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Tampere ( , , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
in the
Pirkanmaa Pirkanmaa ( sv, Birkaland, also known as ''Tampere Region'' in government documents; la, Birkaria, link=no), is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact ch ...
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...
, located in the western part of
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
. Tampere is the most populous inland city in the
Nordic countries The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or ''Norden''; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impac ...

Nordic countries
; it has a population of 238,140 with the
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
holding 334,112 people and the metropolitan area, also known as the
Tampere sub-region Tampere sub-region is a subdivision of Pirkanmaa and one of the sub-regions of Finland, sub-regions of Finland since 2009. it covers an area of 4,977 km2 and has a population of 389,896 as of 2014. Municipalities * Hämeenkyrö * Kangasala * Kuh ...
, holding 385,301 inhabitants in an area of . Tampere is the second-largest urban area and third most-populous individual municipality in Finland, after the cities of
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
and
Espoo Espoo (, ; sv, Esbo; la, Espo) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: R ...

Espoo
and the most populous Finnish city outside the
Greater Helsinki Greater Helsinki ( fi, Helsingin seutu, Suur-Helsinki, Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * S ...
area, within which both Helsinki and Espoo are located. Today, Tampere is one of the major urban, economic, and cultural hubs in the whole inland region. Tampere and its environs belong to the historical province of Satakunta. The area belonged to the from 1831 to 1997, and over time it has often been considered to belong to Tavastia as a province. For example, in '' Uusi tietosanakirja'' published in the 1960s, the Tampere region is presented as part of the then Tavastia Province. Around the 1950s, Tampere and its surroundings began to establish itself as their own province of Pirkanmaa. Tampere became the center of Pirkanmaa, and in the early days of the province, ''Tammermaa'' was also used several times in its early days - for example, in the ''Suomi-käsikirja'' published in 1968.Mikko Heikkilä: ''Etymologinen tapaus Tammerkoski''. Sananjalka 54, 2012. (in Finnish) Tampere is wedged between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by , the rapids linking them,
Tammerkoski Tammerkoski is a channel of rapids in Tampere Tampere (, , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and K ...

Tammerkoski
, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
of the North" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse"YLE: Tampere on Manse ja Nääsville
(in Finnish)
and terms such as "Manserock".Tampere Economy
Tampere International Business Office
Also, Tampere has been officially declared the "Sauna Capital of the World", because it has the most public
saunas A sauna (, ), or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities. The steam and high heat make the bathers perspire. A thermometer (merc ...
in the world. Helsinki is approximately south of Tampere, and can be reached in 1 hour 31 minutes by
Pendolino Pendolino (from Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian ...
high-speed rail service and 2 hours by car. The distance to
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
is roughly the same.
Tampere–Pirkkala Airport Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is located in Pirkkala, Finland, south-west of Tampere city centre. The airport is the eighth-busiest list of airports in Finland, airport in Finland, as measured by the number of passengers (208,930 in 2016), and the ...
is Finland's eighth-busiest airport, with over 230,000 passengers in 2017. Tampere also serves as an important transit route for three Finnish highways:
Highway 3 The following highways are numbered 3, H-3, PRI-3, AH3, E03 and R3. For roads numbered A3, see A3 roads. For roads numbered M3, see M3 (disambiguation)#Roads, M3. For roads numbered N3, see N3 (disambiguation)#Roads, N3. For roads numbered 3A, see ...
(), Highway 9 ( E63) and Highway 12. Tampere ranked 26th in the list of 446 cities in the world's hipster cities, and it has often been rated as the most popular city in Finland. The positive development of Tampere and the Tampere metropolitan area has continued throughout the 21st century, which is largely due to Tampere being one of the most migratory and attractive cities in Finland.


Names and etymology

Although the name Tampere is derived from the
Tammerkoski Tammerkoski is a channel of rapids in Tampere Tampere (, , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and K ...

Tammerkoski
rapids (both the city and the rapids are called Tammerfors in
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
), the origin of the ''Tammer-'' part of that name has been the subject of much debate. Ánte accepts the "straightforward" etymology of Rahkonen and Heikkilä in
Proto-Samic Proto-Sami is the hypothetical, reconstructed common ancestor of the Sami languages Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a mun ...
, meaning "deep, slow section of a stream" and "rapids" (cognate with the Finnish ''koski''). This has become the most accepted explanation in the academia, according to the
Institute for the Languages of Finland The Institute for the Languages of Finland ( fi, Kotimaisten kielten keskus, abbreviated ''Kotus'', smn, Päikkieennâm kielâi tutkâmkuávdáš, se, Ruovttueatnan gielaid guovddáš, sms, Dommjânnmlaž ǩiõli kõõskõs, rom, Finnosko tšim ...
. Other theories include that it comes from the Swedish word ''damber'', meaning
milldam{{Unreferenced, date=December 2006 A mill dam (International English) or milldam (US) is a dam constructed on a waterway to create a mill pond. Water passing through a dam's spillway is used to turn a water wheel and provide energy to the many vari ...
; another, that it originates from the ancient
Scandinavian A Scandinavian is a resident of Scandinavia or something associated with the region, including: Culture * Scandinavianism, political and cultural movement * Scandinavian design, a design movement of the 1950s * Scandinavian folklore * Scandinavia ...
words ''þambr'' ("thick bellied") and ''þambion'' ("swollen belly"), possibly referring to the shape of the rapids. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word ''Kvatemberdagar'', or more colloquially ''Tamperdagar'', meaning the
Ember days Ember days are quarterly periods ( la, quatuor tempora) of prayer and fasting Fasting is the willful refrainment from eating and sometimes drinking (see Water fasting and Juice fasting). From a purely physiology, physiological context, "fastin ...
of the Western Christian liturgical calendar. The Finnish word for
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
, ''tammi'', also features in the speculation, although Tampere is situated outside the natural distribution range of the .


Heraldry

The first
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
of Tampere was designed by Arvid von Cederwald in 1838, while the current coat of arms of 1960 in use was designed by Olof Eriksson.Tampereen vaakunat
(in Finnish)
Changing the coat of arms was a
controversial Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of conflicting opinion An opinion is a judgement Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''adjudication'' which means the evaluation of ...
act and the restoration of the old coat of arms has from time to time been demanded even after the change. The new coat of arms has also been called
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
-style in letters to the editor because of its colors. The
blazon In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal and noble rank ...

blazon
of the old coat of arms has either not survived or it has never been done, but the description of the current coat of arms is explained as follows: "In the red field, a corrugated counter-bar, above which is accompanied by a piled
hammer A hammer is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone too ...

hammer
, and below, a
Caduceus The caduceus (☤; ; la, cādūceus, from grc-gre, κηρύκειον "herald's wand, or staff") is the staff carried by Hermes Hermes (; grc-gre, Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity in ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, ...

