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In
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering approaches to the software development, development of software. A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to design, develop, maintain, tes ...
, a software development process is the process of dividing
software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, , , , and involved in creating and maintaining , , or other software components. development involves writing and the , but in a broader sense, it includes all processe ...
work into smaller, parallel or sequential steps or subprocesses to improve
design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product or process. The verb ''to design' ...
,
product management Product management is an organisational function within a company dealing with new product development, business justification, planning, verification, forecasting, pricing, product launch, and marketing of a product or products at all stages o ...
. It is also known as a software development life cycle (SDLC). The methodology may include the pre-definition of specific
deliverableA deliverable is a tangible or intangible good or service produced as a result of a project that is intended to be delivered to a customer (either internal or external). A deliverable could be a report, a document, a software product, a server upgr ...
s and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application. Most modern development processes can be vaguely described as agile. Other methodologies include
waterfall A waterfall is a point in a or where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops. Waterfalls also occur where drops over the edge of a tabular or . Waterfalls can be formed in several ways, but the most common method of fo ...

waterfall
,
prototyping A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") ...
,
iterative and incremental development Iterative and incremental development is any combination of both iterative design Iterative design is a design methodology based on a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analyzing, and refining a product or process. Based on the results of t ...
,
spiral development 333px, Spiral model (Boehm, 1988). A number of misconceptions stem from oversimplifications in this widely circulated diagram (there are some errors in this diagram). The spiral model is a risk-driven software development process In software e ...
,
rapid application development Rapid-application development (RAD), also called rapid-application building (RAB), is both a general term for adaptive software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, ...
, and
extreme programming Planning and feedback loops in extreme programming Extreme programming (XP) is a software development methodology which is intended to improve software quality In the context of software engineering, software quality refers to two related but d ...

extreme programming
. A life-cycle "model" is sometimes considered a more general term for a category of methodologies and a software development "process" a more specific term to refer to a specific process chosen by a specific organization. For example, there are many specific software development processes that fit the spiral life-cycle model. The field is often considered a subset of the
systems development life cycle In systems engineering Systems engineering is an field of and that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage s over their s. At its core, systems engineering utilizes principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual ou ...

systems development life cycle
.


History

The software development methodology (also known as SDM) framework didn't emerge until the 1960s. According to Elliott (2004) the
systems development life cycle In systems engineering Systems engineering is an field of and that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage s over their s. At its core, systems engineering utilizes principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual ou ...

systems development life cycle
(SDLC) can be considered to be the oldest formalized methodology framework for building
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in wiktionary:Wor ...
s. The main idea of the SDLC has been "to pursue the development of information systems in a very deliberate, structured and methodical way, requiring each stage of the life cycle––from the inception of the idea to delivery of the final system––to be carried out rigidly and sequentially"Geoffrey Elliott (2004) ''Global Business Information Technology: an integrated systems approach''. Pearson Education. p.87. within the context of the framework being applied. The main target of this methodology framework in the 1960s was "to develop large scale functional
business system Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trade ...
s in an age of large scale business conglomerates. Information systems activities revolved around heavy
data processing Data processing is, generally, "the collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collection agency, agency to collect cash * Collections management (museum) ** Colle ...

