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The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. It extends nearly from its union with the
Cantabrian Mountains , etymology=Named after the Cantabri The Cantabri ( grc-gre, Καντάβροι, ''Kantabroi'') or Ancient Cantabrians, were a pre- Roman people, probably Celtic or pre-Celtic European, and large tribal federation A federation (also know ...
to
Cap de Creus A cap is a kind of soft and flat headgear, usually with a visor. Caps have crowns that fit very close to the head. They made their first appearance as early as 3,200BC. Caps typically have a visor, or no brim at all. They are popular in casual and ...

Cap de Creus
on the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
coast. It reaches a maximum altitude of at the peak of
Aneto Aneto (''Pic de Néthou'' in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primar ...

Aneto
. For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the
microstate upright=1.4, Map of the smallest states in the world by land area. Note many of these are not considered microstates A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralize ...
of
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
sandwiched in between. Historically, the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
and the
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
extended on both sides of the mountain range.


Etymology

In
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psyc ...
,
Pyrene Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system. The chemical formula is . This yellow solid is the smallest peri-fused PAH (one where the rings are fused through m ...
is a princess who gave her name to the Pyrenees. The
Greek historian Hellenic historiography (or Greek historiography) involves efforts made by Greeks to track and record History, historical events. By the 5th century BC, it became an integral part of ancient Greek literature and held a prestigious place in later Rom ...
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
says Pyrene is the name of a town in
Celtic Europe The Celts (, see Names of the Celts#Pronunciation, pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European languages, ...

Celtic Europe
. According to
Silius Italicus Silius Italicus, in full Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius Italicus (, c. 26 – c. 101 AD), was a Roman consul, orator and Epic poetry, epic poet of the Silver Age of Latin literature. His only surviving work is the 17-book ''Punica (poem), Punica' ...

Silius Italicus
, she was the virgin daughter of
Bebryx Bebrycius or Bebryx, in Greek mythology, was a king and the father of Pyrene (mythology), Pyrene.(Anonymous) ''A classical manual, being a mythological, historical, and geographical commentary on Pope's Homer and Dryden's Aeneid of Virgil''. London ...
, a king in Mediterranean Gaul by whom the hero
Hercules Hercules (, ) is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divinity, divine hero Heracles, son of Jupiter (mythology), Jupiter and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventur ...

Hercules
was given
hospitality Hospitality is the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with some amount of goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes ...

hospitality
during his
quest A quest is a journey toward a specific mission or a goal. The word serves as a plot Plot or Plotting may refer to: Art, media and entertainment * Plot (narrative), the story of a piece of fiction Music * The Plot (album), ''The Plot'' (albu ...

quest
to steal the cattle of
Geryon In , Geryon ( or ;"Geryon"
'
also Geryone; grc-gre, Γηρυών,Also Γηρυόνης ...
during his famous Labours. Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene gives birth to a serpent and runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains. As is often the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, and lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name: "struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges; he kept crying out with a sorrowful noise 'Pyrene!' and all the rock-cliffs and wild-beast haunts echo back 'Pyrene!' … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages."
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to
Lusitania Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...

Lusitania
, but rejects it as ''fabulosa'', highly fictional. Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, grc, πῦρ (IPA: ). According to Greek historian
Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern ...
"in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was entirely consumed; and due to this fire, since it raged continuously day after day, the surface of the earth was also burned and the mountains, because of what had taken place, were called the Pyrenees."


Geography


Political divisions

The Spanish Pyrenees are part of the following
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

provinces
, from east to west:
Girona Girona (, ; es, Gerona ) is a city in northern Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of S ...
,
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...
,
Lleida Lleida (, ; es, Lérida ) is a city in the west of Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain, designated as a ''na ...
(all in
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
),
Huesca Huesca (; an, Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...
(in
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
),
Navarra Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous com ...

Navarra
(in
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
) and
Gipuzkoa Gipuzkoa (, , ; es, Guipúzcoa ; french: Guipuscoa) is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is San Sebasti ...

