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is a
Japanese animation is Traditional animation, hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English language, English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of style or origi ...

Japanese animation
film studio headquartered in ,
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
."Studio Ghibli Collection - Madman Entertainment". ''Studio Ghibli Collection - Madman Entertainment''. Retrieved 2020-12-14. The studio is best known for its animated feature films, and has also produced several short subjects, television commercials, and one television film. The studio's mascot and most recognizable symbol is a character named Totoro, who is a giant catlike spirit from the 1988 anime film ''
My Neighbor Totoro is a 1988 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
''. Among Studio Ghibli's highest-grossing films are ''
Spirited Away is a 2001 Japanese Anime, animated fantasy film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, animated by Studio Ghibli for Tokuma Shoten, Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Buena Vista Home Entertainment, Tohokushinsha Film, and Mitsubishi Corpora ...
'' (2001), ''
Howl's Moving Castle ''Howl's Moving Castle'' is a fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in ora ...
'' (2004) and ''
Ponyo is a 2008 Anime, Japanese animated fantasy film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, animated by Studio Ghibli for the Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Hakuhodo DY Media Partners, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, Buena Vista Home E ...

Ponyo
'' (2008). The studio was founded on June 15, 1985, by directors and and producer , after the successful performance of
Topcraft Topcraft (トップクラフト ''Toppukurafuto'', also written as "Top Craft") was an animation studio established in 1971 by former Toei Animation () is a Japanese animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated medi ...
's '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'' (1984). It has also collaborated with video game studios on the visual development of several video games. Five of the studio's films are among the ten highest-grossing anime feature films made in Japan. ''Spirited Away'' is second, grossing 31.68 billion yen in Japan and over US$380 million worldwide, and ''
Princess Mononoke is a 1997 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
'' is fourth, grossing 20.18 billion yen. Many of their works have won the
Animage is a Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as th ...

Animage
Grand Prix award. Four have won the
Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year The of the Japan Academy Film Prize is one of the annual Awards given by the Japan Academy Film Prize Association. History Although the Japan Academy Film Prize has been awarded annually since 1978 to Japanese films, animation films were disregar ...
. Five of the studio's films have received
Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking F ...
nominations. ''Spirited Away'' won the 2002
Golden Bear The Golden Bear (german: Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival The Berlin International Film Festival (german: Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinal ...
and the
2003 2003 was designated the International Year of the Fresh Water Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids Total dissolved ...
Academy Award for Best Animated Feature The Academy Award for Best Animated Feature is given each year for animated films. An animated feature is defined by the Academy as a film with a running time of more than 40 minutes in which characters' performances are created using a frame-by-f ...
. On August 3, 2014, Studio Ghibli temporarily suspended production, following the retirement of . In February 2017, announced that had come out of retirement again to direct a new feature film titled '' How Do You Live?'', which he intended to be his last film.


Name

The name "Ghibli" was chosen by from the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the people of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps ...

Italian
noun (also used in English), based on the
Libyan Arabic Libyan Arabic ( ar, ليبي, Lībī) is a variety of Arabic Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry Algebraic geometry is ...
name for
hot desert wind
hot desert wind
(, ), the idea being the studio would "blow a new wind through the anime industry".''The Birth of Studio Ghibli'', ''Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'' DVD, Walt Disney Home Entertainment, 2005. It also refers to an Italian aircraft, the . Although the Italian word would be more accurately transliterated as (), with a
hard g In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages, the letter is used in different contexts to represent two distinct phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in ...
sound, the studio is romanised in Japanese as ''Jiburi'' (, ).


History


Tokuma Shoten era

Founded on June 15, 1985, the studio was headed by directors Hayao Miyazaki and
Isao Takahata was a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, ...

Isao Takahata
and producer Toshio Suzuki. Prior to the formation of the studio, Miyazaki and Takahata had already had long careers in Japanese film and television animation and had worked together on ''
The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun is an anime is Traditional animation, hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English language, English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of ...
'' in 1968 and the '' Panda! Go, Panda!'' films in 1972 and 1973, and in 1978, Suzuki became an editor at
Tokuma Shoten is a publisher in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often refe ...
's ''
Animage is a Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as th ...

Animage
''
manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

manga
magazine, where the first film he chose was ''Horus''. A year after his phone call with Takahata and his first encounter with Miyazaki, both about ''Horus'', he made a phone call about the first film Miyazaki ever directed: ''
The Castle of Cagliostro ''The Castle of Cagliostro'', known in Japan as is a 1979 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Fi ...
''. The studio was founded after the success of the 1984 film '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'', written and directed by Miyazaki for
Topcraft Topcraft (トップクラフト ''Toppukurafuto'', also written as "Top Craft") was an animation studio established in 1971 by former Toei Animation () is a Japanese animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated medi ...
and distributed by
Toei Company () (also styled TOEI) is a Japanese film, television Production company, production, and Film distributor, distribution and video game developer and publishing company. Based in Tokyo, Toei owns and operates thirty-four movie theaters across Jap ...

Toei Company
. The origins of the film lie in the first two volumes of a serialized manga written by Miyazaki for publication in ''Animage'' as a way of generating interest in an anime version. Suzuki was part of the production team on the film and founded Studio Ghibli with Miyazaki, who also invited Takahata to join the new studio. The studio has mainly produced films by Miyazaki, with the second most prolific director being Takahata (most notably with ''
Grave of the Fireflies is a 1988 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
''). Other directors who have worked with Studio Ghibli include Yoshifumi Kondō, Hiroyuki Morita,
Gorō Miyazaki is a Japanese director. He is the son of lauded animator Hayao Miyazaki, who is one of the co-founders of the renowned animation company Studio Ghibli. Described as "reluctant" to follow his father's career, Gorō initially worked as a landscaper ...

Gorō Miyazaki
, and
Hiromasa Yonebayashi , nicknamed , is a Japanese animator and director, formerly for Studio Ghibli. After his directorial debut with Studio Ghibli (''The Secret World of Arrietty''), he became the youngest director of a theatrical film produced by the studio. He was no ...

