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Islamic schools and branches Islamic schools and branches have different understandings of Islam. There are many different sects or denominations, Madhhab, schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and schools of Islamic theology, or ''aqidah'' (creed). Within Islamic groups the ...
for different schools of thought; see
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
for the concept of the different "creeds" in Islam; see
Kalam ''ʿIlm al-Kalām'' ( ar, عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"), usually foreshortened to Kalām or the ''Rational philosophies'' is the study of Islamic doctrine (aqa'id''). It was born out of the need to establish and ...

Kalam
for the concept of theological discourse.'' Schools of Islamic theology are various
Islamic schools and branches Islamic schools and branches have different understandings of Islam. There are many different sects or denominations, Madhhab, schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and schools of Islamic theology, or ''aqidah'' (creed). Within Islamic groups the ...
in different schools of thought regarding ''
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
'' (creed). According to
Muhammad Abu Zahra Muhammad Abu Zahra (Arabic: محمد أبو زهرة), (1898–1974) was an Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Wes ...
,
Qadariyah Qadariyah (or Qadarīya, Ḳadariyya, etc., also Qadarites or Kadarites) is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted that humans possess free will, whose exercise makes them responsible for their actions, ju ...
,
Jahmi Jahmī ( ar, جهمي) was a pejorative term used by early Islamic scholars to refer to the followers of Jahm ibn Safwan (d. 128/746). The 4 schools of jurisprudence reject the Jahmi belief and the fourth Imam, Ahmed bin Hanbal was persecuted by ...
s,
Murji'ah Murjiʾah ( ar, المرجئة, "Those Who Postpone"), also Murji'as, Murjites or Murji 'ites, an early Islamic sect. Murji'ah held the opinion that God alone has the right to judge whether or not a Muslim has become an apostate. Consequently Muslim ...
,
Muʿtazila Muʿtazila ( ar, المعتزلة ') is a Rationalism, rationalist schools of Islamic theology, school of Islamic theologyBatiniyya Batiniyya ( ar, باطنية, Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (''Zahir (Islam), zāhir'') and an inner, esoteric (''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'') meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in par ...
, Ashʿarī, Māturīdī, and Aṯharī are the ancient schools of Islamic theology. The main schism between Sunnī, Shiʿa, and
Kharijite The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil Wa ...
branches of Islam was initially more political than theological, but over time theological differences have developed throughout the
history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. Most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Muslims regar ...
.


Divinity schools in Islam

According to the ''
Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān The ''Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān'' (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular ...
'' (2006), "The
Qurʾān The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Qurʾān
displays a wide range of theological topics related to the religious thought of
late antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
and through its prophet
Muḥammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...

Muḥammad
presents a coherent vision of the creator, the cosmos and man. The main issues of Muslim theological dispute prove to be hidden under the wording of the qurʾānic message, which is closely tied to Muḥammad's
biography A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or c ...
". However, historians and scholars of Islamic studies recognize that some istances of theological thought were already developed among polytheistic Pagans in
pre-Islamic Arabia Pre-Islamic Arabia ( ar, شبه الجزيرة العربية قبل الإسلام) is the Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "I ...
, such as the belief in
fatalism Fatalism is a family of related philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality R ...
(''ḳadar''), which reoccurs in Islamic theology regarding the metaphysical debates on the attributes of God in Islam,
predestination Predestination, in Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make compara ...
, and human free-will.
The original schism between
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
, Sunnīs, and Shiʿas among
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
was disputed over the political and religious succession to the guidance of the
Muslim community Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
(''Ummah'') after the death of the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, c ...
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. From their essentially political position, the Kharijites developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunnī and Shiʿa Muslims. Shiʿas believe
Ali ibn Abi Talib Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...
is the true successor to Muhammad, while Sunnīs consider
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman ( ar, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ; 573 CE23 August 634 CE) was a Sahabah, companion and, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Prophets and messengers in I ...
to hold that position. The Kharijites broke away from both the Shiʿas and the Sunnīs during the
First Fitna The First Fitna ( ar, فتنة مقتل عثمان, fitnat maqtal ʻUthmān, strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and ...
(the first Islamic Civil War); they were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to '' takfīr'' (excommunication), whereby they declared both Sunnī and Shiʿa Muslims to be either (''kuffār'') or false Muslims (''munāfiḳūn''), and therefore deemed them worthy of death for their perceived
apostasy Apostasy (; grc-gre, ἀποστασία ''apostasía'', "a defection or revolt") is the formal religious disaffiliation, disaffiliation from, abandonment of, or renunciation of a religion by a person. It can also be defined within the broader ...
(''ridda''). ''
Aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
'' is an Islamic term meaning "
creed A creed, also known as a confession of faith, symbol, or statement of faith, is a statement of the shared belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology ...
" or "belief". Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of ''aqidah''. However, this term has taken a significant technical usage in
Muslim history Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. The term is usually translated as "theology". Such traditions are divisions orthogonal to sectarian divisions within Islam, and a Muʿtazilite may, for example, belong to Jaʽfari,
Zaydi Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism ( ar, الزيدية ''az-zaydiyya'', adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi), occasionally known as Fiver Shias, is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah emer ...
, or even
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
schools of Islamic jurisprudence. One of the earliest systematic schools of Islamic theology to develop, in the mid 8th-century, was the
Muʿtazila Muʿtazila ( ar, المعتزلة ') is a Rationalism, rationalist schools of Islamic theology, school of Islamic theology Muʿtazilites emphasized reason and rational thought, positing that the injunctions of God are accessible through rational thought and inquiry, and affirmed that the Quran, albeit the word of God, was created rather than co-eternal with God, which would develop into one of the most contentious questions in Islamic theology. In the 10th century, the Ashʿarī school developed as a response to the Muʿtazila. Ashʿarītes still taught the use of reason in understanding the Quran, but denied the possibility to deduce moral truths by reasoning. This position was opposed by the Māturīdī school, which taught that certain moral truths may be found by the use of reason without the aid of revelation. Another point of contention was the relative position of '' Imān'' ("faith") contrasted with '' Taqwā'' ("piety"). Such schools of Islamic theology are summarized under '' ʿIlm al-Kalām'', or "science of discourse", as opposed to mystical schools who deny that any theological truth may be discovered by means of discourse or reason.