Gipuzkoa
(in the
Basque Country Image:Euskal Herriaren terminologia.png, Map showing the geographical and political divisions of the Basque Country Basque Country may refer to: *Basque Country (autonomous community) (''Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa'' in Basque; ''Comunidad Autónoma ...
). The French Pyrenees are part of the following ''
département In the administrative divisions of France, the department (french: département, ) is one of the three levels of government under the national level ("territorial collectivity, territorial collectivities"), between the regions of France, admini ...
s'', from east to west:
Pyrénées-Orientales Pyrénées-Orientales (; ca, Pirineus Orientals ; oc, Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees"), also known as Northern Catalonia Northern Catalonia ( ca, Catalunya (del) Nord ; french: Catalogne (du) Nord ; oc, Catalonha (del) Nòrd), Frenc ...
,
Aude Aude (; ) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative d ...
, Ariège,
Haute-Garonne Haute-Garonne (; oc, Nauta Garona, ; en, Upper Garonne) is a department in the Occitanie region of Southwestern France. Named after the Garonne River, its prefecture and main city is Toulouse, the country's fourth-largest. In 2016, it had ...

Haute-Garonne
,
Hautes-Pyrénées Hautes-Pyrénées (; Gascon/Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin langu ...
, and
Pyrénées-Atlantiques Pyrénées-Atlantiques (; Gascon and Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, ...
(the latter two of which include the
Pyrenees National Park french: Pyrénées ca, Pirineus an, Pirineus oc, Pirenèus eu, Pirinioak, Auñamendiak , etymology=Named for Pyrene (mythology), Pyrene , photo=Central pyrenees.jpg , photo_caption=Central Pyrenees , country_type= Countries , country= , geol ...
). The independent principality of
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
is sandwiched in the eastern portion of the mountain range between the Spanish Pyrenees and
French Pyrenees french: Pyrénées ca, Pirineus an, Pirineus oc, Pirenèus eu, Pirinioak, Auñamendiak , etymology=Named for Pyrene Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system. ...

French Pyrenees
.


Physiographical divisions

Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic (or Western), the Central, and the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division. In the Western Pyrenees, from the Basque mountains near the
Bay of Biscay The Bay of Biscay (; french: Golfe de Gascogne, es, Golfo de Vizcaya, eu, Bizkaiko Golkoa, oc, Golf de Gasconha, br, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn) is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower openi ...
of the Atlantic Ocean, the average elevation gradually increases from west to east. The Central Pyrenees extend eastward from the
Somport Somport or Col du Somport, known also as the Aspe Pass or Canfranc Pass, (el. 1632 m.) is a mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feat ...
pass to the
Aran Valley Aran (; ; ) (previously officially called in Occitan Val d'Aran, Catalan: ''Vall d'Aran'', Spanish: ''Valle de Arán'') is an administrative entity (formerly considered a comarca A ''comarca'' (, or ) is a traditional region or local administr ...
, and they include the highest summits of this range: * Pico d'Aneto in the Maladeta ridge, * Pico Posets , *
Monte Perdido Monte Perdido (in Spanish; Mont Perdu in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a count ...

Monte Perdido
. In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the ''Pyrénées Ariègeoises'' in the Ariège area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the .


Foothills

Most
foothill Rocky Mountain foothills near Colorado.html"_;"title="Denver,_Colorado">CO. Foothills_or_piedmont_are_geography.html" ;"title="Colorado">CO..html" ;"title="Colorado.html" ;"title="Denver, Colorado">CO.">Colorado.html" ;"title="Denver, Colorado">C ...
s of the Pyrenees are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
, across northern Aragon and into Catalonia, almost reaching the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
coast with summits reaching . At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the
Sub-Pyrenees The Sub-Pyrenees ( ca, Subpirineu) are a mountainous region in Catalonia, Spain, forming a section of the southern foothills of the Pyrenees. They are located at the eastern end of the Pre-Pyrenees, west of the Catalan Transversal Range, between ...
. On the French side the slopes of the main range descend abruptly and there are no foothills except in the
Corbières Massif The Corbières Massif ( Catalan: ''Corberes''; french: Massif des Corbières, ) is a mountain range in the Pre-Pyrenees. It is the only true foothill of the Pyrenees on their northern side. Geography The Corbières are a mountain region in the ...
in the northeastern corner of the mountain system.


Geology

The Pyrenees are older than the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
: their
sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. ...

sediment
s were first deposited in coastal basins during the
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
and
Mesozoic The Mesozoic Era ( ), also called the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers, is the second-to-last era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy ...
eras. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower
Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of division ...