Hiromasa Yonebayashi
. Composer
Joe Hisaishi , known professionally as , is a Japanese composer and musical director known for over 100 film scores A film score is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or chor ...
has provided the soundtracks for most of Miyazaki's Studio Ghibli films. In their book ''Anime Classics Zettai!'', Brian Camp and Julie Davis made note of Michiyo Yasuda as "a mainstay of Studio Ghibli's extraordinary design and production team". At one time the studio was based in
Kichijōji __NOTOC__ is a neighborhood in the Municipality of Japan, city of Musashino, Tokyo, Musashino in Tokyo, Japan. It is centered on a compact but very popular commercial area to the north of its train station and to the south a little, with a full r ...
, Musashino, Tokyo."The Animerica Interview: Takahata and Nosaka: Two Grave Voices in Animation." ''
Animerica ''Animerica'' was a monthly magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Th ...
''. Volume 2, No. 11. Page 11. Translated by ''Animerica'' from: . ''Eiga o Tsukurinagara, Kangaeta Koto'' ("Things I Thought While Making Movies") ''
Tokuma Shoten is a publisher in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often refe ...
'', 1991. Originally published in ''
Animage is a Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as th ...

Animage
'', June 1987. This is a translation of a 1987 conversation between Takahata and
Akiyuki Nosaka was a Japanese novelist, singer, lyricist, and member of the House of Councillors. As a broadcasting writer he used the name and his alias as a chanson singer was . Biography Nosaka was born in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Kamakura, Kanagawa prefecture ...
. "Kichijoji is the Tokyo area where "Studio Ghibli," frequent Takahata collaborator Hayao Miyazaki's studio, is located.
In August 1996,
The Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, ...
and Tokuma Shoten formed a partnership wherein
Walt Disney StudiosWalt Disney Studios may refer to: * Walt Disney Studio (1926–1929) the second name of The Walt Disney Company * Walt Disney Studios (division), the Walt Disney Company's Studio Entertainment unit, which includes Disney's motion picture studios, mus ...
would be the sole international distributor for Tokuma Shoten's Studio Ghibli animated films. Under this agreement, Disney also agreed to finance 10% of the studio's production costs. Since then, all three aforementioned films by Miyazaki at Studio Ghibli that were previously dubbed by Streamline Pictures have been re-dubbed by Disney. On June 1, 1997, Tokuma Shoten Publishing consolidated its media operations by merging Studio Ghibli, Tokuma Shoten Intermedia software and Tokuma International under one location. Over the years, there has been a close relationship between Studio Ghibli and the magazine ''Animage'', which regularly runs exclusive articles on the studio and its members in a section titled "Ghibli Notes." Artwork from Ghibli's films and other works are frequently featured on the cover of the magazine.
Saeko Himuro was a Japanese people, Japanese novelist, essayist, and playwright born in Iwamizawa, Hokkaidō, Iwamizawa, Hokkaidō Prefecture, Japan. During the 1980s and 1990s, she was one of the most popular authors released under Shueisha, Shueisha's Cobal ...
's novel ''Umi ga Kikoeru'' was serialised in the magazine and subsequently adapted into '' Ocean Waves'', Studio Ghibli's first animated feature-length film created for television. It was directed by
Tomomi Mochizuki , sometimes incorrectly romanized as Tomomichi Mochizuki, is a Japanese storyboard artist, screenwriter, and director, known for having collaborated with leading animation studios such as Studio Ghibli, Nippon Animation, Pierrot (company), Pierrot, ...
. In October 2001, the
Ghibli Museum The is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of a ...

Ghibli Museum
opened in
Mitaka, Tokyo file:井之頭恩賜公園 (16016034730).jpg, 260px, Inogashira Park in Mitaka is a Cities of Japan, city in the western portion of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. , the city had an estimated population of 190,403, and a population density of 12,000 per ...
. It contains exhibits based on Studio Ghibli films and shows animations, including a number of short Studio Ghibli films not available elsewhere. The studio is also known for its strict "no-edits" policy in licensing their films abroad due to ''Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind'' being heavily edited for the film's release in the United States as ''Warriors of the Wind''. The "no cuts" policy was highlighted when
Miramax Miramax, LLC (also known as Miramax Films) is an American entertainment company known for producing and distributing films and television shows. Its headquarters are located in Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Á ...
co-chairman
Harvey Weinstein Harvey Weinstein (; born March 19, 1952) is an American former film producer and convicted sex offender. He and his brother, Bob Weinstein, co-founded the entertainment company Miramax, which produced successful independent films including ''Se ...

Harvey Weinstein
suggested editing ''
Princess Mononoke is a 1997 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
'' to make it more marketable. A Studio Ghibli producer is rumoured to have sent an authentic Japanese sword with a simple message: "No cuts".


Independent era

Between 1999 and 2005, Studio Ghibli was a subsidiary brand of Tokuma Shoten; however, that partnership ended in April 2005, when Studio Ghibli was spun off from Tokuma Shoten and was re-established as an independent company with relocated headquarters. On February 1, 2008, Toshio Suzuki stepped down from the position of Studio Ghibli president, which he had held since 2005, and Koji Hoshino (former president of Walt Disney Japan) took over. Suzuki said he wanted to improve films with his own hands as a producer, rather than demanding this from his employees. Suzuki decided to hand over the presidency to Hoshino because Hoshino has helped Studio Ghibli to sell its videos since 1996 and has also aided the release of the ''Princess Mononoke'' film in the United States. Suzuki still serves on the company's board of directors. Two Studio Ghibli short films created for the
Ghibli Museum The is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of a ...

Ghibli Museum
were shown at the Carnegie Hall Citywise Japan NYC Festival: "House Hunting" and "Mon Mon the Water Spider" were screened on March 26, 2011. Takahata developed a project for release after Gorō Miyazaki's (director of ''
Tales from Earthsea ''Tales from Earthsea'' is a collection of fantasy stories and essays by American author Ursula K. Le Guin, published by Harcourt (publisher), Harcourt in 2001. It accompanies five novels (1968 to 2001) set in the fictional archipelago Earthsea. ...
'' and Hayao's son) '' The Tale of the Princess Kaguya'' – an adaptation of ''
The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is a ''monogatari'' (fictional prose narrative) containing elements of Japanese folklore. Written by an unknown author in the late 9th or early 10th century during the Heian period, it is considered the oldest surviving work in the ''monogatar ...
''. The last film Hayao Miyazaki directed before retiring from feature films was ''
The Wind Rises is a 2013 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *No ...
'' which is about the
Mitsubishi A6M Zero The Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" is a long-range carrier-based Carrier-based aircraft, sometimes known as carrier-capable aircraft or carrier-borne aircraft, are naval aircraft designed for operations from aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier ...