ʿIlm al-Kalām

''ʿIlm al-Kalām'' ( ar, علم الكلام, literally "science of discourse", usually foreshortened to kalam and sometimes called "Islamic scholastic theology", or speculative theology, is a rational undertaking born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic faith against doubters and detractors. 'Ilm al-Kalam incorporates Aristotelian reasoning and
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
into Islamic theology. A scholar of kalam is referred to as a ''mutakallim'' (plural ''mutakallimūn'') as distinguished from philosophers, jurists, and scientists. There are many possible interpretations as to why this discipline was originally called "kalam"; one is that the widest controversy in this discipline has been about whether the
Word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most lang ...

Word
of
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...
, as revealed in the Quran, can be considered part of God's essence and therefore not created, or whether it was made into words in the normal sense of
speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''c ...

speech
, and is therefore created.


Muʿtazila

The first group to pursue this undertaking was the
Muʿtazila Muʿtazila ( ar, المعتزلة ') is a Rationalism, rationalist schools of Islamic theology, school of Islamic theologyBasra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Basra
, when Wasil Ibn 'Ata' stormed out of a lesson of
Hasan al-Basri Abu Sa'id ibn Abi al-Hasan Yasar al-Basri, often referred to as Hasan of Basra (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle Ea ...
following a theological dispute. The Muʿtazilites asserted that everything in revelation could be found through rational means alone. The Muʿtazilites were heavily influenced by the
Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the inhabitants of ancient Greece were struggling to repel devastating invasions from the east. Greek philosophy continued throughout the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic p ...
they encountered and began to adopt the ideas of
Plotinus Plotinus (; grc-gre, Πλωτῖνος, ''Plōtînos'';  – 270 CE) was a major Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surround ...

Plotinus
, whose Neoplatonic theology caused an enormous backlash against them. Muʿtazila is no longer considered an Orthodox school of theology by Sunni Muslims.


Bishriyya

Bishriyya followed the teachings of Bishr ibn al-Mu'tamir which were distinct from
Wasil ibn Ata Wāṣil ibn ʿAtāʾ (700–748) ( ar, واصل بن عطاء) was an important Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may ref ...
.


Bâ’ Hashim’iyyah

Bâh’ Sham’iyyah was a school of Mu'tazili thought, rivaling the school of Qadi Abd al-Jabbar, based primarily on the earlier teaching of Abu Hashim al-Jubba'i, the son of Abu 'Ali Muhammad al-Jubba'i.


Sunnī schools of theology

"Most Sunnis have adopted" the Ash‘ariyya school of theology, but the similar Mātūrīd’iyyah school also has Sunni adherents.
Sunni Muslims Sunni Islam () is by far the largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word ''Sunnah'', referring to the behaviour of Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and ...
are the largest
denomination Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu denominations ** Schools of Buddhism, Buddhist denomination * Denomination (currency) * Denomination ( ...
of Islam and are known as ''Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h'' or simply as ''Ahl as-Sunnah''. The word ''Sunni'' comes from the word ''
sunnah In Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection i ...
'', which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. Therefore, the term "Sunni" refers to those who follow or maintain the ''sunnah'' of the prophet Muhammad. The Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor to lead the Muslim ''
ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental c ...
'' (community) before his death, and after an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman ( ar, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ; 573 CE23 August 634 CE) was a Sahabah, companion and, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Prophets and messengers in I ...
, Muhammad's close friend and a father-in-law, as the first ''
caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
'' of Islam. Sunni Muslims regard the first four caliphs (
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman ( ar, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ; 573 CE23 August 634 CE) was a Sahabah, companion and, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Prophets and messengers in I ...
,
`Umar ibn al-Khattāb , house = Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) are a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah () and commonly shortened to Makkah,Quran 48:22 ...

`Umar ibn al-Khattāb
,
Uthman Ibn Affan Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.pn ...
and
Ali ibn Abu Talib Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...

Ali ibn Abu Talib
) as " al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn" or "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." After the Rashidun, the position turned into a hereditary right and the caliph's role was limited to being a political symbol of Muslim strength and unity.


Athari

Atharism ( ar, أثري; ''textualism'') is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (''
kalam ''ʿIlm al-Kalām'' ( ar, عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"), usually foreshortened to Kalām or the ''Rational philosophies'' is the study of Islamic doctrine (aqa'id''). It was born out of the need to establish and ...

kalam
'') in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
. The name is derived from the Arabic word , literally meaning "remnant" and also referring to a "narrative". Their disciples are called the ''Athariyya'', or Atharis. For followers of the Athari movement, the "clear" meaning of the Qur'an, and especially the prophetic traditions, has sole authority in matters of belief, and to engage in rational disputation (''kalam''), even if one arrives at the truth, is absolutely forbidden. Halverson, ''Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam'', 2010: 36 Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Quran, as opposed to one engaged in ''ta'wil'' (metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Quran rationally, and believe that the "real" meaning should be consigned to God alone (''tafwid''). Halverson, ''Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam'', 2010: 36-7 In essence, the meaning has been accepted without asking "how" or "
Bi-la kaifa The Arabic phrase ''Bila Kayf'', also pronounced as ''Bila Kayfa'', ( ar, بلا كيف) is roughly translated as "without asking how", "without knowing how or what", or "without modality" which means without considering how and without comparison ...
". On the other hand, the famous
Hanbali The Hanbali school ( ar, ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنۢبَلِي, al-maḏhab al-ḥanbalī) is one of the four major traditional Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves o ...
scholar
Ibn al-Jawzi ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu 'l-Faras̲h̲ b. al-Jawzī, often referred to as Ibn al-Jawzī (Arabic: ابن الجوزي, ''Ibn al-Jawzī''; ca. 1116 – 16 June 1201) for short, or reverentially as ''Imam Ibn al-Jawzī'' by ...
states, in '' Kitab Akhbar as-Sifat,'' that
Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abū ʿAbdillāh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥanbal Ash-Shaybānī ( ar, أَبُو عَبْدِ ٱلله أَحْمَد ابْن مُحَمَّد ابْن حَنۢبَل ٱلشَّيْبَانِي; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred t ...