Caduceus
; all
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...
". The colors of the coat of arms are the same as in the coat of arms of Pirkanmaa. The hammer, which looks like the first letter of the city's name T, symbolizes Tampere's early
industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one might refer to the wood industry ...
, Caduceus its
trading Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...

trading
activities38 § Erkki Axénin ja Peter Löfbergin ym. valtuustoaloite vanhan Arvid von Cedervallin suunnitteleman vaakunan käyttöönottamiseksi.
(in Finnish)
and the corrugated counter-bar represents the Tammerkoski rapids, which divides Tampere's industrial and commercial areas. The city received its first
seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaqu ...
in 1803, and the seal depicted the city's buildings of that time and Tammerkoski.


History


Early history

The earliest known permanent settlements around Tammerkoski were established in 7th century, when settlers from the west of the region started farming land in Takahuhti. The area was largely inhabited by the Tavastian tribes. For many centuries, the population remained low. By the 16th century, the villages of Messukylä and Takahuhti had grown to be the largest settlements in the region. Other villages nearby were Laiskola, Pyynikkälä and Hatanpää. At that time, there had been a
market place fa:بازار A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a ''souk A baz ...

market place
in the area for centuries, where the
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeoisie
s from
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
in particular traded. In 1638, Governor-General
Per Brahe the Younger Count Per Brahe the Younger (18 February 1602 – 12 September 1680) was a Sweden, Swedish soldier, statesman, and author. He was a Privy Council of Sweden, Privy Councillor from 1630 and Lord High Steward of Sweden, Lord High Steward from 1640. ...
ordered that two markets be held in Tammerkoski each year, the autumn market on every Peter's Day in August and the winter market on Mati Day in February. In 1708 the market was moved from the edge of Tammerkoski to Harju and from there in 1758 to Pispala. The early industries in the Pirkanmaa region in the 17th century were mainly
watermill A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, t ...

watermill
s and
sawmill A sawmill (saw mill, saw-mill) or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In bota ...

sawmill
s, while in the 18th century other production began to emerge, as several small-scale
ironworks An ironworks or iron works is an industrial plant where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and steel products are made. The term is both singular and plural, i.e. the singular of ''ironworks'' is ''ironworks''. Ironworks succeed Bloomery, bl ...
, Tammerkoski distillery and Otavala
spinning Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) SPIN (or South Pacific Island Network) was a submarine communications cable, submarine communications cable system that would connect the New Zealand to Tahiti and would connect sev ...

spinning
school were founded.


The birth and industrialization of the city

Before the birth of the city of Tampere, its neighboring municipality of
Pirkkala Pirkkala ( sv, Birkala) is a municipalities of Finland, municipality of Finland. It is located some south-west from Tampere in the Pirkanmaa regions of Finland, region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of of which is wa ...
(according to which the current Pirkanmaa region got its name) was the most administratively significant parish in the area throughout the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. This all changed in the 18th century when Erik Edner, a Finnish
pastor A pastor (abbreviated as "Pr" or "Ptr" , or "Ps" ) is the leader of a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus ...

pastor
, proposed the establishment of a city of Tampere on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1771–1772; it was officially founded as a market place in 1775 by
Gustav III of Sweden Gustav III (29 March 1792), also called ''Gustavus III'', was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden and Queen Louisa Ulrika of Prussia. Gustav was a vocal opponent of ...

Gustav III of Sweden
and four years later, 1 October 1779, Tampere was granted full
city right File:Square of Spisska Sobota 6.jpg, 250px, Medieval square in Spišská Sobota, Slovakia (Now Poprad). The former name of the town literally means "Saturday in Spiš" and it is derived from a day of week in which the town was granted a right t ...
s. At this time, it was a rather small town, founded on the lands belonging to Tammerkoski manor, while its inhabitants were still mainly farmers. As
farming Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

farming
on the city's premises was forbidden, the inhabitants began to rely on other methods of securing a livelihood, primarily
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of r ...

trade
and
handicraft A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...

handicraft
. When Finland became part of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
as the
Grand Duchy of Finland The Grand Duchy of Finland ( fi, Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta; sv, Storfurstendömet Finland; russian: Великое княжество Финляндское, , alternatively Grand prince, Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of ...

Grand Duchy of Finland
in 1809, Tampere still had less than a thousand inhabitants.Mari Lind: ”Tampere – kasvava ja muuttuva kaupunki”. (in Finnish) Tampere grew as a major market town and industrial centre in the 19th century; the industrialization of Tampere was greatly influenced by the Finlayson textile factory, founded in 1820 by the
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...

Scottish
industrialist A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepreneur or investor who controls, through personal ente ...
James Finlayson. By the year 1850, the factory employed around 2000 people, while the population of the city had increased to 4000 inhabitants. Other notable industries that followed Finlayson's success in the 1800s were
Tampella Oy Tampella Ab was a Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish p ...

Tampella
blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science, materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic Chemical element, elements, their Inter-metallic alloy, inter- ...
,
machine factory A machine factory is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. ...
and
flax mill at Holbeck, Leeds, probably circa 1843 Image:Marshall's flax-mill, Holbeck, Leeds - interior - c.1800.jpg, Interior of Marshall's flax-mill Flax mills are mills which process flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plan ...
, Frenckell
paper mill A paper mill is a factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering ...
, and Tampere
broadcloth Broadcloth is a dense, plain woven cloth A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing ...
factory. Tampere's population grew rapidly at the end of the 19th century, from about 7,000 in 1870 to 36,000 in 1900. At the beginning of the 20th century, Tampere was a city of workers and women, with a third of the population being factory workers and more than half women. At the same time, the city's area almost increased sevenfold and impressive
apartment building An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Americ ...

apartment building
s were built in the center of Tampere among modest wooden houses. The stone houses shaped Tampere in a modern direction. The construction of the
sewerage Sewerage (or sewage system) is the infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the service ...
and water supply network and the lighting of
electric light An electric light is a device that produces visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum ...
s also showed renewal; regarding the latter, Tampere was the first Nordic city to introduce electric lights for general use in 1882. The world-famous
Nokia Corporation Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications, information technology company, information technology, and consumer electronics company ...
, a
multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ...
telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
company, also started in the Tammerkoski area;HS: Nokian juuret ovat Tammerkosken rannalla
(in Finnish)
company's history dates from 1865, when Finnish-Swede
mining engineer Mining in the engineering discipline is the extraction of minerals from underneath, above or on the ground. Mining engineering is associated with many other disciplines, such as mineral processing In the field of extractive metallurgy Extra ...
Fredrik Idestam Knut Fredrik Idestam (28 October 1838, Tyrväntö, Grand Duchy of Finland The Grand Duchy of Finland ( fi, Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta; sv, Storfurstendömet Finland; russian: Великое княжество Финляндское, , alternative ...

Fredrik Idestam
(1838–1916) established a
pulp mill , Central Finland A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other Fibre crop, plant fiber source into a thick fiber board which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing. Wood pulp, Pulp can be manufacture ...
on the shores of the rapids and after that, a second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, where there were better
hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and th ...
resources.