data processing
and
number crunching A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with number words. More uni ...
routines". Methodologies, processes, and frameworks range from specific proscriptive steps that can be used directly by an organization in day-to-day work, to flexible frameworks that an organization uses to generate a custom set of steps tailored to the needs of a specific project or group. In some cases, a "sponsor" or "maintenance" organization distributes an official set of documents that describe the process. Specific examples include: ; 1970s *
Structured programming Structured programming is a programming paradigm Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned mainly with impli ...
since 1969 *
Cap Gemini SDM Cap Gemini SDM, or SDM2 (System Development Methodology) is a software development method developed by the software company Pandata in the Netherlands in 1970. The method is a waterfall model divided in seven phases that have a clear start and end. ...
, originally from PANDATA, the first English translation was published in 1974. SDM stands for System Development Methodology ; 1980s *
Structured systems analysis and design method Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM), originally released as ''methodology'', is a systems approach to the analysis and design of information systems. SSADM was produced for the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency T ...
(SSADM) from 1980 onwards * Information Requirement Analysis/Soft systems methodology ; 1990s *
Object-oriented programming Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned mai ...
(OOP) developed in the early 1960s, and became a dominant programming approach during the mid-1990s *
Rapid application development Rapid-application development (RAD), also called rapid-application building (RAB), is both a general term for adaptive software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, ...
(RAD), since 1991 *
Dynamic systems development method Dynamic systems development method (DSDM) is an Agile management, agile project delivery framework, initially used as a software development methodology, software development method. First released in 1994, DSDM originally sought to provide some d ...
(DSDM), since 1994 *
Scrum Scrum may refer to: * Scrum (rugby), a method of restarting play in rugby union and rugby league ** Scrum (rugby union), scrum in rugby union * Scrum, an offensive melee formation in Japanese game Bo-taoshi * Media scrum, an impromptu press confe ...
, since 1995 * Team software process, since 1998 *
Rational Unified Process The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an iterative software development process In software engineering, a software development process is the process of dividing software development Software development is the process of conceiving, spec ...
(RUP), maintained by IBM since 1998 *
Extreme programming Planning and feedback loops in extreme programming Extreme programming (XP) is a software development methodology which is intended to improve software quality In the context of software engineering, software quality refers to two related but d ...

Extreme programming
, since 1999 ; 2000s *
Agile Unified Process Agile Unified Process (AUP) is a simplified version of the Rational Unified Process (RUP) developed by Scott Ambler Scott W. Ambler (born 1966) is a Canadian software engineer, consultant and author. He is an author of a number of books focused ...
(AUP) maintained since 2005 by
Scott Ambler Scott W. Ambler (born 1966) is a Canadian software engineer, consultant and author. He is an author of a number of books focused on the Disciplined Agile Delivery toolkit, the Unified process, Agile software development, the Unified Modeling Lang ...
*
Disciplined agile delivery Disciplined agile delivery (DAD) is the software development portion of the disciplined agile toolkit. DAD enables teams to make simplified process decisions around incremental and iterative solution delivery. DAD builds on the many practices espo ...
(DAD) Supersedes AUP 2010s * Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) *
Large-Scale Scrum Scrum is a framework utilizing an agile software development, agile mindset for developing, delivering, and sustaining complex products, with an initial emphasis on software development, although it has been used in other fields including resear ...
(LeSS) *
DevOps DevOps is a set of practices that combines software development (''Dev'') and IT operations (''Ops''). It aims to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high software quality. DevOps is complementary w ...
It is notable that since DSDM in 1994, all of the methodologies on the above list except RUP have been agile methodologies - yet many organisations, especially governments, still use pre-agile processes (often waterfall or similar). Software process and
software quality In the context of software engineering, software quality refers to two related but distinct notions: * Software functional quality reflects how well it complies with or conforms to a given design, based on functional requirements or specification ...
are closely interrelated; some unexpected facets and effects have been observed in practice Among these another software development process has been established in
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized model ...
. The adoption of these best practices known and established processes within the confines of a company is called inner source.


Prototyping

Software prototyping Software prototyping is the activity of creating prototype A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics Semantics (fro ...
is about creating prototypes, i.e. incomplete versions of the software program being developed. The basic principles are: * Prototyping is not a standalone, complete development methodology, but rather an approach to try out particular features in the context of a full methodology (such as incremental, spiral, or rapid application development (RAD)). * Attempts to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process. * The client is involved throughout the development process, which increases the likelihood of client acceptance of the final implementation. * While some prototypes are developed with the expectation that they will be discarded, it is possible in some cases to evolve from prototype to working system. A basic understanding of the fundamental business problem is necessary to avoid solving the wrong problems, but this is true for all software methodologies.