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
would have been opposed to
anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an ...
interpretations of Quranic texts such as those of al-Qadi Abu Ya'la, Ibn Hamid, and Ibn az-Zaghuni. Based on
Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu 'l-Faras̲h̲ b. al-Jawzī, often referred to as Ibn al-Jawzī (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language fami ...
's criticism of ''
Athari Aṯharī theology or Aṯharism ( ar, الأثرية: ), otherwise referred to as Traditionalist theology or Scripturalist theology, is one of the main Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The bran ...
-
Hanbalis The Hanbali school ( ar, ٱلْمَذْهَب ٱلْحَنۢبَلِي, al-maḏhab al-ḥanbalī) is one of the four major traditional Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations ...
'',
Muhammad Abu Zahra Muhammad Abu Zahra (Arabic: محمد أبو زهرة), (1898–1974) was an Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Wes ...
, a Professor of
Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their beli ...
at
Cairo University Cairo University ( ar, جامعة القاهرة, Gām‘et El Qāhira), known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952, is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediat ...

Cairo University
deduced that the ''Salafi aqidah'' is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy ''(
AbsoluteAbsolute may refer to: Companies * Absolute Entertainment, a video game publisher * Absolute Radio, (formerly Virgin Radio), independent national radio station in the UK * Absolute Software Corporation, specializes in security and data risk managem ...
Ẓāhirīsm in understanding the
tashbih ''Tashbih'' ( ar, تشبيه) is an Islamic religious concept meaning anthropomorphism Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by ...
in Qur'an)''
Muhammad Abu Zahra Muhammad Abu Zahra (Arabic: محمد أبو زهرة), (1898–1974) was an Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Wes ...
, ''The history of Madh'habs and Divinity Schools in Islam.''
Scholar of renown: Muhammad Abu Zahrah
Ed. Adil Salahi for
Arab News :''For the Arab news satellite channel in London, see Arab News Network Arab News Network (ANN) was an Arab news channel broadcast on satellite from London. History and profile ANN was established in 1997. The channel is currently owned by Siw ...
. Published Wednesday, 14 November 2001; accessed Sunday 9 June 2013.
in Islam. ''
AbsoluteAbsolute may refer to: Companies * Absolute Entertainment, a video game publisher * Absolute Radio, (formerly Virgin Radio), independent national radio station in the UK * Absolute Software Corporation, specializes in security and data risk managem ...
Ẓāhirīsm'' and total rejection of ''ta'wil'' are amongst the fundamental characteristics of this ''"new"'' Islamic school of theology.


Ashʿarīyyah

The Muʿtazila school of theology was challenged by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿarī, who famously defected from it and formed the rival Ashʿarī school. The Ashʿarī school took the opposite position of the Muʿtazila and insisted that truth cannot be known through reason alone. The Ashʿarī school further claimed that truth can only be known through revelation, and that without revelation the unaided human mind wouldn't be able to know if something is good or evil. It has been called "an attempt to create a middle position" between the rationalism of the Muʿtazilites and scripturalism of the traditionalists. In an attempt to explain how God has power and control over everything, but humans are responsible for their sins, al-Ashʿarī developed the doctrine of ''kasb'' (acquisition), whereby any and all human acts, even the raising of a finger, are ''created'' by God, but the human being who performs the act is ''responsible'' for it, because they have "acquired" the act.Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith ''The New Encyclopedia of Islam'' Rowman Altamira 2003 page 62-3 Today, the Ashʿarī school is considered one of the Orthodox schools of Sunni theology and "most Sunnis have adopted it". The Ash'ari school is the basis of the Shafi'i school of Fiqh, jurisprudence, which has supplied it with most of its most famous disciples. The most famous of these are Abul-Hassan al-Bahili, Al-Baqillani, Abu Bakr al-Baqillani, al-Juwayni, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, al-Razi, and al-Ghazali. Thus, the Ashʿarī school became, together with the Maturidi, the main schools reflecting the beliefs of the Sunnah.


Mātūrīd’iyyah

The Maturidi school was founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, and is the most popular theological school amongst Muslims, especially in the areas formerly controlled by the Ottoman dynasty, Ottomans and the Mughal Empire, Mughals. Today, the Maturidi school is the position favored by the ''Ahl ar-Ra'y'' ("people of reason"), which includes only the
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
school of fiqh who make up the majority of Sunni Muslims. The Maturidi school takes the middle position between the Ash'ari and Mu'tazili schools on the questions of knowing truth and free will. The Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that some of the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are evil without the help of revelation, but still maintain that revelation is the ultimate source of knowledge. Additionally, the Maturidi believe that God created and can control all of His creation, but that He allows humans to make individual decisions and choices for themselves.


Jahmiyyah

Jahmi Jahmī ( ar, جهمي) was a pejorative term used by early Islamic scholars to refer to the followers of Jahm ibn Safwan (d. 128/746). The 4 schools of jurisprudence reject the Jahmi belief and the fourth Imam, Ahmed bin Hanbal was persecuted by ...
s were the followers of the Islamic theologian Jahm bin Safwan who associate himself with Al-Harith ibn Surayj. He was an exponent of extreme determinism according to which a man acts only metaphorically in the same way in which the sun acts or does something when it sets. This is the position adopted by the Ash'ari school, which holds that God's omnipotence is absolute and perfect over all creation.