Geopolitical significance

Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century; for example, the 1905 conference of the
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP; , ''Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)''), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a socialist ...
(RSDLP), led by
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
, was held at the
Tampere Workers' Hall Tampere Workers' Hall (also known as the Puistotorni, ''The Park Tower'') is a conference and congress centre in Tampere, Finland, located in the corner between Hämeenpuisto and Hallituskatu (Tampere), Hallituskatu. It was built in 1900 by the Tamp ...
, where it was decided, among other things, to launch an armed uprising, which eventually led to the in the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
. Also, on 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous '' Red Declaration'' was proclaimed on Keskustori. In 1918, after Finland had gained independence, Tampere played a major role, being one of the strategically important sites for the
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic The Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (FSWR), more commonly referred to as Red Finland, was a self-proclaimed Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the prim ...
(FSWR) during the Civil War in Finland (28 January – 15 May 1918); the city was the most important industrial city in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century, marked by a huge working population. Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command. White Guard (Finland), White forces, led by Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, General Mannerheim, captured the town after the Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red Guard (Finland), Red prisoners on 6 April 1918. During the Winter War, Tampere was bombed by the Soviet Union several times. The reason for the bombing of Tampere was that the city was an important railway junction, and also housed the Valtion lentokonetehdas, State Aircraft Factory and the Tampella factory, which manufactured munitions and weapons, including grenade launchers. The most devastating bombings were on March 2, 1940, killing nine and wounding 30 city residents. In addition, ten buildings were destroyed and 30 were damaged that day.


Post-war period and modern day

Prevalent in Tampere's post-World War II municipal politics was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis (''aseveliakseli''), which mostly constituted of the National Coalition Party and the Social Democratic Party of Finland, Social Democrats. While the Centre Party (Finland), Centre Party was the largest political force in the Finnish countryside, it had no practical relevance in Tampere. After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and finally Teisko in 1972. The limit of 100,000 inhabitants was crossed in Tampere in 1950. Tampere was long known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been largely replaced by information technology and telecommunications during the 1990s. The technology centre Hermia (Finland), Hermia in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields. Yleisradio started broadcasting its second television channel, Yle TV2, in Ristimäki, Tampere in 1965, as a result of which Finland was the first of the Nordic countries to receive a second television channel, after Sweden's SVT2 started broadcasting only four years later. Tampere became a university city when the Social University moved from Helsinki to Tampere in 1960 and became the University of Tampere in 1966. In 1979, Tampere-Pirkkala Airport was opened from the center of Tampere on the side of the Pirkkala municipality. At the turn of the 1990s, Tampere's industry underwent a major structural change, as the production of Tampella's and Tampere's textile industry in particular was heavily focused on bilateral trade with the Soviet Union, but when Dissolution of the Soviet Union, it collapsed in 1991 the companies lost their main customers. As a result of the sudden change and the Early 1990s depression in Finland, depression of the early 1990s, Finlayson and the Suomen trikoo had to reduce their operations sharply. Tampella went bankrupt. But although the change left a huge amount of vacant industrial space in the city center, in the early 2000s it was gradually put to other uses, with the current Tampere cityscape being characterized above all by strong Information technology, IT companies, most notably Nokia's Tampere R&D units.


Geography

Tampere is part of the
Pirkanmaa Pirkanmaa ( sv, Birkaland, also known as ''Tampere Region'' in government documents; la, Birkaria, link=no), is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact ch ...
region and is surrounded by the Municipalities of Finland, municipalities of Kangasala, Lempäälä, Nokia, Finland, Nokia, Orivesi,
Pirkkala Pirkkala ( sv, Birkala) is a municipalities of Finland, municipality of Finland. It is located some south-west from Tampere in the Pirkanmaa regions of Finland, region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of of which is wa ...
, Ruovesi, and Ylöjärvi. There are 180 lakes that are larger than 10,000 m2 (1 ha) in Tampere, and fresh water bodies make up 24% of the city's total area. The lakes have formed as separate basins from Ancylus Lake, Ancylus lake approximately 7500–8000 years ago. The northernmost point of Tampere is located in the Vankavesi fjard of Teisko, the southernmost at the eastern end of Hervantajärvi, Lake Hervanta, the easternmost at the northeast corner of Paalijärvi, Lake Paalijärvi of Teisko and the westernmost at the southeast corner of Haukijärvi, Lake Haukijärvi near the borders of Ylöjärvi and Nokia. The city center itself is surrounded by three lakes, Näsijärvi, Pyhäjärvi and much smaller Iidesjärvi. Tampere region is situated in the Kokemäki River drainage basin, which discharges into the Bothnian Sea through river which flows through Pori, the capital of Satakunta, Satakunta region. The bedrock of Tampere consists of Shale, mica shale and migmatite, and its building stone deposits are diverse: in addition to traditional granite, there is an abundance of quartz diorite, tonalite, mica shale and Gneiss, mica gneiss. One of the most notable geographical features in Tampere is the Pyynikki Ridge (''Pyynikinharju''), a large esker formed from moraine during the Weichselian glaciation. It rises 160 meters above sea level and is said to be the largest gravel esker in the world. It is also part of Salpausselkä, a 200 km long ridge system left by the ice age. The Keskusta, Tampere, center of Tampere (''Keskusta''), as well as the Pyynikki, Ylä-Pispala and Ala-Pispala districts, are located on the isthmus between Lake Pyhäjärvi and Lake Näsijärvi. The location of the city on the edge of the Tammerkoski rapids between two long waterways was one of the most important stimuli for its establishment in the 1770s. The streets of central Tampere form a typical grid pattern. On the western edge of the city center, there is a north–south park street, Hämeenpuisto ("Häme Park" or "Tavastia Park"), which leads from the shore of Lake Pyhäjärvi near Lake Näsijärvi. The wide Hämeenkatu street leads east–west from the Tampere Central Station to Hämeenpuisto and crosses Tammerkoski along the Hämeensilta bridge. Also along Hämeenkatu is the longest street in the city center, Satakunnankatu, which extends from Rautatienkatu to Amuri, Tampere, Amuri, which crosses Tammerkoski along the Satakunnansilta bridge. The Tampere Central Square is located on the western shore of Tammerkoski, close to Hämeensilta. The traffic center of Tampere is the intersection of Itsenäisyydenkatu, Teiskontie, Sammonkatu, Kalevanpuisto park street, and Kaleva (Tampere), Kaleva and Liisankallio districts.


Neighbourhoods and other subdivisions

The city of Tampere is divided into Subdivisions of Tampere, seven subdivisions, each of which includes the many districts and their suburbs. There are a total of 111 statistical areas in Tampere. However, the statistical areas made for Tampere's statistics do not fully correspond to the Tampere district division or the residents' perception of the districts, as the Amuri, Tampere, Amuri, Kyttälä and Tammela, Tampere, Tammela districts, for example, are divided into two parts corresponding to the official district division, and in addition to this, Liisankallio and Kalevanrinne are often considered to belong to the Kaleva district.