Mitsubishi A6M Zero
and its founder. On Sunday, September 1, 2013, Hayao Miyazaki held a press conference in Venice to confirm his retirement, saying: "I know I've said I would retire many times in the past. Many of you must think, 'Once again.' But this time I am quite serious." In 2013, a documentary directed by Mami Sunada called was created delving into the lives of those working at Studio Ghibli and the productions of the animated films ''The Wind Rises'' and ''The Tale of the Princess Kaguya'', including storyboard sketching, inking, painting, and voice actor selection for the films. On January 31, 2014, it was announced that Gorō Miyazaki will direct his first anime television series, '' Sanzoku no Musume Rōnya'', an adaptation of
Astrid Lindgren Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren (; ; 14 November 1907 – 28 January 2002) was a Swedish writer of fiction and screenplays. She is best known for several children's book series, featuring Pippi Longstocking, Emil i Lönneberga, Emil of Lönneber ...
's ''
Ronia the Robber's Daughter ''Ronia, the Robber's Daughter'' (Swedish language, Swedish: ''Ronja rövardotter'') is a children's fantasy book by the Sweden, Swedish author Astrid Lindgren, first published in 1981. The book has been adapted as a Ronia, the Robber's Daughter ( ...
'' for
NHK also called the Japan Broadcasting Corporation and shortened from ''Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai'', is a Japanese government-owned public broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunicatio ...

NHK
. The series is
computer-animated Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation ''only'' refers to moving images. ...
, produced by
Polygon Pictures is a Japanese computer animation, 3DCG animation studio. Polygon has animated a wide variety of content, from commercials for Shiseido featuring the studio's original penguin characters , to the 3D CG anime television series ''Digital Tokoro-san ...
, and co-produced by Studio Ghibli. In March 2014, Toshio Suzuki retired as producer and assumed the new position of general manager. Yoshiaki Nishimura replaced Suzuki in the producer role. On August 3, 2014, Toshio Suzuki announced that Studio Ghibli would take a "brief pause" to re-evaluate and restructure in the wake of Miyazaki's retirement. He stated some concerns about where the company would go in the future. This led to speculation that Studio Ghibli will never produce another feature film again. On November 7, 2014, Miyazaki stated, "That was not my intention, though. All I did was announce that I would be retiring and not making any more features." Lead producer
Yoshiaki Nishimura is a Japanese lead film producer formerly of Studio Ghibli and founder of the company Studio Ponoc. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2014 for ''The Tale of Princess Kaguya (film), The Tale of Princess Kaguya'' and ...
among several other staffers from Ghibli, such as director
Hiromasa Yonebayashi , nicknamed , is a Japanese animator and director, formerly for Studio Ghibli. After his directorial debut with Studio Ghibli (''The Secret World of Arrietty''), he became the youngest director of a theatrical film produced by the studio. He was no ...

Hiromasa Yonebayashi
, left to found
Studio Ponoc is a Japanese animation studio based in Musashino, Tokyo, Japan. The company was founded by former Studio Ghibli lead film producer Yoshiaki Nishimura in April 2015. Its first feature film, ''Mary and the Witch's Flower'', was released on July 8, ...
in April 2015, working on the film ''
Mary and the Witch's Flower is a 2017 Japanese anime, animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ponoc founder Yoshiaki Nishimura, animated by Studio Ponoc, and distributed by Toho in Japan. Based on the 1971 book ''The Little Broomstick'' b ...
''. The 2016
animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *Noise figure, in telecommunication ...

animated
fantasy film Fantasy films are films that belong to the fantasy Fantasy is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In pop ...
''
The Red Turtle ''The Red Turtle'' (french: La Tortue Rouge; ja, レッドタートル ある島の物語, Reddo Tātoru: Aru Shima no Monogatari) is a 2016 animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In ...
'', directed and co-written by Dutch-British animator Michaël Dudok de Wit in his feature film debut, was a co-production between Studio Ghibli and
Wild Bunch The Wild Bunch, also known as the Doolin–Dalton Gang, or the Oklahombres, were a gang A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, labe ...
. In February 2017, Toshio Suzuki announced that Hayao Miyazaki had come out of retirement to direct a new feature film with Studio Ghibli. On November 28, 2017, Koji Hoshino stepped down as president; he was replaced by Kiyofumi Nakajima (former Ghibli Museum director). Hoshino was then appointed as Chairman of Studio Ghibli. In May 2020, Toshio Suzuki confirmed that a new film from Gorō Miyazaki is in development at Studio Ghibli. On June 3, 2020, Studio Ghibli announced that the film would be an adaptation of the novel ''
Earwig and the Witch is a 2020 Anime, Japanese Computer animation, computer-animated fantasy film directed by Gorō Miyazaki, based on the novel of the same name by Diana Wynne Jones. The original voice cast includes Shinobu Terajima, Etsushi Toyokawa, Gaku Hamada, ...
'' by
Diana Wynne Jones Diana Wynne Jones (16 August 1934 – 26 March 2011) was an English novelist, poet, academic, literary critic, and short story writer. She principally wrote fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often ...
. The film was announced as the first full 3D CG animated Ghibli film and slated for a television premiere on
NHK also called the Japan Broadcasting Corporation and shortened from ''Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai'', is a Japanese government-owned public broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunicatio ...

NHK
in late 2020.


Distribution rights


Theatrical and home media rights


Japan

In Japan, the company's films (along with ''
The Castle of Cagliostro ''The Castle of Cagliostro'', known in Japan as is a 1979 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Fi ...
'' and all other ''
Lupin the Third , also written as ''Lupin the Third'', ''Lupin the 3rd'' or ''Lupin the IIIrd'', is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Ja ...
'' titles for movie theaters as well as ''
Mary and the Witch's Flower is a 2017 Japanese anime, animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ponoc founder Yoshiaki Nishimura, animated by Studio Ponoc, and distributed by Toho in Japan. Based on the 1971 book ''The Little Broomstick'' b ...
'') are distributed by
Toho is a Japanese film Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Toho
theatrically, except for ''
Castle in the Sky , known as simply ''Castle in the Sky'' in North America, is a 1986 Japanese animated fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes ...
'', ''
Kiki's Delivery Service is a 1989 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
'' (which were distributed by
Toei Company () (also styled TOEI) is a Japanese film, television Production company, production, and Film distributor, distribution and video game developer and publishing company. Based in Tokyo, Toei owns and operates thirty-four movie theaters across Jap ...