Qadariyyah

Qadariyyah is an originally derogatory term designating early Islamic theologians who asserted human beings are ontologically free and have a perfect free will, whose exercise justifies divine punishment and absolving God of responsibility for evil in the world. Their doctrines were adopted by the Mu'tazilis and rejected by the Ash'aris. The tension between free will and God's omnipotence was later reconciled by the Maturidi school of theology, which asserted that God grants human beings their agency, but can remove or otherwise alter it at any time.


Muhakkima

The groups that were seceded from Ali's army in the end of the Battle of Siffin#Arbitration, Arbitration Incident constituted the branch of ''Muhakkima'' ( ar, محكمة). They are mainly divided into two major sects called as
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
and Ibadis.


Khawarij

The
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
considered the caliphate of
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman ( ar, أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَبْدُ ٱللهِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ; 573 CE23 August 634 CE) was a Sahabah, companion and, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Prophets and messengers in I ...
and Umar to be rightly guided but believed that Uthman ibn Affan had deviated from the path of justice and truth in the last days of his caliphate, and hence was liable to be killed or displaced. They also believed that
Ali ibn Abi Talib Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...
committed a grave sin when he agreed on the arbitration with Muawiyah, Muʿāwiyah. In the Battle of Siffin, Ali acceded to Muawiyah's suggestion to stop the fighting and resort to negotiation. A large portion of Ali's troops (who later became the first Kharijites) refused to concede to that agreement, and they considered that Ali had breached a Qur'anic verse which states that ''The decision is only for Allah'' (Qur'an 6:57), which the Kharijites interpreted to mean that the outcome of a conflict can only be decided in battle (by God) and not in negotiations (by human beings). The Kharijites thus deemed the arbitrators (Abu Musa Ashaari, Abu Musa al-Ashʿari and Amr Ibn Al-As), the leaders who appointed these arbitrators (Ali and Muawiyah I, Muʿāwiyah) and all those who agreed on the arbitration (all companions of Ali and Muawiyah, Muʿāwiyah) as Kafir, Kuffār (disbelievers), having breached the rules of the Qur'an. They believed that all participants in the Battle of Jamal, including Talha, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Zubayr (both being companions of
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
) and Aisha had committed a ''Kabira'' (major sin in Islam).Abul Ala Maududi, "Khilafat-o-Malookeyat" in Urdu language, (Caliphate and kingship), p 214. Kharijites reject the doctrine of Ismah, infallibility for the leader of the Muslim community, in contrast to Shi'a but in agreement with Sunnis. Modern-day Islamic scholar Abul Ala Maududi wrote an analysis of Kharijite beliefs, marking a number of differences between Kharijism and Sunni Islam. The Kharijites believed that the act of sinning is analogous to Kufr (disbelief) and that every grave sinner was regarded as a Kafir, Kāfir (disbeliever) unless he repents. With this argument, they denounced all the above-mentioned Ṣaḥābah and even cursed and used abusive language against them. Ordinary Muslims were also declared disbelievers because first, they were not free of sin; secondly they regarded the above-mentioned Ṣaḥābah as believers and considered them as religious leaders, even inferring Islamic jurisprudence from the Hadith, Hadeeth narrated by them. They also believed that it is not a must for the
caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
to be from the Quraysh (tribe), Quraysh. Any pious Muslim nominated by other Muslims could be an eligible
caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
. Additionally, Kharijites believed that obedience to the caliph is binding as long as he is managing the affairs with justice and consultation, but if he deviates, then it becomes obligatory to confront him, demote him and even kill him.


Ibadiyya

Ibadi#Doctrinal differences with other denominations, Ibadiyya has some common beliefs overlapping with Ashari, Mu'tazila, Sunni and some Shi'ites.


Murji'ah

Murji'ah Murjiʾah ( ar, المرجئة, "Those Who Postpone"), also Murji'as, Murjites or Murji 'ites, an early Islamic sect. Murji'ah held the opinion that God alone has the right to judge whether or not a Muslim has become an apostate. Consequently Muslim ...
( ar, ) is an early Islamic school whose followers are known in English as "Murjites" or "Murji'ites" (). The Murji'ah emerged as a theological school in response to the
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
on the early question about the relationship between sin and apostasy ''(rida).'' The Murji'ah believed that sin did not affect a person's beliefs (''Iman (concept), iman'') but rather their piety (''taqwa''). Therefore, they advocated the idea of "delayed judgement," (''irjaa)''. The Murji'ah maintain that anyone who proclaims the bare minimum of faith must be considered a Muslim, and sin alone cannot cause someone to become a disbeliever ''(kafir).'' The Murjite opinion would eventually dominate that of the
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the al-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة, ''al-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civil W ...
and become the mainstream opinion in Sunni Islam. The later schools of Sunni theology adopted their stance while form more developed theological schools and concepts.


Shiʿa schools of theology


Zaydi-Fivers

The ''
Zaydi Zaidiyyah, Zaidism, or Zaidi Shi'ism ( ar, الزيدية ''az-zaydiyya'', adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi), occasionally known as Fiver Shias, is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah emer ...
School of Divinity'' is close to the Muʿtazila school. There are a few issues between both schools, most notably the Zaydi doctrine of the Imamate in Shia doctrine, Imamate, which is rejected by the Muʿtazilites. Amongst the Shiʿa, Zaydis are most similar to Sunnīs, since Zaydism shares similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunnī scholars.