Climate

Tampere has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb''). Winters are cold and the average temperature from December to March is below . Summers are cool to warm. On average, snow cover lasts 4–5 months from late November to early April. Considering it being close to the subarctic threshold and inland, winters are, on average, quite mild for the classification, as is the annual mean temperature.


Temperature records of Tampere

Temperature records of Tampere and the near-by
Tampere–Pirkkala Airport Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is located in Pirkkala, Finland, south-west of Tampere city centre. The airport is the eighth-busiest list of airports in Finland, airport in Finland, as measured by the number of passengers (208,930 in 2016), and the ...
: Highest temperatures at the
Tampere–Pirkkala Airport Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is located in Pirkkala, Finland, south-west of Tampere city centre. The airport is the eighth-busiest list of airports in Finland, airport in Finland, as measured by the number of passengers (208,930 in 2016), and the ...
by month since 1980: Lowest temperatures in Tampere: Lowest temperatures at the
Tampere–Pirkkala Airport Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is located in Pirkkala, Finland, south-west of Tampere city centre. The airport is the eighth-busiest list of airports in Finland, airport in Finland, as measured by the number of passengers (208,930 in 2016), and the ...
by month since 1980:


Cityscape


Revival and nationalism

Tampere has buildings from many architectural periods. Only the old stone church of Messukylä represents medieval building culture. Early 19th century neoclassicism, in turn, is represented by the Tampere Old Church and its Belfry (architecture), belfry. The Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival buildings in Tampere that emerged from neoclassicism are the new Messukylä Church and the Alexander Church, and the Renaissance Revival architecture, Renaissance Revival buildings are the Hatanpää Manor, the Tampere City Hall, the Ruuskanen House and Näsilinna. The romantic nationalism design can be seen in the Commerce House, the Tirkkonen House, the Palander House, the Tampere Cathedral, the Tampere Central Fire Station and the National Bank Building in Tampere. At an early stage, the use of red brick as a material in the industrial buildings along Tammerkoski, such as the Finlayson and
Tampella Oy Tampella Ab was a Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish p ...

Tampella
factories, has left a strong imaginary mark on the city.


Functionalism and modernism

Post-Art Nouveau classicism was largely Nordic, during which the Laikku Culture House, Hotel Tammer, the Tuulensuu House and the Viinikka Church were built in Tampere. After Functionalism (architecture), functionalism became the prevailing style in the 1930s, the Tampere Central Station, the Tempo House, a bus station and the Kauppi Hospital were built in Tampere. There is no single accepted designation for the post-war style, but the key representatives of the reconstruction period are the Bank of Finland House, the Amurinlinna House and the Pyynikki Swimming Hall. The rationalist buildings of the Modern architecture, modernist period are represented by the University of Tampere, the Tampere Central Hospital, Sampola, the School of Economics, Ratina Stadium and the Kaleva Church. After this, diverse modernism will be represented by, among others, the Metso Main Library, the Hervanta Operations Center, the Tampere Hall, the university extension and Nokia's office building in Hatanpää. The Keskusta, Tampere, city center of Tampere and also its western parts have been developed in a more modern direction since the 2010s, and the city aims to get the center to take on its future form by the 2030s. Plans have been drawn up for the Central Station area in particular in the form of the "Tampere Deck" project, in connection with which a Tampere Deck Arena, new multi-purpose arena and high-rise buildings have been sent to the area. A Tampere light rail, light rail network has also been recently built in the downtown area. Artificial island projects are planned on the shores of the lakes, which would create new residential areas for several thousand inhabitants. The projects are estimated to cost several billion euros.


Economy

The Tampere region,
Pirkanmaa Pirkanmaa ( sv, Birkaland, also known as ''Tampere Region'' in government documents; la, Birkaria, link=no), is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact ch ...
, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 509,000 residents, 244,000 employed people, and a turnover of 28 billion euros . According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate was 15.7% in August 2020. 70% of the areas jobs are in the service sector. Less than 20% are in the manufacturing sector. 34.5% of employed people live outside the Tampere municipality and commute to Tampere for work. Meanwhile, 15.6% of Tampere's residents work outside Tampere. In 2014 the largest employers were Kesko, Pirkanmaan Osuuskauppa, Alma Media and Posti Group. According to a study carried out by the Synergos Research and Training Center of the University of Tampere, the total impact of tourism in the Tampere region in 2012 was more than 909 million euros. Tourism also brought 4,805 person-years to the region. The biggest single attraction in Tampere is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which had about 630,000 visitors in 2016. In addition, in 2015, 1,021,151 overnight stays were made in Tampere hotels. The number exceeded the previous record year with more than 20,000 overnight stays. All that makes Tampere the second most popular city in Finland after Helsinki in terms of hotel stays. Leisure tourism accounted for 55,4% of overnight stays and occupational tourism for 43,2%. The occupancy rate of all accommodation establishments with more than 20 rooms was 57,0%, while that of accommodation establishments in the whole country was 48,3%. Tampere's economic profit in 2015 was the worst of big Finnish cities. In 2016 the loss of the fiscal year was 18,8 million euros. In the city's economy, the largest revenues come from taxes and government contributions. In 2015, the city received 761 million euros in municipal tax revenue. In addition, 61,4 million euros came from corporate taxes and 64 million euros from property taxes. Tax revenues have not increased as expected in the 2010s, although the city's population has increased. This has been affected by high unemployment.


Energy

In 2013, Tampereen Energiantuotanto, which is part of the Tampereen Sähkölaitos Group, generated 1,254 GWh of electricity and 2,184 GWh of district heating. The two units of the Naistenlahti's power plant generated a total of about 65% and the Lielahti's power plant about 30% of the electricity production. In district heating production, the Naistenlahti power plant units accounted for 57% and the Lielahti power plant for 23%. Tampere's ten heating centers accounted for 21%. In 2013, the share of natural gas in energy production was about 65%. Wood and peat accounted for about 17%. In addition,
hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and th ...
and oil were used. Emissions from energy production have decreased in the 21st century due to the growth of renewable forms of production and the modernization of the Naistenlahti plant. In 2013, approximately 669,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions and 297 tonnes of sulfur dioxide emissions were generated.


Water and waste management

66,5% of Tampere's domestic water is surface water and 33,5% groundwater. 58% of the water was diverted to economic use and 13% to industrial use. In addition to Tampere, Tampereen Vesi manages water in
Pirkkala Pirkkala ( sv, Birkala) is a municipalities of Finland, municipality of Finland. It is located some south-west from Tampere in the Pirkanmaa regions of Finland, region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of of which is wa ...
. Almost all surface water comes from Lake Roine. In addition, Tampereen Vesi has four surface water plants in Lake Näsijärvi and five groundwater intakes. Tampereen Vesi is 96% responsible for the wastewater of Tampere, Kangasala, Pirkkala and Ylöjärvi. In 2012, a total of 31,9 million cubic meters of wastewater was treated in Tampere. The Viinikanlahti treatment plant treats more than 75% of wastewater. Pirkanmaan Jätehuolto handles waste management in Tampere. It has waste treatment facilities in Nokia, Finland, Nokia's Lake Koukkujärvi and Tampere's Lake Tarastenjärvi.