Cretaceous
Period, the
Bay of Biscay The Bay of Biscay (; french: Golfe de Gascogne, es, Golfo de Vizcaya, eu, Bizkaiko Golkoa, oc, Golf de Gasconha, br, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn) is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower openi ...
fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France and applying intense compressional pressure to large layers of
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compoun ...

sedimentary rock
. The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and moved progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the
Eocene The Eocene ( ) Epoch is a geological epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
Epoch. The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists largely of
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
and
gneiss Gneiss ( ) is a common and widely distributed type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or ag ...

gneiss
ose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
. The massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, which is particularly resistant to
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
, as well as weak
glacial A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the ...

glacial
development. The upper parts of the Pyrenees contain low-relief surfaces forming a
peneplain In geomorphology incised into shale at the foot of the North Caineville Plateau, Utah, within the pass carved by the Fremont River (Utah), Fremont River and known as the Blue Gate. Grove Karl Gilbert, GK Gilbert studied the landscapes of this a ...

peneplain
. This peneplain originated no earlier than in
Late Miocene The Late Miocene (also known as Upper Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene epoch (geology), Epoch made up of two faunal stage, stages. The Tortonian and Messinian stages comprise the Late Miocene sub-epoch, which lasted from 11.63 Ma (million ye ...
times. Presumably it formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local
base level In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the processe ...
considerably.


Landscape

Conspicuous features of Pyrenean scenery are: * the absence of great lakes, such as those that fill the lateral valleys of the Alps * the rarity and relative high elevation of usable * the large number of the mountain torrents locally called '' gaves'', which often form lofty
waterfall A waterfall is a point in a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its cour ...

waterfall
s, surpassed in Europe only by those of
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
* the frequency with which the upper end of a valley assumes the form of a semicircle of precipitous cliffs, called a
cirque A cirque (; from the Latin word ''circus'') is an amphitheatre An amphitheatre ( British English) or amphitheater ( American English; both ) is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the an ...
. The highest
waterfall A waterfall is a point in a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its cour ...

waterfall
is
Gavarnie Gavarnie is a former commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in south-western France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of ...

Gavarnie
(462 m or 1,515 ft), at the head of the
Gave de Pau The Gave de Pau is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reachi ...

Gave de Pau
; the
Cirque de Gavarnie__NOTOC__ 180px, Photochrom of the Cirque de Gavarnie, circa 1900 The Cirque de Gavarnie is a cirque (landform), cirque in the central Pyrenees, in Southwestern France, close to the France–Spain border, border of Spain. It is within the Gavarnie ...

Cirque de Gavarnie
, in the same valley, together with the nearby Cirque de Troumouse and Cirque d'Estaubé, are notable examples of the
cirque A cirque (; from the Latin word ''circus'') is an amphitheatre An amphitheatre ( British English) or amphitheater ( American English; both ) is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the an ...
formation. Low passes are lacking, and the principal roads and the railroads between France and Spain run only in the lowlands at the western and eastern ends of the Pyrenees, near sea level. The main passes of note are: * the Col de la Perche (), towards the east, between the valley of the Têt and the valley of the Segre, * the Pas de la Casa or Port d'Envalira, the highest road pass in the Pyrenees at , and one of the highest points of the European road network, which provides the route from France to Andorra, * the nearby (), on
European route E09 The European route E9 is part of the United Nations international E-road network. It starts at Orléans, France, and goes south to Barcelona, Spain. France In France, the E9 follows these roads: *: Orléans - Vierzon *: Vierzon - Châteauroux ...
between France and Spain. * the
Port de la Bonaigua Port de la Bonaigua (el. 2072 m., 6,798 ft) is a mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hi ...
(), in the middle of the range at the head of the Aran Valley, although the nearly col at Plan de Beret () is the lowest point in the main ridge between the Col de la Perche, almost to the east and the Col du Pourtalet (), over to the west. * the Col de
Somport Somport or Col du Somport, known also as the Aspe Pass or Canfranc Pass, (el. 1632 m.) is a mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feat ...
or Port de Canfranc (), where there were old
Roman road Roman roads ( la, viae Romanae ; singular: ; meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Re ...

Roman road
s. * the
Roncevaux Pass Roncesvalles Pass, Ronceval Pass or Roncevaux Pass (; ; ; elevation 1057 m) is a high mountain pass in the Pyrenees near the border between France and Spain. The pass itself is entirely in Spain. Location The pass is located between the towns of ...
(), entirely in
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
(Spain) is an important point on the Camino de Santiago pilgrimage route Because of the lack of low passes a number of tunnels have been created, beneath the passes at Somport, Envalira, and Puymorens and new routes in the center of the range at
Bielsa Bielsa is a municipality located in the province of Huesca, Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = ...
and Vielha. A notable visual feature of this
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, us ...

mountain range
is La Brèche de Roland, a gap in the ridge line, whichaccording to legendwas created by
Roland Roland (; frk, *Hrōþiland; lat-med, Hruodlandus or ''Rotholandus''; it, Orlando or ''Rolando''; died 15 August 778) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The ...