Toei Company
along with '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'', with Toei producing ''
The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun is an anime is Traditional animation, hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English language, English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of ...
''), and ''
My Neighbors the Yamadas is a 1999 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
'', which was distributed by
Shochiku () is a Japanese film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving ima ...
. For home media, a majority of Studio Ghibli releases are distributed by Walt Disney Studios Japan. This also includes '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'', ''
The Castle of Cagliostro ''The Castle of Cagliostro'', known in Japan as is a 1979 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Fi ...
'' and ''
Mary and the Witch's Flower is a 2017 Japanese anime, animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ponoc founder Yoshiaki Nishimura, animated by Studio Ponoc, and distributed by Toho in Japan. Based on the 1971 book ''The Little Broomstick'' b ...
''.
Pony Canyon , also known by the shorthand form , is a Japanese company, established on October 1, 1966, which publishes music, DVD and VHS videos, movies, and video games. It is affiliated with the Japanese media group Fujisankei Communications Group , abb ...
occasionally releases Ghibli documentaries on home media, and also distributes rental versions of Ghibli's movies under a deal with Disney. Pony Canyon also fully distributed the standalone version of ''
Earwig and the Witch is a 2020 Anime, Japanese Computer animation, computer-animated fantasy film directed by Gorō Miyazaki, based on the novel of the same name by Diana Wynne Jones. The original voice cast includes Shinobu Terajima, Etsushi Toyokawa, Gaku Hamada, ...
'' on home media. Before the Disney deal, Tokuma Shoten released Ghibli movies themselves through their "Animage Video" imprint, as well as all releases of the movies, as the Disney deal did not include that format.


Asia

In Asia, films are distributed by local companies, including
Daewon Media Daewon Media ( ko, 대원미디어), formerly ''Daiwon C&A Holdings'', is a South Korean company specializing in character and animation-related business. Founded in 1973, Daewon's subsidiaries include Daiwon C.I., Haksan Publishing, and Daewon Br ...
in South Korea (who also hold exclusive merchandising rights to their catalog in the country), Intercontinental Video Limited (IVL) in Hong Kong and Disney/Buena Vista's label distribution at Excelmedia in China and Deltamac in Taiwan.


North America

Manson International and Showmen, Inc. produced a 95-minute English dub of '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'', titled ''Warriors of the Wind'', which was released theatrically in the United States by
New World Pictures New World Pictures (also known as New World Entertainment and New World Communications Group, Inc.) was an American independent production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturin ...
on June 13, 1985, followed by a VHS release in December 1985. In the late 1980s,
Vestron Video Vestron Video was the main subsidiary of Vestron, Inc., a home video company based in Stamford, Connecticut, that was active from 1981 to 1992, and is considered to have been a pioneer in the home video market. History Vestron was founded in 1 ...
would re-release the film and First Independent Video would re-release it again in 1993, with another minute cut from the film. The voice actors and actresses were not credited and were not even informed of the film's plot line, and the film was heavily edited to market it as a children's action-adventure film, although the film received a PG rating just like Disney's later English dub. Due to the heavy editing of the film in an attempt to appeal to American audiences, much of ''Nausicaä'' was cut out, including much of the environmentalist themes, which were diluted. The main subplot of the Ohmu was similarly altered to arguably portray them as aggressive. Most of the characters' names were changed, including the titular character who became Princess Zandra. The United States poster and VHS cover featured a cadre of male characters who are not in the film, riding the resurrected God Warrior—including a still-living Warrior shown briefly in a flashback. Overall, approximately 22 minutes was cut for North American release. ''Warriors of the Wind'' also prompted Miyazaki to allow translator
Toren Smith Toren V. Smith (April 12, 1960 – March 4, 2013) was a Canadian manga translator and founder of Studio Proteus. Early life Smith learned to read by the age of four, and by the age of 12 had won his first award for writing from the Calgary Stampe ...