Methodologies


Agile development

"Agile software development" refers to a group of software development frameworks based on iterative development, where requirements and solutions evolve via collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. The term was coined in the year 2001 when the
Agile Manifesto In software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software component ...
was formulated. Agile software development uses iterative development as a basis but advocates a lighter and more people-centric viewpoint than traditional approaches. Agile processes fundamentally incorporate iteration and the continuous feedback that it provides to successively refine and deliver a software system. Agile model also include following software development processes: *
Dynamic systems development method Dynamic systems development method (DSDM) is an Agile management, agile project delivery framework, initially used as a software development methodology, software development method. First released in 1994, DSDM originally sought to provide some d ...
(DSDM) *
Kanban Kanban (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
*
Scrum Scrum may refer to: * Scrum (rugby), a method of restarting play in rugby union and rugby league ** Scrum (rugby union), scrum in rugby union * Scrum, an offensive melee formation in Japanese game Bo-taoshi * Media scrum, an impromptu press confe ...
* Crystal * Atern *
Lean software development Lean software development is a translation of lean manufacturing principles and practices to the software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fix ...


Continuous integration

Continuous integration In software engineering, continuous integration (CI) is the practice of merging all developers' working copies to a shared mainline several times a day. Grady Booch first proposed the term CI in his 1991 method, although he did not advocate ...
is the practice of merging all developer working copies to a shared
mainline Mainline, ''Main line'', or ''Main Line'' may refer to: Transportation Railway * Main line (railway), the principal artery of a railway system * Main Line of Public Works, a railroad and canal system in Pennsylvania ** Main Line (Pennsylvania R ...
several times a day.
Grady Booch Grady Booch (born February 27, 1955) is an American software engineer, best known for developing the Unified Modeling Language The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software en ...
first named and proposed CI in his 1991 method, although he did not advocate integrating several times a day.
Extreme programming Planning and feedback loops in extreme programming Extreme programming (XP) is a software development methodology which is intended to improve software quality In the context of software engineering, software quality refers to two related but d ...

Extreme programming
(XP) adopted the concept of CI and did advocate integrating more than once per day – perhaps as many as tens of times per day.


Incremental development

Various methods are acceptable for combining linear and iterative systems development methodologies, with the primary objective of each being to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process. There are three main variants of incremental development: # A series of mini-Waterfalls are performed, where all phases of the Waterfall are completed for a small part of a system, before proceeding to the next increment, or # Overall requirements are defined before proceeding to evolutionary, mini-Waterfall development of individual increments of a system, or # The initial software concept, requirements analysis, and design of architecture and system core are defined via Waterfall, followed by incremental implementation, which culminates in installing the final version, a working system.


Rapid application development

Rapid application development Rapid-application development (RAD), also called rapid-application building (RAB), is both a general term for adaptive software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, ...
(RAD) is a software development methodology, which favors iterative development and the rapid construction of
prototype A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") ...

prototype
s instead of large amounts of up-front planning. The "planning" of software developed using RAD is interleaved with writing the software itself. The lack of extensive pre-planning generally allows software to be written much faster, and makes it easier to change requirements. The rapid development process starts with the development of preliminary
data model A data model (or datamodel) is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities. For instance, a data model may specify that the data element representing ...

data model
s and
business process model Business process modeling (BPM) in business process management and systems engineering Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage complex syste ...
s using structured techniques. In the next stage, requirements are verified using prototyping, eventually to refine the data and process models. These stages are repeated iteratively; further development results in "a combined business requirements and technical design statement to be used for constructing new systems". The term was first used to describe a software development process introduced by James Martin in 1991. According to Whitten (2003), it is a merger of various structured techniques, especially data-driven
information technology engineering Information engineering (IE), also known as Information technology engineering (ITE), information engineering methodology (IEM) or data engineering, is a software engineering approach to designing and developing information systems. Overview Info ...
, with prototyping techniques to accelerate software systems development. Whitten, Jeffrey L.; Lonnie D. Bentley,
Kevin C. DittmanKevin C. Dittman (born ca. 1960) is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consci ...
. (2003). ''Systems Analysis and Design Methods''. 6th edition. .
The basic principles of rapid application development are: * Key objective is for fast development and delivery of a high quality system at a relatively low investment cost. * Attempts to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process. * Aims to produce high quality systems quickly, primarily via iterative Prototyping (at any stage of development), active user involvement, and computerized development tools. These tools may include
Graphical User Interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction ...
(GUI) builders, Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools,
Database Management System In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal #Design and modeling, design and mode ...
s (DBMS),
fourth-generation programming language A fourth-generation programming language (4GL) is any computer programming language that belongs to a class of languages envisioned as an advancement upon third-generation programming languages (3GL). Each of the programming language generations ai ...
s, code generators, and object-oriented techniques. * Key emphasis is on fulfilling the business need, while technological or engineering excellence is of lesser importance. * Project control involves prioritizing development and defining delivery deadlines or “timeboxes”. If the project starts to slip, emphasis is on reducing requirements to fit the timebox, not in increasing the deadline. * Generally includes
joint application design Joint application design (JAD) is a process used in the life cycle area of the dynamic systems development method (DSDM) to collect business requirements while developing new information systems An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechni ...
(JAD), where users are intensely involved in
system design Systems design is the process of defining the architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel ...
, via consensus building in either structured workshops, or electronically facilitated interaction. * Active user involvement is imperative. * Iteratively produces production software, as opposed to a throwaway prototype. * Produces documentation necessary to facilitate future development and maintenance. * Standard systems analysis and design methods can be fitted into this framework.