Roland
.


Natural resources

The metallic
ore ore – psilomelane Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese Manganese is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart- ...

ore
s of the Pyrenees are not in general of much importance now, though there were
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
mines at several locations in
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...
, as well as at
Vicdessos Vicdessos is a former commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typic ...
in Ariège, and the foot of
Canigou The Canigó ( ca, Canigó , french: Canigou ; la, mons Canigosus or Canigonis) is a mountain located in the Pyrenees of southern France. The Canigó is located less than from the sea and has an elevation of . Due to its sharp flanks and its dra ...

Canigou
in
Pyrénées-Orientales Pyrénées-Orientales (; ca, Pirineus Orientals ; oc, Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees"), also known as Northern Catalonia Northern Catalonia ( ca, Catalunya (del) Nord ; french: Catalogne (du) Nord ; oc, Catalonha (del) Nòrd), Frenc ...
long ago.
Coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

Coal
deposits capable of being profitably worked are situated chiefly on the Spanish slopes, but the French side has beds of
lignite Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langu ...

lignite
. The open pit of Trimoun near the commune of (Ariège) is one of the greatest sources of
talc Talc, or talcum, is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of ...

talc
in Europe.
Mineral spring Mineral springs are naturally occurring spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of water * Spring (m ...
s are abundant and remarkable, and especially noteworthy are the
hot spring A hot spring, hydrothermal spring, or geothermal spring is a spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of w ...

hot spring
s. The hot springs, among which those of Les Escaldes in Andorra,
Panticosa Panticosa (in Aragonese: ''Pandicosa'') is a municipality located in the province of Huesca Huesca ( an, Uesca, ca, Osca), officially Huesca/Uesca, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or stat ...
and Lles in Spain, Ax-les-Thermes, Bagnères-de-Luchon and Eaux-Chaudes in France may be mentioned, are sulfurous and mostly situated high, near the contact of the granite with the stratified rocks. The lower springs, such as those of Bagnères-de-Bigorre (
Hautes-Pyrénées Hautes-Pyrénées (; Gascon/Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin langu ...
), Rennes-les-Bains (
Aude Aude (; ) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative d ...
), and Campagne-sur-Aude (Aude), are mostly selenitic and not hot.


Climate

The amount of precipitation (meteorology), precipitation the range receives, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees because of the moist air that blows in from the Atlantic Ocean over the
Bay of Biscay The Bay of Biscay (; french: Golfe de Gascogne, es, Golfo de Vizcaya, eu, Bizkaiko Golkoa, oc, Golf de Gasconha, br, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn) is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower openi ...
. After dropping its moisture over the western and central Pyrenees, the air is left dry over the eastern Pyrenees. The winter average temperature is . Sections of the mountain range vary in more than one respect. There are some glaciers in the western and snowy central Pyrenees, but there are no glaciers in the eastern Pyrenees because there is insufficient snowfall to cause their development. Glaciers are confined to the northern slopes of the central Pyrenees, and do not descend, like those of the Alps, far down into the valleys but rather have their greatest lengths along the direction of the mountain chain. They form, in fact, in a narrow zone near the crest of the highest mountains. Here, as in the other great mountain ranges of central Europe, there is substantial evidence of a much wider expanse of glaciation during the glacial periods. The best evidence of this is in the valley of Argeles Gazost, between Lourdes and Gavarnie, in the ' of Hautes-Pyrénées. The annual snow-line varies in different parts of the Pyrenees from about above sea level. In average the seasonal snow is observed at least 50% of the time above between December and April.


Flora and fauna


Flora

A still more marked effect of the preponderance of rainfall in the western half of the chain is seen in the vegetation. The lower mountains in the extreme west are wooded, but the extent of forest declines as one moves eastwards. The eastern Pyrenees are peculiarly wild and barren, all the more since it is in this part of the chain that granitic masses prevail. Also moving from west to east, there is a change in the composition of the flora, with the change becoming most evident as one passes the centre of the mountain chain from which point the
Corbières Massif The Corbières Massif ( Catalan: ''Corberes''; french: Massif des Corbières, ) is a mountain range in the Pre-Pyrenees. It is the only true foothill of the Pyrenees on their northern side. Geography The Corbières are a mountain region in the ...
stretch north-eastwards towards the central plateau of France. Though the difference in latitude is only about 1°, in the west the flora resembles that of central Europe while in the east it is distinctly Mediterranean in character. The Pyrenees are nearly as rich in endemic (ecology), endemic species as the Alps, and among the most remarkable instances of that endemism is the occurrence of the monotypic genus ''Xatardia'' (family Apiaceae), which grows only on a high alpine pass between the Val d'Eynes and
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
. Other examples include ''Arenaria montana'', ''Bulbocodium vernum'', and ''Ranunculus glacialis''. The genus most abundantly represented in the range is that of the saxifrages, several species of which are endemic here.