Toren Smith
of
Studio Proteus Studio Proteus is a Japanese manga import, translation and lettering company, founded in 1986 by Toren Smith and based in San Francisco. Other staff included translators Dana Lewis, Alan Gleason, and Frederik Schodt, letterer Tom Orzechowski and t ...
to create an official, faithful translation of the ''Nausicaä'' manga for
Viz Media VIZ Media LLC is an American manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a whi ...
. In the late 1980s, an English dub of ''
Castle in the Sky , known as simply ''Castle in the Sky'' in North America, is a 1986 Japanese animated fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes ...
'' was produced by Magnum Video Tape and Dubbing for international
Japan Airlines , (formerly Japan Air Lines), also known as JAL (''Jaru'') or , is an international airline and Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country ...
flights at the request of Tokuma Shoten. The ''Castle'' dub was briefly screened in the United States by
Streamline Pictures Streamline Pictures was an American media company that was best known for its distribution of English-dubbed anime, Japanese animation. History Founding Founded in Los Angeles, California, in late 1988, Streamline Pictures was one of the fir ...
.
Carl Macek Carl Frank Macek (September 21, 1951 – April 17, 2010) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of ...
, the head of Streamline, was disappointed with this dub, deeming it "adequate, but clumsy". Following this, Tokuma allowed Streamline to dub their future acquisitions ''
My Neighbor Totoro is a 1988 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
'' and ''
Kiki's Delivery Service is a 1989 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
''. In April 1993, Troma Films, under their 50th St. Films banner, distributed the ''Totoro'' dub as a theatrical release, and the dub was later released onto VHS and eventually onto DVD by
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment 20th Century Studios Home Entertainment (originally 20th Century-Fox Video, Fox Video, and 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment) is a Brand, brand label of Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment that releases films produced by 20th Century Studio ...
. In the early 1990s, an English dub of ''
Porco Rosso is a 1992 Japanese animated adventure An adventure is an exciting experience that is typically bold, sometimes risky or undertaking. Adventures may be activities with some potential for physical danger such as traveling, exploring, skydivin ...
'' was produced by an unknown company, again for international Japan Airlines flights. The original dubs can be seen on the 1996 Ghibli ga Ippai Laserdisc set, and on the initial copies for the Japanese DVD releases of ''Totoro'', ''Laputa'' and ''Porco''. In 1996, Ghibli joined teams with
Buena Vista International Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (formerly known as Buena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc. until 2007) is an American film distributor, film distribution studio within the Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution division of the Walt Disn ...
, an entertainment distribution company that is a part of The Walt Disney Company, allowing the studio greater access to international audiences and promotions, including Disney-sponsored English-dubbed versions of original films. Ghibli's partnership with Buena Vista provided the opportunity to expand its fanbase and bring full marketing efforts and promotional efforts to the US and Europe, with English dubs. Disney was able to pick the English dub voice actors, sometimes picking their own budding stars, while other times, picking relatively unknown actors, so the main draw of the movies would be the Studio and the directors. This way, international fans in the US and Europe gained recognition of the studio name and many fans became more invested by picking their favorite of the Ghibli recurring directors, particularly Hayao Miyazaki or Isao Takahata. Both Miyazaki and Takahata maintain specific personal animation styles, and can be recognized for their art throughout their careers. The consistency of their respective animation styles has also helped push Studio Ghibli movies into the mainstream overseas, since fans tend to become loyal to their favorite style of animation. Another factor that helped Studio Ghibli gain international popularity is the nostalgia that fans often speak of in reference to their favorite films, especially those by Miyazaki, the most prolific director under the Studio. Miyazaki has maintained a very similar animation style throughout his career, which can even be seen in his first film, ''Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind'' (1984). Since, Miyazaki has directed many of the most popular and famous Ghibli films, including ''My Neighbor Totoro'' (1988) and ''Spirited Away'' (2001), he has effectively become the face of the studio, especially with foreign audiences (besides the official mascot, Totoro). In 1996,
Walt Disney StudiosWalt Disney Studios may refer to: * Walt Disney Studio (1926–1929) the second name of The Walt Disney Company * Walt Disney Studios (division), the Walt Disney Company's Studio Entertainment unit, which includes Disney's motion picture studios, mus ...
acquired worldwide distribution rights to the Studio Ghibli library, with Disney redubbing all previously dubbed films. In addition, Walt Disney Studios Japan agreed to contribute 10% of the funding for all future releases, starting with ''
My Neighbors the Yamadas is a 1999 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
'', in exchange for right of first refusal regarding international distribution. Disney continues with this practice to this day, even extending it to the works of
Studio Ponoc is a Japanese animation studio based in Musashino, Tokyo, Japan. The company was founded by former Studio Ghibli lead film producer Yoshiaki Nishimura in April 2015. Its first feature film, ''Mary and the Witch's Flower'', was released on July 8, ...
and to co-productions like ''
The Red Turtle ''The Red Turtle'' (french: La Tortue Rouge; ja, レッドタートル ある島の物語, Reddo Tātoru: Aru Shima no Monogatari) is a 2016 animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In ...
'' in Japan. It was said to have taken four years for Disney and Studio Ghibli to reach a distribution deal. Originally, the Ghibli films were meant to headline a line of videos called ''Animation Celebration'', highlighting critically acclaimed animated films from around the world. These plans never materialized in full, but the ''Animation Celebration'' logo can be seen on Disney's original VHS release of ''
Kiki's Delivery Service is a 1989 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
''. During Disney's tenure, the studio produced the English dubs and released 15 of Ghibli's films, plus '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'' through the
Walt Disney Pictures Walt Disney Pictures is an American film production studio and subsidiary of Walt Disney StudiosWalt Disney Studios may refer to: * Walt Disney Studio (1926–1929) the second name of The Walt Disney Company * Walt Disney Studios (division), t ...

