October 2008, which, after being partially amended, was approved by the Parliament of Serbia. On January 28, 2013 as an answer to the proposal of the Third Serbia political organization from Novi Sad to abolish the autonomy of Vojvodina, the Vojvodina Autonomist Movement, pro-autonomist Vojvodina's Party performed a campaign that involved the posting of "Republic of Vojvodina" posters in
Novi Sad Novi Sad ( sr-cyr, Нови Сад, ; hu, Újvidék, ; see below for other names) is the second largest city in Serbia and the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is located in the southern portion of the Pannonian Plain on the bor ...

Novi Sad
.


Geography

Vojvodina is situated in the northern quarter of
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, is a cou ...
, in the southeast part of the Pannonian Plain, the plain that remained when the Pliocene ''Pannonian Sea'' dried out. As a consequence of this, Vojvodina is rich in fertile loamy loess soil, covered with a layer of chernozem. The region is divided by the Danube and Tisza, Tisa rivers into:
Bačka Bačka ( sr, Бачка / ''Bačka'', ; hu, Bácska, ) is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east. It is divided between Serbia and Hunga ...
in the northwest,
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the ...
in the east and
Syrmia Syrmia ( sr, Srem/Срем, hr, Srijem) is a region of the southern Pannonian Plain, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia and Croatia. Most of the region is flat, with the exception of the low Fruška gora m ...

Syrmia
(Srem) in the southwest. A small part of the Mačva region is also located in Vojvodina, in the Srem District. Today, the western part of
Syrmia Syrmia ( sr, Srem/Срем, hr, Srijem) is a region of the southern Pannonian Plain, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia and Croatia. Most of the region is flat, with the exception of the low Fruška gora m ...

Syrmia
is in Croatia, the northern part of Bačka is in Hungary, the eastern part of Banat is in Romania (with a small piece in Hungary), while Baranya (region), Baranja (which is between the Danube and the Drava) is in Hungary and Croatia. Vojvodina has a total surface area of . Vojvodina is also part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisza, Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisa euroregion. The Gudurica peak (Gudurički vrh) on the Vršac Mountains, is the highest peak in Vojvodina, at an altitude of 641 m above sea level. The climate of the area is moderate continental, including cold winters and hot and humid summers. The Vojvodina climate is characterized by a vast range of extreme temperatures and very irregular rainfall distribution per month.


Politics

The Assembly of Vojvodina is the provincial legislature composed of 120 proportionally elected members. The current members were elected in the 2016 Vojvodina provincial elections, 2016 provincial elections. The Government of Vojvodina is the executive (government), executive administrative body composed of a President of the Government of Vojvodina, president and cabinet ministers. The current ruling coalition in the Vojvodina parliament is composed of the following political parties: Serbian Progressive Party, Socialist Party of Serbia and Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians. The current president of Vojvodinian government is Igor Mirović (Serbian Progressive Party), while the president of the provincial Assembly is István Pásztor (politician), István Pásztor (Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians). Vojvodina is divided into seven Districts of Serbia, districts. They are regional centers of state authority, but have no powers of their own; they present purely administrative divisions. The seven districts are further subdivided into 37 Municipalities and cities of Serbia, municipalities and the 8 cities of Kikinda,
Novi Sad Novi Sad ( sr-cyr, Нови Сад, ; hu, Újvidék, ; see below for other names) is the second largest city in Serbia and the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is located in the southern portion of the Pannonian Plain on the bor ...

Novi Sad
,
Subotica Subotica ( sr-cyrl, Суботица, ; hu, Szabadka) is a city and the administrative center of the North Bačka District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Formerly the largest city of Vojvodina region, contemporary Subotica is no ...
, Zrenjanin, Pančevo, Sombor,
Sremska Mitrovica Sremska Mitrovica ( sr-Cyrl, Сремска Митровица, ) is a city and the administrative center of the Srem District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated on the left bank of the Sava river. , the city has a total ...

Sremska Mitrovica
, and Vršac.