Fauna

In their fauna the Pyrenees present some striking instances of endemism. The Pyrenean desman is found only in some of the streams of the northern slopes of these mountains; the only other desman, the Russian desman, is confined to the Volga river basin in southern Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. The Pyrenean brook salamander (''Calotriton asper''), an endemic amphibian, also lives in streams and lakes located at high altitudes. Among other peculiarities of Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns of Ariège, the principal genera of which are ''Anophthalmus'' and ''Adelops''. The Pyrenean ibex, an endemic subspecies of the Iberian ibex, became extinct in January 2000; another subspecies, the western Spanish ibex, was introduced into the area, with the population numbering over 400 individuals as of 2020. The native brown bear population was hunted to near-extinction in the 1990s, but its numbers rebounded in 1996 when three bears were brought from Slovenia. The bear population has bred successfully, and there are now believed to be about 15 brown bears in the central region around Fos, Haute-Garonne, Fos, with only four native ones still living in the Aspe Valley.


Protected areas

Principal nature reserves and national parks: *Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park (Spain) *Pyrenees National Park, Pyrénées National Park (France) *Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park (Spain) *Natural Park of Posets-Maladeta, Posets-Maladeta Natural Park (Spain) In 1997, part of the Pyrenees (including Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park and Pyrenees National Park) was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for its spectacular geologic landforms and testimony to the unique "transhumance" agricultural system.


Demographics and culture

The Pyrenean region possesses a varied ethnology, folklore and history: see
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
;
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
; Ariège; Basque Country (historical territory), Basque Country; Béarn;
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
;
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
; Roussillon. For their history, see also Almogavars, Marca Hispanica. The principal languages spoken in the area are Spanish, French, Aragonese language, Aragonese, Catalan language, Catalan (in
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...

Catalonia
and
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
), and Basque language, Basque. Also spoken, to a lesser degree, is the Occitan language, consisting of the Gascon language, Gascon and Languedocien dialects in France and the Aranese language, Aranese dialect in the
Aran Valley Aran (; ; ) (previously officially called in Occitan Val d'Aran, Catalan: ''Vall d'Aran'', Spanish: ''Valle de Arán'') is an administrative entity (formerly considered a comarca A ''comarca'' (, or ) is a traditional region or local administr ...
. An important feature of rural life in the Pyrenees is 'transhumance', the moving of livestock from the farms in the valleys up to the higher grounds of the mountains for the summer. In this way the farming communities could keep larger herds than the lowland farms could support on their own. The principal animals moved were cows and sheep, but historically most members of farming families also moved to the higher pastures along with their animals, so they also took with them pigs, horses and chickens. Transhumance thus took the form of a mass biannual migration, moving uphill in May or June and returning to the farms in September or October. During the summer period, the families would live in basic stone cabins in the high mountains. Nowadays, industrialisation and changing agriculture practices have diminished the custom. However, the importance of transhumance continues to be recognised through its celebration in popular festivals.


Scientific facilities


Pic du Midi Observatory

The Pic du Midi de Bigorre, Pic du Midi Observatory is an astronomical observatory located at 2877 meters on top of the Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees. Construction of the observatory began in 1878 and the 8 metres dome was completed in 1908. The observatory housed a powerful mechanical equatorial reflector which was used in 1909 to formally discredit the Martian canal theory. A 1.06-meter (42-inch) telescope was installed in 1963, funded by NASA and was used to take detailed photographs of the surface of the Moon in preparation for the Apollo missions. Other studies conducted in 1965 provided a detailed analysis of the composition of the atmospheres on Mars and Venus, this served as a basis for Jet Propulsion Laboratory scientists to predict that these planets had no life. Since 1980, the observatory has had a 2-metre telescope, which is the largest telescope in France. Overtaken by the giant telescopes built in recent decades, today the observatory is widely open to amateur astronomy.