Walt Disney Pictures
,
Buena Vista Home Video Buena Vista Home Entertainment, LLC., Trade name, doing business as Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, is the Home video, home entertainment distribution arm of The Walt Disney Company. The division handles the distribution of Disney's films ...
,
Miramax Miramax, LLC (also known as Miramax Films) is an American entertainment company known for producing and distributing films and television shows. Its headquarters are located in Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Á ...
and
Touchstone Pictures Touchstone Pictures was an American film distribution label of Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (formerly known as Buena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc. until 2007) is an American film distribution ...
banners. Disney and Ghibli have also selectively chosen not to promote and record an English-dubbed version for films and works deemed less internationally marketable, including some of Takahata's more developmental and obscure pieces. Although the Studio has a "No cuts" policy in terms of international versions and dubs, this does not apply to promotional posters, etc., for which the film makers collaborate with Disney to produce cultural appropriate international versions. The Studio has not shied away from slight rebranding on the international stage in order to convey slightly tweaked promotional imagery for different cultural norms. One example of these slight tweaks to international promotional materials can be seen between the Japanese and English versions of the movie poster for ''Spirited Away'' (2001). For American and other English-speaking audiences, the name of the film was changed from the Japanese version, which directly translates roughly to, "The Disappearance of Chihiro and Sen", to ''Spirited Away'' to suggest more mystical, otherworldly themes, since the direct Japanese translation could be taken to mean that Chihiro/Sen disappeared due to some more dangerous reason. On the American movie poster, more pictures of spirits from the film were added to the background to further pique the viewer's interest with more supernatural themes, creating an association between the pictures spirits and what most American people would think of as "ghosts". For the Japanese poster, there are fewer spirits as the Japanese Shinto religion normalizes the existence of spirits, so less emphasis is needed to convey the importance of non-human spirits. Also, Disney enlarged the "Studio Ghibli" and "Hayao Miyazaki" labels on the poster, helping to bring greater awareness to the studio through the success of ''Spirited Away''. In 2011,
GKIDS GKIDS is an American film distributor A film distributor is responsible for the marketing of a film. The distribution company may be the same with, or different from, the production company A production company, production house, production st ...
acquired the North American theatrical distribution rights of the aforementioned Ghibli films, with
Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment Buena Vista Home Entertainment, LLC., doing business as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes fo ...
retaining the home video rights. Afterwards, in 2013, GKIDS acquired the US and Canadian distribution rights to ''
From Up on Poppy Hill is a 2011 Anime, Japanese animated Drama (film and television), drama film directed by Gorō Miyazaki, scripted by Hayao Miyazaki and Keiko Niwa, animated by Studio Ghibli for the Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Hakuhodo DY Media Partners, Wa ...
''. The film, which Disney passed on to GKIDS due to dealing with potential incest, marked the first time since 1996 that Disney handed a Studio Ghibli film off to another distributor. Afterwards, GKIDS would go on to distribute the films Disney found to be too mature or unmarketable for American audiences: '' Only Yesterday'', '' Ocean Waves'', '' The Tale of the Princess Kaguya'' and ''
When Marnie Was There is a 2014 Japanese anime drama film written and directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ghibli for Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Hakuhodo DY Music & Pictures, Hakuhodo DYMP, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, Walt Disney Ja ...
''. Finally, in July 2017, Disney relinquished its home video rights (with the exception of ''
The Wind Rises is a 2013 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *No ...
,'' which remained with Disney until 2020 due to a distribution clause) to GKIDS, which currently handles all theatrical and home media distribution of Ghibli films in North America along with ''
Mary and the Witch's Flower is a 2017 Japanese anime, animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ponoc founder Yoshiaki Nishimura, animated by Studio Ponoc, and distributed by Toho in Japan. Based on the 1971 book ''The Little Broomstick'' b ...
''. Nevertheless, Disney still continues to handle select distribution in Japan (home media), Taiwan and China. GKIDS' home media releases have been handled by multiple distributors.
Cinedigm Cinedigm Corp. is an American entertainment company headquartered in Los Angeles, California. Cinedigm's businesses encompass digital cinema, streaming channels, content marketing, and distribution. History Cinedigm Corp was founded in 2000 und ...
distributed the home media release of ''Poppy Hill'',
Universal Pictures Home Entertainment Universal Pictures Home Entertainment (formerly Universal Studios Home Entertainment, Universal Studios Home Video, MCA/Universal Home Video, MCA Home Video, MCA Videodisc Inc. and MCA Videocassette Inc.) is the home video Home video is pre ...
distributed the home media releases of ''Kaguya'', ''Marnie'', ''Mary'', ''Yesterday'' and ''Waves'', and
Shout! Factory Shout! Factory is an American home video and music company founded in 2002 as Retropolis Entertainment. Its video releases include previously released feature films, classic and contemporary television series, animation, live music, and comedy s ...
all subsequent releases thus far. The Ghibli films owned by GKIDS were made available for digital purchases on most major services in the United States and Canada on December 17, 2019, through Shout! Factory. Beginning in May 2020, Studio Ghibli's catalogue is available for streaming on
HBO Max HBO Max is an American subscription-based video on demand service owned by AT&T's WarnerMedia, through its WarnerMedia Direct subsidiary. The service was launched in the United States on May 27, 2020, in Latin America and the Caribbean on Jun ...
. Ghibli also partnered with the Walt Disney Company in 2010 to help produce ''The Secret World of Arrietty'', a feature-length film inspired by the British novel, '' The Borrowers'', written by Mary Norton in 1952. To help introduce Ghibli to a new generation of American children, the film was promoted to American children on the popular TV channel, Disney Channel. The (American) English dubbed version also included the voices of well-known Disney Channel original TV-show stars from that time, including
Bridgit Mendler Bridgit Claire Mendler (born December 18, 1992) is an American actress, singer, and songwriter. In 2004, she began her career in the animated Indian film ''The Legend of Buddha'', later starring in the films ''Alice Upside Down'' (2007), ''The C ...
, from ''
Good Luck Charlie ''Good Luck Charlie'' is an American sitcom that originally aired on Disney Channel from April 4, 2010, to February 16, 2014. The series' creators, Phil Baker and Drew Vaupen, wanted to create a program that would appeal to entire families, no ...
'' and
David Henrie David Clayton Henrie ( ; born July 11, 1989) is an American actor and director. He is noted for playing Ted Mosby's future son List of How I Met Your Mother characters#Penny and Luke Mosby, Luke on ''How I Met Your Mother'' and Justin Russo (Wiza ...

David Henrie
from ''
Wizards of Waverly Place ''Wizards of Waverly Place'' is an American Fantasy television, fantasy teen sitcom created by Todd J. Greenwald that aired on Disney Channel for four seasons between October 2007 and January 2012. The series centers on Alex Russo (portrayed ...
''. Ghibli has also capitalized on its success by offering film and character-inspired merchandise for purchase in several countries, including the US. They have now partnered with Amazon to create an official merchandise line available for fans around the globe. This merchandise is distributed from Japan. This includes stickers, stuffed animals, figurines, posters and more. In terms of international awards, Ghibli has also performed well, receiving an Oscar for ''Spirited Away'' (2001) at the
75th Academy Awards The 75th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a ...
for Best Animated Feature. At the time, in 2003, it was the first film to win this award which was originally produced in a language other than English.


International

Outside Asia (including Japan) and North America since 2003,
Wild Bunch The Wild Bunch, also known as the Doolin–Dalton Gang, or the Oklahombres, were a gang A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, labe ...
has held international sales rights to Ghibli's film library and serves as a distributor itself in France and Belgium along with home media rights released under the Wild Side Vidéo label (distributed by
Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Warner Bros. Home Entertainment (formerly known as Warner Home Video and WCI Home Video), is the home video Home video is prerecorded video media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS/Betamax Betamax (also kno ...

