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A rose is a woody
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and incl ...
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
of the
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
''Rosa'', in the family
Rosaceae Rosaceae , the rose family, is a medium-sized family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being ...
, or the
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
it bears. There are over three hundred
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...
and
tens of thousands
tens of thousands
of
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s. They form a group of
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s that can be erect
shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the p ...

shrub
s, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Their flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species,
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of
garden roses Garden roses are predominantly Hybrid (biology), hybrid roses that are grown as ornamental plants in private or public gardens. They are one of the most popular and widely cultivated groups of flowering plants, especially in temperate climates. An ...

garden roses
.


Etymology

The name ''rose'' comes from Latin ''rosa'', which was perhaps borrowed from
Oscan Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and th ...
, from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
ρόδον ''rhódon'' (
Aeolic In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (), also known as Aeolian (), Lesbian or Lesbic dialect, is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia; in Thessaly; in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and in the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia ...
βρόδον ''wródon''), itself borrowed from
Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages * Indo-Iranians, the various peoples speaking ...
''wrd-'' (''wurdi''), related to
Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian ...
''varəδa'', Sogdian ''ward'', Parthian ''wâr''.


Botany

The
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are long,
pinnate Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather Feathers are epidermal growths that form a distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on dinosaurs, both avian (bird) and some non-avian (non-bird) and possibly other archosaur ...
, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal
stipule In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancien ...
s; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
but a few (particularly from
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
) are
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
or nearly so. The
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
s of most species have five petals, with the exception of ''
Rosa sericea ''Rosa sericea'', the silky rose, is a species of ''Rosa''. The closely related '' Rosa omeiensis'' is sometimes treated as a subspecies of ''R. sericea''. Distribution It is native to southwestern China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan), Bhuta ...

Rosa sericea
'', which usually has only four. Each
petal Petals are modified leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together fo ...

petal
is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five
sepals upright=1.4, Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals) A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the ...
(or in the case of some ''Rosa sericea'', four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple
superior Superior may refer to: *Superior (hierarchy) In a hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "ab ...
ovaries that develop into
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature. The
aggregate fruit A raspberry fruit (shown with a raspberry beetle larva) is an aggregate fruit, an aggregate of drupelets image:Aquilegia vulgaris 004.JPG, The fruit of an ''Aquilegia'' flower is one fruit that forms from several ovaries of one flower, and it is an ...
of the rose is a berry-like structure called a
rose hip The rose hip or rosehip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit Accessory may refer to: * Accessory (legal term) An accessory is a person who assists in the commission of a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an ...

rose hip
. Many of the domestic
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s do not produce hips, as the
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
s are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. ''
Rosa pimpinellifolia ''Rosa pimpinellifolia'', the burnet rose, is a species of rose native to western, central and southern Europe (north to Iceland and Norway) and northwest Africa. It is generally restricted to sand dunes or limestone pavements and typically has a ...

Rosa pimpinellifolia
'') have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the
hypanthium In angiosperms, a hypanthium or floral cup is a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, and the stamens form a cup-shaped tube. It is sometimes called a floral tube, a term that is also used for corolla tube and calyx tube. I ...
, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the
dog rose ''Rosa canina'', commonly known as the dog rose, is a variable climbing, wild rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa, and western Asia. It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from , though sometimes it can scramble higher int ...
(''Rosa canina'') and
rugosa rose ''Rosa rugosa'' (rugosa rose, beach rose, Japanese rose, Ramanas rose, or letchberry) is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan, Korea and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on beach coasts, often on sand dunes. I ...
(''Rosa rugosa''), are very rich in
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an Nutrient#Essential nutrients, essential nutrient involved in t ...

vitamin C
, among the richest sources of any
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s such as thrushes and
waxwing The waxwings are three species of passerine A passerine () is any bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryot ...

waxwing
s, which then disperse the
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
s in their droppings. Some birds, particularly
finch The true finches are small to medium-sized passerine A passerine is any bird of the Order (biology), order Passeriformes (, Latin ''passer'' (“sparrow”) + ''formis'' (“-shaped”)), which includes more than half of all bird species. Som ...

finch
es, also eat the seeds. The sharp growths along a rose stem, though commonly called "thorns", are technically prickles, outgrowths of the
epidermis The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers that comprise the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also calle ...
(the outer layer of tissue of the stem), unlike true thorns, which are modified stems. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as ''
Rosa rugosa ''Rosa rugosa'' (rugosa rose, beach rose, Japanese rose, Ramanas rose, or letchberry) is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan, Korea and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on beach coasts, often on sand dunes. ...