Bāṭen’iyyah

''The Batiniyyah, Bāṭen’iyyah ʿAqīdah,'' was originally introduced by ''Abu’l-Khāttāb Muhammad ibn Abu Zaynab al-Asadī,'' and later developed by ''Maymūn al-Qaddāh''Öz, Mustafa, ''Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of madh'habs and its terminology dictionary),'' Ensar Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 2011. (This is the name of the trainer of Muhammad ibn Ismail, Muhammad bin Ismā‘īl as-ṣaghīr ibn Isma'il ibn Jafar, Jā’far. He had established the principles of the Batiniyyah, Bāṭen’iyyah Madh'hab, later. and his son ''ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maymūn'' for the Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an. The members of ''Batiniyyah'' may belong to either Ismailis or Twelvers.


Imami-Ismā'īlīs

The ''Ismā'īlī Imāmate'' differ from Twelvers because they had ''living imams or da'is'' for centuries. They followed Isma'il ibn Jafar, elder brother of Musa al-Kadhim, as the rightful Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. The Ismailis believe that whether Imam Ismail did or did not die before Imam Ja'far, he had passed on the mantle of the imāmate to his son Muhammad ibn Ismail, Muḥammad ibn Ismā'īl al-Maktum as the next imam.


Batini-Twelver ʿAqīdah schools

The followers of ''"Batiniyyah-Twelver" madh'hab'' consist of Alevis and Nusayris, who developed their own fiqh system and do not pursue the Ja'fari jurisprudence. Their combined population is nearly around 1% of World overall Muslim population.


= Alevism

= Alevis are sometimes categorized as part of Twelver Shia Islam, and sometimes as its own religious tradition, as it has markedly different philosophy, customs, and rituals. They have many ''Tasawwufī'' characteristics and express belief in the Qur'an and The Twelve Imams, but reject polygamy and accept religious traditions predating Islam, like Turkish shamanism. They are significant in East-Central Turkey. They are sometimes considered a Sufi sect, and have an untraditional form of religious leadership that is not scholarship oriented like other Sunni and Shia groups. Seven to Eleven Million Alevi people including the other denominations of Twelver Shi'ites live in Anatolia.


Alevi Islamic school of divinity

In Turkey, Shia Islam, Shia Muslim people belong to the Ja'fari jurisprudence Madhhab, which tracks back to the sixth Shia Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq ''(also known as Imam Jafar-i Sadiq),'' are called as the Ja'faris, who belong to Twelver Shia. Although the Alevi Turkish people, Turks are being considered as a part of Twelver Shia Islam, their belief is different from the Ja'fari jurisprudence in conviction. * ''"The Alevi-Turks"'' has a unique and perplex conviction tracing back to Kaysanites Shia and Khurramites which are considered as Ghulat Shia. According to Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli, the Qizilbash (''"Red-Heads"'') of the 16th century – a religious and political movement in Azerbaijan that helped to establish the Safavid dynasty – were "spiritual descendants of the Khurramites". * Among the members of the "''Qizilbash-Tariqah"'' who are considered as a sub-sect of the Alevis, two figures, firstly ''Abu Muslim Khorasani'' who assisted Abbasid Caliphate to beat Umayyad Caliphate, but later eliminated and murdered by Caliph Al-Mansur, and secondly ''Babak Khorramdin'' who incited a rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate and consequently was killed by Caliph al-Mu'tasim, are highly respected. This belief provides strong clues about their Kaysanites Shia and Khurramites origins. In addition, the "Safaviyya Tariqah" leader ''Ismail I'' is a highly regarded individual in the belief of "Alevi-Qizilbash-Tariqah" associating them with the ''Imamah (Shia Twelver doctrine)'' conviction of the "Twelver Shi'a Islam". * Their ʿAqīdah, aqidah ''(theological conviction)'' is based upon a syncretic fiqh system called as "
Batiniyya Batiniyya ( ar, باطنية, Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (''Zahir (Islam), zāhir'') and an inner, esoteric (''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'') meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in par ...
-Sufism" which incorporates some ''Qarmatian sentiments,'' originally introduced by ''"Abu’l-Khāttāb Muhammad ibn Abu Zaynab al-Asadī"'', and later developed by ''"Maymun al-Qāddāh"'' and his son ''"ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maymun"'', and "Mu'tazila" with a strong belief in The Twelve Imams. * Not all of the members believe that the fasting in Ramadan is obligatory although some Alevi-Turks performs their fasting duties partially in Ramadan. * Some beliefs of Shamanism still are common amongst the Qizilbash Alevi-Turkish people in villages. * On the other hand, the members of Bektashi Order have a conviction of "
Batiniyya Batiniyya ( ar, باطنية, Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (''Zahir (Islam), zāhir'') and an inner, esoteric (''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'') meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in par ...
Isma'ilism" and "Hurufism" with a strong belief in ''The Twelve Imams''. * In conclusion, Qizilbash-Alevis are not a part of Ja'fari jurisprudence fiqh, even though they can be considered as members of different Tariqa of Shia Islam all looks like sub-classes of Twelver. Their conviction includes "
Batiniyya Batiniyya ( ar, باطنية, Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (''Zahir (Islam), zāhir'') and an inner, esoteric (''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'') meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in par ...
-Hurufism" and "Sevener-Qarmatians-Ismailism" sentiments. * They all may be considered as special groups not following the Ja'fari jurisprudence, like Alawites who are in the class of Ghulat Twelver Shia Islam, but a special
Batiniyya Batiniyya ( ar, باطنية, Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (''Zahir (Islam), zāhir'') and an inner, esoteric (''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'') meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in par ...
belief somewhat similar to Isma'ilism in their conviction. * The Twelver branch of Shia Islam Muslim population of Turkey is composed of Mu'tazila ʿAqīdah, aqidah of Ja'fari jurisprudence madhhab,
Batiniyya Batiniyya ( ar, باطنية, Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (''Zahir (Islam), zāhir'') and an inner, esoteric (''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'') meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in par ...
-Sufism ʿAqīdah, aqidah of Maymūn’al-Qāddāhī fiqh of the Alevīs, and Cillī
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
of Maymūn ibn Al-Tabarani, Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh of the Alawites, who altogether constitutes nearly one third of the whole population of the country. (An estimate for the Turkish Alevi population varies between Seven and Eleven Million. Over 85% of the population, on the other hand, overwhelmingly constitute Maturidi
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
of the
Hanafi The Hanafi school ( ar, حَنَفِي, translit=Ḥanafī) is one of the four traditional major Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree b ...
fiqh and Ash'ari
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
of the Shafi'i fiqh of the Sunni followers.)