Warner Bros. Home Entertainment
France) . The company also sells distribution rights to separate distributors across the world, including
StudioCanal UK StudioCanal UK (formerly Optimum Releasing) is the official branch of StudioCanal StudioCanal SAS (formerly known as Le Studio Canal+, Canal Plus, Canal+ Distribution, Canal+ Production, and Canal+ Image and also known as StudioCanal Internation ...
/Elysian Film Group (United Kingdom and Ireland),
Universum Film UFA GmbH, shortened to UFA (), is a film and television production company that unites all production activities of Bertelsmann in Germany. Its name derives from Universum Film AG (normally abbreviated as ''UFA''), which was a major German film ...
(Germany),
Lucky Red Lucky may refer to: Film and television * ''Lucky: No Time for Love'', a 2005 Hindi-language film starring Salman Khan, Sneha Ullal, and Mithun Chakraborty * Lucky (2005 film), ''Lucky'' (2005 film), a short film by Avie Luthra * Lucky (2010 fi ...
(Italy), Vértigo Films (Spain) and Madman Entertainment (Australia and New Zealand). Notably, ''Arrietty, The Secret World of Arrietty'' received a second dub exclusive to the United Kingdom, produced by StudioCanal, likely due to the film's origins being from Mary Norton (author), Mary Norton's British novel '' The Borrowers''. Disney formerly held the international sales rights as well until Wild Bunch's purchase in 2003. Disney kept the French distribution rights to Ghibli's library until September 2020, when it had expired and transitioned off to Wild Bunch. Since 2021, Warner Bros. Home Entertainment currently serves as the home media distributor of Studio Ghibli's catalog via its current distribution deal with Wild Bunch through the Wild Side Vidéo label. Currently, several films are also available for streaming on Netflix in all countries except for the US, Canada, Japan, and China.


Streaming rights

Prior to 2019, Studio Ghibli opted not to make its films available digitally, feeling that physical media and theatrical events like
GKIDS GKIDS is an American film distributor A film distributor is responsible for the marketing of a film. The distribution company may be the same with, or different from, the production company A production company, production house, production st ...
' GKIDS#Studio Ghibli Fest, Studio Ghibli Fest would work more towards their goal of mindful care and curation for their films. Disney had previously lobbied for a streaming deal with Ghibli during their distribution tenure, but such attempts were never materialized. The studio heads changed their minds after hearing a quote from American actor and director Woody Allen about how there should be multiple outlets for feature films. On October 17, 2019, WarnerMedia's
HBO Max HBO Max is an American subscription-based video on demand service owned by AT&T's WarnerMedia, through its WarnerMedia Direct subsidiary. The service was launched in the United States on May 27, 2020, in Latin America and the Caribbean on Jun ...
announced it had acquired exclusive streaming rights to Studio Ghibli's catalogue in the United States as part of a deal with
GKIDS GKIDS is an American film distributor A film distributor is responsible for the marketing of a film. The distribution company may be the same with, or different from, the production company A production company, production house, production st ...
; these films were available when the service launched in May 2020. On January 20, 2020, it was announced that Netflix acquired the exclusive streaming rights to this catalogue in all regions where it operates except for the United States (in which Netflix does have streaming rights to ''
The Castle of Cagliostro ''The Castle of Cagliostro'', known in Japan as is a 1979 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Fi ...
'' and ''
Mary and the Witch's Flower is a 2017 Japanese anime, animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ponoc founder Yoshiaki Nishimura, animated by Studio Ponoc, and distributed by Toho in Japan. Based on the 1971 book ''The Little Broomstick'' b ...
''), as part of a deal with Ghibli's international sales rights partner
Wild Bunch The Wild Bunch, also known as the Doolin–Dalton Gang, or the Oklahombres, were a gang A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, labe ...
. Seven of twenty-one films in the studio's catalogue were released on February 1, 2020, with the others following on March 1 and April 1. Netflix then struck a separate deal with GKIDS for streaming rights in Canada which was announced on June 22, and came into effect on June 25 for most films. Currently, no streaming rights deals have been announced for Studio Ghibli's home country of Japan, nor for markets such as China where neither Netflix nor HBO Max is available.


''Grave of the Fireflies''

Most of the above deals exclude ''
Grave of the Fireflies is a 1988 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
''; unlike most of the other films, which were published by
Tokuma Shoten is a publisher in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often refe ...
, ''Grave of the Fireflies'' was produced and is owned by Shinchosha, which also had published the short story it was based on, and as such, fell into different rights holdings. ''Grave of the Fireflies'' was released in Japan on VHS by Buena Vista Home Entertainment under the ''Ghibli ga Ippai'' Collection on August 7, 1998. On July 29, 2005, a DVD release was distributed through Warner Home Video. Walt Disney Studios Japan released the complete collector's edition DVD on August 6, 2008. WDSJ released the film on Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray twice on July 18, 2012: one as a single release, and one in a two-film set with ''
My Neighbor Totoro is a 1988 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
''. It was released on VHS in North America by Central Park Media in a subtitled form on June 2, 1993. They later released the film with an English dub on VHS on September 1, 1998 (the same day Disney released ''
Kiki's Delivery Service is a 1989 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
'' in North America) and an all-Regions DVD (which also included the original Japanese with English subtitles) on October 7 the same year. It was later released on a two-disc DVD set (which once again included both the English dub and the original Japanese with English subtitles as well as the film's storyboards with the second disc containing more extensive Bonus Features) on October 8, 2002. It was released by Central Park Media one last time on December 7, 2004. Following the May 2009 bankruptcy and liquidation of Central Park Media, A.D. Vision#ADV Films, ADV Films acquired the rights and re-released it on DVD on July 7, 2009. Following the September 1, 2009 shutdown and re-branding of ADV, their successor, Sentai Filmworks, rescued the film and released a remastered DVD on March 6, 2012. A Blu-ray edition was released on November 20, 2012, featuring an all-new English dub produced by Seraphim Digital, along with a digital release that same year. StudioCanal released a Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on July 1, 2013. Madman Entertainment released the film in Australia and New Zealand.