Rosa rugosa
'' and ''
Rosa pimpinellifolia ''Rosa pimpinellifolia'', the burnet rose, is a species of rose native to western, central and southern Europe (north to Iceland and Norway) and northwest Africa. It is generally restricted to sand dunes or limestone pavements and typically has a ...

Rosa pimpinellifolia
'' have densely packed straight prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce
browsing Browsing is a kind of orienting strategy. It is supposed to identify something of relevance for the browsing organism. When used about human beings it is a metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers ...
by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
and so reduce
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
and protect their
root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large grou ...

root
s (both of these species grow naturally on
coast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Anot ...

coast
al
sand dunes A dune is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the sc ...

sand dunes
). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by
deer Deer or true deer are ed s forming the Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the , including the , the (wapiti), the , and the ; and the , including the (caribou), , the , and the . Male deer of all species (except the Chinese ) as we ...

deer
. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.


Evolution

The oldest remains of roses are from the Late
Eocene The Eocene ( ) Epoch is a geological epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
Florissant Formation The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is a national monument located in Teller County, Colorado. The location is famous for the abundant and exceptionally preserved insect and plant fossils that are found in the mudstones and shales of the Fl ...

Florissant Formation
of Colorado. Roses were present in Europe by the early
Oligocene The Oligocene ( ) is a geologic epoch (geology), epoch of the Paleogene Geologic time scale, Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present ( to ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define ...
. Today's garden roses come from 18th-century China. Among the old Chinese garden roses, the Old Blush group is the most primitive, while newer groups are the most diverse.


Species

The genus ''Rosa'' is composed of 140–180 species and divided into four subgenera: * ''Hulthemia'' (formerly ''Simplicifoliae'', meaning "with single leaves") containing two species from southwest Asia, '' Rosa persica'' and '' Rosa berberifolia'', which are the only roses without
compound leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light en ...
or
stipule In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancien ...
s. * ''Hesperrhodos'' (from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
for "western rose") contains ''
Rosa minutifolia
Rosa minutifolia
'' and '' Rosa stellata'', from North America. * ''Platyrhodon'' (from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, '' Rosa roxburghii'' (also known as the chestnut rose). * ''Rosa'' (the
type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called ''Eurosa'') containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections. ** ''Banksianae'' – white and yellow flowered roses from China. ** ''Bracteatae'' – three species, two from China and one from India. ** ''Caninae'' – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa. ** ''Carolinae'' – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America. ** ''Chinensis'' – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-colour roses from China and
Burma Myanmar (; my, မြန်မာ ) or Burma ( my, ဗမာ ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos a ...

Burma
. ** ''Gallicanae'' – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe. ** ''Gymnocarpae'' – one species in western North America ('' Rosa gymnocarpa''), others in east Asia. ** ''Laevigatae'' – a single white flowered species from China. ** ''Pimpinellifoliae'' – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe. ** ''Rosa'' (syn. sect. ''Cinnamomeae'') – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. ** ''Synstylae'' – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.


Uses

Roses are best known as
ornamental plant Ornamental plants or garden plants are plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cel ...

ornamental plant
s grown for their flowers in the
garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an Bioph ...

garden
and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization.


Ornamental plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as ''
Rosa glauca ''Rosa glauca'' ( syn. ''Rosa rubrifolia''), the red-leaved rose or redleaf rose, is a species of rose A rose is a woody perennial plant, perennial flowering plant of the genus ''Rosa'', in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. Ther ...

Rosa glauca
'' and ''
Rosa rubiginosa ''Rosa rubiginosa'' (sweet briar, sweetbriar rose, sweet brier or eglantine; syn. ''R. eglanteria'') is a species of rose A rose is a woody perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly ph ...

Rosa rubiginosa
''), ornamental thorns (such as ''
Rosa sericea ''Rosa sericea'', the silky rose, is a species of ''Rosa''. The closely related '' Rosa omeiensis'' is sometimes treated as a subspecies of ''R. sericea''. Distribution It is native to southwestern China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan), Bhuta ...

Rosa sericea
'') or for their showy fruit (such as ''
Rosa moyesii Rosa or De Rosa may refer to: People *Rosa (given name) Rosa is a given name, especially in the Portuguese language, Portuguese, Italian language, Italian and Spanish language, Spanish languages. It may refer to: *''Rosa de Lima'', or Rose of Li ...