Demographics

Vojvodina is more diverse than the rest of Serbia with more than 25 ethnic groups and six languages which are in the official use by the provincial administration. Population by ethnicity: Population by mother tongue: Population by religion:


Largest cities


Culture

There are two daily newspapers published in Vojvodina, ''Dnevnik (Serbia), Dnevnik'' in Serbian and ''Magyar Szó'' in Hungarian. Monthly and weekly publications in minority languages include ''Hrvatska riječ'' ("Croatian Word") in Croatian, ''Hlas Ľudu'' ("The Voice of the People") in Slovak, ''Libertatea (Vojvodina), Libertatea'' ("Freedom") in Romanian, and ''Ruske slovo, Руске слово'' ("Rusyn Word") in Rusyn. There is also ''Bunjevačke novine'' ("The Bunjevac newspaper") in Bunjevac. Public Broadcasting Service of Vojvodina was founded in 1974 as Radio Television of Novi Sad, as an equal member of the association of JRT – Yugoslav Radio Television. Radio Novi Sad's first broadcast was on November 29, 1949. During the NATO bombing in the spring of 1999, the RT Novi Sad building of 20 thousand square meters was completely destroyed along with its basic production and technical premises . The Venac terrestrial broadcasting site was heavily damaged. The Radio-Television of Vojvodina produces and broadcasts regional programming on two channels, RTV1 (Serbian language) and RTV2 (minority languages), and three radio frequencies: Radio Novi Sad 1 (Serbian), Radio Novi Sad 2 (Hungarian), Radio Novi Sad 3 (other minority communities).


Economy

The economy of Vojvodina is largely based on developed food industry and fertile agricultural soil. Agriculture is a priority sector in Vojvodina. Traditionally, it has always been a significant part of the local economy and a generator of positive results, due to the abundance of fertile agricultural land which makes up 84% of its territory. The share of agribusiness in the total industrial production is 40%, that is 30% in the total exports of Vojvodina. The metal industry of Vojvodina has a long tradition and consists of smaller metal processing companies for components manufacturing and, to a lesser extent, of original equipment manufacturers (OEM) with their own brand name products. Vojvodina Metal Cluster gathers 116 companies with 6,300 employees. Other branches of industry are also developed such as the chemical industry, electrical industry, oil industry and construction industry. In the past decade, ICT sector has been growing rapidly and has taken significant role in Vojvodina's economic development. High- tech sector is a fast-growing sector in Vojvodina. Software development represents the main source of revenue, particularly development of ERP solutions, Java applications and mobile applications. IT sector companies mainly deal with software outsourcing, based on demands of international clients or with development of their own software products for purposes of domestic and international market. Vojvodina pays particular attention to interregional and cross-border economic cooperation, as well as to implementation of priorities defined within the EU Strategy for the Danube Region. Some of the companies from Vojvodina: *Naftna Industrija Srbije *Srbijagas *HIP Petrohemija *Apatin Brewery *Novi Sad Fair, Novosadski sajam Vojvodina promotes its investment potentials through the Vojvodina Investment Promotion (VIP) agency, which was founded by the Parliament of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.


Transport

There are many important roads which pass through Vojvodina. First of all, the motorway A1 (Serbia), A1 motorway which goes from Central Europe and the Horgos border crossing to Hungary, via Novi Sad to Belgrade and further to the southeast toward Niš, where it branches: one way leads east to the border with Bulgaria; the other to the south, towards Greece. Motorway A3 (Serbia), A3 in Srem separates the west, towards the neighboring Croatia and further to Western Europe. There is also a network of regional and local roads and railway lines. The three largest rivers in Vojvodina are navigable stream. Danube River with a length of 588 kilometers and its tributaries Tisa (168 km), Sava (206 km) and Bega (75 km). Among them was dug extensive network of irrigation canals, drainage and transport, with a total length of , of which navigable.


Tourism

Tourist destinations in Vojvodina include well known Serbian Orthodox Church, Orthodox monasteries on Fruška Gora mountain, numerous hunting grounds, cultural-historical monuments, different folklores, interesting galleries and museums, plain landscapes with a lot of greenery, big rivers, canals and lakes, sandy terrain Deliblatska Peščara ("the European Sahara"), etc. In the last few years, Exit (festival), Exit has been very popular among the European summer music festivals.


See also

*Vojvodina Autonomist Movement *Rinflajš


References


External links


Government of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

Assembly of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

Provincial Secretariat for Regional and International Cooperation

Tourism organization of VojvodinaUseful information about Vojvodina, Parks of Nature, River Expedition, Wine Trails, Cities, Etno, Adventure and moreInteractive map of Novi Sad
*commons:Atlas of Vojvodina, Atlas of Vojvodina (Wikimedia Commons)
Statistical information about municipalities of VojvodinaList of largest cities of Vojvodina

''The encyclopedia of Vojvodina''Official symbols of AP Vojvodina
{{Authority control Vojvodina, Autonomous provinces of Serbia Statistical regions of Serbia States and territories established in 1944 Historical regions in Serbia Autonomous regions Serbian-speaking countries and territories Romanian-speaking countries and territories Hungarian-speaking countries and territories Croatian-speaking countries and territories Regions of Europe with multiple official languages 1944 establishments in Yugoslavia