''ʿAqīdah'' of Alevi-Islam Dīn Services

*Some of the differences that mark Alevis from Shi'a Islam are the non-observance of the five daily prayers and prostrations (they only bow twice in the presence of their spiritual leader), Ramadan, and the Hajj ''(they consider the pilgrimage to Mecca an external pretense, the real pilgrimage being internal in one's heart)''; and non-attendance of mosques. *Some of their members (or sub-groups) claim that
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...
takes abode in the bodies of the human-beings (''ḥulūl''), believe in metempsychosis (''tanāsukh''), and consider Sharia, Islamic law to be not obligatory (''ibāḥa''), similar to antinomianism. *Some of the Alevis criticizes the course of Islam as it is being practiced overwhelmingly by more than 99% of Sunni and Shia population. *They believe that major additions had been implemented during the time of Ummayads, and easily refuse some basic principles on the grounds that they believe it contradicts with the holy book of Islam, namely the Qur'an. *Regular daily salat and fasting in the holy month of Ramadan are officially not accepted by some members of ''Alevism''. *Some of their sub-groups like ''ishikism, Ishikists'' and ''Bektashis,'' who portrayed themselves as ''Alevis,'' neither comprehend the essence of the regular daily salat ''(prayers)'' and fasting in the holy month of Ramadan that is frequently accentuated at many times in
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
, nor admits that these principles constitute the ineluctable foundations of the Dīn of Islam as they had been laid down by God in Islam, Allah and they had been practised in an uninterruptible manner during the period of Prophet Muhammad. *Furthermore, during the period of Ottoman Empire, Alevis were forbidden to proselytise, and Alevism regenerated itself internally by paternal descent. To prevent penetration by hostile outsiders, the Alevis insisted on strict endogamy which eventually made them into a quasi-ethnic group. Alevi taboos limited interaction with the dominant Sunni political-religious centre. Excommunication was the ultimate punishment threatening those who married outsiders, cooperated with outsiders economically, or ate with outsiders. It was also forbidden to use the state (Sunni) courts.


= Baktāshism ''(Bektaşilik)''

=


Baktāshi Islamic School of Divinity

The Bektashiyyah is a Shia Sufi order founded in the 13th century by Haji Bektash Veli, a dervish who escaped Central Asia and found refuge with the Seljuks in Anatolia at the time of the Mongol invasions (1219–23). This order gained a great following in rural areas and it later developed in two branches: the ''Çelebi clan,'' who claimed to be physical descendants of Haji Bektash Veli, were called ''"Bel evladları" (children of the loins),'' and became the hereditary spiritual leaders of the rural Alevis; and the ''Babağan,'' those faithful to the path ''"tariqa, Yol evladları" (children of the tariqa, way),'' who dominated the official Bektashi Sufi order with its elected leadership. Bektashism places much emphasis on the concept of Sufi metaphysics, Wahdat-ul-Wujood وحدة الوجود, the "Unity of Being" that was formulated by Ibn Arabi. This has often been labeled as pantheism, although it is a concept closer to panentheism. Bektashism is also heavily permeated with Shiite concepts, such as the marked veneration of Ali, The Twelve Imams, and the ritual commemoration of Day of Ashura, Ashurah marking the Battle of Karbala. The old Iran, Persian holiday of Nowruz is celebrated by Bektashis as Imamah (Shi'a doctrine), Imam Ali's birthday. In keeping with the central belief of ''Wahdat-ul-Wujood'' the Bektashi see reality contained in Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, a single unified entity. Bektashi do not consider this a form of trinity. There are many other practices and ceremonies that share similarity with other faiths, such as a ritual meal (''muhabbet'') and yearly confession of sins to a ''baba'' (''magfirat-i zunub'' مغفرة الذنوب). Bektashis base their practices and rituals on their non-orthodox and Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, mystical interpretation and understanding of the Qur'an and the prophetic practice (Sunnah). They have no written doctrine specific to them, thus rules and rituals may differ depending on under whose influence one has been taught. Bektashis generally revere Sufi mystics outside of their own order, such as Ibn Arabi, Al-Ghazali and Rumi, Jelalludin Rumi who are close in spirit to them.


The Baktāshi ʿaqīdah

The Bektashi Order is a Sufi order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as the need for an experienced spiritual guide — called a ''Baba (honorific), baba'' in Bektashi parlance — as well as the doctrine of "the four gates that must be traversed": the "Sharia" ''(religious law),'' "Tariqah" ''(the spiritual path),'' "Haqiqah" ''(truth),'' and "Marifa" ''(true knowledge).'' Bektashis hold that the Qur'an has two levels of meaning: an outer (''Zahir (Islam), Zāher'' ظاهر) and an inner (''Batin (Islam), bāṭen'' باطن). They hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity, which is a view that can also be found in Ismailism and
Batiniyya Batiniyya ( ar, باطنية, Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (''Zahir (Islam), zāhir'') and an inner, esoteric (''Batin (Islam), bāṭin'') meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in par ...
. Bektashism is also Initiation, initiatic and members must traverse various levels or ranks as they progress along the spiritual path to the Reality. First level members are called ''aşıks'' عاشق. They are those who, while not having taken initiation into the order, are nevertheless drawn to it. Following initiation (called ''nasip'') one becomes a ''mühip'' محب. After some time as a ''mühip'', one can take further vows and become a ''dervish''. The next level above dervish is that of ''baba''. The ''baba'' (lit. father) is considered to be the head of a ''Khanqah, tekke'' and qualified to give spiritual guidance (''irshad'' إرشاد). Above the ''Baba (Alevism), baba'' is the rank of ''halife-baba'' (or ''Dedes, dede'', grandfather). Traditionally there were twelve of these, the most senior being the ''dedebaba'' (great-grandfather). The ''dedebaba'' was considered to be the highest ranking authority in the Bektashi Order. Traditionally the residence of the ''dedebaba'' was the Pir Evi (The Saint's Home) which was located in the shrine of Hajji Bektash Wali in the central Anatolian town of Hacıbektaş, Hacıbektaş ''(Solucakarahüyük)''.