Demographics

Tampere has 238,671 inhabitants, making it the third most populous municipality in Finland and the tenth in the Nordics. The Tampere region, which has 410,689 inhabitants, is the second largest urban area after
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
. 8% of the population has a foreign background, which is lower than Helsinki and
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
but higher than Oulu. The demographic structure of Tampere shows the city's position as a very popular place to Education, study, as the number of young adults is clearly higher than in other municipalities in the region. At the end of 2012, the population dependency ratio was 45. About 17,3% of the population was over 65 years of age. Just over half of the population is women, as in the whole country. The population is fairly educated, with two-thirds of those over 15 having completed post-primary education. Tampere is Finland's largest monolingual Finnish-speaking municipality. In 2013, 1,172 Swedo-Finnish, Swedish-speakers lived in Tampere, ie their share of the Tampere population was about half a per cent. This is the second largest number of Swedish-speakers in monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities after Kaarina. Kaarina and Tampere are also the only monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities with a separate Swedish-speaking congregation. In 1900, Swedish-speakers accounted for more than six per cent of Tampere's population and in 1950 for less than two per cent. At the end of 2018, there were a total of 140,039 dwellings in Tampere, of which 127,639 were permanently inhabited and 12,400 were not permanently inhabited. Of these, 74% were
apartment building An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Americ ...

apartment building
s, 14 detached houses, 10 terraced houses and 2% other residential buildings. Between 2002 and 2020, more than 40,000 new apartments have been completed in Tampere. Living space has been growing for a long time, although growth virtually came to a halt after 2008. The average living space at the end of 2012 was about 36,8 m2 per inhabitant, compared to about 19,2 m2 in 1970 and about 31,8 m2 in 1990. The average population of a dwelling in 2012 was about 1,8 inhabitants. For more than ten years, Tampere has been one of the most migratory municipalities, as in January-September 2021, more than 1,930 new residents moved to Tampere. Nokia, Finland, Nokia, Kangasala and Lempäälä, which are among Tampere's neighboring municipalities, have also been identified as the most migratory municipalities, which rose to the list of the 20 most attractive municipalities. Even during COVID-19 pandemic, Tampere has become Finland's most attractive area for internal migration, as Tampere gained the most migration gains in 2020.


Urban areas

In 2019, out of the total population of 238,140, 231,648 people lived in Urban areas in Finland, urban areas and 3,132 in sparsely populated areas, while the coordinates of 3,360 people were unknown. This made Tampere's degree of urbanization 98.7%. The urban population in the municipality was divided between three statistical urban areas as follows:


Education

The Primary school, comprehensive education is given mainly in Finnish but the city has special bilingual groups where students study in Finnish and a second language (English language, English, French language, French or German language, German). Furthermore, there is a private Swedish-speaking school in the Kaakinmaa district (Swedish Svenska samskolan i Tammerfors) that covers all levels of education from preschool to Gymnasium (school), high school. There are three institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: the university and two polytechnic institutions ( fi, ammattikorkeakoulu). Tampere University (TUNI) has over 20,000 students and is located in two campuses, one in the Kalevanharju district, close to the city centre, and one in Hervanta, in the southern part of the city. The institution was formed in 2019 as a result of the merge of University of Tampere (UTA) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT). TUNI is also the major shareholder of the Tampere University of Applied Sciences (''Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu'', TAMK), a polytechnic counting about 10,000 students. The Police University College (Finland), Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is also located in Tampere. Tampere University Hospital (''Tampereen yliopistollinen sairaala'', TAYS) in the Kauppi (district), Kauppi district, one of the main hospitals in Finland, is affiliated with Tampere University. It is a teaching hospital with 34 medical specializations. The Nurmi (district), Nurmi district in the northern part of city also houses the Tampere Christian School (''Tampereen kristillinen koulu''), which operates on a co-Christianity, Christian basis and is maintained by the Adventist Church of Finland, offering free basic education based on Christian basic values and outlook on life for all grades of primary school.


Arts and culture

Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo, and Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These authors are known particularly as writers depicting the lives of working-class people, thanks to their respective backgrounds as members of the working class. Also from such a background was the poet Lauri Viita of the district, which was also the original home of the aforementioned Hannu Salama. On October 1, Tampere celebrates the annual Tampere Day ( fi, Tampereen päivä), which hosts a variety of public events.


Media

Tampere has a strong ''media city'', as the television center in Tohloppi and Ristimäki districts has had a nationwide Yle TV2 television channel since the 1970s, and Finnish radio, for example, began in Tampere when Arvi Hauvonen founded the first broadcasting station in 1923. Yle TV2 has its roots in Tamvisio, which was transferred to Yleisradio in 1964. ''Kakkoskanava'' ("Channel 2") has been a major influence in Tampere, and several well-known television programs and series have been shot in the city, such as TV comedies ''Tankki täyteen'', ''Reinikainen (television series), Reinikainen'' and ''Kummeli''. The Tampere Film Festival, an annual international short film event, is held every March. In 2014, ''Aamulehti'', which was published in Tampere and was founded in 1881, was the third largest newspaper in Finland in terms of circulation, after ''Helsingin Sanomat'' and ''Ilta-Sanomat''. The circulation of the magazine was 106,842 (2014). In addition, a free city newspaper ''Tamperelainen'' (literally translated "Tamperean", meaning person who live in Tampere) will be published in the city. In November 2016, the ''Tamperelainen'' was awarded the second best city newspaper in Finland. The city is also known as the home of the popular Hydraulic Press Channel on YouTube, which originates from a machine shop owned by Lauri Vuohensilta.


Food

A local food speciality is ''mustamakkara'', which resembles the black pudding of northern England. It is a black sausage made by mixing pork, pig's blood and crushed rye and flour and is stuffed into the intestines of an animal. It is commonly eaten with lingonberry sauce. Especially Tammelantori square in the district of Tammela, Tampere, Tammela is known for its ''mustamakkara'' kiosks. A newer Tampere tradition are ''munkki'', fresh sugary doughnuts that are sold in several cafés around Tampere, but most traditionally in Pyynikki observation tower. One of the specialties of Tampere's local barbecue dishes include the peremech ( fi, pärämätsi) based on traditional Tatars, Tatar food. It is a pie reminiscent of Karelian pasty with seasoned ground meat inside. In the 1980s, in addition to ''mustamakkara'' and barley bread, the old parish dish of Tampere was also called a potato soup, home-made small beer (''kotikalja''), a sweetened lingonberry porridge and a sweetened potato casserole (''Imelletty perunalaatikko''). Since 1991, the two-day fish market event (''Tampereen kalamarkkinat'') in Laukontori attracts as many as 80,000–100,000 visitors in year, and is held both in the spring on ''vappu'' and in the autumn on Tampere Day.