Rosa moyesii
''). Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
countries,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, and China. It is estimated that 30 to 35 thousand rose hybrids and
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. Most are
double-flowered ''. "Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation ''fl. pl.'' (''flore pleno'', a Latin ablat ...
with many or all of the
stamen The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ...
s having morphed into additional
petal Petals are modified leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together fo ...

petal
s. In the early 19th century the
Empress Josephine An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...
of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at
Malmaison
Malmaison
. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by
Loddiges The Loddiges family (not uncommonly mis-spelt ''Loddige'') managed one of the most notable of the eighteenth and nineteenth century plant nurseries that traded in and introduced exotic plants, trees, shrubs, ferns, palms and orchids into European ...
nursery for
Abney Park Cemetery Abney Park cemetery is one of the "Magnificent Seven" cemeteries in London, England. Abney Park in Stoke Newington Stoke Newington is an area occupying the north-west part of the London Borough of Hackney The London Borough of Hackne ...

Abney Park Cemetery
, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.


Cut flowers

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial
cut flowers Cut flowers are flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar ...
. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale. In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in
greenhouse A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse, or, if with sufficient heating, a hothouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photo ...

greenhouse
s, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world. Some kind of roses are artificially coloured using dyed water, like rainbow roses.


Perfume

Rose perfumes are made from
rose oil Rose oil (rose otto, attar of rose, attar of roses or rose essence) is the essential oil extracted from the petal upright=1.4, Diagram showing the parts of a mature flower. In this example the perianth is separated into a calyx (sepals) and cor ...

rose oil
(also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile
essential oil An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matte ...
s obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is
rose water Rose water ( fa, گلاب) is a flavoured water made by steeping Steeping is the soaking of an organic solid, such as leaves, in a liquid (usually water) to extract flavours or to soften it. The specific process of teas being prepared for dri ...
which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
and then spread through
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (
''Rosa'' × ''damascena''
''Rosa'' × ''damascena''
'Trigintipetala') are used. In other parts of the world ''Rosa'' × ''centifolia'' is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. 'Rose Absolute' is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil. The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...

alcohol
s
geraniol Geraniol is a monoterpenoid and an alcohol. It is the primary component of citronella oil and is a primary component of rose oil, palmarosa oil. It is a colorless oil, although commercial samples can appear yellow. It has low solubility in water, ...

geraniol
and L-
citronellol Citronellol, or dihydrogeraniol, is a natural acyclic mono terpenoid. Both enantiomer In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, mole ...

citronellol
and rose camphor, an odorless solid composed of
alkane In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, pr ...
s, which separates from rose oil. β-
Damascenone Damascenones are a series of closely related chemical compounds that are components of a variety of essential oils. The damascenones belong to a family of chemicals known as rose ketones, which also includes damascones and ionones. ''beta''-Dama ...

Damascenone
is also a significant contributor to the scent.


Food and drink

Rose hip The rose hip or rosehip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit Accessory may refer to: * Accessory (legal term) An accessory is a person who assists in the commission of a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an ...

Rose hip
s are high in
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an Nutrient#Essential nutrients, essential nutrient involved in t ...

vitamin C
, are edible raw, and occasionally made into
jam Fruit preserves are preparations of fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises ...

jam
, jelly,
marmalade Marmalade is a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits boiled with sugar and water. The well-known version is made from bitter orange, but it is also made from lemons, limes, grapefruits, mandarins, sweet oranges, ...

marmalade
, and
soup Soup is a primarily liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material de ...

soup
, or are brewed for tea. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.
Rose water Rose water ( fa, گلاب) is a flavoured water made by steeping Steeping is the soaking of an organic solid, such as leaves, in a liquid (usually water) to extract flavours or to soften it. The specific process of teas being prepared for dri ...
has a very distinctive flavour and is used in
Middle Eastern The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whic ...
,
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
, and
South Asian cuisine Cuisine of the Indian subcontinent includes the cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture ...
—especially in sweets such as
Turkish delight Turkish delight or lokum is a family of confections based on a gel of starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose Glucose is a simple sugar with the Chemical formula#Molecular formula, molecular f ...