Ithnā'ashariyyah

Twelvers believe in twelve Imams. The Imamah (Shi'a twelver doctrine), twelfth Imam is believed to be in The Occultation, occultation, and will appear again just before the ''Qiyamah'' (Islamic view of the Last Judgment). The Shia ''hadiths'' include the sayings of the Imams. Many Muslims criticise the Shia for certain beliefs and practices, including practices such as the Mourning of Muharram (''Mätam''). They are the largest Shia school of thought (93%), predominant in Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain and have a significant population in Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Kuwait and the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The Twelver Shia are followers of ''either the Ja'fari jurisprudence, Jaf'ari or Batiniyyah madh'habs''.


Imami-Ja'faris

Followers of ''the Ja'fari jurisprudence, Jaf'ari madh'hab'' are divided into the following sub-divisions, all of them are the followers of ''the Theology of Twelvers:''


= Usulism

= The Usuli form the overwhelming majority within the Twelver Shia denomination. They follow a Marja', Marja-i Taqlid on the subject of taqlid and fiqh. They are concentrated in Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, and Lebanon.


= Akhbarism

= Akhbari, similar to Usulis, however reject ijtihad in favor of hadith. Concentrated in Bahrain.


= Shaykhism

= Shaykhism is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in the early 19th century Qajar dynasty, Iran, now retaining a minority following in Iran and Iraq. It began from a combination of Sufi and Shia and Akhbari doctrines. In the mid 19th-century many Shaykhis converted to the Bábism, Bábí and Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí religions, which regard Shaykh Ahmad highly.


Ghulāt-Imamis


=‘Alawism

= Alawites are also called Nusayris, Nusairis, Namiriya or Ansariyya. Their madhhab is established by Ibn Nusayr, and their
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
is developed by Al-Khaṣībī. They follow ''Cillī''
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
of ''"Maymūn ibn Al-Tabarani, Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh"'' of the ‘Alawis."Muhammad ibn Āliyy’ūl Cillī
aqidah ''Aqidah'' ( ar, عقيدة, ʿaqīdah, plural ''ʿaqāʾid'', also rendered ''ʿaqīda, aqeeda'' etc.) is an ic term of origin that literally means "" p. 470. From the ' "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb ''iʿtaqada'' "to fi ...
" of "Maymūn ibn Al-Tabarani, Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh" (Sūlaiman Affandy, ''Al-Bākūrat’ūs Sūlaiman’īyyah – Family tree of the Nusayri Tariqat,'' pp. 14–15, Beirut, 1873.)
One million three hundred and fifty thousand of them lived in Syria and Lebanon in 1970. It is estimated they are 10–12% of the population of Syria of 23 million in 2013.


‘Alawite Islamic School of Divinity

Alawites consider themselves to be Muslims, although some Sunnis dispute that they are."Alawi Islam"
Globalsecurity.org
Alawite doctrine incorporates Gnostic, neo-Platonic, Islamic, Christian and other elements and has, therefore, been described as syncretistic. Their theology is based on a divine triad, or trinity, which is the core of Alawite belief. The triad comprises three Emanationism, emanations of the one God: the supreme aspect or entity called the "Essence" or the "Meaning" (both being translations of ''ma'na''), together with two lesser Emanationism, emanations known as his "Name" (''ism''), or "Veil" (''hijab''), and his "Gate" (''Bab (Shia Islam), bab''). These emanations have manifested themselves in different human forms over several cycles in history, the last cycle of which was as Ali (the Essence/Meaning),
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
(the Name) and Salman the Persian (the Gate). Alawite belief is summarised in the formula: "I turn to the Gate; I bow before the Name; I adore the Meaning". The claim that Alawites believe Ali is a deity has been contested by some scholars as a misrepresentation on the basis that Ali is, in fact, considered an "essence or form", not a human being, by which believers can "grasp God". Alawites also hold that they were originally stars or divine lights that were cast out of heaven through disobedience and must undergo repeated reincarnation (or metempsychosis) before returning to heaven. They can be reincarnated as Christians or others through sin and as animals if they become infidels.Alawis
Countrystudies.us, U.S. Library of Congress.
Alawite beliefs have never been confirmed by their modern religious authorities.'Abd al‑Latif al‑Yunis, Mudhakkirat al‑Duktur 'Abd al‑Latif al‑Yunis, Damascus: Dar al‑`Ilm, 1992, p. 63. Alawites tend to conceal their beliefs (''taqiyya'') due to historical persecution.Secretive sect of the rulers of Syria
The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, 05 Aug 2011
Some tenets of the faith are secret, known only to a select few; therefore, they have been described as a Mysticism, mystical sect. In addition to Muslim holidays, Islamic festivals, the Alawites have been reported to celebrate or honor certain Christian festivals such as the Nativity of Jesus, birth of Jesus and Palm Sunday. Their most-important feast is Eid al-Ghadeer.