Music

Tampere is home to the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (''Tampere Filharmonia''), which is one of only two full-sized symphony orchestras in Finland; Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra, the other one is located in
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
. The orchestra's home venue is the Tampere Hall, and their concerts include classical, popular, and film music. Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: Tampere Jazz Happening, The Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years Tampere Vocal Music Festival, The Tampere Vocal Music Festival and the Tampere Biennale. Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts, and composition, is provided by Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere Music school, Conservatoire. Tammerfest, Tampere's urban rock festival, is held every July. The , which also takes place in Tampere during the summer months, is the largest hip hop music, hip hop event in the Nordic countries. The Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer. ''Manserock'' became a general term for rock music from Tampere, which was essentially rock music with Finnish lyrics. Manserock was especially popular during the 1970s and 1980s, and its most popular artists included Juice Leskinen, Virtanen, Kaseva, Popeda, and Eppu Normaali. In 1977, Poko Rekords, the first record company in Tampere, was founded. In the 2010s, there has been a lot of popular musical activity in Tampere, particularly in the fields of rock and Heavy metal music, heavy/black metal; one of the most important metal music events in Tampere is the Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. Some of the most popular bands based in Tampere include Negative (Finnish band), Negative, Uniklubi, and Lovex. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene. Tampere hosts an annual World of Tango Festival (''Maailmantango''), which is one of the most significant tango events in Finland next to the Tangomarkkinat of Seinäjoki.


Theatre

Tampere has a lengthy tradition of theater, with established institutions such as Tampere Workers' Theatre, Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampere Theatre, Tampereen Teatteri, and Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest revolving auditorium in Europe. The longest-running directors of the Tampereen Teatteri include Eino Salmelainen and Rauli Lehtonen, and the Tampereen Työväen Teatteri has Kosti Elo, Eino Salmelainen and Lasse Pöysti. Tampere Theatre Festival, The Tampere Theatre Festival (''Tampereen teatterikesä'') is an international theatre festival held in the city each August. Tampere also has the Tampere Opera, founded in 1946. Tampere's other professional theaters are Teatteri Siperia; restaurant theater Teatteripalatsi; Teatteri Telakka, known for its artistic experiments; Ahaa Teatteri, which specializes in children's and young people's plays; puppet theater Teatteri Mukamas, and Tanssiteatteri MD, specializes in contemporary dance performances. In addition, there are also three Movie theater, cinemas in Tampere: two Finnkino's theaters, Cine Atlas and Finnkino Plevna, Plevna, and private Arthouse Cinema Niagara, which serves as the main venue for the Cinemadrome Festival, which presents Horror film, horror, Action film, action, Science fiction film, sci-fi, Trash film, trash, and other cult films. Local cinemas also included the historic Imatra (cinema), Imatra, formerly located in the Kyttälä district, which was completely destroyed on a fire in the midst of a 1924 film ''Wages of Virtue'' on October 23, 1927, killing 21 people.


Religion

As is the case with most of the rest of Finland, most Tampere citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. One Lutheran church in Tampere is Finlayson Church in the Finlayson (district), district by the same name. Tampere also has a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to Charismatic Christianity, charismatic. There are also some English speaking services, such as the Tampere English Service, an international community affiliated with the (''Tampereen helluntaiseurakunta''). English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, LDS stake (Latter Day Saints), stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are the Baptists in Finland, Baptist Church, the Evangelical Free Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Mission Diocese of Finland, the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Nokia Revival. There was an organized Jewish community until 1981. Though a small number of Jews remain in Tampere, organized communal life ended at that time. There are three registered Muslim communities in Tampere. The biggest of them being Tampere Islam Society with over 1500 members.


City rivalry with Turku

Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
, the first capital of Finland, and they tend to compete for the title of being the "second grand city of Finland" after
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
. This hostility is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, ''mustamakkara'', the state of the Aura River (Finland), Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Tampere is well known as a food destination because of its food culture. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the post-glacial rebound and push the city back into the Baltic Sea.


Sites of interest

One of the main tourist attractions is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which includes the landmark Näsinneula tower, topped by a revolving restaurant. In addition to these, it used to house a dolphinarium. Other sites of interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere City Hall, Tampere Central Library ''Metso'' ("Western capercaillie, Capercaillie"), Kaleva Church (both designed by Reima Pietilä), Tampere Hall, the Tampere Hall (along Hämeenkatu) for conferences and concerts, the Tampere Market Hall and historical Pyynikki observation tower. Tampere has at least seven hotels, the most noteworthy of which are Hotel Tammer, Hotel Ilves, and Hotel Torni Tampere, Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel building in Finland. The Holiday Club, Holiday Club Tampere spa is also located in the Lapinniemi, Lapinniemi district on the shores of Lake Näsijärvi. There are also many significant shopping centers in the city center of Tampere and its suburbs; the most notable shopping centers are Ratina (shopping centre), Ratina, Koskikeskus (shopping centre), Koskikeskus, DUO (Tampere), DUO, Like (shopping mall), Like and Tullintori. Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
. The museum is housed in the
Tampere Workers' Hall Tampere Workers' Hall (also known as the Puistotorni, ''The Park Tower'') is a conference and congress centre in Tampere, Finland, located in the corner between Hämeenpuisto and Hallituskatu (Tampere), Hallituskatu. It was built in 1900 by the Tamp ...
(along Hallituskatu (Tampere), Hallituskatu) where during a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met Joseph Stalin for the first time. Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905, but eventually fled for Sweden in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917. There are many museums and galleries, including: *The Vapriikki Museum Centre which includes the Natural History Museum of Tampere, Finnish Hockey Hall of Fame, Finnish Museum of Games, Post Museum and the ''Shoe Museum'' *Hatanpää Manor and Hatanpää Arboretum *The Näsilinna Palace *Tampere Art Museum *Tampere Lenin Museum *The Moomin Museum, about Moomins *Rupriikki Media Museum *Spy Museum in Siperia *Workers' housing museum in Amuri, Tampere, Amuri. *Finland's largest glass sculpture, owned by the City of Tampere, "Timo Sarpaneva#Glass, Pack Ice / The Mirror of the Sea" by the renowned artist Timo Sarpaneva, was installed in the entrance lobby of the downtown shopping mall KoskiKeskus until it was moved to a warehouse.


Pispala

Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes. It is divided into Ylä-Pispala ("Upper Pispala") and Ala-Pispala ("Lower Pispala"). It's the highest gravel ridge in the world, raising above Lake Pyhäjärvi and around above sea level. It was used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of Pirkkala, Suur-Pirkkala and its successor Nokia, Finland, Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It joined Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a residential area undergoing significant redevelopment and together with neighbouring Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.