Odeillo solar furnace

The Odeillo solar furnace is the world's largest solar furnace. It is situated in Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via, in the department of
Pyrénées-Orientales Pyrénées-Orientales (; ca, Pirineus Orientals ; oc, Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees"), also known as Northern Catalonia Northern Catalonia ( ca, Catalunya (del) Nord ; french: Catalogne (du) Nord ; oc, Catalonha (del) Nòrd), Frenc ...
, in south of France. Built between 1962 and 1968, it is 54 metres (177 ft) high and 48 metres (157 ft) wide, and includes 63 heliostats. The site was chosen because of the length and the quality of sunshine with direct light (more than 2,500 h/year) and the purity of its atmosphere (high altitude and low average humidity). This furnace serves as a science research site studying materials at very high temperatures. Temperatures above 3,500 °C (6,330 °F) can be obtained in a few seconds, in addition it provides rapid temperature changes and therefore allow studying the effect of thermal shocks.


Urban areas

No big cities are in the range itself. The largest urban area close to the Pyrenees is Toulouse (
Haute-Garonne Haute-Garonne (; oc, Nauta Garona, ; en, Upper Garonne) is a department in the Occitanie region of Southwestern France. Named after the Garonne River, its prefecture and main city is Toulouse, the country's fourth-largest. In 2016, it had ...

Haute-Garonne
),
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
with a population of 1,330,954 in its metropolitan area. On the Spanish side Pamplona, (
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
) is the closest city with a population of 319,208 in its metropolitan area. Inside the Pyrenees the main towns are Andorra la Vella (22,256), Jaca (12,813) in Spain and Lourdes (13,976) and Foix (10,046) in France.


Highest summits

The following is the complete list of the summits of the Pyrenees above 3,000 meters: #
Aneto Aneto (''Pic de Néthou'' in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primar ...

Aneto
(3,404 m) (Aragon) # Posets peak, Posets (3,375 m) (Aragon) #
Monte Perdido Monte Perdido (in Spanish; Mont Perdu in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a count ...