Waterfall development

The waterfall model is a sequential development approach, in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through several phases, typically: *
Requirements analysis In systems engineering and software engineering, requirements analysis focuses on the tasks that determine the needs or conditions to meet the new or altered product or project, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the v ...
resulting in a software requirements specification *
Software design Software design is the process by which an Agency (philosophy), agent creates a specification of a Artifact (software development), software artifact intended to accomplish goals, using a set of primitive components and subject to Constraint (m ...
*
Implementation Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as ...
* Testing * Integration, if there are multiple subsystems * Deployment (or
Installation Installation may refer to: * Installation (computer programs) * Installation, work of installation art * Installation, military base * Installation, into an office, especially a religious (Installation (Christianity)) or political one {{disambig ...
) *
Maintenance Maintenance may refer to: Biological science * Maintenance of an organism * Maintenance respiration Non-technical maintenance * Alimony, also called ''maintenance'' in British English * Champerty and maintenance, two related legal doctrines ...
The first formal description of the method is often cited as an article published by Winston W. Royce in 1970, although Royce did not use the term "waterfall" in this article. Royce presented this model as an example of a flawed, non-working model. The basic principles are: * Project is divided into sequential phases, with some overlap and splash back acceptable between phases. * Emphasis is on planning, time schedules, target dates, budgets and implementation of an entire system at one time. * Tight control is maintained over the life of the project via extensive written documentation, formal reviews, and approval/signoff by the user and
information technology management IT management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks ...
occurring at the end of most phases before beginning the next phase. Written documentation is an explicit deliverable of each phase. The waterfall model is a traditional engineering approach applied to software engineering. A strict waterfall approach discourages revisiting and revising any prior phase once it is complete. This "inflexibility" in a pure waterfall model has been a source of criticism by supporters of other more "flexible" models. It has been widely blamed for several large-scale government projects running over budget, over time and sometimes failing to deliver on requirements due to the Big Design Up Front approach. Except when contractually required, the waterfall model has been largely superseded by more flexible and versatile methodologies developed specifically for software development. See Criticism of Waterfall model.


Spiral development

In 1988,
Barry Boehm Barry W. Boehm (born 1935) is an American software engineer, distinguished professor of computer science, industrial and systems engineering; the TRW Professor of Software Engineering; and founding director of the Center for Systems and Software E ...
published a formal software system development "spiral model," which combines some key aspect of the
waterfall model The waterfall model is a breakdown of project activities into linear sequential In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (alg ...

waterfall model
and rapid prototyping methodologies, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down and bottom-up concepts. It provided emphasis in a key area many felt had been neglected by other methodologies: deliberate iterative risk analysis, particularly suited to large-scale complex systems. The basic principles are: * Focus is on risk assessment and on minimizing project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process, as well as providing the opportunity to evaluate risks and weigh consideration of project continuation throughout the life cycle. * "Each cycle involves a progression through the same sequence of steps, for each part of the product and for each of its levels of elaboration, from an overall concept-of-operation document down to the coding of each individual program."
Barry Boehm Barry W. Boehm (born 1935) is an American software engineer, distinguished professor of computer science, industrial and systems engineering; the TRW Professor of Software Engineering; and founding director of the Center for Systems and Software E ...
(1996).
"A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement
. In: ''ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes'' (ACM) 11(4):14-24, August 1986
* Each trip around the spiral traverses four basic quadrants: (1) determine objectives, alternatives, and constraints of the iteration; (2) evaluate alternatives; Identify and resolve risks; (3) develop and verify deliverables from the iteration; and (4) plan the next iteration.Richard H. Thayer, Barry W. Boehm (1986). ''Tutorial: software engineering project management''. Computer Society Press of the IEEE. p.130 * Begin each cycle with an identification of stakeholders and their "win conditions", and end each cycle with review and commitment.Barry W. Boehm (2000). ''Software cost estimation with Cocomo II: Volume 1''.