Events


Sports

Tampere's sporting scene is mainly driven by ice hockey. The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of Pyhäjärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish ice hockey. Three exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: Tappara, Ilves and KOOVEE (ice hockey), KOOVEE. Especially both Tappara and Ilves have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the Tampereen jäähalli, Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere. Construction of a new main ice hockey arena, Tampere Deck Arena, began in 2018, and was first opened to the public on December 3, 2021, although the official opening date was on December 15th. The name of the new arena was supposed to be ''UROS LIVE'', but due to the financial difficulties of the sponsor behind it, the name was abandoned. After that,
Nokia Corporation Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications, information technology company, information technology, and consumer electronics company ...
was chosen as the new sponsor on November 19, 2021, and the arena was renamed as ''Nokia Arena''. The arena will serve as the main venue for the 2022 IIHF World Championship. Like ice hockey, association football is also a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves (football), Ilves, the professional football club of Tampere, alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams. Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere; the city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö (basketball), Tampereen Pyrintö, plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010, 2011, and 2014. Tampere Saints is the American football club in the city, that won division 2 in 2015 and plays in the Vaahteraliiga, Maple League (division 1) in summer 2017. Tampere has a baseball and softball club, the Tampere Tigers, which plays in the Baseball Finnish Championship Series, top division of Finnish baseball. In addition to all of the above, volleyball, wrestling and boxing are also among Tampere's best-known sports. Tampere hosted some of the Football at the 1952 Summer Olympics, preliminaries for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the 1965 World Ice Hockey Championships and was co-host of the EuroBasket 1967. The city also hosted two ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships, canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the World Rowing Junior Championships and in 1995 the Senior World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th European Youth Olympic Festival from 17 to 25 July 2009 and the 2010 World Ringette Championships from 1 to 6 November at Hakametsä arena.


Concerts

Ratina Stadium of Tampere, in the Ratina (district), district by the same name, has served as the venue for many of the most significant concerts, most notably in connection with the ''Endless Forms Most Beautiful World Tour'' in 2015 by the band Nightwish. Other noteworthy tours from other bands held at Ratina Stadium include Iron Maiden (''Somewhere Back in Time World Tour'', 2008), Bruce Springsteen (''Working on a Dream Tour'', 2009), AC/DC (''Black Ice World Tour'', 2010), Red Hot Chili Peppers (''I'm with You World Tour'', 2012), Bon Jovi (''Because We Can (concert tour), Because We Can World Tour'', 2013), Robbie Williams (''The Heavy Entertainment Show Tour'', 2017) and Rammstein (''Rammstein Stadium Tour'', 2019).


Transport

Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example,
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
,
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
and the Port of Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, and Pori. Every day about 150 trains with an annual total of 8 million passengers arrive and depart in the Tampere Central Station, Tampere Central Railway Station, which is located in the city center. There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland. To the south of Tampere, there is the Tampere Ring Road, which is important for car traffic and which is part of Finnish highways number Finnish national road 3, 3 (on the west side) and number Finnish national road 9, 9 (on the east side). The main stretch of the ring road sees over 50,000 vehicles per day, and, according to the ELY Centre of Pirkanmaa, the western part of the ring road is the busiest road in Finland, if highway and ring road connections in the Helsinki metropolitan area are excluded. There are also plans for another ring road project that would run from Pirkkala to Tampere's Hervanta and possibly in the future to Kangasala. Teiskontie, which runs east of the city center, is part of Highway 12 in the direction of Lahti. This highway also runs through the center of Tampere under the name Paasikiven–Kekkosentie, below the downtown as the Tampere Tunnel, which is the longest road tunnel built in Finland for car traffic. Tampere is served by
Tampere–Pirkkala Airport Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is located in Pirkkala, Finland, south-west of Tampere city centre. The airport is the eighth-busiest list of airports in Finland, airport in Finland, as measured by the number of passengers (208,930 in 2016), and the ...
, located in neighboring municipality
Pirkkala Pirkkala ( sv, Birkala) is a municipalities of Finland, municipality of Finland. It is located some south-west from Tampere in the Pirkanmaa regions of Finland, region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of of which is wa ...
some southwest of the city, and it replaced the former Härmälä Airport, which was closed in 1979. The current airport is connected to the city centres of Pirkkala (Naistenmatka) and Tampere by bus route 1A, which runs once an hour. The public transport network in Tampere currently consists of a bus network and two lines of Tampere light rail, city's light rail, operating from 9 August 2021. The Tampere Bus Station, designed by Jaakko Laaksovirta and Bertel Strömmer, representing Functionalism (architecture), functionalist architecture, was completed in 1938,Ossi Säpyskä: ''Pirkanmaan autoliikenteen vaiheet'', p. 203–204. Pirkanmaan autoalan veteraanit ry., Tampere, 1988. ISBN 952-90019-3-2. (in Finnish) being the largest bus station in the
Nordic countries The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or ''Norden''; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impac ...

Nordic countries
at the time, and between 1948 and 1976, the city also had an extensive trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland. As of 2017, commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring towns of Nokia, Finland, Nokia and Lempäälä is being established. In 2015, the Port of Tampere, the charter port area carrying passengers on the shores of Lake Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi (Tampere region), Lake Pyhäjärvi, was the busiest inland waterway in Finland in terms of the number of passengers (71,750). A partial explanation for the high number of passengers can be found in the summer traffic to the Viikinsaari island in Lake Pyhäjärvi, where people travel for an excursion or various cultural events such as watching a summer theater. Domestic passenger and connecting vessel traffic was only busier in the Finnish sea area in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, between mainland Finland and Åland in the Archipelago Sea. In the 2010s, Tampere has made efforts to invest in the smooth running of Utility cycling, cycling and walkability. Thanks to it, the city was awarded the title of "Cycling Municipality of the Year" in 2013. According to a survey conducted in 2015, the attractiveness of both cycling and walking had increased during 2014 and 2015. In any case, during the 21st century, the growth of bicycle traffic has been clearly faster than the growth of the city's population, and the number of cycles has increased by an average of about 2% per year.


Distances to other cities

*
Helsinki Helsinki ( or ; ; sv, Helsingfors, ; la, Helsingia) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Helsinki
– * Hämeenlinna – * Joensuu – * Jyväskylä – * Kuopio – * Lahti – * Lappeenranta – * Oulu – * Pori – * Seinäjoki – *
Turku Turku ( ; ; sv, Åbo, ; la, Aboa; russian: Турку, formerly ) is a List of cities and towns in Finland, city and former Capital city, capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura (Archipelago Sea), Aura River, in the ...

Turku
– * Vaasa –


Government

In 2007, Tampere switched to a new model of government. Since then, a mayor and four deputy mayors have been chosen for a period of four years by the City Council of Tampere, city council. The mayor also becomes the seat of the city council for the duration of the tenure. Tampere was the first Finnish municipality to be elected mayor. However, the mayor does not have an official relationship with the municipality; the mayor serves as chairman of the city board and directs the municipality's activities, and the mayor's duties are defined in the city government's bylaws. Because the mayor and deputy mayors are trustees, they can be removed by the council if they lose the majority trust. For the first two years, Timo P. Nieminen, representing the National Coalition Party from 2007 to 2012, served as mayor. In 2013, Anna-Kaisa Ikonen of the same party was elected mayor. As of June 1, 2017, the number of deputy mayors decreased from four to three. Lauri Lyly (SDP (Finland), SDP) was elected Mayor of the City of Tampere for the period 2017–2021 at the City Council meeting on 12 June 2017.