Monte Perdido
(3,355 m) (Aragon) # Punta de Astorg (3,355 m) (Aragon) # Pico Maldito (3,350 m) (Aragon) # Espalda del Aneto (3,350 m) (Aragon) # Pico del Medio (3,346 m) (Aragon) # Espadas Peak (3,332 m) (Aragon) # Cilindro de Marboré (3,325 m) (Aragon) # Maladeta (3,312 m) (Aragon) # Vignemale (3,298 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico Coronas (3,293 m) (Aragon) # Pico Tempestades (3,290 m) (Aragon) # Clot de la Hount (3,289 m) (Aragon-France) # Soum de Ramond (3,259 m) (Aragon) # 1st Western Peak Maladeta (3,254 m) (Aragon) # Pic de Marboré (3,252 m) (Aragon-France) # Cerbillona (3,247 m) (Aragon-France) # Perdiguero (3,221 m) (Aragon-France) # 2nd Western Peak Maladeta (3,220 m) (Aragon) # Pic de Montferrat (3,219 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico Russell (3,205 m) (Aragon) # Pointe Chausenque (3,204 m) (France) # Piton Carré (3,197 m) (France) # Pic Long (3,192 m) (France) # 3rd Western Peak Maladeta (3,185 m) (Aragon) # Pic Schrader (3,177 m) (Aragon-France) # Campbieil (3,173 m) (France) # Pic de la cascade oriental (3,161 m) (Aragon-France) # Les Jumeaux Ravier (3,160 m) (Aragon) # Grand Tapou (3,160 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic Badet (3,150 m) (France) # Balaïtous (3,144 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic du Taillon (3,144 m) (Aragon-France) # Pica d'Estats (3,143 m) (Catalonia-France) # Punta del Sabre (3,136 m) (Aragon) # Diente de Alba (3,136 m) (Aragon) # Pic de la Munia (3,134 m) (Aragon-France) # Pointe de Literole (3,132 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic Verdaguer (3,131 m) (Catalonia-France) # Pic du Milieu (3,130 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic des Gourgs Blancs (3,129 m) (Aragon-France) # Les Veterans (3,125 m) (Aragon) # Pico Pavots (3,121 m) (Aragon) # Pic de Royo (3,121 m) (Aragon-France) # Punta Ledormeur (3,120 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico Alba (3,118 m) (Aragon) # Pic des Crabioules (3,116 m) (Aragon-France) # Seil Dera Baquo (3,110 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic de Maupas (3,109 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic Lézat (3,107 m) (France) # Western Crabioules (3,106 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico Brulle (3,106 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic de la cascade occidental (3,095 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic de Néouvielle (3,091 m) (France) # Serre Mourene (3,090 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic de Troumouse (3,085 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico Posets (3,085 m) (Aragon) # Infierno central (3,083 m) (Aragon) # Pics d'Enfer (3,082 m) (France) # Pico de Bardamina (3,079 m) (Aragon) # Pic de la Paul (3,078 m) (Aragon) # Pic de Montcalm (3,077 m) (France) # Infierno oriental (3,076 m) (Aragon) # Pic Maou (3,074 m) (France) # Infierno occidental (3,073 m) (Aragon) # Épaule du Marboré (3,073 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic du port de Sullo (3,072 m) (Catalonia-France) # Frondella NE (3,071 m) (Aragon) # Grand pic d' Astazou (3,071 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico de Vallibierna (3,067 m) (Aragon) # Pico Marcos Feliu (3,067 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic des Spijeoles (3,066 m) (France) # Pico Jean Arlaud (3,065 m) (Aragon) # Tuca de Culebras (3,062 m) (Aragon-France) # Grand Quayrat (3,060 m) (France) # Pic Maubic (3,058 m) (France) # Pico Gran Eriste (3,053 m) (Aragon) # Garmo negro (3,051 m) (Aragon) # Pic du Portillon (3,050 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico Argualas (3,046 m) (Aragon) # Baudrimont NW) (3,045 m) (Aragon) # Pic de Eristé sur (3,045 m) (Aragon) # Pic Camboue (3,043 m) (France) # Trois Conseillers (3,039 m) (France) # Pico Aragüells (3,037 m) (Aragon) # Pico Algas (3,036 m) (Aragon) # Turon de Néouvielle (3,035 m) (France) # Pic de Batoua (3,034 m) (Aragon) # Gabietou occidental (3,034 m) (Aragon-France) # Comaloforno (3,033 m) (Catalonia) # Petit Vignemale (3,032 m) (France) # Gabietou oriental (3,031 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic de Bugarret (3,031 m) (France) # South Besiberri Massif (3,030 m) (Catalonia) # Pic de l'Abeille (3,029 m) (Aragon-France) # Baudrimont SE (3,026 m) (Aragon) # Pic Béraldi (3,025 m) (Aragon) # Pico de la Pez (3,024 m) (Aragon) # Pic de Lustou (3,023 m) (France) # Pic Heid (3,022 m) (France) # Pic de Crabounouse (3,021 m) (France) # Pico de Clarabide (3,020 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico del puerto de la pez (3,018 m) (Aragon-France) # Dent d'Estibère male (3,017 m) (France) # North Besiberri Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia) # Punta Alta Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia) # Petit Astazou (3,012 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic Ramougn (3,011 m) (France) # Pico de Gias (3,011 m) (Aragon) # Tuc de Molières (3,010 m) (Catalonia-Aragon) # Tour du Marboré (3,009 m) (Aragon-France) # Pic Belloc (3,008 m) (France) # Pic Forqueta (3,007 m) (Aragon) # Pic d'Estaragne (3,006 m) (France) # Pico de Boum (3,006 m) (Aragon-France) # Casque du Marboré (3,006 m) (Aragon-France) # Arnales (3,006 m) (Aragon) # Grande Fache (3,005 m) (Aragon-France) # Pico Robiñera (3,005 m) (Aragon) # Pic de Saint Saud (3,003 m) (France) # Middle Besiberri S (3,003 m) (Catalonia) # Middle Besiberri N (3,002 m) (Catalonia) # Pointe Célestin Passet (3,002 m) (Catalonia) # Punta de las Olas (3,002 m) (Aragon) # Frondella SW (3,001 m) (Aragon)


Notable summits below 3,000 metres

* Pic de Palas (2,974 m) * Coma Pedrosa, Pic de Comapedrosa (2,942 m) - highest point of
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
* Pic Carlit (2,921 m) * Puigmal (2,913 m) * Cotiella (2,912 m) * Pic de Sanfonts (2,894 m) * Pic d'Envalira (2,827 m) * Collarada (2,886 m) * Pic du Midi d'Ossau (2,885 m) * Pic du Midi de Bigorre (2,876 m) * Mont Valier (2,838 m) * Petit Pic du Midi d'Ossau (2,812 m) * Pic du Canigou (2,786 m) * Peña Telera (2,764 m) * Ordino, Casamanya (2,740 m) * Cap de la cometa del forn (2,691 m) * Visaurin (2,668 m) * Pic del Port Vell (2,655 m) *Aspe peak (2,645 m) * Pic dels Aspres (2,562 m) * Pedraforca (2,506 m) * Pic d'Anie (2,504 m) * Pic de Pedraforca (2,498 m) * Pic de Madrès (2,469 m) * Mesa de los Tres Reyes (2,428 m) * Grande Aiguille d'Ansabère (2,376 m) * Pic du Soularac (2,368 m) * Pic du Saint Barthélémy (2,348 m) *Peña Montañesa (2,291 m) *Peña Foratata (2,282 m) * Pic des Trois Seigneurs (2,199 m) * Pic d'Orhy (2,017 m) * Chamanchoya (1,935 m) * Otsogorrigaina (1,922 m) * Pic de Cagire (1,912 m) * Pic du Gar (1,785 m) * Urkulu (1,419 m) * Larrun (905 m)