Advanced methodologies

Other high-level software project methodologies include: *
Behavior-driven development In software engineering, behavior-driven development (BDD) is an Agile software development process that encourages collaboration among developers, QA, and non-technical or business participants in a software project. It encourages teams to use co ...
and business process management * Chaos model - The main rule is always resolve the most important issue first. * Incremental funding methodology - an iterative approach *
Lightweight methodologyA lightweight methodology is a software development methodology, software development method that has only a few rules and practices, or only ones that are easy to follow. In contrast, a complex method with many rules is considered a ''heavyweight me ...
- a general term for methods that only have a few rules and practices *
Structured systems analysis and design method Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM), originally released as ''methodology'', is a systems approach to the analysis and design of information systems. SSADM was produced for the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency T ...
- a specific version of waterfall * Slow programming, as part of the larger Slow Movement, emphasizes careful and gradual work without (or minimal) time pressures. Slow programming aims to avoid bugs and overly quick release schedules. *
V-Model (software development) In software development, the V-model represents a software development process, development process that may be considered an extension of the waterfall model, and is an example of the more V-model, general V-model. Instead of moving down in a l ...
- an extension of the waterfall model *
Unified Process The Unified Software Development Process or Unified Process is an iterative and incremental software development process In software engineering, a software development process is the process of dividing software development Software dev ...
(UP) is an iterative software development methodology framework, based on
Unified Modeling Language The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language A modeling language is any artificial language that can be used to express information Information is processed, organised and structured data. ...
(UML). UP organizes the development of software into four phases, each consisting of one or more executable iterations of the software at that stage of development: inception, elaboration, construction, and guidelines. Many tools and products exist to facilitate UP implementation. One of the more popular versions of UP is the
Rational Unified Process The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an iterative software development process In software engineering, a software development process is the process of dividing software development Software development is the process of conceiving, spec ...
(RUP). *Big Bang methodology - an approach for small or undefined projects, generally consisting of little to no planning with high risk.


Process meta-models

Some "
process model The term process model is used in various contexts. For example, in business process modeling Business process modeling (BPM) in business process management and systems engineering Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering ...

process model
s" are abstract descriptions for evaluating, comparing, and improving the specific process adopted by an organization. *
ISO/IEC 12207 ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 ''Systems and software engineering – Software life cycle processes'' is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in ...
is the international standard describing the method to select, implement, and monitor the life cycle for software. * The
Capability Maturity Model Integration Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process level improvement training and appraisal program. Administered by the CMMI Institute, a subsidiary of ISACA, it was developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). It is required by many U.S ...
(CMMI) is one of the leading models and based on best practice. Independent assessments grade organizations on how well they follow their defined processes, not on the quality of those processes or the software produced. CMMI has replaced . *
ISO 9000 The ISO 9000 family of quality management systems A quality management system (QMS) is a collection of business process A business process, business method or business function is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks by pe ...
describes standards for a formally organized process to manufacture a product and the methods of managing and monitoring progress. Although the standard was originally created for the manufacturing sector, ISO 9000 standards have been applied to software development as well. Like CMMI, certification with ISO 9000 does not guarantee the quality of the end result, only that formalized business processes have been followed. *
ISO/IEC 15504 ISO/IEC 15504 ''Information technology – Process assessment'', also termed Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination (SPICE), is a set of technical standards documents for the computer software development process and related busin ...
''Information technology—Process assessment'' also known as Software Process Improvement Capability Determination (SPICE), is a "framework for the assessment of software processes". This standard is aimed at setting out a clear model for process comparison. SPICE is used much like CMMI. It models processes to manage, control, guide and monitor software development. This model is then used to measure what a development organization or project team actually does during software development. This information is analyzed to identify weaknesses and drive improvement. It also identifies strengths that can be continued or integrated into common practice for that organization or team. *
ISO/IEC 24744 ISO/IEC 24744 ''Software Engineering — Metamodel for Development Methodologies'' is an International Organization for Standardization, ISO standard for software engineering metamodelling for development methodologies. It defines a metamodel ...
''Software Engineering—Metamodel for Development Methodologies'', is a powertype-based metamodel for software development methodologies. * SPEM 2.0 by the Object Management Group *
Soft systems methodology Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach to organizational process modelling ( business process modelling) and it can be used both for general problem solving and in the management of change. It was developed in England England is a Coun ...
- a general method for improving management processes *
Method engineering Method engineering in the "field of information systems An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. In a sociotechnical perspective, information s ...
- a general method for improving information system processes