The ‘Alawite ʿaqīdah

Alawites have always described themselves as being Twelver Shi'ite Muslims and have been recognized as such by the prominent Lebanese Shi'ite cleric Musa al-Sadr. The Sunni Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini issued a ''fatwa'' recognising them as part of the
Muslim community Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
in the interest of Arab nationalism. However,
Athari Aṯharī theology or Aṯharism ( ar, الأثرية: ), otherwise referred to as Traditionalist theology or Scripturalist theology, is one of the main Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The bran ...
Sunni (modern day Salafis) scholars such as Ibn Kathir ''(a disciple of Ibn Taymiyya)'' have categorised Alawites as Paganism, pagans in their writings.Abd-Allah, Umar F., ''Islamic Struggle in Syria'', Berkeley : Mizan Press, c1983, pp. 43–48 Barry Rubin has suggested that Syrian leader Hafiz al-Assad and his son and successor Bashar al-Assad pressed their fellow Alawites "to behave like ''regular Muslims,'' shedding (or at least concealing) their distinctive aspects". During the early 1970s a booklet, ''al-`Alawiyyun Shi'atu Ahl al-Bait'' ("The Alawites are Followers of Ahl al-Bayt, the Household of the Prophet") was published, which was "signed by numerous 'Alawi' men of religion", described the doctrines of the Imami Shia as Alawite. Additionally, there has been a recent movement to unite Alawism and the other branches of Twelver Islam through educational exchange programs in Syria and Qom. Some sources have discussed the "Sunnification" of Alawites under the al-Assad regime. Joshua Landis, director of the Center for Middle East Studies, writes that Hafiz al-Assad "tried to turn Alawites into 'good' (read Sunnified) Muslims in exchange for preserving a modicum of secularism and tolerance in society". On the other hand, Al-Assad "declared the Alawites to be nothing but Twelver Shiites".Syrian comment. Asad's Alawi dilemma
8 October 2004
In a paper, "Islamic Education in Syria", Landis wrote that "no mention" is made in Syrian textbooks (controlled by the Al-Assad regime) of Alawites, Druze, Ismailism, Ismailis or Shia Islam; Islam was presented as a monolithic religion. Ali Sulayman al-Ahmad, chief judge of the Baathist Syrian state, has said:


= Kızılbaşlık

=


The Qizilbash ʿaqīdah

Qizilbash and Bektashi tariqah shared common religious beliefs and practices becoming intermingled as Alevis in spite of many local variations. Isolated from both the Sunni Ottomans and the Twelver shia islam, Shi`a Safavids, Qizilbash and Bektashi developed traditions, practices, and doctrines by the early 17th century which marked them as a closed autonomous religious community. As a result of the immense pressures to conform to Sunni Islam, all members of Alevism developed a tradition of opposition ''(Antinomianism, ibāḥa)'' to all forms of external religion. The doctrine of Qizilbashism is well explained in the following poem written by the Shaykh of Safaviyya tariqah Ismail I, Shāh Ismāʿil Khatai: The lines of poetry above may easily be judged as an act of "Shirk (Islam), Shirk" ''(polytheism)'' by the Sunni Ulama, but they have a Batin (Islam), bāṭenī taʾwīl ''(inner explanation)'' in Qizilbashism.


Tashbih


Karram’iyyah

''Anthropomorphic-Anthropopathy, Anthropopathic Karram’iyyah'' was founded by Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Karrām. Ibn Karram considered that God was a substance and that He had a body (''jism'') finite in certain directions when He comes into contact with the Throne.


Anthropopathy in the history of Ghulāt Shia

The belief of Incarnation was first emerged in Abdullah ibn Saba', Sabaʾiyya, and later some personalities like Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Abu Muslim, Sunpadh, Ishaq al-Turk, Al-Muqanna, Babak Khorramdin, Maziar and Ismail I had become the subject of God incarnates.


Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadis' beliefs are more aligned with the Sunni tradition, such as The Five Pillars of Islam and Iman (concept)#The Six articles of Islamic faith, The Six articles of Islamic Faith. Likewise, Ahmadis accept the Qur'an as their holy text, face the Kaaba during prayer, accept the authority of Hadiths (reported sayings of and stories about Muhammad) and practice the Sunnah (traditions) of Muhammad. However, Many Muslims consider Ahmadis as bid‘ah, heretics. Ahmadi teachings state that the founders of all the major world religions had divine origins. God was working towards the establishment of Islam as the final religion, because it was the most complete and included all the previous teachings of other religion (but they believe that all other religions have gone astray in their present form). The completion and consummation of the development of religion came about with the coming of Muhammad; and that the perfection of the ‘manifestation’ of Muhammad's prophethood and of the conveyance of his message was destined to occur with the coming of the Mahdi. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community regard Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Jesus, Christ") the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a Prophethood (Ahmadiyya), 'subordinate' prophet to Muhammad whose job was to restore the Sharia given to Muhammad by guiding or rallying disenchanted Ummah back to Islam and thwart attacks on Islam by its opponents, as the "Promised One" of all religions fulfilling eschatological prophecies found in the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions, as well as Zoroastrianism, the Indian religions, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American traditions and others.Invitation to Ahmadiyyat by Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad Part II, Argument 4, Chapter "Promised Messiah, Promised One of All Religions" Ahmadi Muslims believe that Ahmad was divinely commissioned as a true reflection of Muhammad's prophethood to establish the unity of God and to remind mankind of their duties towards God and God's creation.


See also

* Outline of Islam * Glossary of Islam * Abdol Hamid Khosro Shahi * Index of Islam-related articles * Islamic eschatology *
Islamic schools and branches Islamic schools and branches have different understandings of Islam. There are many different sects or denominations, Madhhab, schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and schools of Islamic theology, or ''aqidah'' (creed). Within Islamic groups the ...
* Islamic studies * List of extinct Shia sects * Shia–Sunni relations * Shi'ite Crescent * Succession to Muhammad * Sunni Islam


References


External links


Online Fatwa Site – Islam Question and Answer



Ask Imam – Islam Q&A

Online Islamic Learning

Sufism – Islamic Science of Spirituality
{{Islamic theology , schools , state=expanded Islamic theology, Islamic branches,