Sports and leisure

Both sides of the Pyrenees are popular spots for winter sports such as alpine skiing and mountaineering. The Pyrenees are also a good place for athletes, such as Gary Wood, to do high-altitude training in the summertime, such as by bicycling and cross-country running. In the summer and the autumn, the Pyrenees are usually featured in two of cycling's grand tours, the Tour de France held annually in July and the Vuelta a España held in September. The stages held in the Pyrenees are often crucial legs of both tours, drawing hundreds of thousands of spectators to the region. Three main long-distance footpaths run the length of the mountain range: the GR 10 (France), GR 10 across the northern slopes, the GR 11 (Spain), GR 11 across the southern slopes, and the Haute Randonnée Pyrénéenne, HRP which traverses peaks and ridges along a high altitude route. In addition, there are numerous marked and unmarked trails throughout the region. ''Pirena (race), Pirena'' is a dog-mushing competition held in the Pyrenees.


Ski resorts

Skiing, Ski resorts in the Pyrenees include: * Alp 2500 (Spain) * Arette (France) * Astún (Spain) * Artouste (France) * Ax-les-Thermes (France) * Baqueira-Beret (Spain) * Boí Taüll Resort (Spain) * La Mongie, Bareges-La Mongie (Tourmalet) (France) * Luz Ardiden (France) * Bourg-d'Oueil (France) * Cauterets (France) * Candanchú (Spain) * Cerler (Spain) * Espot Esquí (Spain) * Font-Romeu (France) * Formigal (Spain) * Gavarnie GèdrePays Toy Ski Resort

archive
(France) * Gourette (France) * Guzet-Neige (France) * Hautacam (France) * La Molina (ski resort), La Molina (Spain) * La Pierre Saint Martin * Le Mourtis (France) * Les Angles, Pyrénées-Orientales, Les Angles (France) * Luchon-Superbagnères (France) * Luz-Ardiden (France) * Nistos cap nestes (France) * Panticosa-Los Lagos (Spain) * Pas de la Casa (Andorra) * Peyragudes (France) * Piau-Engaly (France) * Port Ainé (Spain) * Port del Comte (ski resort), Port del Comte (Spain) *
Somport Somport or Col du Somport, known also as the Aspe Pass or Canfranc Pass, (el. 1632 m.) is a mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feat ...
(France-Spain) * Saint Lary (France) * Soldeu, Soldeu / El Tarter (Andorra) * Superbagnères (France) * Tavascan (Spain) * Vall de Núria (Spain) * Vallnord (Andorra) * Vallter 2000 (Spain)


See also

* Montcalm Massif * Pre-Pyrenees * :Mountain passes of the Pyrenees


References


Further reading

* * * *


External links

*
Official website
of France's
Pyrenees National Park french: Pyrénées ca, Pirineus an, Pirineus oc, Pirenèus eu, Pirinioak, Auñamendiak , etymology=Named for Pyrene (mythology), Pyrene , photo=Central pyrenees.jpg , photo_caption=Central Pyrenees , country_type= Countries , country= , geol ...
*
Archives of Pyrenees-Atlantiques department

Great Routes: Pirineos
from a website of the Instituto de Turismo de España
Les Amis du Livre Pyrénéen (bibliography and history of the Pyrenees)
{{Authority control Pyrenees, Mountain ranges of Europe Geography of Southern Europe Geography of Southwestern Europe Geography of Western Europe Landforms of Ariège (department) Mountain ranges of Aragon Mountain ranges of Catalonia Mountain ranges of the Basque Country (autonomous community) Landforms of Pyrénées-Atlantiques Landforms of Pyrénées-Orientales Landforms of Haute-Garonne Landforms of Hautes-Pyrénées Landforms of Andorra Green Spain Physiographic provinces Mountain ranges of Occitanie Mountain ranges of Nouvelle-Aquitaine