In practice

A variety of such frameworks have evolved over the years, each with its own recognized strengths and weaknesses. One software development methodology framework is not necessarily suitable for use by all projects. Each of the available methodology frameworks are best suited to specific kinds of projects, based on various technical, organizational, project and team considerations.Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Office of Information Service (2008).
Selecting a development approach
'. Webarticle. United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Re-validated: March 27, 2008. Retrieved 27 Oct 2008.
Software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application ...
organizations implement process methodologies to ease the process of development. Sometimes, contractors may require methodologies employed, an example is the U.S.
defense industry The arms industry, also known as the arms trade, is a global industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, ...
, which requires a rating based on
process model The term process model is used in various contexts. For example, in business process modeling Business process modeling (BPM) in business process management and systems engineering Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering ...

process model
s to obtain contracts. The international standard for describing the method of selecting, implementing and monitoring the life cycle for software is
ISO/IEC 12207 ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 ''Systems and software engineering – Software life cycle processes'' is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in ...
. A decades-long goal has been to find repeatable, predictable processes that improve productivity and quality. Some try to systematize or formalize the seemingly unruly task of designing software. Others apply
project management Project management is the process of leading the work of a team A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal A goal is an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (f ...
techniques to designing software. Large numbers of software projects do not meet their expectations in terms of functionality, cost, or delivery schedule - see List of failed and overbudget custom software projects for some notable examples. Organizations may create a
Software Engineering Process GroupA Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG) is an organization's focal point for software process improvement activities. These individuals perform assessments of organizational capability, develop plans to implement needed improvements, coordinate ...
(SEPG), which is the focal point for process improvement. Composed of line practitioners who have varied skills, the group is at the center of the collaborative effort of everyone in the organization who is involved with software engineering process improvement. A particular development team may also agree to programming environment details, such as which
integrated development environment An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically ...
is used, and one or more dominant
programming paradigm Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned mainly with implications for the execution model of the language, suc ...
s,
programming style Programming style, also known as code style, is a set of rules or guidelines used when writing the source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes th ...
rules, or choice of specific software libraries or
software framework In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, gen ...
s. These details are generally not dictated by the choice of model or general methodology.


See also

*
Systems development life cycle In systems engineering Systems engineering is an field of and that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage s over their s. At its core, systems engineering utilizes principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual ou ...

Systems development life cycle
*
Computer-aided software engineering Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) is the domain of software tools used to design and implement applications. CASE tools are similar to and were partly inspired by computer-aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer ...
(some of these tools support specific methodologies) *
List of software development philosophies This is a list of approaches, styles, methodologies, philosophies in software development and engineering. It also contains programming paradigms, software development methodologies, software development processes, and single practices, principle ...
* Outline of software engineering * OpenUP *
Project management Project management is the process of leading the work of a team A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal A goal is an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (f ...
*
Software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application ...
*
Software development effort estimation In software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications Application may refer to: Mathematics and ...
*
Software release life cycle A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contr ...
* Top-down and bottom-up design#Computer science


References


External links


Selecting a development approach
at cms.hhs.gov. * Gerhard Fischer
"The Software Technology of the 21st Century: From Software Reuse to Collaborative Software Design"
2001
Subway map of agile practices at Agile Alliance
{{DEFAULTSORT:Software Development Methodology Methodology Software engineering