Turkish delight
,
barfi Barfi, barfee, borfi or burfi is a dense milk-based sweet from the Indian subcontinent, and a type of ''mithai.'' The name is a derivative of the Urdu (originally Persian) word ''barf'', which means snow. A few of the famous varieties of barfi ...

barfi
,
baklava Baklava (, or ; ota, باقلوا) is a layered pastry dessert made of filo Filo or phyllo is a very thin unleavened dough Image:Dough.jpg, Freshly mixed dough in the bowl of a Mixer (cooking), stand mixer Dough is a thick, malleable, so ...

baklava
,
halva Halva (also halvah, halwa, حلاوة and other spellings) refers to various local confection Confectionery is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical p ...

halva
,
gulab jamun Gulab jamun (also spelled gulaab jamun) is a milk-solid-based sweet, originating in Indian subcontinent and a type of mithai popular in India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, I ...

gulab jamun
,
kanafeh Knafeh ( ar, كنافة) is a traditional dessert made with spun pastry called ''kataifi'', soaked in sweet, sugar-based syrup, and typically layered with cheese, or with other ingredients such as , pistachio or nuts, depending on the region. I ...

kanafeh
, and
nougat Nougat ( , ; ; az, nuqa; fa, نوقا) is a family of confections made with sugar or honey, roasted nut (fruit), nuts (almonds, walnuts, pistachios, hazelnuts, and macadamia nuts are common), whipped egg whites, and sometimes chopped candied ...

nougat
. Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to
flavour ordinary tea
flavour ordinary tea
, or combined with other
herb In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is app ...

herb
s to make
herbal tea #REDIRECT Herbal tea #REDIRECT Herbal tea Herbal teas—less commonly called tisanes (UK and US , US also )—are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herb In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that ...

herbal tea
s. A sweet preserve of rose petals called Gulkand is common in the Indian subcontinent. The leaves and washed roots are also sometimes used to make tea. In France, there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the Indian subcontinent,
Rooh Afza Rooh Afza ( ur, ; hi, रूह अफ़ज़ा; bn, রূহ আফজা) (Soul Refresher) is a concentrated Squash (drink), squash. It was formulated in 1906 in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, Ghaziabad, British India by Naqi Ali Shah,
, a concentrated
squash Squash may refer to: Sports * Squash (sport), the high-speed racquet sport also known as squash racquets * Squash (professional wrestling), an extremely one-sided match in professional wrestling * Squash tennis, a game similar to squash racquets ...
made with roses, is popular, as are rose-flavoured frozen desserts such as
ice cream Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from milk or cream and is flavoured with a sweetener A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweetness, sweet taste like that of sug ...

ice cream
and
kulfi Kulfi () is a frozen dairy A dairy is a business enterprise Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "a ...

kulfi
. The flower stems and young shoots are edible, as are the petals (sans the white or green bases). The latter are usually used as flavouring or to add their scent to food. Other minor uses include candied rose petals. Rose creams (rose-flavoured fondant covered in
chocolate Chocolate is a food product made from roasted and ground cacao pods, that is available as a liquid, solid or paste, on its own or as a flavoring agent Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual Perception (from the Latin Latin ...

chocolate
, often topped with a crystallised rose petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK. Under the American
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C) is a set of laws passed by Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct terri ...
, there are only certain ''Rosa'' species, varieties, and parts are listed as
generally recognized as safe Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is a United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . ...
(GRAS). * Rose absolute: ''Rosa alba'' L., ''Rosa centifolia'' L., ''Rosa damascena'' Mill., ''Rosa gallica'' L., and vars. of these spp. * Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses): Ditto * Rosebuds * Rose flowers * Rose fruit (hips) * Rose leaves: ''Rosa'' ''spp.''


Medicine

The
rose hip The rose hip or rosehip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit Accessory may refer to: * Accessory (legal term) An accessory is a person who assists in the commission of a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an ...

rose hip
, usually from ''R. canina'', is used as a minor source of
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an Nutrient#Essential nutrients, essential nutrient involved in t ...

vitamin C
. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a
food supplement A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement one's diet by taking a pill, capsule, tablet, powder or liquid. A supplement can provide nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and ...
. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. ''Rosa chinensis'' has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth. In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon (Gr διάρροδον, "compound of roses", from ῥόδων, "of roses") is a name given to various compounds in which red roses are an ingredient.


Art and symbolism

The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol. In
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
, the rose was closely associated with the goddess
Aphrodite Aphrodite; , , ) is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, ...

Aphrodite
. In the ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Moder ...

Iliad
'', Aphrodite protects the body of
Hector 250px, The bronze coin struck in 350–300 BC in Ophryneion, which was considered to be the site of the Tomb of Hector. Obverse depicts bearded Hector wearing triple crested helmet and reverse depicts infant Dionysos. In Greek mythology and R ...