Mayors over time

* Kaarle Nordlund 1929–1943 * Sulo Typpö 1943–1957 * Erkki Lindfors 1957–1969 * Pekka Paavola 1969–1985 * Jarmo Rantanen 1985–2007 * Timo P. Nieminen (National Coalition Party, kok.) 2007–2012 * Anna-Kaisa Ikonen (National Coalition Party, kok.) 2013–2017 * Lauri Lyly (Social Democratic Party of Finland, sd.) 2017–present


Notable people


Born before 1900

* Emil Aaltonen (1869—1949), industrialist and philanthropist * Emanuel Aromaa (1873—1933), politician * Eero Berg (1898–1969), long-distance runner and Olympic gold medalist * Minna Canth (1844–1897), author and social activist * Minna Craucher (1891–1932), socialite and spy * James Finlayson (1772–1852), Scottish Quakers, Quaker and industrialist * Väinö Hakkila (1882–1958), politician * Gustaf Idman (1885–1961), diplomat and a non-partisan Minister of Foreign Affairs (Finland), Minister of Foreign Affairs * Alma Jokinen (1882-1939), politician * Feliks Kellosalmi (1877-1939), politician * Augusta Laine (1867-1949), teacher of home economics and politician * Frans Oskar Lilius (1871-1928), politician * Wivi Lönn (1872–1966), architect * Kaapo Murros (1875–1951), journalist, lawyer, writer and politician * Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1870–1956), the Prime Minister of Finland and the President of Finland, 7th President of Finland * Aaro Pajari (1897–1949), Major General and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross * Arvo Pohjannoro (1893–1963), Lutheran clergyman and politician * Anders Rajala (1891–1957), wrestler * Julius Saaristo (1891–1969) track and field athlete and Olympic gold medalist * Matti Schreck (1897–1946), banker and film producer * Frans Eemil Sillanpää (1888–1964), author and Nobel laureate * Bertel Strömmer (1890–1962), architect * Vilho Tuulos (1895–1967), triple jumper, long jumper and Olympic gold medalist * August Wesley (1887–?), journalist, trade unionist and revolutionary


Born after 1900

* Jonne Aaron (born 1983), singer * Sinikka Antila (born 1960), lawyer and diplomat * Aleksander Barkov (born 1995), Finnish-Russian professional ice hockey player * Anu Bradford (born 1975), Finnish-American author and law professor * Johanna Debreczeni (born 1980), singer * Henrik Otto Donner (1939–2013), composer and music personality * Anna Falchi (born 1972), Finnish-Italian model and film actress * Mauri Favén (1920–2006), painter * Jussi Halla-aho (born 1971), politician and current leader of the Finns Party * Seppo Jokinen (born 1949), author * Viljo Kajava (1909–1998), author and poet * Tapani Kalliomäki (born 1970), stage and film actor * Glen Kamara (born 1995), professional footballer * Jorma Karhunen (1913–2002), Finnish Air Force Flying ace, ace and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross * Leo Kinnunen (1943–2017), Formula One driver * Mika Koivuniemi (born 1967), bowling coach and professional ten-pin bowling, ten-pin bowler * Kiira Korpi (born 1988), figure skater * Urpo Lahtinen (1931–1994), journalist and magazine publisher, founder of ''Tamperelainen'' * Patrik Laine (born 1998), professional ice hockey player * Väinö Linna (1920–1992), author *Jyrki Lumme (born 1966) professional hockey player * Tiina Lymi (born 1971), actress, director, screenwriter and author * Taru Mäkelä (born 1959), film director and screenwriter * Eeva-Liisa Manner (1921–1995), poet, playwright and translator * Sanna Marin (born 1985), politician, current leader of the Social Democratic Party of Finland, Social Democratic Party and current Prime Minister of Finland * Sakari Mattila (born 1989), professional footballer * Matthau Mikojan (born 1982), rock musician, singer, guitarist and songwriter * Pate Mustajärvi (born 1956), rock singer * Mikko Nousiainen (born 1975), actor * Teppo Numminen (born 1968), professional ice hockey player * Erno Paasilinna (1935–2000), author and journalist * Pekka Paavola (born 1933), politician and Minister of Justice (Finland), Minister of Justice * Oiva Paloheimo (1910–1973), author, poet and aphorist * Veijo Pasanen (1930–1988), actor * Sakari Puisto (born 1976), politician * Raisa Räisänen (1983–?), still missing 16-year-old girl, who was Presumption of death, declared dead in absentia in 2007 * Matti Ranin (1926–2013), actor * Leo Riuttu (1913–1989), actor * Seela Sella (born 1936), actress * Heikki Silvennoinen (born 1954), musician and actor * Kikka Sirén (1964–2005), pop and schlager singer * Jukka Tapanimäki (1961–2000), software developer and game programmer * Armi Toivanen (born 1980), actress * Jussi Välimäki (born 1974), rally driver * Lauri Viita (1916–1965), poet * Sofia Vikman (born 1983), politician * Olavi Virta (1915–1972), singer * Hans Wind (1919–1995), fighter pilot, flying ace and the Knight of the Mannerheim Cross * Aki Yli-Salomäki (born 1972), composer, music critic and music journalist


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Tampere is Town twinning, twinned with:


Friendship cities

Tampere has two additional "friendship cities":


See also

* Battle of Tampere * ''Mustamakkara'' * Nokia, Finland *
Pirkkala Pirkkala ( sv, Birkala) is a municipalities of Finland, municipality of Finland. It is located some south-west from Tampere in the Pirkanmaa regions of Finland, region. The municipality has a population of () and covers an area of of which is wa ...
* Ratina Stadium * Särkänniemi *
Tammerkoski Tammerkoski is a channel of rapids in Tampere Tampere (, , ; sv, Tammerfors ; la, Tammerforsia) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and K ...

Tammerkoski
* Tampere Deck Arena * Tampere Film Festival * Tampere Tigers


Notes


Further reading

* *


References


External links


City of Tampere
– Official website
The official Tampere Region visitor websiteVirtual City Guide: VirtualTampere.com
*Megan Starr
15 Quirky and Alternative Things to Do in Tampere, Finland
– Megan & Aram (''Meganstarr.com''), December 1, 2021.
1952 Summer Olympics official report
pp. 62–3.
Tammerkoski Heritage
– Town's Industrial Heritage Portal
CSSA Tampere RyLunch restaurants in Tampere
* * {{Authority control Tampere, Venues of the 1952 Summer Olympics Cities and towns in Finland Inland port cities and towns in Finland Grand Duchy of Finland Olympic football venues Populated places established in 1779 1779 establishments in Europe 18th-century establishments in Finland