Works

While not technically Studio Ghibli films, ''
The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun is an anime is Traditional animation, hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English language, English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regardless of ...
'' (1968), ''Panda! Go Panda!'' (1972), ''
The Castle of Cagliostro ''The Castle of Cagliostro'', known in Japan as is a 1979 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Fi ...
'' (1979), ''Jarinko Chie'' (1981), ''Gauche the Cellist'' (1982), '' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'' (1984), ''
The Red Turtle ''The Red Turtle'' (french: La Tortue Rouge; ja, レッドタートル ある島の物語, Reddo Tātoru: Aru Shima no Monogatari) is a 2016 animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In ...
'' (2016), ''
Mary and the Witch's Flower is a 2017 Japanese anime, animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ponoc founder Yoshiaki Nishimura, animated by Studio Ponoc, and distributed by Toho in Japan. Based on the 1971 book ''The Little Broomstick'' b ...
'' (2017) and ''Modest Heroes'' (2018) are sometimes grouped together with the Studio Ghibli library (particularly with the ''Ghibli ga Ippai'' home video collection released by Walt Disney Studios Japan) due to their ties to the studio. ''Horus'' and ''Cagliostro'' were the feature-length directorial debuts of Isao Takahata and Hayao Miyazaki respectively, and were produced by Toei Animation and TMS Entertainment years before the founding of Studio Ghibli. ''Nausicaä'' was directed by Miyazaki at
Topcraft Topcraft (トップクラフト ''Toppukurafuto'', also written as "Top Craft") was an animation studio established in 1971 by former Toei Animation () is a Japanese animation studio An animation studio is a company producing animated medi ...
, a studio which Miyazaki, Takahata and Toshio Suzuki later purchased and renamed Studio Ghibli. As a result, the film has often been rereleased and marketed as a Studio Ghibli movie. ''The Red Turtle'' was a collaborative effort by Studio Ghibli with Dutch animator Michaël Dudok de Wit and was branded as a Studio Ghibli release internationally. It was distributed by Sony Pictures Classics in North and Latin America. ''Mary and the Witch's Flower'' and ''Modest Heroes'' were produced by
Studio Ponoc is a Japanese animation studio based in Musashino, Tokyo, Japan. The company was founded by former Studio Ghibli lead film producer Yoshiaki Nishimura in April 2015. Its first feature film, ''Mary and the Witch's Flower'', was released on July 8, ...
, a company founded by Studio Ghibli veterans
Yoshiaki Nishimura is a Japanese lead film producer formerly of Studio Ghibli and founder of the company Studio Ponoc. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2014 for ''The Tale of Princess Kaguya (film), The Tale of Princess Kaguya'' and ...
and
Hiromasa Yonebayashi , nicknamed , is a Japanese animator and director, formerly for Studio Ghibli. After his directorial debut with Studio Ghibli (''The Secret World of Arrietty''), he became the youngest director of a theatrical film produced by the studio. He was no ...

Hiromasa Yonebayashi
following the 2014 restructuring of Ghibli. For the purposes of the list below, only films fully produced and released by Studio Ghibli are listed. Other Studio Ghibli productions are listed List of Studio Ghibli works, here.


Feature films


Television


Style and themes

The signature style and recurrent themes of the studio reflect those of Miyazaki and the other directors and creatives. Common themes include the risks posed by progress to tradition, environmentalism and the natural world, independent female protagonists, the cost of war, and youth. They tend to use intricate watercolor and acrylic 2D animation with vivid colors (particularly greens), and have a "whimsical and joyful aesthetic".


Notable animators and character designers

*Masashi Ando (''Paranoia Agent'' and ''Paprika (2006 film), Paprika'') *Makiko Futaki (''Akira (1988 film), Akira'', ''Angel's Egg '') *Katsuya Kondō (''
Kiki's Delivery Service is a 1989 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and ...
'', ''
Howl's Moving Castle ''Howl's Moving Castle'' is a fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in ora ...
'') *Kitarō Kōsaka (''Monster (manga), Monster'', ''Master Keaton'', and ''Nasu (manga), Nasu'') *Kazuo Oga (''The Night of Taneyamagahara'', ''
My Neighbor Totoro is a 1988 Japanese animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical motif *N ...
'') *Kenichi Yoshida (animator), Kenichi Yoshida (''Overman King Gainer'' and ''Eureka Seven'') *Akihiko Yamashita (''Tide-Line Blue'', ''Princess Nine'', ''Strange Dawn'', and ''Relic Armor Legacium'') *Hideaki Anno ('' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'', ''Neon Genesis Evangelion'') *Takashi Nakamura ('' Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'') *Atsushi Takahashi (''
Spirited Away is a 2001 Japanese Anime, animated fantasy film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, animated by Studio Ghibli for Tokuma Shoten, Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Buena Vista Home Entertainment, Tohokushinsha Film, and Mitsubishi Corpora ...
'')


See also

*
Ghibli Museum The is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of a ...

Ghibli Museum
in
Mitaka, Tokyo file:井之頭恩賜公園 (16016034730).jpg, 260px, Inogashira Park in Mitaka is a Cities of Japan, city in the western portion of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. , the city had an estimated population of 190,403, and a population density of 12,000 per ...
*Studio Kajino, a subsidiary of Studio Ghibli *Yasuo Ōtsuka *
Studio Ponoc is a Japanese animation studio based in Musashino, Tokyo, Japan. The company was founded by former Studio Ghibli lead film producer Yoshiaki Nishimura in April 2015. Its first feature film, ''Mary and the Witch's Flower'', was released on July 8, ...
, founded by former members of Studio Ghibli *List of Japanese animation studios


References


Further reading

*Cavallaro, Dani. ''The Animé Art of Hayao Miyazaki''. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2006. . . *McCarthy, Helen. ''Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation: Films, Themes, Artistry''. Berkeley, Calif.: Stone Bridge Press, 1999. . . 2001 reprint of the 1999 text, with revisions: . *Miyazaki, Hayao. ''Starting Point: 1979–1996''. Beth Cary and Frederik L. Schodt, trans. San Francisco: VIZ Media, 2009. . . **Miyazaki, Hayao. . Tokyo: Studio Ghibli, Inc./Hatsubai Tokuma Shoten, 1996. . . Original Japanese edition. *Miyazaki, Hayao. ''Turning Point: 1997–2008''. Beth Cary and Frederik L. Schodt, trans. San Francisco: VIZ Media, 2014. . . **Miyazaki, Hayao. . Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2008. . . Original Japanese edition. *Odell, Colin, and Michelle Le Blanc. ''Studio Ghibli: The Films of Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata''. Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England: Kamera, 2009. . .


Documentaries

*'. 1998 documentary, Nippon TV, 28 min. *'. 2013 documentary by Mami Sunada, 118 min.


External links

* * {{Authority control Studio Ghibli, Japanese companies established in 1985 Animation studios in Tokyo Film production companies of Japan Japanese animation studios Koganei, Tokyo Mass media companies established in 1985 Topcraft Western Tokyo