Hector
using the "immortal oil of the rose" and the archaic Greek lyric poet
Ibycus Ibycus (; grc-gre, Ἴβυκος; fl. 2nd half of 6th century BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet, a citizen of Rhegium Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label=Central-Southern Calabrian, Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek, Ρ ...
praises a beautiful youth saying that Aphrodite nursed him "among rose blossoms". The second-century AD Greek travel writer
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
associates the rose with the story of
Adonis Adonis, ; derived from the word ''ʼadōn'', meaning "lord"., ''Etymological Dictionary of Greek'', Brill, 2009, p. 23. was the mortal lover of the goddess in . In 's first-century AD telling of the myth, he was conceived after Aphrodite curs ...

Adonis
and states that the rose is red because Aphrodite wounded herself on one of its thorns and stained the flower red with her blood. Book Eleven of the ancient Roman novel ''
The Golden Ass The ''Metamorphoses'' of Apuleius Apuleius (; also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages ...
'' by
Apuleius Apuleius (; also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

Apuleius
contains a scene in which the goddess
Isis Isis (; ''Ēse''; ; Meroitic language, Meroitic: ''Wos'' 'a''or ''Wusa'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. Isis was first mentioned in the Ol ...

Isis
, who is identified with
Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Venus (mythology), Roman goddess of love and beauty. As List of brightest natural objects in the sky, the brightest natural object in Earth's night sky after the Moon, Venus can ...
, instructs the main character, Lucius, who has been transformed into a
donkey The donkey or ass is a domestic animal This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of domestication of animals, animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an exten ...
, to eat rose petals from a crown of roses worn by a priest as part of a religious procession in order to regain his humanity. Following the
Christianization of the Roman Empire Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or Belief#Religion, belief associated with a particular ethnic group. Ethnic religions are often distinguished from univer ...
, the rose became identified with the
Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...
. The colour of the rose and the number of roses received has symbolic representation. The rose symbol eventually led to the creation of the
rosary The Holy Rosary (; la, , in the sense of "crown of roses" or "garland of roses"), also known as the Dominican Rosary, or simply the Rosary, refers to a set of prayers Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport ...

rosary
and other devotional prayers in Christianity. Ever since the 1400s, the
Franciscans , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cross, Christ's arm and Saint Francis's arm, a universal symbol of the Franciscans , abbreviation = OFM , predecessor = , ...
have had a Crown Rosary of the Seven Joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In the 1400s and 1500s, the
Carthusians , formation = , headquarters = Grande Chartreuse (Mother House) , location = , coords = , type = Catholic religious order , membership = About 380 , leader_title = ...
promoted the idea of sacred mysteries associated with the rose symbol and rose gardens.
Albrecht Dürer Albrecht Dürer (; ; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528),Müller, Peter O. (1993) ''Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers'', Walter de Gruyter. . sometimes spelled in English as Durer or Duerer (without an umlaut), was a German pain ...

Albrecht Dürer
's painting '' The Feast of the Rosary'' (1506) depicts the Virgin Mary distributing garlands of roses to her worshippers. Roses symbolised the White Rose of York, Houses of York and Red Rose of Lancaster, Lancaster in a conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg-born Belgium, Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses. Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The rose 'Fantin-Latour' was named after the artist. Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their works. In the 19th century, for example, artists associated the city of Trieste with a certain rare white rose, and this rose developed as the city's symbol. It was not until 2021 that the rose, which was believed to be extinct, was rediscovered there. In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose the floral emblem of the United States. File:Codex Manesse Rudolf von Neuenburg.jpg, Codex Manesse illuminated with roses, illustrated between 1305 and 1340 in Zürich. It contains love songs in Middle High German Image:The Roses of Heliogabalus.jpg, ''The Roses of Heliogabalus'' by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Alma-Tadema (1888) File:Et-Viljandi coa.svg, White rose pictured in the coat of arms of Viljandi


Pests and diseases

Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these affect other plants, including other genera of the
Rosaceae Rosaceae , the rose family, is a medium-sized family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being ...
. Cultivated roses are often subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they cannot be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems.


See also

* ADR rose * List of Award of Garden Merit roses * List of rose cultivars named after people * Rose (colour) * Rose garden * Rose Hall of Fame * Rose show * Rose trial grounds


References


External links


World Federation of Rose Societies
* {{Authority control Roses, Catalan symbols Garden plants Medicinal plants National symbols of the United States Plants used in Ayurveda Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine Rosoideae